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[hide]

 Ô Objective and approach

| Ô Ô Objectives
| Ô  Approaches
Ë Ô  Ô Consortia

Ë Ô   Consideration points

Ë Ô   Principal technologies

  4G features

  Components

|  Ô Access schemes
|   IPv6 support
|   Advanced Antenna Systems
|  4 Software-Defined Radio (SDR)
 4 History of 4G and pre-4G technologies

| 4 Ô Deployment plans
 - Current research

 6 4G wireless standards

 A References

| A Ô Citations
| A  Additional resources

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Currently about 84% of all mobile phone subscribers in Japan have upgraded from slower
2G mobile services to 3G, and four mobile operators offer nationwide 3G services: DoCoMo,
KDDI, SoftBank and eMobile. The fifth mobile operator Willcom will also upgrade PHS
services to a much faster next generation service to compete with 3G services.

Currently an upgrade of DoCoMo's and SoftBank's services to faster HSDPA services is


underway, while eMobile from its start offered HSDPA services. Currently HSDPA services in
Japan offer data speeds of up to 3.6 Mbps, and upgrades to 10 Mbps are technical possible.

In the next stage, from around 2010, Japanese mobile operators will upgrade to "Long Term
Evolution (LTE)" services. KDDI has announced to switch from the current CDMA2000-1x
EVDO technology track to the LTE track. LTE technology is sometimes also termed 3.9G or
Super-3G.

4G technologies enable still higher data speeds, and are currently under development and
testing. It is currently not possible to predict when exactly 4G services will be introduced to
the markets, however it could be around 2015 or later in Japan.

Concurrently two operators in Japan were licensed to build nationwide WiMax (or similar)
based services, these are a KDDI led consortium, and Willcom. These operators may offer
there capacity to virtual network operators, or via subscriptions as embedded connectivity
for laptops.

p 

In a Cutt Newsletter (4) issue it is mentioned that while current G services are working
to enable transactional wireless communications like location-based services, wireless
shopping, personal services, email and multimedia data transfer, these are at much lower
speeds compared to the Ô MBPS to Ô GBPS of 4G

As demand builds for high-quality, streaming video and audio, only 4G systems will be able
to accommodate growing consumer and business expectations Japan, China and South
Korea plan to work together with developing new technologies like fourth-generation mobile
phones says Japanese local papers

Ongoing talks have been underway for the last several months to discuss how to work
together in the best possible way including
those for the  Beijing Olympics and future Internet systems, said an official at the
telecommunications ministry

A 4G orientated meeting was held in Seoul in March with officials from the above countries,
where they agreed to share information and work together on developing 4G mobile phones

In Eliza Evans and others (4) the implications of 4G network are discussed in detail They
predict that if implemented, the projected 4G technology may facilitate a true IP cellular
network 4G mobile phone technology supports Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) and promises
faster communication speeds (Ô megabits per second), capacity and diverse usage formats
These formats would provide richer content and support for other public networks such as optical
fibre and wireless local area networks

4G is currently only an ideal Still, some companies are incorporating new technological
advances into cellular technology, something that some companies are calling ³ -G   -G
technology, the convergence of cellular and wireless LAN technologies, has led to a handset that
makes calls using Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) when a  ÔÔ network is available (for
example, when at home or at the office), then switches to a G cellular network when mobile

Someday 4G networks may replace all existing  -G and G networks, perhaps even before a
full deployment of G Multiple G standards are springing up that would make it difficult for
G devices to be truly global A strong need exists to combine both the wireless (LAN) concept
and cell or base station wide area network design 4G is seen as the solution that will bridge that
gap and thereby provide a much more robust network

3  c   

x   
  

       


Predominantly voice driven; Converged data and voice over IP

data was always add on


Network Architecture Wide area cell-based Hybrid: Integration of wireless LAN

(WiFi, Bluetooth) and wide area

Speeds 4 Kbps to  Mbps  to Ô Mbps in mobile mode

Frequency Band Dependent on country or Higher frequency bands (- GHz)


continent (Ô>4 MHz)
Bandwidth -- MHz Ô MHz (or more)

Switching Design Basis Circuit and Packet All digital with packetized voice

Access Technologies W-CDMA, ÔxRTT, Edge OFDM and MC-CDMA

(Multi Carrier CDMA)

Forward Error Correction Convolutional rate Ô, Ô Concatenated coding scheme

Component Design Optimized antenna design, Smarter Antennas, software

multi-band adapters multiband and wideband radios

IP A number of air link protocols, All IP (IPv6)

including IP - 

Differences between G and 4G

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