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GCHB 6030 Exam 1 Study Guide

Lectures from SEM through Social Cognitive Theory are included in the exam.
Test Format
The exam will be computer-based, and it will contain true/false and multiple choice questions.
Material to Cover
Textbook: Chapters 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11; PowerPoint presentations; 1 online lecture; 1 video; 3
articles.

Topics
1. Socio Ecological Model (Chapter 3)
 Know the differences between the levels of influence (Personal, Interpersonal,
Community, Societal)
 Be able to identify influencing factors at each level
Indi:
 Know the pros and cons of an ecological approach
•Lack of specificity of variable of influence

•Lack of information about how the broader level of influence operates and how
variables interact across levels

•Need to develop more sophisticated operational models to test hypotheses

 Policy and environmental changes are expected to affect virtually entire


populations as opposed to individual interventions that reach only individual
who choose to participate

2. Health Belief Model (Chapter 5)


 Know the key concepts and definitions of the health belief model

 Seeks to understand the perception behind the behavior


 Give planners tools (beyond intuition) to design and evaluate interventions

 Explain the dynamics of health behavior


o selection of the intervention
 Given a description or situation, be able to identify each of the six key constructs of
HBM as discussed in lecture and in the textbook
 •Perceived Susceptibility: program to raise awareness
 •Perceived Severity: weakest
 perceived benefit: 1st
 perceived barriers: 1st
 cue to action
 perceived self-efficacy:

 Predictors of change: which factors are strong and which factors are weak predictors of
change?

Strength : intuitive (many pop), allow intervention to specific construct


Limit: not clear relationship bt constructs, emotional component is weak, seat belt

3. Transtheoretical Model (Chapter 7)


 Know TTM concepts and constructs as identified in lecture
 Aim to focus on motivation to change health behavior
 Labeled transtheoretical because concepts come from different theories of
human behavior and views of how to change people.
 smokers
 focuses on the decision making
 Includes stages and processes of change
 Involves emotions, cognitions, and behaviors
 People change voluntarily only when they: concerned, convinced, commited, take
action

Construct: motivation, decitional balance,


 Know the circumstances for all the stages of change so that given a description or
situation you can identify the correct stage
Stages of change : precontamplation (not now, resistant=> increase awareness),
Contemplation (concerned =>analyze pros and cons, cost vs benefits)
Preparation (next month, I will =>creation of plan)
Action (=> implement stratergy)
Maintenance (prevent relapse => sustain change,)

Know the definitions of the ten Processes of Change


first five are classified as Experiential Processes and are used primarily for the early
stage transitions. The last five are labeled Behavioral Processes and are used
primarily for later stage transitions.

Consciousness Raising [Increasing Awareness]


Dramatic Relief [Emotional Arousal]
Environmental Reevaluation [Social Reappraisal]
Self Reevaluation look at themselves with and without the behaviors and assess the
difference in their self-esteem
Self liberation [Committing] this process refers to committing to changing behavior
Helping Relationships
Counter Conditioning [Substituting a bad behavior against a good one]
Reinforcement Management Reward for engaging in the new behavior.
Stimulus Control remove the cues that trigger the bad behavior or add one that will
trigger the good behavior.
Social Liberation [Environmental Opportunities] role mordel

4. Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior (Chapter 6)


 Read up on the origins and historical development of TRA
 Aim: examine the relationship between attitudes, intentions, and behaviors
 Constructs: attitude, subjective norms, behavioral intention, behavior

 Understand the difference between the two (TRA and TPB) theories

 TPB has perceived control (self efficacy)

 TRB assumes people have will power (volitional control)

 Know the strengths and limitations of TRA


 Strength: large database, systematic method, powerful and predictive model for
behavior
 Limit: practical challenge (lots of surveys, costly), based on cognitive (overlook emotion
var),

5. Interpersonal Level: Social Network and Social Support - Online lecture (Chapters 10, 11)
 Make sure to watch the lecture!
 Know about the major contributors to Conceptual Model of Social Influences on Health
 Social structural, social network, psychosocial mechanism, pathways to health
 Mechanism: biological, psychological, health behabior
 Social Network Theory,
 Support, influence, engagement, person-person contact, access to material resources
 Read Berkman, L., Glass, T., Brissette, I., & Seeman, T. From social integration to health:
Durkheim in the new millennium.

6. Unnatural Causes: Becoming American Video


 There will be a couple of questions regarding the video and class discussion
 Transcript is available on Canvas
 Read the two articles posted on Canvas

7. Social Cognitive Theory (Chapter 9)


 Know the key constructs of SCT
 1)Personal Cognitive Factors
 •Self-efficacy
 •Collective efficacy
 •Outcome expectations
 •Knowledge
 2)Socioenvironmental Factors
 Observational learning
 Normative belief: workshop every month on HIV, raise awareness on HIV
transmitting, testing, treatment,
 •Social support
 •Barriers and opportunities: free HIV testing after lecture session
 3)Behavioral Factors
 •Behavioral skills
 •Intentions
 •Reinforcement and punishment
 When is SCT a good model to use?
For prevention, safe sex behavior