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By the People,
For the People

©Copyright SRA/McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.

By the People,
For the People

Columbus, OH

©Copyright SRA/McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Photo Credits
3 © Jeff Hunter/Getty Images, Inc.; 5 (tl) © Gary Rothstein/Reuters/Corbis, (cl) ©
Dennis Hallinan/Alamy, (cr) © Michael Dwyer/Alamy, (bl) © Visions of America, By the People,
For the People
LLC/Alamy; 8 © Visions of America, LLC/Alamy; 10 © Visions of America, LLC/
Alamy; 11 © Larry Bones/Getty Images, Inc.; 12 © Robert Glusic/Corbis; 15 © Bill
Aron/PhotoEdit; 16 (t) © Stock Connection Blue/Alamy, (b) © Jeff Hunter/Getty
Images, Inc.; 18 © Jim West/Alamy; 19 (l) © Dennis MacDonald/Alamy, (r) © Jim
West/Alamy; 20 © Michael Dwyer/Alamy; 21 © Gary Rothstein/Reuters/Corbis; 22
© Jeff Hunter/Getty Images, Inc.; 23 © Bill Aron/PhotoEdit.

Table of Contents
Before You Read .............................................................. 4
Save Woodland Hills ..................................................... 6
Section 1: Our Democracy ............................................. 8
Section 2: Local Government ...................................... 10 Section 3: State Government ...................................... 12

nre Reading a Letter to the Editor
Help Our Overcrowded Schools! ..................... 14

Copyright © 2008 by SRA/McGraw-Hill.

Section 4: Federal Government .................................. 16
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be After You Read .............................................................. 20
reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means,
or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the
prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,
Glossary .......................................................................... 24
including, but not limited to, network storage or transmission,
or broadcast for distance learning. Index
Printed in China.

Send all inquiries to this address:

4400 Easton Commons
Columbus, OH 43219

ISBN: 978-0-07-610293-8
MHID: 0-07-610293-9

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CC 13 12 11 10 09 08 07

©Copyright SRA/McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Before You Read
Vocabulary Words to Know
You can do these things to help you read for information.
authority the ability to make
Features Headings and Subheadings decisions and influence others
Headings and subheadings organize information.
Headings represent the main topics or big ideas. democracy a form of
Subheadings represent smaller topics within the main government in which the
topic. Read the headings and subheadings on pages 12 people make the laws and
and 13. What do you think you will read about on run the government
those pages? federal government the laws
and people that run a country
Structures Description
A description gives details or specific ideas about the
thing being described. Descriptive sentences help you
create a picture in your mind while you read. governor the person who
• Look at how the following web organizes the description is elected to be in charge
of the responsibilities of local governments. You can of the state government
make a web to remember descriptions as you read.
local government the laws and
Responsibilities of Local Governmen people that run a community

keep community provide trash



safe and clean and water ID


ser vices

help AZ



state government the laws





grow and people that run a state


4 Reading for Information Civics 5

©Copyright SRA/McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Save Woodland Hills Letter to the Governor
In their letter, the class told
Mrs. Allistar taught her fourth-grade students about state the governor that the park was
governments. She explained that the state government’s job important because it provided
is to solve the problems of a state. homes for animals. It had a clean
river flowing through it. They also
Mrs. Allistar told the class about a problem. A group
reminded him that it was a fun place
wanted to bulldoze Woodland Hills State Park. They wanted
for families to go. They told stories about
to build office buildings there. The class thought the park
times they had gone hiking and picnicking at
was important. What could they do to save it?
the park. They mailed the letter and waited.
The class decided to write a letter to a person
with the authority to save the park.
x Comp
The Governor’s Response
They decided to write to Governor y o u e ver writ te
Have h o d i d yo
u A few weeks later, Governor Howard
Howard. He was the leader of the state e r? W
a let t t kinds of surprised the class by visiting them.
? W h a
government and might be able to help. write you say?
id He thanked them for their letter. He
t h in gs d
said that because many people wanted
to save the park, the office buildings
were going to be built somewhere else.
Woodland Hills State Park was saved!
The governor reminded the class to
stay involved. It is the job of every
citizen in a democracy!

Structures Description
Describe the things the class
wrote about to persuade the
governor to save the park.

6 7

©Copyright SRA/McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Levels of Government
SECTION 1 Our Democracy
Our government in the
Voting Counts
All of the levels of
democracy depends on people. Democracy is a form of United States has many government have one thing
A government in which the people make the laws and run
the government. The United States has a form of democracy.
levels. The lower levels take
care of the problems in their
in common. They are chosen
by the people; in other words,
town, city, or county. The they are democratic. That
When American citizens elect someone else when means that U.S. citizens are
highest levels take care of
are old enough, we vote to the next election comes. the most powerful level of
many more people and
elect leaders. The leaders A democratic government our government!
problems. The people in the
learn about problems and try depends on people being
highest levels of government
to fix them. If the leaders informed and voting.
try to solve problems that
don’t do a good job, we can Look at this political cartoon. What
face the whole country. do you think the artist would like
citizens in the United States to do?

In a democracy citizens have the right and

responsibility to vote. If you are a citizen, you will
be allowed to vote when you are 18 years old.

8 Reading for Information Civics 9

©Copyright SRA/McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
mayor. People also elect
Local Government Jobs
SECTION 2 Local Government
The leader of the local
city council members. City
council helps the mayor
local government includes the laws and people that run government is the mayor. The
A a community. The community may include a town, a city,
a county, or a rural area. A local government takes care of
mayor has authority in the
city or town. People elect the
make decisions.

people and problems in a small area.

playgrounds. They also
Responsibilities of
control zoos and schools.
Local Government They are in charge of
Local governments make supplying water to drink, and
sure their areas are safe and Mayor City Council
they make sure that the trash
clean. Local governments is collected. They also help
control the libraries and businesses grow.
Everyone has the responsibility to
help care for their community.

x Comp
s your
H o w d oe
c a l g o v ernment
f fe c t y our life?

Structures Description
Many local government services Describe the responsibilities of
are offered in a town or city hall.
local governments.

10 Reading for Information 11

©Copyright SRA/McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
to sign laws passed by the
SECTION 3 State Government Legislative Branch
The legislative branch of the
legislators. The governor also
chooses people to help run
state government is the laws and people that run a state government makes the
A state. There are fifty states in the United States and each
of them has a democratic government.
state laws. The people of
each state vote for legislators
parts of the state government.

Judicial Branch
to represent them. The The judicial branch of the
Responsibilities of Three Branches of legislators’ job is to listen to state government enforces the
State Government State Government what the people want them to state laws. This branch
do. They try to solve the includes the state’s Supreme
Like local governments, The state government has
problems that people in the Court and other judges. The
a state government has three parts, called branches.
state care about. court system decides whether
many responsibilities. It Each branch has equal
must serve and protect its power. All of the branches people have broken the laws.
Executive Branch
people. It makes laws about work together. It also punishes those who
The executive branch
basic services, such as phone have broken the law.
carries out the laws of the
service and electric service. state. The governor is part of n
It also makes laws for the executive branch. The x Comp
h level
businesses. The state To whic
governor is the person who
g o ve r n ment did
of s
government is in charge is elected to be in charge of s . A l l is tar’s clas
Mr ?
of education. It decides how the state government. The n d t h e ir let ter
many days of school there governor decides whether
are in a year. It also decides
what training teachers State Government
must get.
Executive Branch Legislative Branch Judicial Branch

The capitol building in Austin is home

to Texas’ state government.
State State State
Senators Representatives Supreme Court

12 Civics 13

©Copyright SRA/McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.

nre Reading a Letter We’ve had m
ore tha n 1,0
to the Editor city recently
. Th is has cr
00 ch ildren
move into th
eated proble
When someone writes a letter to the editor, he or she is The classroo ms in ou r sc
ms a re not b hools.
trying to persuade others to believe or act the way they ig enoug h fo
Ma ny teache r a ll the ch il
do about a certain subject. Read this letter to the editor rs have com dren.
pla ined abou
from a boy named Jamal. Do you agree with him? enoug h tex tb t not hav ing
ooks. The ch
here do not ildren who ju
have the boo st moved
ks a nd supp
The ca feteria lies they nee
s a re crowde d.
Help Our have late lu n
choices as th
ches a ren’t o
ose who eat
r e
. T he students wh
the sa me foo

ea rlier.
Overcrowded Schools! I hope the lo
ca l govern m
and state go
vernment ca
n work
together to fi
x th is proble
Dear Editor, m.
a concerned citizen. I am
I am w riting to you as
y Ja ma l Joyce
w or ried ab out ou r city’s school system. Man
what they need. By
students are not getti ng The boy who wrote this letter
g th is letter, I hope to get people to ta ke was getting involved. He knows
w ritin
govern ment to fix th is that a democracy needs people
action. We ca n ask the to support their community. What
can you do to get involved?

Structures Description
How does Jamal’s description
of the problem help to
convince readers?

14 Reading for Information Civics 15

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Legislative Branch Judicial Branch
SECTION 4 Federal Government The legislative branch of
the national government is
The judicial branch
enforces federal laws. This
he federal government is the laws and people that run a
T country. The federal government solves the problems of
the whole nation. The United States’ federal government, or
called Congress. Congress
makes laws for the entire
branch controls the federal
court system. The highest
country. Congress is made up court is called the Supreme
national government, is a democracy.
of two groups: the Senate and Court. The president chooses
the House of Representatives. these judges and Congress
Responsibilities of Branches of
Citizens elect members of votes to approve the
Government Government Congress. The legislative president’s decision.
The federal government of Like state governments, branch has the authority to This is one way that power
the United States has many the national government has pass federal laws. is balanced in the federal
responsibilities that are three branches. Each branch government.
explained in the Constitution. has some authority over the Executive Branch
The Constitution was written others. This helps the branches The executive branch
when the country began. It share power. This is called carries out federal laws. The x Comp al
he feder
explains the most important the balance president is the leader of the H o w is t t he
o vern m ent like
g t?
rules of our country. of power. executive branch. U. S. vernmen
s tate go t?
citizens vote to elect How is it
Structures Description our president.

What words might you use to

describe the Constitution?
Federal Government
Washington, D.C., is our nation’s
capital. It is the center of our Executive Branch Legislative Branch Judicial Branch
federal government.
No law can be made
that violates the
President Senators Representatives Supreme Court

16 Civics 17

©Copyright SRA/McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
involved in community
The Job of Citizens
service by reading to a
Citizens have important
responsibilities in a
child or by taking meals Civics & you
to someone. Your community
democracy, including electing
will be safer and happier if Each level of govern ment
their leaders and letting Your local, state, and
people help each other. also depends on people to be
leaders know what they want federal govern ments affect
informed and get involved.
government to do. Run, Work, Vote! your life in many ways.
How can people get involved
Democratic governments Citizens can run for office Which level of govern ment
in each level of govern ment?
depend upon their citizens to and anyone can work to do you thi nk affects your
get involved. help people get elected. Even life the most? Why?
now, you can write to your
Community Service
representatives. They want
Doing service for the
to know how you think
community is an important
problems should be solved.
responsibility for citizens.
And when you turn 18, you
You may have already been
can vote!

Structures Description
Describe different ways people
could help in your community.
Think about It! How can you stay
informed about what is
Groups such as Habitat happening
in government? How ca
for Humanity help n you get
involved in government
communities. now? How
can you get involved in
Habitat for government
when you are older ?
Humanity builds
homes for people.

18 Civics 19

©Copyright SRA/McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
After You Read
Features Headings and Subheadings
Complete these activities on a separate piece of paper.
Write the letter of each correct answer.

Vocabulary Words to Know

Write the vocabulary word that best completes each sentence. Congress voted to turn a bill into a law. The president thought
the bill was unfair. He decided to veto the bill. It did not become
1. The governor is a part of the .
a law.
2. The president has the to stop a bill from becoming a law.

3. The asked its citizens to participate in a neighborhood 7. Which heading should this paragraph come under?
cleanup. a. Local Government
4. A is a government for the people and by the people. b. State Government
c. Federal Government
5. The president, Congress, and Supreme Court are part of the
d. Community Government
8. Which is the best subheading for this paragraph?
6. The is the elected leader of a state government.
a. Community Cleanup
b. Legislative Branch
c. Balancing Power
d. Executive Branch

20 Reading for Information Civics 21

©Copyright SRA/McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
After You Read
Structures Description Write about It
Write the letter of the correct answer. Write a paragraph describing how government affects
your life. Be sure to include which level of government
you think has the most
The president’s office is called the Oval Office because of its important effect.
shape. The carpet is royal blue. Behind the dark wooden desk
there are three floor-to-ceiling windows with yellow curtains.
There are also two flags behind the desk. One is the U. S. flag.
The other flag is the presidential flag. Paintings hang on
the walls.

9. Which words helped you picture the windows?

a. blue, president’s design
b. dark, wooden
c. floor-to-ceiling, three
d. curtains, flags

10. What is behind the president’s desk?

a. paintings
b. two flags
c. another desk
Go To
d. a mirror Interactive Skills Handbook
For more practice with
C headings and subheadings, see
pages 26–29.
C description, see pages 62–69.
C connecting, see pages 78–81.

22 Reading for Information Civics 23

©Copyright SRA/McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
authority (Ω thôr' i t¥) n. the ability to make decisions and
influence others. The president has the authority to tell the
leaders of the army what to do.

democracy (di mok' rΩ s¥) n. a form of government in which the

people make the laws and run the government. The country was
founded on the belief in democracy.

federal government (fed' Ωr Ωl guv' Ωrn mΩnt) n. the laws and

people that run a country. The federal government takes care
of our country’s well-being.

governor (guv' Ωr nΩr) n. the person who is elected to be in

charge of the state government. My mom thinks our governor
is doing great things for education in our state.

local government (l∂' kΩl guv' Ωrn mΩnt) n. the laws and people
that run a community. The local government is working with its
citizens at a town hall meeting.

state government (st∫t' guv' Ωrn mΩnt) n. the laws and

people that run a state. The state government taxed its
citizens to repair the highway.

Pronunciation Key
a at i it ou out ch chair
∫ late μ kite u up hw which
ä father, ox, ∂ rose Œ use, mule ng ring
mop ô law, bought ûr turn, learn sh shop
âr care oi coin Ω about, th thin
e set, π book, pull chicken, £ there
¥ me ∏ food, rude pencil, zh treasure
îr ear, pier or form cannon,

©Copyright SRA/McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Lesson 6 Headings and Subheadings Features Features Headings and Subheadings Lesson 6
Learn It Try It
When you read, pay attention to headings and Use this chart about art to answer the questions below.
subheadings. Writers often use headings and
subheadings to organize information. Heading:
All About Art
A heading is the title of a section of text. It tells the main
idea of the passage. A subheading tells the main idea of
part of the passage. Writers can use several subheadings
under one heading. Headings and subheadings are usually
Subheading: Subheading: Subheading:
capitalized and set in boldface type. Headings tell the main
Artists and Their Work
idea of a passage. Studios and Classrooms Galleries

Animals of the Rain Forest

There are more types of animals living in the Which subheading fits each of these sentences best?
tropical rain forest than anywhere else on Earth. 1. Galleries
Warm-Blooded Animals Subheadings organize
different parts of a Artists can show their work to other people in galleries.
There are many kinds of birds living in the passage. Artists hang paintings on the walls and place sculptures in
tropical rain forest. Toucans are colorful birds that the middle of large rooms.
make their homes in the rain forest. Sloths, gorillas, and
other warm-blooded mammals live in the rain forest too. 2. Studios and Classrooms
Cold-Blooded Animals Some artists learn about art in school. Others work in
Reptiles are cold-blooded animals. Lizards and studios and teach themselves how to make their art.
snakes are common reptiles that live in the rain forest.
3. Artists and Their Work
There are many different kinds of artists who make
o Rem

Read all headings and subheadings. They help

Rule t

different types of art, such as pottery and paintings.

you understand a passage and its main ideas. Sometimes artists work in groups, and sometimes they
work alone.
26 Interactive Skills Handbook • Grade 4 Interactive Skills Handbook • Grade 4 27
Lesson 6 Headings and Subheadings Features Features Headings and Subheadings Lesson 6
Practice It Apply It
Read the passage. Then write an appropriate heading Choose one of the topics to write about. Write at least
or subheading for each section. Answers will vary but should two paragraphs about the topic. Give your passage a
include students’ understanding of headings and subheadings. heading and use at least one subheading.

• What I Did Over the Summer

• My Favorite Food
• What I Want to be When I Grow Up
Answers will vary but should include students’ understanding of
What do you picture when you think about the Arctic?
Freezing water and lots of snow? Do you think about the headings and subheadings.
animals that live there? Read on to see what kinds of animals
live in the Arctic and how they survive.

Living near the north pole certainly isn’t for everyone!
The Arctic Ocean is very cold. The land in the Arctic is cold,
dry, and treeless. There are only a few hours of sunlight each
day during the long winter in the Arctic.

Many animals make the icy waters of the Arctic their
home. The freezing cold Arctic Ocean is just right for tiny
animals called zooplankton. These tiny animals are food for
many large fish.

28 Interactive Skills Handbook • Grade 4 Interactive Skills Handbook • Grade 4 29

Lesson 19 Connecting Skills Skills Connecting Lesson 19
Learn It Try It
Connecting links what you read to what you already know. Read the following passage. Use what you know about
As you read, connect the text to: connecting to show the kind of connection that is being
• other stories or texts you have read made in each sentence.
• personal experiences
• current or historical world events Falling Leaves
Ask yourself these questions while reading: Trees that lose their leaves each
• What do I know? year are called deciduous trees. The
• How do I know it? word deciduous means “falling off.”
• What do I want to learn? Without leaves, trees need less water
to survive. In cold areas, the water
The Old and New Pyramids Connect to Self: I know it’s
in the ground sometimes freezes in the
The Food Pyramid first healthy to eat a variety of foods.
appeared in 1992. It told how winter. This is why many trees drop their leaves in the
many servings from each food Connect to World: What does autumn. In warm areas, the water in the ground dries up
group people should eat. But the new pyramid mean to the in the summer. Deciduous trees in these areas drop their
different people have different people in my school community?
leaves when the weather gets too hot.
needs. Some people who used
the old pyramid were eating too Connect to Text: We learned
much. Then a new pyramid was about the old food pyramid by 1. I read about deciduous leaves in my science book last
created to solve this problem. reading our textbooks in health
The new pyramid shows class.
proportions, or how much you connect to text
should eat of each type of food.
2. I saw leaves fall during a nature walk in the autumn.
Take connect to me

Your connections may be different from


someone else’s connections. 3. We read an article about how important trees are to
o Rem different parts of the country.

Use your connections to help you understand

Rule t

what you read. connect to world

78 Interactive Skills Handbook • Grade 4 Interactive Skills Handbook • Grade 4 79
Lesson 19 Connecting Skills Skills Connecting Lesson 19
Practice It Apply It
Read the passage and answer the questions. Read the passage below. Write a short paragraph
that connects your knowledge of bicycles with the
Helen Keller information in the passage.
June wanted to read a book about Helen Keller. She
had heard of her before. She had seen a famous movie Bicycles: Past and Present
about Keller’s childhood. From the movie, June knew that The earliest bicycles had
Keller was both blind and deaf. no pedals. Instead, riders pushed
June knew that Keller could read because she knew on the ground with their feet.
some blind people read Braille with their fingers. June The first pedaled bicycles were
had seen Braille letters on the controls of the elevator in made in the 1860s. These bicycles
her apartment building. But June didn’t know how Keller looked like bicycles today, but the ride was bumpy.
learned to understand these words. She wanted to learn People called these bicycles boneshakers.
about this. In the 1870s, some new bicycles had a front wheel
that was very big, and the seat was high above the
4. What did June know about Helen Keller before she read wheel. It was dangerous and hard to ride.
the book? Since then, bicycles became safer. Bicycles made
Answers will vary but should include the students’ understanding since 1900 have been much like the bicycle you ride
of Helen Keller. today. Different models have been popular, such as the
5. How did June make the connection between Helen Keller banana-seat bicycle and the ten-speed. The mountain
and her ability to read? bike is the most popular bicycle today.
Answers will vary but should include the students’ understanding
of Helen Keller. Paragraphs will vary but should include the students’ understanding

6. What type of connection did June make? of bicycles.

She made both a Connect to Self and a Connect to World
80 Interactive Skills Handbook • Grade 4 Interactive Skills Handbook • Grade 4 81
Democracy: Ability Le
= Approa
vel Key
ching Lev
1 Focus
Government by the People
= On Leve l
= Above L
Preparing to Read
Unit Overview Students will learn about the three levels of government through narratives
about a class field trip to a statehouse, a class effort to save a local park, and
class elections.
Unit Objectives Materials:
3 Key Elements:
Student Readers Approaching level On level Above level
• Our Government
Vocabulary Students will learn key social studies
and academic words.
• Our Democracy INFORMATION

Features Students will learn how to identify and use Activity Masters # 1–4, Our Government By the People, Our Democracy
headings and subheadings.
pp. 60–63 For the People
Structures Students will identify and understand Interactive Skills
description in social studies text. Handbook, pp. 26–29,
62–69, 78–81
Unit Vocabulary
Social Studies Academic
federal government authority Genre:

governor Letter to the Editor
local government Comprehension Skill:

state government Connecting
democracy Getting Started
candidate Connecting to Prior Knowledge
• Share the Fun Facts! with students. Ask students to name local,
e first female senator
state, or federal government leaders from the past or present. • Th
was Martha Hughes
Background Information
Write these names and offices on the board. Cannon of Utah, who wa
• Ask students whether they belong to any clubs or organizations. elected in 1896. In 1992
Ask them if there is a leader or president of the club and how almost 100 years later,
that person is chosen. Ask if there are some rules all members Carol Moseley Braun
vocabulary, headings and must follow or a pledge to recite. of Illinois became the
The 3 Key Elements of this unit are first African American
t. Students will apply these elements
subheadings, and descriptive tex • Ask students where the rules come from. What happens when a
female senator.
of government and gain a basic
as they read about the three levels person breaks the rules? Ask students if they know who makes
The youngest person
understanding of each. A basic und
erstanding of the function of the rules in government. Tell them if they don’t know, they will • known to have served
ts to become active, democratic
government will help prepare studen soon find out.
as a mayor of a city wa
citizens. Michael Sessions, who
became the mayor of
Hillsdale, Michigan, when
he was 18 years old.

1414 15
©Copyright SRA/McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
vel Key
Ability Le

2 Teach = Approa
ching Lev
= On Leve l

Prereading Activities = Above L Reinforcing the 3 Key Elements

Small Group Use these lessons for an in-depth treatment of the 3 Key Elements
Whole Group Use the following activities with all students to of reading for information.
introduce the 3 Key Elements of the unit.

10 min
Vocabulary 10 min
5 min
For more Vocabulary Governors Features Headings and
• Social Studies Draw three concentric circles on the board. practice with • Governor Tell students that the word Subheadings
In the innermost circle, write local government. In the middle • vocabulary, use Activity
circle, write state government. In the outermost circle, write Master #1, page 60.
governor comes from the same root as the
word govern and that to govern means
• Headings and Subheadings Remind
federal government. Ask students to help you fill each circle
with the location (your town, state, and country) as well as
• boldface type, use Activity “to rule or direct.” Help students make
students that headings and subheadings
will help them organize information.
Master #2, page 61. the connection that the governor is the
the names of any government officials they know (mayor,
• cause and effect, use Activity person who rules or directs a state. • Activity Distribute grade-appropriate
governor, president).
Master #3, page 62. • Remind students that the governor is
magazine articles or other nonfiction
texts that have subheadings to pairs
• Academic Tell students that the word authority can be used to the leader of the government in your
of students. Have the students browse
refer to someone who has the power to act, or it can be used state. Point out that there are 50 states
the materials and look for headings
to refer to someone who has specialized knowledge. Use the and 50 different governors and state
and subheadings. Have them cut out
word in two sentences—one for each meaning—to illustrate governments in this country.
headings and subheadings and paste
the difference.
Activity Have students brainstorm a them onto pieces of paper. Alternatively,
list of things they know about your state have students use sticky notes to write
5 min
Features (name, governor, state officials, state the headings and subheadings, and then
put them onto pieces of paper.
• Headings and Subheadings Tell students that headings will flower, capital, and so on). Keep the list of
information about your state posted for
help them organize information, and subheadings will help Self Check When students have finished,
them organize shorter passages of text. Have students skim the duration of the unit.
have them predict what the article is
their readers to locate headings and subheadings. Call on about. Have them work together to read
student volunteers to make predictions about what kind of the article and check their predictions.
information will be under each heading and subheading.

Assign the
5 min
Reading 10 min

• Description Tell students that description can help readers • Distribute the Student Structures Description
visualize what they are reading. Ask them to describe the Readers for this lesson • Describing Remind students that descriptive words tell how a thing
weather outside. Work with students to complete a web based on students’ looks, feels, smells, sounds, and tastes. Tell them they can describe
graphic organizer to describe the weather outside. Once you reading levels and have anything, including an item, person, activity, place, or event. Ask: How
have finished, have students close their eyes. Read the words students begin reading.
would you describe a field trip to the zoo? Give students an opportunity
from the web and ask students to make pictures in their minds • Encourage students to brainstorm descriptions.
of the weather outside. to pay attention to
vocabulary, headings Activity Ask students to write a descriptive paragraph about another
and subheadings, and place they have been. Remind them to use words that cover all five
descriptive text as they senses. Have volunteers read their work when they are finished.
16 17
©Copyright SRA/McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
vel Key
Ability Le
Teach Continued el
ching Lev

Extending the Lesson

3 Review and Assess = Approa
= On Leve l
= Above L

Small Group Use the following lessons to customize your instruction Monitor Progress
according to your students’ needs. Use the Activity Masters and Interactive Skills Handbook pages to monitor
progress and to review.
Reader’s Workshop: Focus on Genre
• Persuasion Ask students if anyone has ever notes to mark what the writer is trying to Name





persuaded them or caused them to change persuade them of and to note places where Headings and Subheadings
Words to Know

their minds. Tell students that sometimes the writer does a good job of persuading authority the ability to make decisions and influence
Circle the letter of the subheading that is most likely
to go under each heading.

1. Planting a Vegetable Garden

people use writing to convince readers to them. federal government the laws and people that run a country
governor a person who is elected to be in charge of the
a. Apple Trees
b. Flower Care

state government c. How to Stay Healthy
d. Fresh Carrots

believe or act in a certain way. Point out Have students read their books either local government the laws and people that run a community
state government the laws and people that run a state
2. Arctic Animals
a. House Pets
b. Snakes and Lizards

that commercials on television do the same independently or in pairs. AK

c. Penguins
d. Recycling
WI NY RI 3. Great U.S. Presidents

thing. Brainstorm effective and ineffective


Wrap up the workshop by meeting

OH DE a. The U.S. Government
NC DC b. Abraham Lincoln
MS AL GA c. The White House

ways of persuading others.

FL d. Branches of Government

together. Have students discuss whether HI

4. Musical Instruments

Outline the country with a black marker, and label it a. CDs

Letter to the Editor Tell students to pay

federal government. Color your state, and label it state b. Jazz

each letter to the editor was persuasive or government. Make a dot on your town or city, and label
it local government.
c. Trumpet
d. Waltzing
Number the lines from 1 to 3, from the person who has

particular attention to the letter to the not and why. the most authority to the person with less authority.

Copyright © SRA/McGraw-Hill.
Copyright © SRA/McGraw-Hill.
Governor of Kansas
Mayor of Hays, Kansas

editor their books. Ask them to use sticky 60 Reading for Information • Grade 4
President of the United States
Civics • Activity Master 1 • Vocabulary Civics • Activity Master 2 • Text Features Reading for Information • Grade 4 61

Activity Master #1, page 60 Activity Master #2, page 61

Differentiating Instruction: English Language Learners Name Date Name Date

• Levels of Government List the leader of • Local Leaders Help students learn the Civics Civics
Structures ELL

each level of government (mayor, governor, names of political leaders (mayor, governor,
Describe your school in the web below. Use words from
the box or your own words.
Government Workers
Cut out the pictures of the people, and paste each by
the building where he or she works.
Skills Practice ...............
light green brick yellow exciting

president). Draw a square on the board president). Guide students to use complete dark carpeted loud slippery

with the word president in it. Begin to draw sentences to give the name of the person in
quiet shiny metal restful
U.S. Supreme Court Building Skills Handbook
fifty lines down from the bottom of the box. each position. White House

For more practice with

Tell students that there are fifty governors Assign ELL Activity Master #4 classroom

under the president. Point out there are Complete the activity together or assign Our School C headings and subheadings,
see pages 26–29.
Federal Capitol Building

many towns with mayors in each state! it as independent work.


C description, see pages 62–69.

Copyright © SRA/McGraw-Hill.
Copyright © SRA/McGraw-Hill.
C connecting, see pages 78–81.
President Senator Supreme Court Justice Representative

Comprehension Skill: Connecting 62 Reading for Information • Grade 4 Civics • Activity Master 3 • Text Structures Civics • Activity Master 4 • English Language Leaners Reading for Information • Grade 4 63

Activity Master #3, page 62 Activity Master #4, page 63

• Tell students that linking what they are • Text to world: What have you learned
reading to something they already know from reading that helps you understand
will help them understand what they read. the world? Assessment
• Make a web on the board. Write government • Questions that help students make To assess student learning in this unit, use the following resources.
in the center, and complete it with students’ connections can be found in the Student
answers to the following questions: Readers on the following pages:
• Text to self: How does the government • Approaching Level 6, 9, 13, 18
affect your life? • On Level 6, 10, 13, 17 To assess student progress in the 3 Key Use the PuzzleMaker CD-ROM to create fun
• Text to text: What else have you read
• Above Level 9, 13, 18 Elements, use the ExamView® Assessment Suite interactive activities that measure student
about governments? CD-ROM to create a custom test or administer mastery of the unit vocabulary.
the prepared Leveled Unit Tests.
18 19
©Copyright SRA/McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved.
Name Date Name Date

Civics Civics
Structures ELL

Description Government Workers

Describe your school in the web below. Use words from Cut out the pictures of the people, and paste each by
the box or your own words. the building where he or she works.

light green brick yellow exciting

dark carpeted loud slippery
quiet shiny metal restful

U.S. Supreme Court Building

White House


Our School
Federal Capitol Building


librar y

Copyright © SRA/McGraw-Hill.
Copyright © SRA/McGraw-Hill.

President Senator Supreme Court Justice Representative

62 Reading for Information • Grade 4 Civics • Activity Master 3 • Text Structures Civics • Activity Master 4 • English Language Leaners Reading for Information • Grade 4 63
Name Date Name Date

Civics Civics
Structures ELL

Description Government Workers

Describe your school in the web below. Use words from Cut out the pictures of the people, and paste each by
the box or your own words. the building where he or she works.

light green brick yellow exciting

dark carpeted loud slippery
quiet shiny metal restful

U.S. Supreme Court Building

White House


Our School
Federal Capitol Building


librar y

Copyright © SRA/McGraw-Hill.
Copyright © SRA/McGraw-Hill.

President Senator Supreme Court Justice Representative

62 Reading for Information • Grade 4 Civics • Activity Master 3 • Text Structures Civics • Activity Master 4 • English Language Leaners Reading for Information • Grade 4 63