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BARRY BOLTON

A New General Catalogue of the Ants of the World


A New General Catalogue of the Ants of the World
BARRY BOLTON

A N e w General Catalogue of the Ants of the World

Harvard University Press


Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s
London, England 1995
Copyright © 1995 b y t h e President a n d Fellows of Harvard College
All rights reserved
Printed i n t h e United States of America

Scanning electron micrographs b y Laraine Ficken.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Bolton, Barry.
A n e w general catalogue of t h e ants of t h e w o r l d / Barry B o l t o n ,
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references (p. ).
ISBN 0 - 6 7 4 - 6 1 5 1 4 - X (alk. paper)
1. Ants—Classification. 2. Ants, Fossil—Classification.
I. Title.
QL568.F7B585 1995
595.79V012—dc20
95-12908
Contents

Introduction 1

Checklist of Fossil Taxa 4


Catalogue of Family-Group
(Suprageneric) Taxa 7
C atalogue of Genus - Group Taxa 17

Catalogue of Species-Group Taxa 51

References 428
A New General Catalogue of the Ants of the World
Introduction

Taxonomy is a fascinating branch of biology, unique in that it must duced extremely valuable but now mostly forgotten works. Not only
always be retrospective as well as prospective. This is because a taxo- did they enumerate the taxa then known, but they also introduced
nomic decision taken today projects forward in time and colours the many synonymies which accounted for numerous old and dubious
decisions and opinions of taxonomists in the future. Similarly, any names and dispersed lots of names from the old form-genera into the
taxonomic decision taken since the inception of zoological nomencla­ genus-rank taxa that we still recognise today. They were followed by
ture, in 1758, has relevance today, and on into the future. And it does Dalla Torre (1893), whose treatment of extinct as well as extant taxa
not matter whether that decision was right or wrong; whatever its added a dimension that unfortunately was not continued. Later world
ultimate origin or fate, a taxonomic decision is a persistent fact that cataloguers tended to stick with either the fossil fauna (Handlirsch,
must be taken into account. I suppose that a quaint way of expressing 1906,1907) or the extant fauna (Emery, 1910b, 191 Id, 1912g, 1921f,
this would be: a name is forever, or at least for as long as the science of 1922e, 1922f, 1925b; the Genera Insedorum series).
taxonomy continues. After these dates cataloguers specialised in regional surveys. Some
Thus any taxonomist working today must have available all the of these dealt with entire zoogeographical regions, for instance Kempf
relevant decisions taken in the past, so that they can be assessed, so (1972a) and Brando (1991) [Neotropical]; Smith, M.R. (1951a, 1958c)
that errors and misinterpretations can be avoided, and so that correct and Smith, D.R. (1979) [Nearctic]; Chapman & Capco (1951) [Orien­
decisions and opinions can be transmitted to the future. A useful way tal and Indo-Australian]; Wheeler, W.M. (1922a) [Afrotropical and
of collating all these past actions is to gather the references to all the Malagasy]; Taylor (1987a, 1987b) [Australasian]; Wheeler, W.M. (1935i)
taxonomic decisions taken in a given group and put them together in [Oceanian]. Mostly however they dealt only with single countries, for
such a way that the relevant data can easily be found and extracted. example Bruch (1914, 1915) [Argentina]; Borgmeier (1923, 1927c)
This is a prime function of a catalogue, to show at a glance the condi­ [Brazil]; Taylor & Brown, D.R. (1985) [Australia]; Wheeler, W.M.
tion and state of any previous taxonomic decision. (1930h) and Wu, C.F. (1941) [China]; Baltazar (1966) [Philippines];
Baroni Urbani (1971c) ptaly]; Ceballos (1956) [Spain]; Pisarski (1975)
[Poland]; Onoyama (1980) [Japan]. More recently Shattuck (1994)
History of a n t c a t a l o g u e s has attempted to break away from this regional technique by produc­
ing a catalogue based on subfamily-rank taxa (Aneuretinae and Doli-
This volume is the first attempt to catalogue all the ants of the world, choderinae) on a worldwide basis.
including the fossil forms, since 1893. Between that date and the Among the fossils, lists of forms in amber have attracted some at­
present there have appeared a number of regional lists and catalogues tention, with contributions by Burnham (1979), Keilbach (1982) and
dealing with larger or smaller areas, and one enormous work, the Spahr (1987). Fossils in rock have to a large extent been ignored,
Genera Insectorum, that catalogued all the world's insect fauna except though Carpenter (1992) provides a review of fossil genera. Whole fossil
for the fossil taxa. Volumes in the Genera Insectorum series that deal faunas have of course been treateed in monographs by myrmecolo-
with ants were published between 1910 and 1925. The series pre­ gists or palaeoentomologists, for example Emery (1891a), Wheeler,
sented both a catalogue and a classification and in consequence was W M . (1915h), Carpenter (1930), Theobald (1937b), Dlussky (1967b,
extremely valuable. A great deal has happened in myrmecology since 1975, 1981b, 1988), but these are mostly descriptive and are not
1925, however, and the series is outdated for modern needs. In par­ cross-referred to other faunas. Considering that the ants have one of
ticular, the classification offered there is n o w virtually useless, and the best fossil records of any insect family, a m o d e m worldwide re­
taxonomic changes and additions have carried on apace since the view of the extinct ant taxa is long overdue.
appearance of the final volume. The drift away from world to more limited regional catalogues was,
The concept of a world catalogue of all names in the family com­ I suspect, inspired mostly by strictures of time, availability of litera­
menced with Roger (1863b) and Mayr (1863), both of w h o m pro­ ture, and availability of financial support, though to a lesser extent a
deficiency of imagination may also have played a part. Regional cata­ quickly followed by a n e w look at the topic by Brown (1954e). He
logues and lists have their advantages, but they also generate prob­ proposed a radical change in the approach to ant classification and his
lems. Chief among the drawbacks is the tendency to produce and paper forms the baseline for m o d e m research into both the classifica­
maintain homonymies and to overlook synonymies among those re­ tion and the phylogeny of ants. In terms of classification these include
searchers who consult only the literature concerning the country or the synopses by Brown (1973b), Snelling (1981), Wheeler, G.C. &
region in question and who ignore the extralimital possibilities. Wheeler, J. (1985), DIussky & Fedoseeva (1987), Holldobler & Wilson
In this new general catalogue I have attempted to examine every (1990), and Bolton (1994).
publication on ant taxonomy and related fields of study from 1758 to The study of ant phylogeny, or at least an attempt to account for the
the present. The result is what you see here. This catalogue covers the origins of the various ant subfamilies, dates back to Wheeler, W.M.
entire family Formicidae, which currently contains the following num­ (1920), but the field did not advance much until Brown's (1954e)
bers of valid extant taxa: 16 subfamilies, 296 genera, and 9,536 species paper. A short history of m o d e m works on ant phylogeny, which
(up to 31 December 1993). Among the extant forms there are also an reflects the growing influence of cladistic methodology, is given by
uncounted number of subspecies, along with a very large number of Bolton (1990c). Critical works that detail tire progress of ant phyloge-
junior synonyms, junior homonyms, and unavailable names. In addi­ netic studies in recent years include Taylor (1978a), DIussky & Fe­
tion to the living taxa, the family's impressive fossil record yields a doseeva (1987), Baroni Urbani (1989), Bolton (1990a, 1990b, 1990c),
further 408 species. These are distributed through 13 subfamilies, of Ward (1990), Baroni Urbani, Bolton & Ward (1992), Shattuck (1992b),
which 9 are currently extant and 4 are wholly extinct, and 118 gen­ and Lattice (1994).
era, of which 73 are totally extinct.

G e n e r a l r e f e r e n c e s a n d faunal s u r v e y s
H i s t o r y of a n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d p h y l o g e n y
The eusocial organisation of ants and their enormously diverse biolo­
The compilation of a catalogue such as this relies heavily upon a gies have, in recent years, inspired a large number of books offering a
reasonable classificatory framework for the group in question. As in synthesis of ant biology and behavior. Recommended books for any­
many insect groups the classification of the Formicidae is in a state of one interested in ants in general, or in more specialised aspects of their
flux, with the older classification being gradually updated and im­ biology, include the following and their included references: Beattie
proved by the application of cladistic theories and methodologies. This (1985), Blum (1984), Bolton (1994), DIussky (1981a), Dumpert (1978),
means that parts of the classification within the family are more ad­ Gosswald (1985), Hermann (1979-1982, 1984), Holldobler & Wilson
vanced than others, resulting in a variability which cannot be helped (1990), Jolivet (1986, 1992), Passera (1984), Schneirla (1971), Sudd
but which must be borne in mind by the reader. (1967), Sudd & Franks (1987), Wilson (1971).
The ant classification that we see today is the culmination of over a Along with these general volumes, the period 1950-1994 has seen
century of accumulated effort. Early authors such as Nylander (1846a, the appearance of a number of surveys of local ant faunas that include
1846b, 1849), Smith, F. (1858), Mayr (1861, 1863) and Roger (1863b) keys for the identification of species within the country or territory in
were concerned with the accumulation of named taxa at genus and question. Faunal surveys that antedate 1950 are not recommended,
species rank and did not show much interest in arranging these into a as their keys are clogged with unavailable names and infraspecific
formal classification. The second generation of ant taxonomists, be­ taxa and are of very limited use by m o d e m standards. The following
sides adding vast numbers of names to the rapidly growing list, began list indicates territories for which faunal surveys have been produced in
to attempt the arrangement of the names into a standard classifica­ the period 1950-1994, but references to earlier surveys and their con­
tion. The first moves toward what eventually developed into today's tents, and to works dealing with individual taxa rather than geograph­
system were made by Emery (1877a, 1895J, 1896e, 1901a, 1914a, 1915i) ical areas, are of course included within the corpus of the catalogue.
and Forel (1878, 1893a). These were followed by the Genera Insec-
torum series of Emery (1910b, 191 Id, 1912g, 192If, 1922e, 1922f, ARMENIA: Arakelian (1994).
1925b), whose results were very closely followed by Wheeler, W.M. BALKAN STATES: Agosti & Collingwood (1987a, 1987b).
(1920, 1922a). BELGIUM: Boven (1977).
By 1925 a rough consensus had been reached, which has since BULGARIA: Atanassov & DIussky (1992).
been called the Emery-Wheeler classification (Brown, 1958g). This CANADA: Francoeur (1977b, 1979) [Quebec].
was extremely authoritative, as both authors also presented iden­ CHILE: Snelling & Hunt (1976).
tification keys to the world's genera and higher taxa. So great was the CORSICA: Casevitz-Weulersse (1990a, 1990b).
influence of the Emery-Wheeler classification that study of the sub­ CUBA: Alayo (1974).
ject fell into abeyance for many years. Authors seemed content to FENNOSCANDIA AND DENMARK: Collingwood (1979).
cram any newly discovered taxon into the existing system, even w h e n FRANCE: Bernard (1967).
it was glaringly obvious that the classification had outlived its useful­ GERMANY: Gosswald (1985).
ness. GREAT BRITAIN: Bolton & Collingwood (1975).
During the 1950s the flaws in the Emery-Wheeler system reached a IBERIAN PENINSULA: Collingwood (1978).
critical point; the cracks could not be patched up or painted over any ITALY: Baroni Urbani (1964b, 1964c, 1969a, 1971c).
longer, and it began to fall apart. Two idiosyncratic classifications of JAPAN: Morisita etal. (1989,1991,1992); Onoyama (1980);
ant subfamilies, proposed by Clark (1951) and Bernard (1951), were Onoyama & Terayama (1994) [list of references].

2 Introduction
KIRGIZIA: Tarbinsky (1976). 1. Combination. The association of a genus-rank name and a species-
MALTA: Baroni Urbani (1968b); Schembri & Collingwood (1981). rank name to form the n a m e of a species is a combination. Similarly,
MELANESIA: Wilson (1958a, 1958d, 1959a, 1959b). the association of genus-rank name plus species-rank name plus sub­
NEW ZEALAND: Brown (1958h). species-rank name forms a combination. A new combination occurs
NORTH AMERICA: Creighton (1950a); Gregg (1963) [Colorado]; only w h e n a previously published name in the species-group is first
Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. (1963) [North Dakota]; Wheeler, G.C. appended to a generic name other than the one it accompanied in its
& Wheeler, J. (1986g) [Nevada]. original description. A revived combination describes the state in which
POLYNESIA: Wilson & Taylor (1967). a species-group name is transferred back to a generic name from which,
PORTUGAL: see Iberian Peninsula. at some previous time, it had been excluded.
SAUDI ARABIA: Collingwood (1985). 2. Status. A change of rank within a trinomen or a quadrinomen,
SPAIN: see Iberian Peninsula. (such as the elevation of a subgenus to genus rank, or of a subspecies
SWEDEN: Nilsson & Douwes (1987). to species rank; or vice versa, the demotion of a genus to subgenus rank
SWITZERLAND: Kutter (1977c). or species to subspecies rank) is indicated by new status. A reversion in
TURKMENISTAN: DIussky, Soyunov & Zabelin (1990). rank to one previously held, from one later designated, is a revived
USSR (former): Amol'di & DIussky (1978) [former European USSR]; status.
Kupyanskaya (1990) [far eastern Russia]; Radchenko (1994b)
The concepts and usages of combination and status are quite different
[South Siberia].
and distinct. They should not be confused, although sadly they fre­
WEST PALAEARCTIC: Bernard (1967).
quently are.
Three other concepts fundamental to an understanding of nomen­
WORLD GENERA: Holldobler & Wilson (1990), Bolton (1994). clature, namely synonymy, homonymy and availability of names, have
accrued a finely tuned series of regulations governing their use. The
concepts and their applications are fully explained in the International
U s e of t h e c a t a l o g u e Code of Zoological Nomenclature (Third Edition, 1985) and are applied
throughout this catalogue. Their correct usage should be understood
The catalogue is divided into three sections. The first deals with fam­
and adhered to by all taxonomists.
ily-group (suprageneric) taxa: names applied to taxa with the rank of
One common misuse of the term synonymy needs to be explained
family, subfamily, tribe, or subtribe. The second deals with taxa in the
here. A secondary reference to a taxon, that directs material purport­
genus-group: names applied to taxa with the rank of genus or subge­
edly of that taxon to a different and senior taxon, is a misidentifica-
nus. The third, and by far the largest, section deals with species-group
tion, not a synonymy. For example, an entry in an imaginary taxo­
taxa: names with the rank of species or subspecies.
nomic synopsis such as
Each section has its own introductory paragraphs, explaining lay­
out, typography, special considerations, and so on. Within each sec­ X-usy-us Black, 1928: 4.
tion names are listed in alphabetical order, regardless of their current
X-us z-us White; Green, 1930:15, n e w synonymy.
status, and are cross-referred to other names where necessary. Thus
every subfamily within the catalogue of family-group names has a list is an incorrect and ignorant usage of the concept of synonymy. This
of component tribes appended; all names of tribes that are currently entry should properly read:
valid include a list of component genera; all species with infraspecific X-usy-us Black, 1928: 4.
taxa contain lists of their subspecies. Cross-referencing also works in X-us z-us White, sensu (or "in the sense of") Green, 1930: 15, mis-
the reverse direction, as the entry for any subspecies will provide an identification.
indication of the species to which it is appended, which in turn is
Synonymy in this instance applies only if the type-material of two (or
included under a genus heading, which itself is referable back to the
more) taxa in the species-group has been compared and judged to be
catalogue of genus-group names and to the catalogue of family-group
conspecific. Thus, in our imaginary example, if type-specimens of y-us
names. Similarly, the provenance of junior and senior synonyms and and z-us had been compared and judged to be conspecific, the entry in
homonyms can be traced to and fro within the catalogue. the taxonomic synopsis would then indicate the material and nomi­
Every entry strives to provide a taxonomic history of the name in nate synonymy.
question, and to provide additional references which supplement our
understanding of the taxon. All changes of combination and status X-usy-us Black, 1928:4. Holotype worker [examined].
are recorded for each name, as are indications of synonymy and ho- X-us z-us White, 1930:1. Holotype worker [examined], n e w synon­
monymy. ymy.
Two terms commonly encountered in the catalogue need, I think, a
few words of explanation, as they have been widely ignored or misun­
derstood in the taxonomic literature dealing with ants.

Introduction 3
Checklist of Fossil Taxa

Throughout the catalogue the names of all fossil taxa are prefixed by allow those workers primarily interested in the fossil forms to gain
the symbol *. Because the number of names applied to fossil forms is rapid access to the taxa in question. The list here provides only the
relatively small, their entries remain inconspicuous within the corpus names of the taxa. Their individual entries and data relating to them
of the catalogue. The following checklist has therefore been abstracted to are given in full in the catalogue proper.

Suprageneric taxa k n o w n only from *ACROSTIGMA (junior s y n o n y m oiPodomyrma). AZTECA (Dolichoderinae). Included fossil species:
fossils *A GROECOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: *alpha, *eumeces.
Agroecomyrmecini). Included species: *duisburgi. *BAJKUPJS (*Sphecomyrminae). Included species:
*AMEGHINOJA (Myrmeciinae). Included species: *mandibularis, *mirabilis.
For further data see u n d e r t h e catalogue of
*piatnitzkyi. *BRADOPONERA (Ponerinae: Proceratiini). Included
family-group (suprageneric) taxa.
*ANEURETELLVS (Aneuretinae). Included species: species: *meieri.
*ARCHIPONERINI (junior s y n o n y m of Ponerini). *deformis. *CALYPTTTES (dubiously Formicidae). Included spe­
*ARMANUNAE (subfamily of Formicidae). ANOCHETUS (Ponerinae: Ponerini). Included fossil cies: *antediluvianum.
*FORMICIINAE (subfamily of Formicidae). species: *ambiguus, *brevidentatus, *conisquamis, *CAMPONOTTTES (Formicinae: Camponotini).
*HYPOPOMYRMICTTI (junior s y n o n y m of *corayi, *dubius, *exstinctus, *intermedius, *lucidus. Included species: *macropterus.
Pheidologetonini). ANONYCHOMYRMA (Dolichoderinae). Included fos­ CAMPONOTUS (Formicinae: Camponotini). Included
*MIOMYRMICINI (junior s y n o n y m of Dolichoderinae). sil species: *constricta, *samlandica. fossil species: *brodiei, *compactus, *fusapennis,
*PALEOSMINTHURINAE (subfamily of Formicidae). APHAENOG ASTER (Myrmicinae: Pheidolini). *heracleus, *induratus, *lignitus, *longiventris, *mengei
*PITYOMYRMECINI (junior s y n o n y m of Included fossil species: *avita, *donisthorpei, Hivida, (= *igneus), *microcephalus, *novotnyi, *obesus,
Dolichoderinae). *longaeva, *maculata, *macuttpes, *mayri, *mersa, *oeningensis, *penninervis, *petrifactus, *pinguiculus,
*PRIONOMYRM£CINI (tribe of Myrmeciinae). *'oligocenica, *pannonica, *sommerfeldti. *pinguis, *saussurei (unresolved h o m o n y m ) ,
*SICILOMYRMECINI (tribe of Forrmtinae). *ARCHAEOPONE (*Armaniinae). Included species: *shanwangensis, *tokunagai, *ullrichi, *vehe„*ens
*SPHECOMYRMINAE (subfamily of Formicidae). *kzylzharica, *taylori. (= *miserabilis), *vetus.
*ZHERICHINIINI (junior s y n o n y m of Dolichoderinae). *ARCHIMYRMEX (Myrmicinae). Included species: *CARIRIDRIS (Myrmeciinae). Included species:
*rostratus. *bipetiolata.
*ARCHIPONERA (Ponerinae: Ponerini). Included spe­ *CASALEIA (Ponerinae: Amblyoponini). Included spe­
cies: *wheeleri. cies: *inversa.
Genus-rank a n d species-rank taxa
*ARMANIA (*Armaniinae). Included species: *robusta. CATAGLYPHIS (Formicinae: Forrnicini). Included fos­
k n o w n o n l y f r o m fossils
*ARMANIELLA (*Annanimae). Included species: *curi- sil species: *constrictus.
osa. CATAULACUS (Myrmicinae: Cataulacini). Included
Names of species are n o t e d u n d e r their c u r r e n t fossil species: *anthracinus (= *nigra), *planiceps,
*ASYMPHYLOMYRMEX (Dolichoderinae). Included
generic combinations only. For original combinations *silvestrii.
species: *balticus.
of species-rank taxa a n d for further data see u n d e r t h e *ATTAICHNUS (Myrmicinae: Attini (ichnotaxon)). *CEPHALOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae). Included species:
catalogues of species-group n a m e s a n d g e n u s - g r o u p *rotundatus.
Included ichnospecies: *kuenzelii.
names. *ATTOPSIS (Myrmicinae). Included species: CERAPACHYS (Cerapachyinae: Cerapachyini).
ACANTHOGNATHUS (Myrmicinae: Dacetini). *ltmgipmnis, *longipes. Included fossil species: *annosus, *favosus.
Included fossil species: *poinari.
CHIMAEROMYRMA (Formicinae: Camponotini). *FORMICITES (collective group n a m e , w i t h o u t included *MYRMICIUM (Myrmicinae). Included species: *heerii.
Included species: *brachycephala. n a m e d taxa). NETVAMYRMEX (Ecitoninae: Ecitonini). Included fos­
CREMATOGASTER (Myrmicinae: Crematogastrini). *FORMICIUM (*Formiciinae). Included species: *berryi, sil species: *ectopus.
Included fossil species: *praecursor, *pusilla. *brodiei, *giganteum, *mirabik, *simiUimum. *NOTHOMYRMICA (Myrmicinae: Myrrnicini?).
CRETACOFORMICA (dubiously Formicidae). GESOMYRMEX (Formicinae: Gesomyrmecini). Included species: ^intermedia, *petiolata, *rudis,
Included species: *explicata. Included fossil species: *expectans, *hoemesi *rugosostriata.
CRETOMYRMA (*Sphecomyrminae). Included spe­ (= *annectens, = *mayri, = *theryi), *miegi. ODONTOMACHUS (Ponerinae: Ponerini). Included
cies: *arnoldii, *unicornis. *GLAPHYROMYRMEX (Formicinae: Formicini). fossil species: *pseudobauri, *spinifer.
CRETOPONE (*Armaniinae). Included species: Included species: *oligocenicus. OECOPHYLLA (Formicinae: Oecophyllini). Included
*magna. GNAMPTOGENYS (Ponerinae: Ectatommini). fossil species: *atavina, *bartoniana, *brischkei,
CTENOBETHYLUS (junior s y n o n y m of Liometopum). Included fossil species: *europaea, *levinates, *pristina. *crassinoda, *kakeyi, *megarche, *obesa, *perdita,
DLUSSKYIDRIS (*Sphecomymiinae). Included spe­ *HYPOPOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Pheidologetonini). *praeclara, *sicula, *superba.
cies: *zherichini. Included species: *bombiccii. OLIGOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Pheidologetonini).
DOLICBODERUS (Dolichoderinae). Included fossil *ILEMOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Stenamnrini?). Included fossil species: *antiquus, *bohemicus,
species: *affectus, *anglicus, *anthracinus, *antiquus, Included species: *caecus. *sophiae, *thorali.
*balticus, *britannicus, *bruneti, *caribbaens, *coquandi, *IMHOFFLA (Formicinae). Included species: *nigra, *OXYIDRIS (Myrmicinae: Pheidologetonini). Included
*cornutus, *dibolius, *elegans, *explicans, *gurnetensis, *pallida. species: *antillana.
*kutsckiinicus, *longipennis, *mesosternalis, *nitidus, IRIDOMYRMEX (Dolichoderinae). Included fossil spe­ PACHYCONDYLA (Ponerinae: Ponerini). included
*obliteratus, *oviformis, *ovigerus, *passalomma, cies: *breviantennis, *florissantius, *geinitzi, *haueri, fossil species: *cakarea, *crawleyi, *dubia, *globiventris,
*primitivus, *prolaminatus, *rohweri, *sculpturatus, *mapesi, *oblongiceps, *obscurans. *gratilicomis, *succinea.
*tauricus, *tertiarius, *vectensis, *vexillarius. *KOTSHKORKIA (Dolichoderinae). Included species: *PALAEOMYRMEX (junior h o m o n y m , see *Dlusskyidris).
*DOLICHOMYRMA (*Annaniinae). Included species: *laticcps. *PALEOSMINTHURUS (*Paleosminthurinae).
*laticeps, *longiceps. *LAMPROMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Monomorium). Included species: *juliae.
*DRYMOMYRMEX (Fonrntinae: Camponotini). LASIUS (Formicinae: Lasiini). Included fossil species: *PARAMERANOPLUS (Myrmicinae: Meranoplini).
Included species: *claripennis, *fuscipennis. *chambonensis, *crispus, *epkentrus, *globularis, Included species: *primaevus.
ECTATOMMA (Ponerinae: Ectatorrunini). Included *longaevus, *longipennis, *minumlus, *nemorivagus, *PARANEURETUS (Aneuretinae). Included species:
fossil species: *gracik. *obliteratus, *oblongus, *obscurus, *occultatus, *peri- Hongicomis, *tornquisti.
*ELAEOMYRMEX (DoUchoderinae). Included species: tulus, *pumilus (= *punctulatus), *redtenbacheri, *PARAPHAENOGASTER (Myrmicinae: Pheidolini).
* coloradensis, *gracilis. *schkfferdeckeri (= *edentatus), *terreus, *tertiarius, Included species: *microphthalma, *shanwangensis.
*ELECTROMYRMEX (Myrmicinae). Included species: *vetulus. PARAPONERA (Ponerinae: Paraponerini). Included
*kkbsi. LEPTOMYRMEX (Dolichoderinae). Included fossil fossil species: *dieteri.
*ELECTROPONERA (Ponerinae: Ectatommini). species: *neotropicus. *PETRAEOMYRMEX (Dolichoderinae). Included spe­
Included species: *dubia. *LEPTOMYRMULA (Dolichoderinae). included spe­ cies: *minimus.
*EMPLASTUS (Ponerinae: Ponerini). Included species: cies: *maravignae. *PETROPONE (*Armaruinae). Included species:
*emeryi. LEPTOTHORAX (Myrmicinae: Formicoxenini). *petiolata.
*ENNEAMERUS (Myrmicinae: M y m i e c i n i n i (?)). Included fossil species: *glaesarius, *gracilis, PHEIDOLE (Myrmicinae: Pheidolini). Included fossil
Included species: *reticulatus. *hystriculus, *longaevus, *pladvus, *praecreolus. species: *cordata, *tertiaria, *tethepa.
*EOCENIDRIS (Myrmicinae).Included species: *crassa. *LEUCOTAPHUS (Formicinae: Forrnicini). Included PHEIDOLOGETON (Myrmicinae: Pheidologetonini).
*EOFORMICA (Myrmicinae). Included species: *pinguis. species: *cockere!li, *gurnetensis, *permancus. Included fossil species: *rugiceps, *schossnicen$is.
*EOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae). Included species: LJNEPTTHEMA (Dolichoderinae). Included fossil spe­ *PITYOMYRMEX (Dolichoderinae). Included species:
*guchengziensis. cies: *hispaniolae, *humiloides. *tornquisti.
*EOPONERA (junior s y n o n y m of *Formicium). LIOMETOPUM (Dolichoderinae). Included fossil spe­ PLAGIOLEPIS (Formicinae: Plagiolepidini). Included
*EOTAPINOMA (Dolichoderinae). Included species: cies: * antiquum, *goepperti (= *succinaiis), *imhoffii fossil species: *klinsmanni, *kuenowi, *labilis,
*compacta, *gracilis. (= *schmidtii), *miocenicum, *oligocenicum, *scudderi. *singularis, *solitaria, *squamifera, *succini.
*EULITHOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: *LITHOMYRMEX (junior h o m o n y m , see PLATYTHYEA (Ponerinae: Platythyreini). included
Agroecomyrmecini). Included species: *rugosus, *Eulithomyrmex). fossil species: *primaeva.
*striatus. *LONCHOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Pheidolini?). PODOMYRMA (Myrmicinae: Fonriicoxenini).
FORMICA (Formicinae: Formicini). Included fossil Included species: *freyeri, *nigritus. Included fossil species: *mayri.
species: *acuminata, *aemula, *alsatica, *antiqua, *arc- *MEGAPTERITES (junior s y n o n y m of *Formicium). POGONOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Myrrnicini).
ana, *atavina, *auxillacensis, *baltka, *bauckhorni, MESSOR (Myrmicinae: Pheidolini). Included fossil Included fossil species: *fossilis.
*buphthalma, *cantalica, *capito, *cephalica, *clymene, species: *sculpturatus (unresolved h o m o n y m ) . PONERA (Ponerinae: Ponerini). Included fossil spe­
*cockerelli, *demersa, *eoptera, *flori, *fragilis (unre­ *MIANEURETUS (Aneuretinae). Included species: cies: *atavia, *ekgantissima, *kptocephala, *minuta.
solved h o m o n y m ) , *gibbosa (unresolved h o m ­ *mirabilis. *PONERITES (Ponerinae: Ponerini). Included species:
o n y m ) , *ghbiventris, *gracilis (unresolved *MIOMYRMEX (Dolichoderinae). Included species: *karaganensis, *stauropolitanus, *umbra.
h o m o n y m ) , *grandis, * gravida, *heteroptera, *horrida, *impactus, *striatus. *PONEROPSIS (Ponerinae: Ponerini). Included spe­
Hmmersa, *kollari, Hatinodosa, Havateri, *longicollis, MONOMORIUM (Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini). cies: *affinis, *brunascens, *crassinervis, *croatka,
*longiventris, *lucida, *luteola, *macrocephala (unre­ Included fossil species: *mayrianum (= *gracillimus), *elongata, *elongatula, *escheri, *fuliginosa, *gbbosa,
solved h o m o n y m ) , *macrognatha, *macrophthalma, *pilipes. *hypolitha, *bngaeva, *lugubris, *morio, *pallida, *rhen-
*maculipennis, *martynovi, *nigra (unresolved h o m ­ MYRMICA (Myrmicinae: Myrrnicini). Included fossil ana, *stygia, *tenuis, *veneraria, *ventrosa.
o n y m ) , *oblita, *obtecta, *obvoluta, *ocella, *oculata, species: *aemula, *angusticollis, *archaica, *bremii, *PONEROPTERUS (*Armaniinae). Included species:
*ophthalmica, *orbata, *parvula, *parvula (unresolved *concinna, *jurinei, *bngispirwsa, *macrocephala, *sphecoides.
h o m o n y m ) , *phaethusa, *pitoni, *primitiva, *molassica, *nebulosa, *obsokta, Hertiaria (= *bicolor), PRENOLEPIS (Formicinae: Lasiini). Included fossil
*primordialis, *procera, *pukhella, *pumila, *quadrata, *venusta (unresolved h o m o n y m ) . species: *henschei, *pygmaea.
*robusta, *sepulta, *serresi, *seuberti, *strangulata, *sur- *MYRMICITES (collective group n a m e , w i t h o u t *PRIONOMYRMEX (Myrmeciinae: Prionomyrmecini).
inamensis, *trigona, ^tripartita, *ungeri. included n a m e d taxa). Included species: Hongiceps.

Fossil Taxa 5
*PROCERAPACHYS (junior s y n o n y m of Cerapachys). *PSEUDOCAMPONOTUS (Formicinae: Camponotini). STENAMMA (Myrmicinae: S t e n a m m i n i ) . Included
PROCERATIUM (Ponerinae: Proceratiini). Included Included species: *elkoanus. fossil species: *berendti.
fossil species: *denticulatum. PSEUDOLASIUS (Formicinae: Lasiini). Included fossil *STIGMOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Forrmcoxenini?).
*PRODIMORPHOMYRMEX (Formicinae: species: *boreus. Included species: *venustus.
G e s o m y r m e d n i ) . Included species: *primigenius. PSEUDOMYRMEX (Pseudomyrmecinae). Included *STIPHROMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: M y r m e c i i i n i ? ) .
*PROMYRMICIUM (Myrmicinae). Included species: fossil species: *antiquus, *avitus, *baros, *coruscus, Included species: *robustus.
*boreale. *extinctus, *macrops, *nexilis, *oryctus, *prioris, *SYNTAPHUS (Ponerinae: Ecratommini). Included spe­
*PROPODOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Vollenhovia). *succinus, *thecolor, *vicinus. cies: *wkeeleri.
*PROTAMBLYOPONE (junior h o m o n y m , see *Casaleia). *KHOPALOMYRMEX (Formicinae: Plagiolepidini). TAPINOMA (Dolichoderinae). Included fossil species:
*PROTANEURETUS (Aneuretinae). i n c l u d e d species: Included species: *pygmaeus. *minutissimum, *troche.
*succineus. RHYTWOPONERA (Ponerinae: Ectatonnnini). TECHNOMYRMEX (Dolichoderinae). Included fossil
*PROTAZTECA (Dolichoderinae). Included species: Included fossil species: *kirghizorum. species: *deletus.
*capitata, *elongata, *hendersoni, *quadrata. *SICILOMYRMEX (Formicinae: *Sicflomyrmedni). TETRAPONERA ( P s e u d o m y n n e c i n a e ) . Included fos­
*PROTOFORMICA (Formicinae: Formicini). Included Included species: *corniger. sil species: *angustata, *klebsi, *lacrimarum, *ocellata,
species: *proformicoides. SMTTHISTRUMA (Myrmicinae: Dacetini). Included *oligocenica, ^simplex.
*PROTOPONE (Ponerinae: Ponerini). Included species: fossil species: *electrina, *schleeorum. TRA CHYMYRMEX (Myrrmcmae: Attini). Included
*primigena. SOLENOPSIS (Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini). Included fossil species: *primaevus.
*PROTRECHJNA (Formicinae: Lasiini). Included spe­ fossil species: *blanda (= *acuta), *foersteri, *major VOLLENHOVIA (Myrmicinae: M e t a p o n i n i ) . Included
cies: *carpenteri. (unresolved h o m o n y m ) , *maxima, *moesta, *privata, fossil species: *beyrichi (= *samlandica), *prisca.
*PSEUDARMANIA (*Armaniinae). Included species: *superba { = *extensa), *valida. *ZHERICEONWS (Dolichoderinae). Included species:
*aberrans, *rasnitsyni. *SPHECOMYRMA (*Sphecomyrminae). Included spe­ *horribilis, *rapax.
cies: *canadensis, *freyi.

6 Fossil Taxa
Catalogue of Family-Group
(Suprageneric) Taxa

L a y o u t of t h e c a t a l o g u e A p p l i c a t i o n of t h e C o d e t o f a m i l y - g r o u p t a x a

In the alphabetically arranged list of family-group taxa below, each The provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature
name is immediately followed by parentheses giving information on (Third Edition, 1985) have in the past been m u c h neglected as regards
the current status of the name. Subsequent entries list references for their application to names in the family-group; they are implemented
the following: in this catalogue. It is not practical to repeat all the rules and provi­
sions here, but some basic principles, particularly those which affect
i. The original description, designation, or nomination of the
entries in this catalogue, should be clarified.
taxon, and its type-genus.
ii. In date order, any changes of spelling, rank-denoting suffix, 1. Names proposed in the family-group (suprageneric taxa) must be
stem, or assignment; as well as changes modifying the original based upon the name-stem of an available genus rank taxon; other­
content of the taxon. wise they are taxonomically unavailable. For example, Formicidae,
iii. Revisions or reviews of the taxon. formed from the genus rank name Formica; Cerapachyinae, formed
iv. Junior or senior synonyms of the taxon. from the genus-rank name Cerapachys; and Brachymyrmecini, formed
v. List of valid lower-ranking taxa currently included within the from the genus rank n a m e Brachymyrmex, are all available. On the
higher-ranking taxon. other hand, names such as Euformicinae, Rhagiomyrmicinae, and
vi. Notes. Taraxoponerinae are unavailable, as they are not based on a genus-
rank name.
All family-group taxa are listed in alphabetical order regardless of
2. Standard suffixes mcHcating the rank of a suprageneric taxon are
their current status. Statements of synonymy are repeated under both
as follows:
junior and senior names, but junior synonyms appear in the form
-idae for taxa of family rank,
given at their inception. Taxonomically unavailable names are stated
-inae for taxa of subfamily rank,
as such and are followed by a note explaining their provenance and
-ini for taxa of tribe rank.
dispersal. Names currently considered valid are in BOLD CAPITALS,
all other names are in CAPITALS. A formal suffix to indicate subtribal rank has never been stand­
The symbol * preceding a name at any rank indicates that the taxon ardised, though -ina is much used elsewhere in the Hymenoptera.
is k n o w n only from the fossil record. Brown (1957i: 193) has suggested -iti, but this does not appear to have
gained wide recognition or support. As a personal, subjective, opinion
No attempt has been made to record every occurrence of a name
I can see n o obvious advantage to the use of subtribes. They merely
throughout the entire ant literature. Only references conveying new,
interpose another formal taxonomic rank of very marginal value;
modified, or synoptic information are given.
their place should perhaps be taken by informal groups of genera
The appearance of simple misspellings caused by obvious typo­
which, however closely they are defined, do not add an additional
graphical errors in the names has been ignored in the catalogue, ex­
stratum to the formal nomenclature.
cept w h e n it affects the nomenclature. For example, in DIussky &
Fedoseeva (1987: 78), Apomyrmini appears as Aromyrmini. As the Note that before about 1895 there was no general agreement on
only included genus is stated correctly as Apomyrma, such a minor suffixes determining a particular rank. Thus, before that date -idae, for
error is unlikely to cause confusion. However, w h e n a rnisspelling is so example, may be applied to suprageneric taxa below the rank of family.
gross that it may tend to confuse, it is included in the catalogue; for 3. A change of suffix in an available family-group name, indicating
example Myrmorhynchini for Myrmecorhynchini. The object of this a change of rank, does not initiate any alteration of the name of the
survey is to present a concise and useful catalogue, not a long list of all author, nor does it require a change of date, nor is the author's name
the typographical errors ever perpetrated in the Formicidae. placed in parentheses or in any other way modified. Irrespective of
the suffix, the name is always attributed to the author who first used catalogue. Other notable synopses made in the first quarter of the
it as an available name in the family-group, and with that date of twentieth century included those of Forel (1917), Wheeler, W.M.
publication. (1922a), and the rather idiosyncratic classification of Ashmead
4. The law of priority is applicable to suprageneric taxa. The valid (1905b). These publications account for the majority of subfamily and
name of a taxon is the oldest available name applied to it. For exam­ tribe names still in use in the Formicidae. Most of these contributions
ple, the name Leptothoracini Emery (1914a: 38) is antedated by For- fall into the first category outlined above, but the works of Ashmead
micoxenini Forel (1893a: 164). Emery (1914a: 42) himself included (1905b) and Forel (1917) fall into the second.
the type-genus of Formicoxenini (Formicoxenus) in his tribe Lepto­ After 1925 the appeal of synoptic classifications appears to have
thoracini. No subsequent author has questioned the fact that Formi­ waned, although a few regional synopses have been produced, for
coxenus and Leptothorax (the type-genus of Leptothoracini) belong in example by Kempf (1972a) at the end of his Neotropical catalogue.
the same tribe; nor is it questioned here. Hence the better-known Fresh interest was kindled by Brown's (1973b) synoptic list of sub­
name Leptothoracini falls as a junior synonym of Formicoxenus. families and genera, and in recent years there has been a small deluge
5. The principle of homonymy is applicable to suprageneric taxa. of synopses, all of which fall into the second category mentioned
For example Monomoriini Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 45 is a junior above. These include the works of Snelling (1981), Wheeler, G.C. &
homonym (and also a junior synonym) of Monomoriini Emery, Wheeler, J. (1985), DIussky & Fedoseeva (1987), Holldobler & Wilson
1914a: 4 1 . (1990), and Bolton (1994). For the most part these give a useful
overview, but unfortunately the "simplified conspectus of Formici­
dae" produced by Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. (1985) is retrograde.
History of s y n o p t i c classifications Errors of omission and commision abound and the list is untrust­
worthy and not recommended.
The purpose of a synoptic classification is to present the reader with a
systematic overview which shows at a glance the author's opinion of
the worldwide classification of a particular group. Such synopses have N o t e o n tribe-rank classification
a long history in the Formicidae and are divisible into two main cate­
gories: first, those with reasons given for the classification, either In subfamilies of Formicidae such as Cerapachyinae and Ecitoninae,
stated or implied by reference to earlier studies; and second, those and to a large extent Ponerinae, the tribe-rank classification is more or
taking the form of a simple list, without justification or argument for less accurate and reflects, to a reasonable extent, an acceptable clas­
the system outlined. sification at our current state of knowledge. The same could not be
In the main, later synopses were built upon, and relied heavily on, said of the subfamilies Formicinae and Myrmicinae. In these the tribe-
earlier studies. The first authors to come to grips with an overall clas­ rank classification is ancient, decrepit, largely speculative, and in dire
sification of ants, in a recognisably modern system, were Forel need of serious modern analysis. The tribes of Formicinae listed here
(1893a) and Emery (1895J, 1896e), although these dated back to largely follow, with minor modifications, the classical systems of
preliminary surveys by Emery (1877a) and Forel (1878). Further ad­ Wheeler, W.M. (1922a) and Emery (1925b), which, despite all their
ditions to the fledgling system thus produced were made by Emery shortcomings, we must still use. The tribes of Myrmicinae, as pre­
(1901a, 1914a, 1915i). These culminated in his contributions to the sented here, reflect my current opinions, for what they are worth, but
remarkable Genera Insectorum volumes (Emery, 1910b, 191 Id, 1912g, these should not be considered definite or final by any means.
1921f, 1922e, 1922f, 1925b), which offered both classification and

T h e c a t a l o g u e of f a m i l y - g r o u p Acanthosticiiini: Bolton, 1990a: 67 [as tribe of AENICTOGITONINAE (subfamily of Formicidae)


(suprageneric) taxa Aenictogitonini A s h m e a d , 1905b: 381 [as tribe of
Cerapachyinae].
Dorylinae]. Type-genus: Aenictogiton.
Revision of tribe: B r o w n , 1975: 39.
Aenirtogitini: B r o w n , 1 9 7 5 : 4 3 [as tribe of Ponerinae;
ACANTHOMYOPSINI (junior s y n o n y m of Lasiini) Included g e n u s : Acanthostichus.
unjustified e m e n d a t i o n of spelling].
Acanthomyopsini Donisthorpe, 1943f: 6 1 8 [as tribe of AENICTINAE (subfamily of Formicidae)
Aenictogitoninae: Baroni Urbani, Bolton & Ward,
Formicinae]. Type-genus: Acanthomyops. Aenictii Emery, 1901a: 36 [as tribe of Dorylinae].
1992: 315 [as subfamily of Formicidae].
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Lasiini: Bolton, 1994: 50. Type-genus: Aenictus.
Revision (as tribe of P o n e r i n a e ) : B r o w n , 1 9 7 5 : 4 3 .
Aemctini: A s h m e a d , 1905b: 381 [ e m e n d e d spelling of
ACANTHOSTICHTNI (tribe of Cerapachyinae) Included g e n u s : Aenictogiton.
suffix].
Acanthostichii Emery, 1901a: 34 [as tribe of
Aenictii: Emery, 1910b: 2 8 [as j u n i o r s y n o n y m of AGROECOMYRMECTJNI (tribe of Myrmicinae)
Dorylinae]. Type-genus: Acanthostichus.
Ecitoni]. (Wrongly retained as such by Wheeler, Agroecomyrmicini Carpenter, 1930: 34 [as tribe of
Acanthostichinae: A s h m e a d , 1905b: 382 [as subfamily
G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1 9 8 5 : 2 5 6 ) . Myrmicinae]. Type-genus: *Agroecomyrmex.
of Dorylidae].
Aemctini: Borgmeier, 1954c: 212 [revived from s y n o n ­ Agroecomyrmecini: B r o w n & Kempf, 1968: 184
Acanthostichini: Emery, 19 l i d : 12 [as tribe of Pon­
y m y as tribe of Dorylinae]. [ e m e n d e d spelling].
erinae; e m e n d e d spelling of suffix].
Aenictinae: Bolton, 1990c: 1358 [as subfamily of Revision of tribe: B r o w n & Kempf, 1968: 184.
Acanthostichini: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 640 [as tribe
Formicidae]; Baroni Urbani, Bolton & Ward, 1992: Included genera: *Agroecomyrmex, *Eulithomyrmex,
of Cerapachyinae].
315. Tatuidris.
Acanthostichini: B r o w n , 1975: 39 [as tribe of P o n ­
Included genus: Aenictus.
erinae].

8 Family-Group (Suprageneric) Taxa


ALLOFORMICINAE (unavailable n a m e ) ANOMALOMYRMINI (tribe of Leptanillinae) AXINIDRrNI (junior s y n o n y m of Dolichoderinae)
Allofonnicinae Emery, 1925b: 9 [as "section" of A n o m a l o m y r m i n i Taylor, in Bolton, 1990b: 2 7 8 . Type- Axinidrini Weber, 1941a: 193 fas tribe of
Formicinae]. Section designated to include tribes g e n u s : Anomalomyrma. Dolichoderinae]. Type-genus: Axinidris.
Melophorini, Myrmelachistini a n d Plagiolepidini. Included genera: Anomalomyrma, Protanilla. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dolichoderinae: Shattuck, 1992c:
Unavailable n a m e ; n o t based o n genus r a n k t a x o n . 5.
ANONYCHOMYRMINI (junior s y n o n y m of
Contained material referable to Formicinae: Bolton,
Dolichoderinae) BASICEROTTNI (tribe of Myrmicinae)
1994: 5 1 .
A n o n y c h o m y r m i n i Donisthorpe, 1947c: 588 [as tribe Basicerotini B r o w n , 1949f: 86 [as tribe of
AMBLYOPONINI (tribe of Ponerinae) of Dolichoderinae]. Type-genus: Anonychomyrma. M y r m i c i n a e ] . Type-genus: Basiceros.
A m b l y o p o n i n a e Forel, 1893a: 162 [as subfamily of J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dolichoderinae: Shattuck, 1992c: Revision of tribe: B r o w n & Kempf, 1960: 1 6 1 .
Formicidae]. Type-genus: Amblyopone. 5. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dacetini: Baroni Urbani & De
Amblyoponii: Emery, 1895c: 2 6 1 ; Emery, 1895J: 761 Andrade, 1994: 10.
APHAENOGASTRINI (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidolini)
[as tribe of P o n e r i n a e ] . Basicerotini revived from s y n o n y m y : r e v i v e d s t a t u s .
Aphaenogastrini E n z m a n n , J. 1947b: 147 [as tribe of
Amblyoponini: Ashmead, 1905b: 382 [ e m e n d e d spell­ Included genera: Basiceros, Creightonidris,
M y r m i c i n a e ] . Type-genus: Aphaenogaster.
ing of suffix]. Eurhopalothrix, Octostruma, Protalaridris, Rhopalothrix,
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidolini: B r o w n , 1949a: 4 8 .
Amblyoponinae: Clark, 1 9 5 1 : 1 5 (in key) [as subfam­ Talaridris.
ily of Formicidae]. APOMYRMINAE (subfamily of Formicidae)
BLEPHARTO ATTINI (tribe of Myrmicinae)
Amblyoponini: Brown, 1953c: 11 [as tribe of Pon­ A p o m y r m i n i DIussky & Fedoseeva, 1987: 78 [as tribe
Blepharidattini Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1991a:
erinae]. of P o n e r i n a e ] . Type-genus: Apomyrma.
133. Type-genus: Blepharidatta.
Revision of tribe: B r o w n , 1960a: 145; Ward, 1994: Apomyrrnim: Bolton, 1990b: 2 8 0 [as tribe of
Included genera: Blepharidatta, Wasmannia.
167. Leptarrillinae].
Senior s y n o n y m of A p o m y r m i n a e : Baroni Urbani, Bolton & Ward, 1992: BRACHYMYRMECINI (tribe of Formicinae)
Ericapeltini (type-genus included in Amblyoponini 316 [as subfamily of Formicidae]. Brachymyrmicini Emery, 1925b: 4 0 [as subtribe of
by Brown, 1960a: 156, b u t n o t formally syn- Included genus: Apomyrma. D i m o r p h o m y r m i c i n i ] . Type-genus: Brachymyrmex.
onymised): Bolton, 1994: 164. Brachymyrmicini: Wheeler, W.M. 1929a: 12 [as tribe
ARCHAEOMYRMICINI (junior s y n o n y m of
Examblyoponini: B r o w n , 1 9 5 1 : 1 0 2 . of Formicinae].
Myrmecinini)
Onychomyrmicini (type-genus included in Brachymyrmecini: Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1985:
Archaeomyrmicini M a n n , 1 9 2 1 : 4 4 9 [as tribe of
Amblyoponini b y B r o w n , 1960a: 178, b u t n o t for­ 258 [emendedspelling].
M y r m i c i n a e ] . Type-genus: Archaeomyrmex (junior
mally synonymised): Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 6 4 . Included genera: Aphomomyrmex, Brachymyrmex,
s y n o n y m of Myrmecina).
Reneini: B r o w n , 19 5 3c: 1 1 . Cladomyrma, Petalomyrmex, Pseudaphomomyrmex.
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Myrmecinini: B r o w n , 1971a: 2
Included genera: Adetomyrma, Amblyopone, *Casaleia,
BREGMATOMYRMINI (tribe of Formicinae)
Concoctio, Myopopone, Mystrium, Onychomyrmex, *ARCHEPONEPJNI (junior s y n o n y m of Ponerini)
B r e g m a t o m y r m i i Wheeler, W.M. 1929b: 5 [as tribe of
Paraprionopelta, Prionopelta. *Archiponerini DIussky & Fedoseeva, 1987: 78 [as tribe
Formicinae]. Type-genus: Bregmatomyrma.
of P o n e r i n a e ] . Type-genus: *Archiponera.
ANERGATIDINI (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidolini) B r e g m a t o m y r m i n i : Bolton, 1994: 50 [ e m e n d e d spell­
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Ponerini: Bolton, 1994: 164.
Anergatidini Emery, 1922e: 116 [as subtribe of ing of suffix].
Pheidolini]. Type-genus: Anergatides (junior syn­ *ARMANIINAE (subfamily of Formicidae) Included g e n u s : Bregmatomyrma.
o n y m of Pheidole). *Armaniidae DIussky, 1983: 66 [as family of
CALYPTOMYRMECENT (junior s y n o n y m of
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidolini: Bolton, 1994: 106. Formicoidea]. Type-genus: *Armania.
Stenammini)
*Armaniidae: Wilson, 1987: 4 9 [as j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
ANERGATTNI (junior s y n o n y m of Tetramoriini) Calyptomyrmecini DIussky & Fedoseeva, 1987: 80 [as
Formicidae].
Anergatini Emery, 1914a: 4 1 [as subtribe of tribe of Myrmicinae]. Type-genus: Calyptomyrmex.
*Armaniidae: DIussky & Fedoseeva, 1987: 77 [revived
Solenopsidini]. Type-genus: Anergates. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Stenannruni: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 6 .
status as family of Formicoidea].
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Tetramoriini: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 6 .
*Armaniinae: Carpenter, 1 9 9 2 : 4 9 1 ; Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 8 7 CAMPONOTINI (tribe of Formicinae)
ANEURETINAE (subfamily of Formicidae) [as subfamily of Formicidae]. C a m p o n o t i d a e Forel, 1878: 3 6 4 [as subfamily of
Aneuretini Emery, 1912g: 6 [as tribe of Included genera: *Archaeopone, *Armania, *Armaniella, Formicidae]. Type-genus: Camponotus.
Dolichoderinae]. Type-genus: Aneuretus. *Cretopone, *Dolichomyrma, *Petropone, *Poneropterus, C a m p o n o t i n a e : Forel, 1893a: 165 [ e m e n d e d spelling
A n e u r e t i n a e : Clark, 1 9 5 1 : 1 6 (footnote) [as subfamily *Pseudarmania. of suffix].
of Formicidae]. Camponotii: Forel, 1893a: 165 [as tribe of
ATTINI (tribe of Myrmicinae)
A n e u r e t i n a e : Baroni Urbani, 1 9 8 9 : 1 4 7 [as j u n i o r syn­ Camponotinae].
Attidae Smith, F. 1858b: 161 [as subfamily of
o n y m of Dolichoderinae]. Camponotini: Ashmead, 1905b: 384 [ e m e n d e d spell­
Formicidae]. Type-genus: Atta.
A n e u r e t i n a e : Bolton, 1990c: 1361 [revived status as ing of suffix].
Attidae: Smith, F. 1863: 21 [as family].
subfamily of Formicidae]; Shattuck, 1992b: 2 0 1 ; Camponotini: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 6 9 3 [as tribe of
Attidae: Emery, 1877a: 72 [as "group" w i t h i n
Baroni Urbani, Bolton & Ward, 1992: 3 1 5 . Formicinae].
Myrmicidae].
Review of subfamily: Wilson, Eisner, W h e e l e r & Senior s y n o n y m of Polyrhachidini: Bolton, 1994: 50.
Attii: Forel, 1893a: 163 [as tribe of Myrmicinae].
Wheeler, 1 9 5 6 : 8 1 . Included genera: Calomyrmex, *Camponotites,
Attinae: Ashmead, 1905b: 383 [as subfamily of
Catalogue a n d bibliography of subfamily: Shattuck, Camponotus, *Chimaeromyrma, Dendromyrmex,
Cryptoceridae].
1994:1. *Drymomyrmex, Echinopla, Forelophilus, Notostigma,
Attini: Emery, 1914a: 39; Forel, 1917: 2 3 2 [ e m e n d e d
Included genera: *Aneuretellus, Aneuretus, Opisthopsis, Overbeckia, Phasmomyrmex, Polyrhachis,
spelling of suffix; as tribe of M y r m i c i n a e ] .
*Mianeuretus, *Paraneuretus, *Protaneuretus. *Pseudocamponotus.
Included genera: Acromyrmex, Apterostigma, Atta,
Note. Material originally included u n d e r t h e unavail­
*Attaichnus (ichnotaxon), Cyphomyrmex, Mycetarotes, CARDIOCONDYLENI (junior s y n o n y m of
able n a m e Prodolichoderinae is referable in part to
Mycetophylax, Mycetosoritis, Mycocepurus, Formicoxeriini)
A n e u r e t i n a e : Bolton, 1994: 15.
Myrmicocrypta, Pseudoatta, Sericomyrmex, Cardiocondylini Emery, 1914a: 36 [as tribe of
Trachymyrmex. M y r m i c i n a e ] . Type-genus: Cardiocondyla.
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Leptothoracini: Bolton, 1982: 3 1 1 .
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Formicoxemrii: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 5 .

Family-Group (Suprageneric) Taxa 9


CATAULACINI (tribe of Myrmicinae) CHELIOMYRMECINI (tribe of E d t o n i n a e ) Epitritus, Epopostruma, Glamyromyrmex, Gym-
CheHomyrmicini Wheeler, W.M. 1 9 2 I d : 319 [as tribe nomyrmex, Kyidris, Mesostruma, Microdaceton,
Cataulacii Emery, 1895J: 771 [as tribe of M y r m i c i n a e ] .
of Dorylinae]. Type-genus: Cheliomyrmex. Neostruma, Orectognathus, Pentastruma, Quadristruma,
Type-germs: Cataulacus.
Cheliomyrmecini: Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1985: Serrastruma, Smithistruma, Strumigenys, Tingimyrmex,
Cataulacinae: Ashmead, 1905b: 3 8 4 [as subfamily of
2 5 6 [ e m e n d e d spelling]. Trichoscapa.
Cryptoceridae].
CheMomyrmecini: Bolton, 1990c: 1357 [as tribe of DIMORPHOMYRMn (junior s y n o n y m of
Cataulacmi: Emery, 1914a: 39 [ e m e n d e d spelling of
Edtoninae]. Gesomymedni)
suffix; as tribe of M y r m i c i n a e ] .
Revision of tribe: Borgmeier, 1955: 5 8 . D i m o r p h o m y r m i i Emery, 1895j: 7 7 2 [as tribe of
Revision of tribe: Bolton, 1974a: 1.
I n d u d e d g e n u s : Cheliomyrmex. C a m p o n o t i n a e ] . Type-genus: Dimorphomyrmex
Included g e n u s : Cataulacus.
CENTROMYRMICINI (junior s y n o n y m of Ponerini) CREMATOGASTRINI (tribe of Myrmicinae) (junior s y n o n y m of Gesomyrmex).
CentxomyrmiciniEmery, 191 I d : 57 [as subtribe of Cremastogastrii Forel, 1893a: 164 [as tribe of D i m o r p h o m y r m i d n i : Forel, 1 9 1 7 : 2 3 2 [ e m e n d e d
Ponerini]. Type-genus: Centromymtex. M y r m i c i n a e ] . Type-genus: Crematogaster. spelling of suffix].
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Ponerini: B r o w n , 1953c: 9. Crematogastrii: Emery, 1895J: 7 6 9 [ e m e n d e d spelling]. D i m o r p h o m y m f i d n i : Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 6 9 3 [as
Crematogastrini: Emery, 1914a: 37 [ e m e n d e d spelling tribe of Formicinae].
CEPHALOTTNI (tribe of Myrmicinae)
of suffix]. D i m o r p h o m y r m i d n i : Emery, 1925b: 39 [incorrectly
Cephalotini Smith, M.R. 1949c: 18 [as tribe of
I n d u d e d g e n u s : Crematogaster. as senior s y n o n y m of G e s o m y r m e d n i ] .
M y r m i c i n a e ] . Type-genus: Cephalotes.
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of G e s o m y r m e d n i : Wheeler, W.M.
Revision of tribe: Kempf, 1 9 5 1 : 1 ; Kempf, 1 9 5 2 : 1 ; CRYPTOCERIDAE (junior s y n o n y m of Cephalotini)
1929a: 12.
Kempf, 1958a: 1; Kempf, 1973c: 4 6 1 . Cryptoceridae Smith, F. 1 8 5 4 : 2 1 4 [as subfamily of
Senior s y n o n y m of Cryptoceridae: Smith, M.R. 1949c: F o r m i d d a e ] . Type-genus: Cryptocerus (junior syn­ DISCOTHYRTNAE (junior s y n o n y m of Proceratiini)
18. o n y m of Cephalotes). Discothyrinae Clark, 1 9 5 1 : 1 5 (in key) [as subfamily
Included genera: Cephalotes, Eucryptocerus, Pro- Cryptoceridae: Emery, 1877a: 72 [as "group" of of Formicinae]. Type-genus: Discothyrea.
cryptocerus, Zacryptocerus. Myrmicinae]. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of E r t a t o m m i n i : Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 6 4 ;
Cryptocerii: Forel, 1893a: 164; Emery, 1 8 9 5 j : 7 6 3 [as of Proceratiini: Lattke, 1 9 9 4 : 1 1 2 (implied b u t n o t
CERAPACHYINAE (subfamily of Formicidae)
tribe of M y r m i c i n a e ] . stated).
Cerapachysii Forel, 1893a: 162 [as tribe of P o n e r i n a e ] .
Cryptoceridae: Ashmead, 1905b: 3 8 3 [as family].
Type-genus: Cerapachys. DOLICHODERINAE (subfamily of F o r m i d d a e )
Cryptocerini: Emery, 1914a: 39 [ e m e n d e d spelling of
Cerapachyinae: Wheeler, W.M. 1902d: 185 [as Dolichoderidae Forel, 1878: 3 6 4 [as subfamily of
suffix; as tribe of M y r m i c i n a e ] .
"group" of Ponerinae.] F o r m i d d a e ] . Type-genus: Dolichoderus.
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cephalotini: Smith, M.R. 1949c:
Cerapachyinae: Wheeler, W.M. 1920: 51 [as subfamily Dolichoderinae: Forel, 1893a: 165 [ e m e n d e d spelling
18.
of Formicidae]. of suffix].
Cerapachyidae: Bernard, 1 9 5 1 : 1 0 4 6 [as family of CYLINDROMYRMECINI (tribe of Cerapachyinae) Dolichoderidae: Bernard, 1 9 5 1 : 1 0 7 1 [as family of
Formicoidea]. Cylmdromyrmii Emery, 1901a: 3 4 [as tribe of Formicoidea].
Cerapachyinae: Clark, 1 9 5 1 : 1 5 (in key) [as subfamily Dorylinae].Type-genus: Cylindromyrmex. Dolichoderinae: B r o w n , 1954e: 2 9 [as subfamily of
of Formicidae]. Cylmdromyimicini: Ashmead, 1905b: 382 [ e m e n d e d F o r m i d d a e ] ; DIussky & Fedoseeva, 1 9 8 7 : 7 7 ;
Cerapachyinae: B r o w n , 1 9 7 5 : 1 4 [as j u n i o r s y n o n y m spelling of suffix]. Shattuck, 1992b: 2 0 1 ; Baroni Urbani, Bolton &
of P o n e r i n a e ] . C y l m d r o m y r r m d n i : Emery, 191 I d : 14 [as tribe of P o n ­ Ward, 1 9 9 2 : 3 1 6 .
Cerapachyinae: Bolton, 1990a: 66 [revived from syn­ erinae]. Revision of subfamily: Shattuck, 1992c: 1.
o n y m y as subfamily of Formicidae]; Bolton, 1990c: C y t o d r o m y r m e c m i : B r o w n , 1975: 36 [ e m e n d e d spell­ Catalogue a n d bibliography of subfamily: Shattuck,
1356; Baroni Urbani, Bolton & Ward, 1992: 3 1 6 . ing]- 1994: 3 .
Revision of tribes: B r o w n , 1 9 7 5 : 1 1 . C y M d r o m y r m e c i n i : Bolton, 1990a: 67 [as tribe of Senior s y n o n y m of
Included tribes: Acanthosticmrii, Cerapachyini, Cyl- Cerapachyinae]. A n o n y c h o m y r m i n i , Axinidrini, Leptomyrrmcini,
mdromyrmecini. Revision of tribe: B r o w n , 1975: 3 6 . Liometopini, *Ktyomyrmecini, Tapmomini,
Note. Material originally included u n d e r t h e unavail­ I n d u d e d g e n u s : Cylindromyrmex. *Zherichiniini: Shattuck, 1992c: 5.
able n a m e Prodorylinae is referable to *Miomynnicini: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 2 6 .
DACETTTI (junior s y n o n y m of Dacetini)
Cerapachyinae: Bolton, 1990a: 6 6 . I n d u d e d genera: Anillidris, Anonychomyrma,
Dacetiti B r o w n , 1952g: 10 (footnote); B r o w n , 1954b:
*Asymphylomyrmex, Axinidris, Azteca, Bothriomyrmex,
CERAPACHYINI (tribe of Cerapachyinae) 4 6 5 (definition) [as subtribe of Dacetini]. Type-
Doleromyrma, Dolichoderus, Dorymyrmex, Ecphorella,
Cerapachysii Forel, 1893a: 162 [as tribe of P o n e r i n a e ] . genus: Daceton.
*Elaeomyrmex, *Eotapinoma, Forelius, Froggattella,
Type-genus: Cerapachys. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dacetini: Baroni Urbani & De
Iridomyrmex, *Kotshkorkia, Leptomyrmex,
Cerapachyi: Emery, 1895J: 7 6 5 [as tribe of Dorylinae]. A n d r a d e , 1994: 9.
*Leptomyrmula, Linepithema, Liometopum, Loweriella,
Cerapachyini: Ashmead, 1905b: 382 [ e m e n d e d spell­
DACETTNI (tribe of Myrmicinae) *Miomyrmex, Ochetellus, Papyrius, *Petraeomyrmex,
ing of suffix; as tribe of P o n e r i n a e ] .
DacetoniniForel, 1892d: 3 4 4 [as genus g r o u p ] . Type- Philidris, *Pityomyrmex, *Protazteca, Tapinoma, Tech-
Cerapachyini: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 638 [as tribe of
g e n u s : Daceton. nomyrmex, Turneria, *Zherichinius.
Cerapachyinae].
Dacetonii: Forel, 1893a: 164 [as tribe of M y r m i c i n a e ] . Note. Material originally i n d u d e d u n d e r t h e unavail­
Cerapachyini: B r o w n , 1 9 7 5 : 1 4 [as tribe of P o n e r i n a e ] .
Dacetii: Emery, 1895j: 7 7 0 [ e m e n d e d spelling]. able n a m e s Prodolichoderinae a n d
Cerapachyini: Bolton, 1990a: 67 [as tribe of
Dacetini: Emery, 1914a: 13; Forel, 1 9 1 7 : 2 4 6 Eudolichoderinae is referable to Dolichoderinae:
Cerapachyinae].
[ e m e n d e d spelling]. Bolton, 1994: 2 7 .
Revision of tribe: B r o w n , 1 9 7 5 : 1 4 .
Revisionary studies: see publications of B r o w n ,
Senior s y n o n y m of DORYLINAE (subfamily of F o r m i d d a e )
W.L.,Jr.
Eusphinctinae: Bolton, 1990a: 66. Dorylida Leach, 1 8 1 5 : 1 4 7 [as family-group n a m e ] .
Senior s y n o n y m of Dacetiti, Epopostrnmiti,
Lioponerini (type-genus included in Cerapachyini Type-genus: Dorylus.
Orectognathiti, Strurnigeniti: Baroni Urbani & De
by B r o w n , 1 9 7 5 : 1 9 , b u t n o t formally syn- Dorylidae: Haliday, 1836: 331 [ e m e n d e d spelling of
A n d r a d e , 1994: 9.
onymised): Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 9 . suffix].
I n d u d e d genera: Acanthognathus, Asketogenys,
Included genera: Cerapachys, Simopone, Sphinctomyrmex. Dorylinae: Forel, 1893a: 163 [as subfamily of
Chelystruma, Cladarogenys, Codiomyrmex, Codioxenus,
Formiddae].
Colobostruma, Daceton, Dorisidris, Dysedrognathus,

10 Family-Group (Suprageneric) Taxa


Dorylii: Forel, 1893a: 163; Emery, 1895J: 7 5 8 [as tribe Senior s y n o n y m of of F o r m i d d a e ] . Type-genus: Eusphinctus (junior syn­
of Dorylinae]. Stictoponerini (type-genus i n d u d e d i n o n y m of Sphindomyrmex).
Dorylini: Ashmead, 1905b: 381 [ e m e n d e d spelling of E d a t o m m i n i b y B r o w n , 1958g: 2 1 1 , b u t n o t for­ J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cerapachyini: Bolton, 1990a: 6 6 .
suffix]. mally synonymised): Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 6 4 .
EXAMBLYOPONINI (junior s y n o n y m of
Dorylidae: Bernard, 1 9 5 1 : 1 0 4 6 [as family of I n d u d e d genera: Acanthoponera, Aulacopone,
Amblyoponini)
Formicoidea]. Ectatomma, *Eledroponera, Gnamptogenys,
E x a m b l y o p o n m i Donisthorpe, 1 9 4 9 g : 4 0 1 [as tribe of
Dorylinae: B r o w n , 1954e: 2 8 [as subfamily of Heteroponera, Rhytidoponera, *Syntaphus.
P o n e r i n a e ] . Type-genus: Examblyopone (junior syn­
Formicidae]; DIussky & Fedoseeva, 1 9 8 7 : 7 9 ; Bol­
EPOPOSTRUMm (junior s y n o n y m of Dacetini) o n y m of Prionopelta).
t o n , 1990c: 1358; Baroni Urbani, Bolton & Ward,
Epopostrurniti B r o w n , 1952g: 10 (footnote); B r o w n , J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Amblyoponini: B r o w n , 1 9 5 1 : 1 0 2 .
1992:316.
1954b: 4 6 5 (definition) [as subtribe of Dacetini].
Included genus: Dorylus. EXEUPONEPJNAE (unavailable n a m e )
Type-genus: Epopostruma.
Note. Material originally included u n d e r t h e unavail­ E x e u p o n e r i n a e Donisthorpe, 1943d: 4 3 8 [as "section"
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dacetini: Baroni Urbani & D e
able n a m e Eudorylinae is referable t o Dorylinae: of P o n e r i n a e ] . Section designated to i n d u d e only
Andrade, 1994: 9.
Bolton, 1990c: 1358. Pseudoneoponera (junior s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla).
ERICAPELTTNI (junior s y n o n y m of Amblyoponini) Unavailable n a m e , n o t based o n genus r a n k t a x o n .
D ORYLOZELTNI (junior s y n o n y m of Ponerini)
EricapeltiniKusnezov, 1 9 5 5 : 2 7 5 [as subtribe of Contained material referable to Ponerini: Bolton,
Dorylozelini Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 6 4 6 [as tribe of
A m b l y o p o n i n i ] . Type-genus: Ericapelta (junior syn­ 1994: 164.
P o n e r i n a e ] . Type-genus: Dorylozelus (junior syn­
o n y m of Amblyopone).
o n y m of Leptogenys). FORMICIDAE (family of superiarnily Vespoidea)
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Amblyoponini: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 6 4 .
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Ponerini: Taylor, 1 9 6 9 : 1 3 2 . Formicariae Latreille, 1 8 0 9 : 1 2 4 [as family-group
EUCAMPONOTTNAE (unavailable n a m e ) n a m e ] . Type-genus: Formica.
DREPANOGNATFflNI (junior s y n o n y m of Ponerini)
E u c a m p o n o t i n a e Forel, 1912i: 8 8 [as "section" of F o r m i d d a e : Stephens, 1829: 356 [ e m e n d e d spelling of
Drepanogna1±rini A s h m e a d , 1905b: 382 [as tribe of
C a m p o n o t i n a e ] . Section designated t o i n d u d e suffix].
Pachycondylinae]. Type-genus: Drepanognathns
tribes Camponotini, Formicini, G e s o m y r m e d n i , I n d u d e d subfamilies: Aenictinae, Aenirtogitoninae,
(junior s y n o n y m of Harpegnathos).
Oecophyllini a n d PTenolepidini. Unavailable n a m e , A n e u r e t i n a e , Apomynriinae, *Armaniinae,
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of H a i p e g n a l i i n i : Emery, 191 I d : 5 8 .
n o t based o n g e n u s r a n k t a x o n . Contained material Cerapachyinae, Dolichoderinae, Dorylinae,
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Ponerini: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 6 4 .
referable to Forrmcinae: Bolton, 1994: 5 1 . E d t o n i n a e , Formicinae, *Forrnidinae,
ECITONINAE (subfamily of Formicidae) Leptanillinae, Leptanilloidinae, Myrmeciinae,
EUDOIICHODERINAE (unavailable n a m e )
Ecitonii Forel, 1893a: 163 [as tribe of Dorylinae]. Type- Myrmicinae, Nothomyrmeciinae, *Pale-
Eudolichoderinae Forel, 1 9 1 7 : 2 4 7 [as "section" of
g e n u s : Eaton. o s m i n t h u r i n a e , Ponerinae, P s e u d o m y r m e c i n a e ,
Dolichoderinae]. Section designated to i n d u d e tribe
Edtii: Emery, 1901a: 36 [ e m e n d e d s p e l l i n g ] . *Sphecomyrminae.
Tapmomini. Unavailable n a m e , n o t based o n genus
E d t o n i n a e : Ashmead, 1905b: 381 [as subfamily of Genera dubiously or p e r h a p s w r o n g l y placed in
r a n k t a x o n . Contained material referable t o
Dorylidae]. F o r m i d d a e : *Calyptites, Condylodon, *Cretacoformica,
Dolichoderinae: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 2 7 .
E d t o n i n a e : B r o w n , 1973b: 166 [as subfamily of *Palaeomyrmex.
F o r m i d d a e ] ; Bolton, 1990c: 1357; Baroni Urbani, EUDORYLINAE (unavailable n a m e )
*FORMICHNAE (subfamily of F o r m i d d a e )
Bolton & Ward, 1992: 3 1 7 . Eudorylinae Forel, 1 9 1 7 : 2 3 9 [as "section" of
*Forrmciinae Lutz, 1 9 8 6 : 1 8 1 [as subfamily of
Revision of subfamily: Borgmeier, 1 9 5 5 : 1 5 ; Watkins, Dorylinae]. Section designated to i n d u d e tribe
F o r m i d d a e ] . Type-genus: *Formicium.
1976: 1. Dorylini. Unavailable n a m e , n o t based o n g e n u s
I n d u d e d g e n u s : *Formicium.
I n d u d e d tribes: CheHomyrmecini, E d t o n i n i . r a n k t a x o n . Contained material referable to
Dorylinae: Bolton, 1990c: 1 3 5 8 . FORMICINAE (subfamily of F o r m i d d a e )
ECrrONINI (tribe of E d t o n i n a e )
Formicariae Latreille, 1 8 0 9 : 1 2 4 [as family-group
E d t o n i i Forel, 1893a: 163 [as tribe of Dorylinae]. Type- EUFORMICINAE (unavailable n a m e )
n a m e ] . Type-genus: Formica.
g e n u s : Baton. Euformicinae Emery, 1925b: 37 [as "section" of
F o r m i d d a e : Mayr, 1865: 6 [as subfamily of
E d t o n i n i : A s h m e a d , 1905b: 381 [ e m e n d e d spelling of Formicinae]. Section designated to i n d u d e tribes
Formiddae].
suffix]. B r a c h y m y r m e d n i , Camponotini,
Formicinae: Wheeler, W.M. 1920: 53 [as subfamily of
Edtini: Emery, 1910b: 15 [ e m e n d e d spelling, as tribe D i m o r p h o m y r m i d n i , Formicini, Gigantiopini,
Formiddae].
of Dorylinae]. Lasiini, Oecophyllini a n d Santschiellini. Unavailable
F o r m i d d a e : Bernard, 1 9 5 1 : 1 0 7 3 [as family of
E d t o n i n i : Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 633 [as tribe of n a m e , n o t based o n g e n u s r a n k t a x o n . Contained
Formicoidea].
Dorylinae]. material referable t o Formicinae: Bolton, 1994: 5 1 .
Formicinae: B r o w n , 1954e: 2 9 [as subfamily of
E d t o n i n i : Bolton, 1990c: 1357 [as tribe of E d t o n i n a e ] .
EUMYRMICINAE (unavailable n a m e ) F o r m i d d a e ] ; DIussky & Fedoseeva, 1987: 77;
Revision of tribe: Borgmeier, 1 9 5 5 : 7 7 .
E u m y r m i d n a e Emery, 1914a: 35 [as "section" of Shattuck, 1992b: 2 0 1 ; Baroni Urbani, Bolton &
I n d u d e d genera: Eaton, Labidus, Neivamyrmex,
M y r m i c i n a e ] . Section designated to i n d u d e all Ward, 1992: 317; Agosti, 1994a: 9 5 .
Nomamyrmex.
Myrmicinae except M e t a p o n i n i a n d Contribution towards revision of subfamily: Agosti,
Material originally i n d u d e d u n d e r t h e unavailable
Pseudomvrmecini. Unavailable n a m e , n o t based o n 1991:295.
n a m e Metadorylinae is referable in p a r t to
g e n u s r a n k t a x o n . Contained material referable t o I n d u d e d tribes: Brachymyrmecim,
E d t o n i n i : Bolton, 1990c: 1357.
Myrmicinae: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 6 . Bregmatomyrmini, Camponotini, Formicini,
ECTATOMMINI (tribe of Ponerinae) G e s o m y r m e d n i , Gigantiopini, Lasiini, Melophorini,
EUPONERTNAE (junior s y n o n y m of Ponerini)
E d a t o m m i i Emery, 1895j: 767 [as tribe of P o n e r i n a e ] . MyrmelacMstini, Myrmoteratini, Oecophyllini,
E u p o n e r i n a e Emery, 1909c: 355 [as "group" of P o n ­
Type-genus: Edatomma. Plagiolepidini, SantscMellini, *SicUomyrmecini.
erinae]. Type-genus: Euponera (junior s y n o n y m of
E d a t o m m i n i : Ashmead, 1905b: 382 [ e m e n d e d spell­ Formicinae g e n u s unplaced t o tribe: *lmhoffia.
Pachycondyla).
ing of suffix]. Formicinae collective group n a m e : *Formiates.
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Ponerini: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 6 4 .
Revision of tribe: B r o w n , 1958g: 175. Note. Material originally i n d u d e d u n d e r t h e unavail­
Phylogeny: Kugler, C. 1 9 9 1 : 1 5 3 (sting structure); EUSPHMCTTNAE (junior s y n o n y m of Cerapachyini) able n a m e s AUoformidnae, E u c a m p o n o t i n a e ,
Lattke, 1994: 105. Eusphinctinae Clark, 1 9 5 1 : 1 5 (in key) [as subfamily Euformicinae, H e t e r o f o r m i d n a e a n d
M e s o c a m p o n o t i n a e is all referable to Formicinae:
Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 5 1 .

Family-Group (Suprageneric) Taxa 11


FORMICINI (tribe of Formicinae) Senior s y n o n y m of Drepanognathini: Emery, 1911 d: LEPTANUXOIDINAE (subfamily of Formicidae)
Formicariae Latreille, 1 8 0 9 : 1 2 4 [as family-group 58. Leptanilloidinae Bolton, in Baroni Urbani, Bolton &
n a m e ] . Type-genus: Formica. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Ponerini: Bolton, 1994: 164. Ward, 1992: 317. Type-genus: Leptanilloides.
Formicii: Forel, 1893a: 165 [as tribe of I n d u d e d g e n u s : Leptanilloides.
HETEROFORMICINAE (unavailable n a m e )
Camponotinae].
Heteroformicinae Emery, 1925b: 35 [as "section" of LEPTOGENYSU (junior s y n o n y m of Ponerini)
Fonnicim: Ashmead, 1905b: 3 8 4 [ e m e n d e d spelling of
Formicinae]. S e d i o n designated to include tribes Leptogenysii Forel, 1893a: 162 [as tribe of Ponerini].
suffix].
M y r m e c o r h y n c h i n i a n d M y r m o t e r a t i m . Unavail­ Type-genus: Leptogenys.
Formicini: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 6 9 3 [as tribe of
able n a m e ; n o t based o n g e n u s r a n k taxon. Con­ Leptogenyi: Emery, 1895J: 7 6 1 ; Emery, 1901a: 36
Formicinae].
tained material referable to Formicinae: Bolton, [ e m e n d e d spelling].
Review of tribe: Agosti, 1990b: 2 9 5 .
1994: 5 1 . Leptogenyini: Ashmead, 1905b: 382 [ e m e n d e d spell­
Revision a n d phylogeny of tribe: Agosti, 1994a: 9 5 .
ing of suffix].
Included genera: Alloformica, Bajcaridris, Cataglyphis, *FIYPOPOMYRMICrTI (junior s y n o n y m of
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Ponerini: B r o w n , 1963: 3.
Formica, *Glaphyromyrmex, *Leucotaphus, Polyergus, Pheidologetonini)
Proformica, *Protoformica, Rossomyrmex. * H y p o p o m y r m i d t i B r o w n , 1952g: 10 (footnote) [as LEPTOMYRMICTNI (junior s y n o n y m of
subtribe of Dacetini]. Type-spedes: *Hypopomyrmex. Dolichoderinae)
FORMICOXENINI (tribe of Myrmicinae)
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidologetonini: implied in Leptomyrrmcini Emery, 1912g: 15 [as tribe of
Formicoxenii Forel, 1893a: 1 6 4 [as tribe of
B r o w n & Carpenter, 1 9 7 9 : 4 2 2 [ s y n o n y m y n o t Dolichoderinae]. Type-genus: Leptomyrmex.
Myrmicinae]. Type-genus: Formicoxenus.
directly stated b u t *Hypopomyrmex transferred to Leptomyrmecini: Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1985:
Formicoxenini: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 5 [ e m e n d e d spelling].
that tribe]. 258 [ e m e n d e d spelling].
Senior s y n o n y m of
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dolichoderinae: Shattuck, 1992c:
Cardiocondylini, Leptomoracini, Podomyrmini, LASIINI (tribe of Formicinae)
5.
Stereomyrrmtini: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 5 . Lasiini Ashmead, 1905b: 3 8 4 [as tribe of Formicinae].
Included genera: Ankylomyrma, Atopomyrmex, Car- Type-genus: Lasius. LEPTOTHORACINI (junior s y n o n y m of
diocondyla, Chalepoxenus, Dilobocondyla, Senior s y n o n y m of Formicoxenini)
Doronomyrmex, Epimyrma, Formicoxenus, Acanthomyopsini: Bolton, 1994: 50. Leptothoracini Emery, 1914a: 38 [as tribe of
Harpagoxenus, Ireneopone, Leptothorax, Paratopula, Per- Prenolepidii: Emery, 1925b: 212. M y r m i c i n a e ] . Type-genus: Leptothorax.
onomyrmex, Podomyrma, Poecilomyrma, Pro- Included genera: Acanthomyops, Euprenolepis, Lasius, Senior s y n o n y m of Cardiocondylini: Bolton, 1982:
tomognathus, Romblonella, Rotastruma, Stereomyrmex, Myrmecocystus, Paratrechina, Prenolepis, *Protrechina, 311.
Terataner, Vombisidris, Willowsiella. Pseudolasius, Teratomyrmex. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Formicoxenini: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 5 .
Genera dubiously placed here: *Stigmomyrmex,
LEPTALEINAE (junior s y n o n y m of LIOMETOPINT (junior s y n o n y m of Dolichoderinae)
Tricytarus.
Pseudomyrmecinae) Liometopini DIussky & Fedoseeva, 1 9 8 7 : 7 7 [as tribe
GESOMYRMECINI (tribe of Formicinae) Leptaleinae Smith, M.R. 1951a: 7 8 8 [as subfamily of of Dolichoderinae]. Type-genus: Liometopum.
Gesomyrmicinae Ashmead, 1905b: 3 8 4 [as subfamily Formicidae]. Type-spedes: Leptalea (junior syn­ J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dolichoderinae: Shattuck, 1992c:
of Formicidae], Type-genus: Gesomyrmex. o n y m of Pseudomyrmex). 5.
Gesomyrmicini: Ashmead, 1905b: 3 8 4 [as tribe of Junior s y n o n y m of P s e u d o m y r m e c i n a e : Smith, M.R.
LIOPONERTNI (junior s y n o n y m of Cerapachyini)
Gesomyrmicinae]. 1958c: 112.
Lioponerini Ashmead, 1905b: 382 [as tribe of
G e s o m y r m e d n i : Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1985:
LEPTANILLINAE (subfamily of Formiddae) Pachycondylinae]. Type-genus: Lioponera (junior
2 5 8 [ e m e n d e d spelling].
Leptanillini Emery, 1910b: 32 [as tribe of Dorylinae]. s y n o n y m of Cerapachys).
Senior s y n o n y m of
Type-genus: Leptanilla. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cerapachyini: Bolton, 1994: 19.
Gesomyrrnini Forel: Bolton, 1994: 50.
Leptanillinae: Wheeler, W.M. 1923f: 335 [as subfamily
D i m o r p h o m y r m i i : Wheeler, W.M. 1929a: 12. LOPHOMYRMICINI (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidolini)
of F o r m i d d a e ] .
Included genera: Gesomyrmex, *Prodimorphomyrmex. Lophomynnicirii Emery, 1914a: 41 [as subtribe of
Leptanillidae: Bernard, 1 9 5 1 : 1 0 5 3 [as family of
Pheidologetonini]. Type-genus: Lophomyrmex.
GESOMYRMESfl (junior s y n o n y m of t h e above; Formicoidea].
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidologetonini: Bolton, 1994:
described as n e w i n d e p e n d e n t l y of Ashmead, Leptanillinae: B r o w n , 1954e: 2 8 [as subfamily of
106.
1905b) F o r m i d d a e ] ; Baroni Urbani, Bolton & Ward, 1992:
Junior s y n o n y m of Pheidolini (implied b y Rigato,
Gesomyrrnini Forel, 1912i: 89 [as tribe of 317;Kugler, C. 1992: 1 0 3 .
1994: 5 1 , b u t n o t stated): n e w s y n o n y m y .
C a m p o n o t i n a e ] . Type-genus: Gesomyrmex. Revision of tribes: Bolton, 1990b: 2 6 7 .
Gesomyrmicini: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 693 [emended Included tribes: A n o m a l o m y r m i n i , Leptanillini. MEGALOMYRMECrNI (junior s y n o n y m of
spelling of suffix]. Solenopsidini)
LEPTANILLINI (tribe of Leptanillinae)
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of G e s o m y r m e d n i Ashmead: Bolton, M e g a l o m y r m e d n i DIussky & Fedoseeva; 1987: 80 [as
Leptanillini Emery, 1910b: 32 [as tribe of Dorylinae].
1994: 50. tribe of Myrmicinae]. Type-genus: Megalomyrmex.
Type-genus: Leptanilla.
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Solenopsidini: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 6 .
GIGANTIOPINI (tribe of Formicinae) Leptanillini: Wheeler, W.M. 1923f: 335 [as tribe of
Gigantiopini Ashmead, 1905b: 3 8 4 [as tribe of Leptanillinae]. MELISSOTARSINI (tribe of Myrmicinae)
Gesomyrmicinae]. Type-genus: Gigantiops. Leptanillini: Bolton, 1990b: 2 7 6 [as tribe of Melissotarsii Emery, 1901a: 36 [as tribe of P o n e r i n a e ] .
Gigantiopini: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 692 [as tribe of Leptanillinae]. Type-genus: Melissotarsus.
Formicinae]. Revision of tribe: Petersen, 1968: 577; Baroni Urbani, Melissotarsini: Ashmead, 1905b: 383 [emended spell­
Included genus: Gigantiops. 1977c: 4 2 7 . ing of suffix].
Included genera: Leptanilla, Noonilla, Phaulomyrma, Melissotarsini: Forel, 191 l h : 4 4 6 [as tribe of
HARPEGNATHU (junior s y n o n y m of Ponerini)
Scyphodon, Yavnella. Myrmicinae].
Harpegnathii Forel, 1900c: 63 [as tribe of P o n e r i n a e ] .
Material originally i n d u d e d u n d e r t h e unavailable I n d u d e d genera: Melissotarsus, Rhopalomastix.
Type-genus: Harpegnathos.
n a m e Metadorylinae is referable in part to
Harpegnathini: Emery, 191 I d : 58 [ e m e n d e d spelling MELOPHORINI (tribe of Formicinae)
LeplxUiillini: Bolton, 1994: 70.
of suffix; as subtribe of Ponerini]. Melophorini Forel, 1912i: 8 8 [as tribe of
C a m p o n o t i n a e ] . Type-genus: Melophorus.

12 Family-Group (Suprageneric) Taxa


Melophoririi: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 692 [as tribe of Myrmeciinae: Ashmead, 1905b: 382 [as subfamily of Myrmicinae: B r o w n , 1954e: 2 8 [as subfamily of
Formicinae]. Poneridae]. F o r m i d d a e ] ; DIussky & Fedoseeva, 1987: 79;
Review of tribe: B r o w n , 1955d: 4 7 1 . Myrmeciinae: Clark, 1 9 5 1 : 1 6 (in key) [as subfamily Baroni Urbani, Bolton & Ward, 1992: 3 1 7 .
Senior s y n o n y m of M y r m e c o r h y n d u n i : Wheeler, of F o r m i d d a e ] . Included tribes: Agroecomyrmecini, Attini,
W.M. 1935c: 69. Included tribes: Myrmeciini, *Prionomyrmecini. Basicerotini, Blepharidattini, Cataulacini,
Included genera: Lasiophanes, Melophorus, Myrmeciinae genera unplaced to tribe: *Ameghinoia Cephalotini, Crematogastrini, Dacetini,
Myrmecorhynchus, Notorious, Prolasius, Pseudonotoncus. a n d *Cariridris. Formicoxenini, MeKssotarsini, Meranoplini,
Metaponini, Myimecinini, Myrrnicariini,
MERANOPLINI (tribe of Myrmicinae) MYRMECITNI (tribe of Myrmeciinae)
Myrrnicini, Ochetomyrmecini, P h a l a c r o m y r m e d n i ,
Meranoplini Emery, 1914a: 37 [as tribe of Myrmeciidae Emery, 1877a: 71 [as "group" of
Pheidolini, Pheidologetonini, Solenopsidini,
Myrmicinae]. Type-genus: Meranoplus. M y r m i d d a e ] . Type-genus: Myrmecia.
Stegomyrmecini, Stenammini, Tetramoriini.
Review of tribe: Bolton, 1981a: 4 5 . M y r m e d i : Forel, 1893a: 162 [as tribe of P o n e r i n a e ] .
Genera of Myrmicinae unplaced to tribe:
Included genera: Meranoplus, *Parameranoplus. Myrmeciini: Emery, 191 I d : 17 [ e m e n d e d spelling of
*Archimyrmex, *Attopsis, *Cephalomyrmex, *Elec-
suffix].
MESOCAMPONOTTNAE (unavailable n a m e ) tromyrmex, *Eocenidris, *Eoformica, *Eomyrmex,
Mynneciini: B r o w n , 1954e: 2 3 [as tribe of
M e s o c a m p o n o t i n a e Forel, 1912i: 8 8 [as "section" of *Myrmicium, *Promyrmicium.
Myrmeciinae].
C a m p o n o t i n a e ] . Section designated to include Note. Material originally i n d u d e d u n d e r t h e unavail­
Revisions: Clark, 1 9 5 1 : 1 6 ; B r o w n , 1953j: 1; Ogata,
tribes Melophorini a n d Plagiolepidini. Unavailable able n a m e s E u m y r m i d n a e , Mycetomyrmicinae a n d
1991: 353; Ogata & Taylor, 1 9 9 1 : 1 6 2 3 .
n a m e ; n o t based o n genus r a n k t a x o n . Contained PJiagiomyrmicinae is all referable to Myrmicinae:
I n d u d e d genus: Myrmecia.
material referable to Formicinae: Bolton, 1994: 5 1 . Bolton, 1994: 106.
Note. Material originally i n d u d e d u n d e r t h e unavail­
METADORYLINAE (unavailable n a m e ) able n a m e Paleoponerinae is referable to MYRMICINI (tribe of Myrrmcinae)
Metadorylinae Forel, 1917: 2 4 0 [as "section" of Myrmeciini: Bolton, 1994: 7 3 . M y r m i d t e s Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1 8 3 5 : 1 6 9
Dorylinae]. Section designated to include tribes [family-group n a m e ] . Type-genus: Myrmica.
MYRMECININI (tribe of Myrmicinae)
E d t o n i n i a n d Leptanillini. Unavailable n a m e ; n o t M y r m i d i : Forel, 1893a: 163 [as tribe of Myrmicinae].
Myrmecinini A s h m e a d , 1905b: 3 8 3 [as tribe of
based o n genus r a n k t a x o n . Contained material ref­ Myrrriicini: A s h m e a d , 1905b: 3 8 3 [ e m e n d e d spelling
M y r m i c i n a e ] . Type-genus: Myrmecina.
erable to E d t o n i n a e a n d Leptanillinae: Bolton, of suffix].
Senior s y n o n y m of Archaeomyrmicini: B r o w n ,
1990c: 1357; Bolton, 1994: 7 0 . I n d u d e d genera: Eutetramorium, Hylomyrma, Manica,
1971a: 2.
Myrmica, Pogonomyrmex.
METAPONINI (tribe of Myrrmcinae) I n d u d e d genera: Acanthomyrmex, Myrmecina, Peri-
Genus dubiously placed h e r e : *Nothomyrmica.
M e t a p o n i n i Forel, 191 l h : 4 4 7 [as tribe of ssomyrmex, Pristomyrmex.
Myrmicinae]. Type-genus:Metapone.. Genera dubiously placed h e r e : *Enneamerus, MYRMOTERATTNI (tribe of Formicinae)
Included genera: Liomyrmex, Metapone, Vollenhovia. *Stiphromyrmex. Myrmoteratii Emery, 1895j: 772 [as tribe of
Genus dubiously placed h e r e : Xenomyrmex. C a m p o n o t i n a e ] . Type-genus: Myrmoteras.
MYRMECORHYNCHTNI (junior s y n o n y m of
Note. Material originally referred to t h e unavailable Myrmoteratini: Ashmead, 1905b: 3 8 4 [ e m e n d e d spell­
Melophorini)
n a m e P r o m y r m i d n a e is referable to Metaponini: ing of suffix; as tribe of Gesomyrmicinae].
M y r m o r h y n c h i n i (sic) Wheeler, W.M. 1917f: 19 [as
Bolton, 1994: 106. Myrmoteratini: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 692 [as tribe of
tribe of C a m p o n o t i n a e ] . Type-genus:
Formicinae].
*MIOMYRMICINI (junior s y n o n y m of Dolichoderinae) Myrmecorhynchus.
Senior s y n o n y m of Myrmoteratini Forel: n e w s y n o n ­
* M i o m y r m i d n i Carpenter, 1930: 51 [as tribe of M y r m e c o r h y n c h i n i : Emery, 1925b: 35 [ e m e n d e d
ymy.
Dolichoderinae]. Type-genus: *Miomyrmex. spelling; as tribe of Formicinae].
Revision of tribe: Moffett, 1985b: 1.
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dolichoderinae: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 2 6 . J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Melophorini: Wheeler, W.M.
Included g e n u s : Myrmoteras.
1935c: 69.
MONOMORIINI (junior s y n o n y m of Solenopsidini) Note. Material originally i n d u d e d u n d e r t h e unavail­
M o n o m o r i i n i Emery, 1914a: 4 1 [as subtribe of MYRMELACHISTINI (tribe of Formicinae) able n a m e P r o c a m p o n o t i n a e is referable to
Solenopsidini]. Type-genus: Monomorium. MyrmelacMstini Forel, 1912i: 89 [as tribe of Myrmoteratini: Bolton, 1994: 5 1 .
M o n o m o r i i n i : DIussky & Fedoseeva, 1987: 80 [as tribe C a m p o n o t i n a e ] . Type-genus: Myrmelachista.
MYRMOTERATINI (junior h o m o n y m a n d s y n o n y m
of Myrmicinae]. MyrmelacMstini: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 6 9 3 [as tribe
of t h e above; described as n e w i n d e p e n d e n t l y of
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Solenopsidini: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 6 . of Formicinae].
Emery, 1895j)
Included genus: Myrmelachista.
MONOMORIINI (junior h o m o n y m a n d s y n o n y m of Myrmoteratini Forel, 19121: 88 [as tribe of
t h e above; j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Solenopsidini, MYRMICARUNI (tribe of Myrmicinae) C a m p o n o t i n a e ] . Type-genus: Myrmoteras.
described i n d e p e n d e n d y of Emery, 1914a) Myrmicarii Forel, 1893a: 165 [as tribe of J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Myrmoteratini Emery: n e w s y n ­
M o n o m o r i i n i Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 4 5 [as tribe of M y r m i c i n a e ] . Type-genus: Myrmicaria. onymy.
M y r m i c i n a e ] . Type-genus: Monomorium. Mynmcariini: Ashmead, 1905b: 383 [ e m e n d e d spell­
NOTHOMYRMECUNAE (subfamily of F o r m i d d a e )
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Solenopsidini: n e w s y n o n y m y . ing of suffix].
N o t h o m y r m e d i n a e Clark, 1 9 5 1 : 1 6 (in key) [as sub­
Included g e n u s : Myrmicaria.
MYCETOMYRMICINAE (unavailable n a m e ) family of F o r m i d d a e ] . Type-genus: Nothomyrmecia.
Mycetomyrmicinae Forel, 1917: 2 4 6 [as "section" of MYRMICINAE (subfamily of F o r m i d d a e ) Nothomyrmeciini: B r o w n , 1953j: 1 [as tribe of
Myrmicinae]. Section designated to i n d u d e tribes M y r m i d t e s Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1 8 3 5 : 1 6 9 Myrmeciinae].
Attini a n d Proattini. Unavailable n a m e ; n o t based [family-group n a m e ] . Type-genus: Myrmica. Nothomyrmeciinae: Taylor, 1978a: 982 [as subfamily
o n genus r a n k t a x o n . Contained material referable M y r m i d d a e : Smith, F. 1 8 5 1 : 4 [ e m e n d e d spelling]. of F o r m i d d a e ] .
to Myrmicinae: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 6 . M y r m i d d a e : Mayr, 1862: 7 3 8 [as subfamily of Nothomyrmeciini: Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1985:
Formiddae]. 256 [as tribe of Myrmeciinae].
MYRMECIINAE (subfamily of F o r m i d d a e )
Myrmicinae: Forel, 1893a: 163 [ e m e n d e d spelling of N o t h o m y r m e c i i n a e : Taylor & B r o w n , D.R. 1985: 5;
Myrmeciidae Emery, 1877a: 71 [as "group" of
suffix]. DIussky & Fedoseeva, 1987: 78; Bolton, 1990c:
M y r m i d d a e ] . Type-genus: Myrmecia.
M y r m i d d a e : Bernard, 1 9 5 1 : 1058 [as family of 1362; Holldobler & Wilson, 1 9 9 0 : 1 1 ; Baroni
M y r m e d i : Forel, 1893a: 162; Emery, 1895j: 7 6 6 [as
Formicoidea]. Urbani, Bolton & Ward, 1992: 317 [as subfamily of
tribe of P o n e r i n a e ] .
Formiddae].

Family-Group (Suprageneric) Taxa 13


NOTHOMYRMECIINAE (continued) J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dacetini: Baroni Urbani & De Pheidologetonini: Bolton, 1992: 38 [ e m e n d e d spell­
A n d r a d e , 1994: 9. ing-]
Revision of subfamily: Taylor, 1978a: 9 7 9 .
Included g e n u s : Nothomyrmetia. PACHYCONDYLINAE (junior s y n o n y m of Ponerini) Review of tribe: Ettershank, 1966: 115.
Pachycondylinae A s h m e a d , 1905b: 382 [as subfamily Senior s y n o n y m of *Hypopomyrmiciti: B r o w n & Car­
OCHETOMYRMECINI (tribe of Myrmicinae)
of P o n e r i d a e ] . Type-genus: Pachycondyla. penter, 1 9 7 9 : 4 2 2 (by implication).
Ochetomyrmicim Emery, 1914a: 38 [as tribe of Included genera: Adlerzia, Afroxyidris, Anisopheidole,
Pachycondylini: Emery, 1911d: 59 [as subtribe of Pon­
M y r m i c i n a e ] . Type-genus: Ochetomyrmex. Carebara, *Hypopomyrmex, Machomyrma,
erini],
Ochetomyrmecini: Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1985: Oligomyrmex, *Oxyidris, Paedalgus, Pheidologeton.
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Ponerini: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 6 4 .
257 [ e m e n d e d spelling]. Genus dubiously placed h e r e : Recurvidris.
Review of tribe: Bolton, 1 9 8 7 : 2 6 6 . PALEOPONERINAE (unavailable n a m e )
*PITYOMYRMECLNI (junior s y n o n y m of
Included genera: Ochetomyrmex, Tranopelta. Paleoponerinae Forel, 1917: 231 [as "section" of Pon­
Dolichoderinae)
erinae]. Section designated to include tribe
OCYMYRMICINI (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidolini) *Pityomyrmecini Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 98 [as tribe of
Myrmeciini. Unavailable n a m e ; n o t based o n g e n u s
Ocymyrmicini Emery, 1914a: 38 [as tribe of Dolichoderinae]. Type-genus: *Pityomyrmex.
r a n k t a x o n . Contained material referable to
M y r m i c i n a e ] . Type-genus: Ocymyrmex. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dolichoderinae: Shattuck, 1992c:
Myrmeciini: Bolton, 1994: 7 3 .
Ocymyrmecini: Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1985: 5.
257 [ e m e n d e d s p e l l i n g ] . *PAXEOSMINTHURINAE (subfamily of Formicidae)
PLAGIOLEPIDINI (tribe of Formicinae)
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidolini: Bolton & Marsh, 1989: *Paleosminthuridae Pierce & Gibron, 1 9 6 2 : 1 4 6 [as
Plagiolepisii Forel, 1886f: 2 1 2 [as tribe of
1281. family of Collembola]. Type-genus: *Paleosminthurus.
C a m p o n o t i n a e ] . Type-genus: Plagiolepis.
*Paleosminthuridae: Najt, 1 9 8 7 : 1 5 2 [transferred to
ODONTOMACHEDAE (junior s y n o n y m of Ponerini) Plagiolepidii: Emery, 1893i: 635 [ e m e n d e d spelling].
Formicidae (incertaesedis)].
O d o n t o m a c h i d a e Mayr, 1862: 7 0 8 [as subfamily of Plagiolepidini: Ashmead, 1905b: 3 8 4 [ e m e n d e d spell­
*Paleosminthurinae: Bolton, 1994: 187 [as subfamily of
Formicidae]. Type-genus: Odontomachus. ing of suffix].
Formicidae].
Odontomachii: Forel, 1893a: 163; Emery, 1895J: 7 6 8 Plagiolepidini: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 6 9 3 [as tribe of
[as tribe of P o n e r i n a e ] . PARAPONERINI (tribe of Ponerinae) Formicinae].
Odontomachidae: Ashmead, 1905b: 382 [as family]. Paraponerii Emery, 1901a: 36 [as tribe of P o n e r i n a e ] . Included genera: Acropyga, Agraulomyrmex, Anoplolepis,
O d o n t o m a d t i n i : Emery, 1 9 l i d : 106 [ e m e n d e d s p e l l ­ Type-genus: Paraponera. Lepisiota, Plagiolepis, *Rhopalomyrmex, Stigmacros.
ing of suffix; as tribe of P o n e r i n a e ] . Paraponerini: Emery, 191 I d : 27 [ e m e n d e d spelling of
PLATYTHYREINI (tribe of Ponerinae)
O d o n t o m a c h i n a e : Clark, 1951: 15 (in key) [as subfam­ suffix].
Platythyrei Emery, 1901a: 36 [as tribe of P o n e r i n a e ] .
ily of Formicidae]. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Ectatommini: B r o w n , 1958g: 176;
Type-genus: Platythyrea.
Odontomachiti: B r o w n , 1976a: 71 [as subtribe of Pon­ Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 6 4 .
Platythyreini: Emery, 191 I d : 2 8 [ e m e n d e d spelling of
erini], a n d revision of subtribe. Tribe of P o n e r i n a e : Lattke, 1 9 9 4 : 1 1 1 .
suffix].
Odontomachini: Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1985: Included g e n u s : Paraponera.
Revision of tribe: B r o w n , 1 9 7 5 : 4 .
256; DIussky & Fedoseeva, 1987: 78; Holldobler &
PHALACROMYRMECINI (tribe of Myrmicinae) Included genera: Platythyrea, Probolomyrmex.
Wilson, 1 9 9 0 : 1 1 [as tribe of P o n e r i n a e ] .
Phalacromyrmecini Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1985:
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Ponerini: Bolton, 1994: 164. PLECTROCTENTNI (junior s y n o n y m of Ponerini)
2 5 8 [as tribe of M y r m i c i n a e ] . Type-genus:
PleCTrortenini Emery, 191 I d : 92 [as subtribe of Pon­
OECOPHYLLINI (tribe of Formicinae) Phalacromyrmex.
erini]. Type-genus: Plectroctena.
Oecophyllii Emery, 1895J: 772 [as tribe of Revision of tribe: Bolton, 1984: 3 7 3 .
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Ponerini: Bolton, 1994: 164.
C a m p o n o t i n a e ] . Type-genus: Oecophylla. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dacetini: Baroni Urbani & De
Oecophyllini: Ashmead, 1905b: 3 8 4 [ e m e n d e d spell­ Andrade, 1994:10. PODOMYRMINI (junior s y n o n y m of Formicoxenini)
ing of suffix]. Phalacromyrmecini revived from s y n o n y m y : r e v i v e d P o d o m y r m i n i Emery, 1922f: 2 3 6 [as subtribe of
Oecophyllini: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 693 [as tribe of status. M y r m e c m i n i ] . Type-genus: Podomyrma.
FonTucinae]. Included genera: Ishakidris, Phalacromyrmex, Pilotrochus. Podomyrmini: DIussky & Fedoseeva, 1987: 79 [as
Senior s y n o n y m of Oecophyllini Forel: n e w s y n o n ­ tribe of Myrmicinae].
PHEIDOLINI (tribe of Myrmicinae)
ymy. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Formicoxenini: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 5 .
Pheidolidae Emery, 1877a: 72 [as "group" of
Included g e n u s : Oecophylla.
Myrmicidae]. Type-genus: Pheidole. POLYRHACHLDINI (junior s y n o n y m of Camponotini)
OECOPECYLLINI (junior h o m o n y m a n d s y n o n y m of Pheidolii: Forel, 1893a: 165 [as tribe of M y r m i c i n a e ] . Polyrhachidini Ashmead, 1905b: 3 8 4 [as tribe of
t h e above; described as n e w i n d e p e n d e n t l y of Pheidolini: Emery, 1914a: 35 [ e m e n d e d spelling of C a m p o n o t i n a e ] . Type-genus: Polyrhachis.
Emery, 1895J) suffix]. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Camponotini: Bolton, 1994: 50.
Oecophyllini Forel, 1912i: 89 [as tribe of Senior s y n o n y m of
PONERINAE (subfamily of Formicidae)
C a m p o n o t i n a e ] . Type-genus: Oecophylla. Anergatidini: Bolton, 1994: 106.
Ponerites Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835: 185
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Oecophyllini Emery: n e w s y n o n ­ Aphaenogastrini: B r o w n , 1949a: 4 8 .
[family-group n a m e ] . Type-genus: Ponera.
ymy. Lophomyrrmcini: implied b y Rigato, 1994a: 51 b u t
Poneridae: Smith, F. 1851: 6 [ e m e n d e d spelling of
n o t stated; n e w s y n o n y m y .
ONYCHOMYRMICINI (junior s y n o n y m of suffix].
Ocymyrmicini: Bolton & Marsh, 1989: 1 2 8 1 .
Amblyoponini) Poneridae: Mayr, 1862: 6 4 [as subfamily of
Included genera: Aphaenogaster, Chimaeridris,
Onychomyrmicini A s h m e a d , 1905b: 382 [as tribe of Formicidae].
Goniomma, Huberia, Kartidris, Lophomyrmex, Messor,
P o n e r i n a e ] . Type-genus: Onychomyrmex. Ponerinae: Forel, 1893a: 162 [ e m e n d e d spelling of
Ocymyrmex, Oxyopomyrmex, *Paraphaenogaster,
Onychomyrrmcim: Emery, 191 I d : 96 [as subtribe of suffix].
Pheidole.
Ponerini]. Poneridae: Bernard, 1 9 5 1 : 1 0 4 2 [as family of
Genus dubiously placed h e r e : *Lonchomyrmex.
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Amblyoponini: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 6 4 . Formicoidea].
PHEIDOLOGETONINI (tribe of Myrmicinae) Ponerinae: B r o w n , 1954e: 2 4 [as subfamily of
ORECTOGNATHITT (junior s y n o n y m of Dacetini)
Pheidologetim Emery, 1914a: 38 [as tribe of Formicidae]; DIussky & Fedoseeva, 1 9 8 7 : 7 8 ;
Orettognathiti B r o w n , 1952g: 10 (footnote); B r o w n ,
M y r m i c i n a e ] . Type-genus: Pheidologeton. Baroni Urbani, B o l t o n & W a r d , 1992: 317.
1954b: 4 6 5 (definition) [as subtribe of Dacetini].
Type-genus: Orectognathus.

14 Family-Group (Suprageneric) Taxa


Included tribes: Amblyoponini, E d a t o m m i n i , Proceratii: Emery, 1901a: 36 [as tribe of P o n e r i n a e ] . Pseudomyrrninae: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 632 [as sub­
Paraponerini, Platymyreini, Ponerini, Proceratiini, Proceratiini: Ashmead, 1905b: 382 [ e m e n d e d spelling family of F o r m i d d a e ] .
Thaumatomyrmecini, TypUomvrmedni. of suffix]. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of P s e u d o m y r m e c i n a e : Ward, 1990:
Note. Material originally i n d u d e d u n d e r t h e unavail­ J u n i o r s y n o n y m of E d a t o m m i n i : B r o w n , 1958g: 176; 459.
able n a m e s P r o p o n e r i n a e a n d Taraxoponerinae is DIussky & Fedoseeva, 1987: 78; Holldobler & Wil­
RENEINI (junior s y n o n y m of Amblyoponini)
referable to Ponerinae: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 6 4 . son, 1990: 10; Bolton, 1994: 164.
Reneini Donisthorpe, 1947d: 183 [as tribe of Pon­
Proceratiini: Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1985: 2 5 6 ;
PONERINI (tribe of Ponerinae) erinae]. Type-genus: Renea (junior s y n o n y m of
Lattke, 1 9 9 4 : 1 1 2 [as tribe of P o n e r i n a e ] .
Ponerites Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1 8 3 5 : 1 8 5 [fam­ Prionopelta).
Senior s y n o n y m of Discothyrinae: Lattke, 1 9 9 4 : 1 1 2
ily-group n a m e ] . Type-genus: Ponera. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Amblyoponini: B r o w n , 1953c: 1 1 .
(implied b u t n o t stated).
Ponerii: Forel, 1893a: 163; Emery, 1895j: 7 6 7 [as tribe
I n d u d e d genera: Discothyea, *Bradoponera, Proceratium. RHAGIOMYRMICINAE (unavailable n a m e )
of P o n e r i n a e ] .
Rhagiomyrmicinae Forel, 1 9 1 7 : 2 4 6 [as "section" of
Ponerini: Ashmead, 1905b: 382 [ e m e n d e d spelling of PRODOLICHODERINAE (unavailable n a m e )
Myrmicinae]. Section designated to i n d u d e tribes
suffix]. Prodolichoderinae Forel, 1 9 1 7 : 2 4 7 [as "section" of
Cataulacini, Cephalotini [=Cryptocerini] a n d
Senior s y n o n y m of Dolichoderinae]. Section designated to i n d u d e
Dacetini. Unavailable n a m e ; n o t based o n g e n u s
Centtomyrmicini: B r o w n , 1953c: 9. tribes Aneuretini, DoMchoderini a n d
r a n k t a x o n . Contained material referable to
Dorylozelini: Taylor, 1 9 6 9 : 1 3 2 . Leptomyrmicini. Unavailable n a m e ; n o t based o n
Myrmicinae: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 6 .
Leptogenysii: B r o w n , 1963: 3. g e n u s r a n k taxon. Contained material referable to
*Archiponerini, Drepsmognathini, E u p o n e r i n a e , A n e u r e t i n a e a n d Dolichoderinae: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 5 , SANTSCHIELLINI (tribe of Formicinae)
Harpegnathii, O d o n t o m a c h i d a e , 27. SantscMellini Forel, 1917: 2 3 2 [as tribe of
Pachycondylinae, P l e d r o d e n i n i : Bolton, 1994: C a m p o n o t i n a e ] . Type-genus: Santschiella.
PRODORYLTNAE (unavailable n a m e )
164. Santscmellinl: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 6 9 4 [as tribe of
Prodorylinae Emery, 1909c: 355 [as " g r o u p " of Pon­
I n d u d e d genera: Anochetus, *Archiponera, Formicinae].
erinae]. Group designated to i n d u d e tribe
Asphindopone, Belonopelta, Centromyrmex, Cryptopone, I n d u d e d g e n u s : Santschiella.
Cerapadiyini. Unavailable n a m e ; n o t based o n
Diacamma, Dinoponera, Dolioponera, Emeryopone,
genus r a n k t a x o n . Contained material referable to *SICILOMYRMECINI (tribe of Formicinae)
*Emplastus, Harpegnathos, Hypoponera, leptogenys.
Cerapachyinae: Bolton, 1990a: 66. *Sicelomynnicmi Wheeler, W.M. 1929a: 12 [as tribe of
Myopias, Odontomachus, Odontoponera, Pachycondyla,
F o r m i d n a e ] . Type-genus: *Sitilomyrmex.
Phrynoponera, Plectroctena, Ponera, *Ponerites, *Pon- PROMYRMICLNAE (unavailable n a m e )
*Sicilomyrmecim: B r o w n & Carpenter, 1 9 7 9 : 4 2 3
eropsis, *Protopone, Psalidomyrmex, Simopelta, Promyrmicinae Forel, 1911h: 4 4 6 [as "section" of P o n ­
[ e m e n d e d spelling].
Streblognathus. erinae] . Section designated to i n d u d e tribe
I n d u d e d genus: *Sialomyrmex.
Note. Material originally i n d u d e d u n d e r t h e unavail­ M e t a p o n i n i . Unavailable n a m e ; n o t based o n genus
able n a m e E x e u p o n e r i n a e is referable to Ponerini: r a n k t a x o n . Contained material referable to SOLENOPSIDINI (tribe of Myrmicinae)
Bolton, 1994: 164. Metaponini: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 6 . Solenopsisii Forel, 1893a: 164 [as tribe of
PTomyrmicinae: Forel, 1 9 1 7 : 2 4 0 [ i n c o r r e d expansion M y r m i c i n a e ] . Type-genus: Solenopsis.
PRENOLEPLOII (junior s y n o n y m of Lasiini)
of t h e above unavailable n a m e to i n d u d e tribes Solenopsidii: Emery, 1895j: 7 6 9 [ e m e n d e d spelling].
Prenolepidii Forel, 19121:89 [as tribe of
M e t a p o n i n i a n d P s e u d o m y m r i n i ] . Unavailable Solenopsidini: Ashmead, 1905b: 383 [ e m e n d e d spell­
C a m p o n o t i n a e ] . Type-genus: Prenolepis.
name. ing of suffix].
Prenolepidini: Emery, 1916b: 2 3 7 [ e m e n d e d spelling
P r o m y r m i d d a e : Bernard, 1951: 1053 [incorrectly Revisions of tribe: Ettershank, 1966: 73; Bolton, 1987:
of suffix].
treated as family, i n d u d i n g only tribe 263.
PTenolepidini: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 692 [as tribe of
P s e u d o m y r m i n i ] . Unavailable n a m e . Senior s y n o n y m of
Formidnae].
M e g a l o m y r m e d n i , M o n o m o r i i n i Emery: Bolton,
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Lasiini: Emery, 1925b: 2 1 2 . PROPONERINAE (unavailable n a m e )
1994: 106.
P r o p o n e r i n a e Emery, 1909c: 355 [as "group" of Pon­
*PRIONOMYRMECINI (tribe of Mvrmeciinae) M o n o m o r i i n i Wheeler: n e w s y n o n y m y .
erinae]. Group designated to i n d u d e tribes
*Prionomyrmicini Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 2 5 [as tribe of I n d u d e d genera: Allomerus, Anillomyrma, Anti-
Amblyoponini a n d Proceratiini. Unavailable n a m e ;
P o n e r i n a e ] . Type-genus: *Prionomyrmex. chthonidris, Bondroitia, Carebarella, Diplomorium,
n o t based o n g e n u s r a n k t a x o n . Contained material
*Prionomyrmicini: B r o w n , 1954e: 22 [as tribe of Epelysidris, Megalomyrmex, Monomorium, Nothidris,
referable to Ponerinae: Bolton, 1994: 164.
Myrmeciinae]. Oxyepoecus, Phacota, Solenopsis.
* P r i o n o m y r m e d n i : Bolton, 1994; 7 3 [ e m e n d e d spell­ PSEUDOMYRMECINAE (subfamily of F o r m i d d a e )
*SPHECOMYRMTNAE (subfamily of F o r m i d d a e )
ing]. P s e u d o m y r m e c i n a e Smith, M.R. 1952a: 98 [as s u b ­
*Sphecomyrminae Wilson & B r o w n , in Wilson, Carpen­
I n d u d e d g e n u s : *Prionomyrmex. family of F o r m i d d a e ] . Type-genus: Pseudomyrmex.
ter & B r o w n , 1967: 6 [as subfamily of F o r m i d d a e ] .
Senior s y n o n y m of
PROATTTNI (junior s y n o n y m of Stenammini) Type-genus: *Sphecomyrma.
Leptaleinae: Smith, M.R. 1958c: 112.
Proattini Forel, 1 9 1 7 : 2 3 2 [as tribe of Myrmicinae]. *Sphecomyrmidae: DIussky, 1987: 132 [as family of
Pseudomyrroidae: Ward, 1990: 4 5 9 .
Type-genus: Proatta. Formicoidea].
Revision of subfamily: Ward, 1 9 9 0 : 4 4 9 .
Review of tribe: Moffett, 1 9 8 7 : 4 4 4 . *Sphecomyrminae: Holldobler & Wilson, 1990: 9; Car­
I n d u d e d genera: Myrcidris, Pseudomyrmex, Tetraponera.
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Stenammini: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 6 . penter, 1 9 9 2 : 4 9 0 ; Bolton, 1994: 184 [as subfamily
PSEUDOMYRMLDAE (junior s y n o n y m of of F o r m i d d a e ] ,
PROCAMPONOTTNAE (unavailable n a m e )
Pseudomyrmecinae) I n d u d e d genera: *Baikuris, *Cretomyrma, * DIusskyidris,
P r o c a m p o n o t i n a e Forel, 1912i: 88 [as "section" of
P s e u d o m y r m i d a e Forel, 1885a: 377 [as tribe of *Sphecomyrma.
C a m p o n o t i n a e ] . Section designated to include tribe
M y r m i c i n a e ] . Type-genus: Pseudomyrma (junior syn­
Myrmoteratini. Unavailable n a m e ; n o t based o n STEGOMYRMECINI (tribe of Myrmicinae)
o n y m of Pseudomyrmex).
genus r a n k t a x o n . Contained material referable to Stegomyrmicini Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 668 [as tribe of
Pseudomyrmii: Forel, 1893a: 164 [ e m e n d e d s p e l l i n g ] .
M y n n o t e r a t i n i : Bolton, 1994: 5 1 . M y r m i c i n a e ] . Type-genus: Stegomyrmex.
Pseudomyrrninae: Emery, 1899c: 8 [as subfamily of
Stegomyrmecini: Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1985:
PROCERATIINI (tribe of Ponerinae) Formiddae].
258 [emendedspelling].
Proceratii Emery, 1895j: 7 6 5 [as tribe of Dorylinae]. Pseudomyrmini: Emery, 1914a: 34; Forel, 1 9 1 7 : 2 4 0
Revision of tribe: Diniz, 1 9 9 0 : 2 7 7 .
Type-genus: Proceratium. [as tribe of M y r m i c i n a e ] .
I n d u d e d g e n u s : Stegomyrmex.

Farxiily-Group (Suprageneric) Taxa 15


STENAMMINI (tribe of Myrmicinae) STRUMIGENJTT (junior s y n o n y m of Dacetini) Senior s y n o n y m of Anergatini, Teleutomyrmini: Bol­
S t e n a m m i n i Ashmead, 1905b: 383 [as tribe of Strumigeniti B r o w n , 1952g: 10 (footnote); B r o w n , t o n , 1994: 106.
M y r m i c i n a e ] . Type-genus: Stenamma. 1954b: 4 6 5 (definition) [as subtribe of Dacetini]. Included genera: Anergates, Decamorium,
Stenammini: Emery, 192If: 52 [as subtribe of Type-genus: Strumigenys. Rhoptromyrmex, Secostruma, Strongylognathus,
Pheidolini]. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dacetini: Baroni Urbani & De Teleutomyrmex, Tetramorium.
Stenamrmni: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 6 [as tribe of Andrade, 1994: 9.
THAUMATOMYRMECINI (tribe of Ponerinae)
Myrmicinae].
TAPINOMINI (junior s y n o n y m of Dolichoderinae) T h a u m a t o m y r m i i Emery, 1901a: 36 [as tribe of Pon­
Senior s y n o n y m of
Tapmomini Emery, 1912g: 17 [as tribe of erinae] . Type-genus: Thaumatomyrmex.
Calyptomyrmecini, Proattini: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 6 .
Dolichoderinae]. Type-genus: Tapinoma. T h a u m a t o m y r m i c i n i : Emery, 191 I d : 4 8 [emended
Included genera: Ancyridris, Bariamyrma,
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dolichoderinae: Shattuck, 1992c: spelling of suffix].
Ccdyptomyrmex, Cyphoidris, Dacatria, Dacetinops,
5. T h a u m a t o m y n n e c i n i : Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J.
Dicroaspis, Indomyrma, Lachnomyrmex, Lordomyrma,
1 9 8 5 : 2 5 6 [ e m e n d e d spelling].
Proatta, Rogeria, Rostromyrmex, Stenamma, TARAXOPONERTNAE (unavailable n a m e )
Revisions of tribe: Kempf, 1975b: 95; Longino, 1988:
Tetheamyrma. Taraxoponerinae Forel, 1 9 1 7 : 2 3 1 [as "section" of Pon­
35.
Genera dubiously included h e r e : Adelomyrmex, erinae]. Section designated t o include tribes
Included g e n u s : Thaumatomyrmex.
Baracidris, *Ilemomyrmex, Mayriella. Ectatommini, Paraponerini, Platythyreini, Pro­
ceratiini a n d T h a u m a t o m y r m e c m i . Unavailable TYPHLOMYRMECINI (tribe of Ponerinae)
STEREOMYRMICINI (junior s y n o n y m of
n a m e ; n o t based o n g e n u s r a n k t a x o n . Contained TypUomyrrmcini Emery, 1911 d: 32 [as subtribe of
Formicoxenini)
material referable t o Ponerinae: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 6 4 . Ectatonmiini]. Type-genus: Typhlomyrmex.
Stereomyrmicini Emery, 1914a: 36 [as tribe of
T y p M o m y r m i d n i : B r o w n , 1953a: 104 [as tribe of Pon­
M y r m i c i n a e ] . Type-genus: Stereomyrmex. TELEUTOMYJUVIINT (junior s y n o n y m of Tetramoriini)
erinae].
Stereomyrmecini: Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1985: Teleutomyrmini Kutter, 1950a: 81 [as subtribe of
TvpMomyrmecini: B r o w n , 1965c: 65 [ e m e n d e d spell­
257 [ e m e n d e d s p e l l i n g ] . Tetramoriini]. Type-genus: Teleutomyrmex.
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Formicoxenini: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 5 . J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Tetramoriini: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 6 . ing! •
Revision of tribe: B r o w n , 1965c: 65.
STICTOPONERTNI (junior s y n o n y m of Ectatommini) TETRAMORIINI (tribe of Myrmicinae) Included g e n u s : Typhlomyrmex.
Stictoponerini Arnol'di, 1930d: 161 [as subtribe of Tetramorii Emery, 1895j: 7 7 0 [as tribe of
*ZHERICHTNirNI (junior s y n o n y m of Dolichoderinae)
E t f a t o m m i n i ] . Type-genus: Stictoponera (junior syn­ Myrmicinae]. Type-genus: Tetramorium.
*Zherichiiuini DIussky, 1988: 56 [as tribe of
o n y m of Gnamptogenys). TeTramoriini: Ashmead, 1905b: 383 [ e m e n d e d spell­
Dolichoderinae]. Type-genus: *Zherichinius.
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Ectatomrnini: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 6 4 . ing of suffix].
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dolichoderinae: Shattuck, 1992c:
Revisions of tribe: Bolton, 1 9 7 6 : 2 8 1 ; Bolton, 1980:
5.
193.

16 Family-Group (Suprageneric) Taxa


Catalogue of Genus-Group Taxa

L a y o u t of t h e c a t a l o g u e tion toward the misspelling. Simple typographical errors, which are


unlikely to cause confusion, have usually been ignored, but some
The provisions of the International Code ofZoological Nomenclature (Third commonly perpetrated errors are included. Misspellings and deliber­
Edition, 1985) are applied throughout this alphabetically arranged ate emendations of spellings are differentiated. In general, any secon­
catalogue. Each name is immediately followed by information in pa­ dary spelling that is at variance with the original is treated as a misspelling
rentheses on the current status of, or the subfamily and tribal place­ unless its author has given a definite indication that an emendation in
ment of, the taxon in question. The notes on the current status, including spelling is intended. Such emendations are regarded as justified or
junior synonyms, junior homonyms, subgeneric names, etc., provide unjustified, according to the evidence of each case.
a cross-reference within the catalogue of genus-group taxa. Inclusion As in the catalogue of family-group names, no attempt has been
of subfamily and tribal names, along with the currently valid genus- made to record every occurrence of a n a m e throughout the entire ant
rank taxa, allows the name to be referred back to the catalogue of literature. Such a process would amass vast lists and enormous num­
family-group taxa. Subsequent entries list references for the follow­ bers of references, the majority of which would not convey any n e w
ing, not all of which, after the second, may be applicable to any single information. The principal aim here is to provide a concise, useful,
name: and accurate guide, rather than an exhaustive but mostly sterile list.
Therefore, references initiating new taxa, synonymy, homonymy, etc.,
i. The original description, designation, or nomination of the
are all presented, but following these only references conveying new,
taxon.
additional, modified, or synoptic information are recorded.
ii. The type-species of the taxon, together with synonymic or
References to reviews, revisions, and keys pertairring to whole genera
homonymic data concerning the type-species, where
or recognised subdivisions of genera throughout their k n o w n range,
appropriate.
and studies of genus-group names applied to an entire zoogeographi-
iii. Changes in rank of the taxon, in date order.
cal region, are included. References to keys for small areas, for in­
iv. Homonymy, or senior or junior synonymy, of the taxon.
stance to a single genus in a single European country, are not nor­
v. References to any revision, review, or key concerning the
mally given, but exceptions are made where such studies include
taxon.
radical new information or where a large genus has only been studied
vi. List of lower-ranking taxa currently included within a higher-
in a limited area. For a list of faunal studies the reader is referred to the
ranking taxon, in alphabetical order and with synonyms and
introduction.
homonyms indicated.
In general only relatively recent keys (post-1950) have been in­
References to synonymies are repeated under both senior and jun­ cluded as references. This is mainly because earlier keys laboured
ior names, as these may be widely separated in the catalogue. The under the weird and worthless pentanomial system of ant nomencla­
earliest reference to a synonymy is always given. Where further refer­ ture and are, by modern standards, clogged with unavailable infra-
ences are included they present additional information, confirmation, subsperific names. If early keys retain some value they have been in­
or other data. Similarly, full data on junior homonyms are given, together cluded but are followed by the statement "out of date" where
with directions to the appropriate replacement names, where some of necessary.
the information may be repeated. Nomina nuda and other taxonomi­ The symbol * preceding a name indicates that the taxon is known
cally unavailable names are indicated as such and are followed by only from the fossil record. At the initial entry for each genus-group
references or notes explaining their provenance and dispersal, where name the following typography is used:
the latter is feasible.
i. BOLD ITALIC CAPITALS indicate a currently valid name of
Serious misspellings are entered in the catalogue in square brackets,
genus or subgenus rank. To distinguish the two, all names
and a note under the correctly spelled entry directs the reader's atten­
currently accepted at the rank of subgenus are preceded by the should rest upon analysis or definitive statement, rather than merely
symbol #. upon inclusion in a later list.
Li. ITALIC CAPITALS indicate all other names in the genus-group, The treatment of genus-group synonymies included in post-1973
including junior synonyms, junior homonyms, nomina nuda, catalogues (e.g. Smith, D.R. (1979); Taylor & Brown, D.R. (1985)), as
unavailable names, ichnotaxa, misspellings and unjustified opposed to simple lists, is at variance to the above. Synonymies re­
emendations. corded in catalogues are regarded here as corrfirming or denying the
validity of Brown's (1973b) provisional synonyms. Such a decision
may seem arbitrary but it is necessary, as catalogues present much
R e c e n t w o r l d lists of g e n e r a more and more detailed information than lists do, which amounts to
the making of a definitive statement. For example, Taylor & Brown,
Brown (1973b) published a list of world genera indicating all the D.R. (1985) are considered to have confirmed the synonymy of
names that he considered to be synonyms. He stressed, however, that Dacryon with Podomyrma by including all the species-group taxa origi­
these synonymies were provisional, termed them "projected synony­ nally assigned to the former under the latter name. Smith, D.R (1979)
mies," and accepted that some would be rejected when detailed analysis accepts Brown's synonymy of the subgenera of Pheidole by listing all
was carried out. In the present catalogue these proposals of Brown's taxa under one heading, but denies the synonymy of the subgenera of
are listed as "provisional junior synonym" where each occurs. When Camponotus and Lasius by cataloguing each subgenus and its contents
further work has either confirmed or rejected the provisional synon­ separately.
ymy, the reference for that study is given. Where no additional infor­ Finally, a word must be said about the treatment of genera in the
mation has accrued, the Brown entry is followed by the note " (uncon­ idiosyncratic and very unsatisfactory list given by Wheeler, G.C. &
firmed)." Wheeler, J. (1985). This appears to have been written without regard
Later lists of genera, produced by Snelling (1981) and Holldobler & for, or perhaps in ignorance of, most preceding revisionary studies,
Wilson (1990), used the Brown (1973b) paper as their template, with although it is quoted as being "up to date accorciing to our views." In
one important difference: the provisional synonyms of Brown are the list large numbers of genera are resurrected from synonymy, ap­
rendered as definite in both these publications, though none of the parently at whim. Others are returned to tribes from which they had
synonymies is claimed as n e w in either list. Both these lists are to a expressly been excluded by earlier revisors, and still others are given
large extent ignored here, being noted only w h e n they present infor­ as "incertae sedis" w h e n their taxonomic position has previously been
mation which is n e w or radically at variance with the Brown list. worked out. The number of such unjustified emendations, especially
The main result of this action is to deny the synonymy of subgenera in the Myrmicinae, is regrettably large. In view of all these anomalies
in a number of speciose genera, such as Camponotus and Polyrhachis. and anachronisms, I have chosen to omit this publication from refer­
Whilst feeling sure that Brown's provisional synonymies will in most ence in the generic catalogue which follows, whilst drawing attention
cases prove to be justified, I consider that confirmation of synonymy to its existence here.

Acanthoclinea Wheeler, W.M. 1935c: 69 [as subgenus Formicina: Forel, 1917: 2 4 9 . Acanthomyops subgenus
T h e c a t a l o g u e of g e n u s - g r o u p t a x a
of Dolichoderus]. Type-spedes: Dolichoderus doriae, by of Lasius: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 698; Emery, 1925b:
ACALAMA (junior s y n o n y m of Gauromyrmex) original designation. Acanthoclinea raised to g e n u s : 226. Acanthomyops revived status as g e n u s :
Acalama Smith, M.R. 1949a: 2 0 6 . Type-spedes: B r o w n , 1950e: 2 4 9 . Acanthoclinea provisional j u n i o r Creighton, 1950a: 4 2 6 . Key to q u e e n s : Buren,
Acalama donisthorpei (junior s y n o n y m of Vollenhovia s y n o n y m of Dolichoderus: B r o w n , 1973b: 178. 1950: 188. Revision of g e n u s : Wing, 1968: 3.
acanthinus), by original designation. Acalama j u n i o r Acanthoclinea j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dolichoderus: Taylor A CANTHOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: M y r m e d n i n i )
s y n o n y m of Gauromyrmex: B r o w n , 1953c: 10. & B r o w n , D.R. 1985: 9 3 ; Shattuck, 1992c: 66. Acanthomyrmex Emery, 1893a: cclxxvi. Type-spedes:
[Gauromyrmex provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of ACANTHOGNATHUS (Myrmicinae: Dacetini) Acanthomyrmex luciolae, b y s u b s e q u e n t designation
Vollenhovia: B r o w n , 1973b: 178; confirmed by Bol­ Acanthognathus Mayr, 1887: 5 7 8 . Type-spedes: of Bingham, 1 9 0 3 : 1 9 1 . [Acanthomyrmex also
ton, 1994: 105]. Acanthognathus ocellatus, by m o n o t y p y . Revision of described as n e w b y Emery, 1893f: 244.] Revision
ACAMATUS (junior h o m o n y m , see Neivamyrmex) genus: B r o w n & Kempf, 1969: 8 7 . of g e n u s : Moffett, 1986c: 5 5 .
Acamatus Emery, 1894c: 181 [as s u b g e n u s of Eciton]. ACANTHOLEPIS (junior h o m o n y m , see Lepisiota) ACANTHOPONERA (Ponerinae: E d a t o m m i n i )
Type-spedes: Eciton (Acamatus) schmitti (junior syn­ Acantholepis Mayr, 1 8 6 1 : 4 2 . Type-spedes: Hypoclinea Acanthoponera Mayr, 1 8 6 2 : 7 3 2 [as subgenus of
o n y m of Neivamyrmex nigrescens), by s u b s e q u e n t des­ frauenfeldi, b y m o n o t y p y . [Junior h o m o n y m of Ectatomma]. Type-spedes: Ponera mucronata, by sub­
ignation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 157. [Junior AcantholepisKroyer, 1 8 4 6 : 9 8 (Pisces)]. Lepisiota s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, W.M. 191 If: 158.
h o m o n y m of Acamatus Schoenherr, 1833: 20 (Col- Santschi, 1926a: 15; previously s u b g e n u s of Acanthoponera raised to g e n u s : Emery, 1895g: 3 4 6 ;
eoptera).] Neivamyrmex Borgmeier, 1940: 606, re­ Acantholepis Mayr, first available r e p l a c e m e n t n a m e . Emery, 1911d: 3 5 . Revision of g e n u s : Brown,
p l a c e m e n t n a m e for Acamatus Emery. [Achantilepis: see below.] 1958g: 188. See also: Lattke, 1 9 9 4 : 1 1 0 .
ACANTHWRIS (junior s y n o n y m of Rhopalothrix) ACANTHOMYOPS (Formicinae: Lasiini) ACANTHOSTICHUS (Cerapachyinae:
Acanthidris Weber, 1941a: 1 8 8 . Type-spedes: Acanthomyops Mayr, 1 8 6 2 : 6 9 9 . Type-spedes: Formica Acanmostichini)
Acanthidris isthmicus, by original designation. clavigera, by m o n o t y p y . Acanthomyops j u n i o r syn­ Acanthostichus Mayr, 1887: 549. Type-spedes:
Acanthidris j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Rhopalothrix: B r o w n o n y m of Lasius: Mayr, 1866b: 8 8 8 . Acanthomyops Typhlopone serratula, by m o n o t y p y . Key to s p e d e s :
& Kempf, 1 9 6 0 : 2 3 0 . revived from s y n o n y m y as subgenus of Lasius: Wheeler, W.M. 1934g: 162; see also Kusnezov,
ACANTHOCLINEA (junior s y n o n y m of Dolichoderus) Emery, 1893i: 642. Acanthomyops incorrectly as 1962a: 121;Kempf, 1964c: 2 6 3 . Review of g e n u s :
senior s y n o n y m of Lasius: Forel, 1 9 1 6 : 4 6 0 ; B r o w n , 1 9 7 5 : 4 1 . Acanthostichus senior s y n o n y m of
Donisthorpe, 1916c: 2 7 6 . Acanthomyops subgenus of Ctenopyga: MacKay, in preparation.

18 Genus-Group Taxa
[ACHANTILEPIS (niisspelling) j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Coptoformica: Stitz, 1939: 306. Borgmeier, 1 9 5 7 : 1 1 5 . Alfaria j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Achantilepis Santschi, 1935b: 274, incorrect sub­ [Coptoformica j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Formka: Smith, Gnamptogenys: B r o w n , 1958g: 2 1 1 .
s e q u e n t spelling of Acantholepis.] D.R. 1979: 1448.] ALISTRUMA (junior s y n o n y m of Colobostruma)
ACIDOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Rhoptromyrmex) ADLERZIA (Myrmicinae: Pheidologetonini) Alistruma B r o w n , 1948e: 117. Type-spedes:
Acidomyrmex Emery, 1915i: 191 [as s u b g e n u s of Adlerzia Forel, 1902h: 4 4 5 [as subgenus of Monomor­ Epopostruma foliacea, by original designation.
Rhoptromyrmex]. Type-species: Rhoptromyrmex ium]. Type-species: Monomorium (Adlerzia) froggatti, Alistruma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Colobostruma: Brown,
wroughtonii, by original designation. Acidomyrmex by m o n o t y p y . Adlerzia raised to g e n u s : B r o w n , 1959c: 1.
raised t o genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 664. 1952j: Ylii. Adlerzia senior s y n o n y m of Stenothorax: ALLOFORMICA (Formicinae: F o r m i d n i )
Acidomyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Rhoptromyrmex: B r o w n , 1952a: 110. Alloformica DIussky, 1969a: 219 [as subgenus of Pro-
B r o w n , 1964c: 1 1 ; see also Bolton, 1986a: 2. AENICTOGITON (Aenictogitoninae) formica] . Type-spedes: Formica aberrans, b y original
ACROCOELIA (junior s y n o n y m of Crematogaster) Aenictogiton Emery, 1901d: 4 9 . Type-species: designation. Alloformica provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m
Acrocoelia Mayr, 1853a: 147. Type-species: Acrocoelia Aenictogiton fossiceps, b y m o n o t y p y . Key t o species: of Proformica: B r o w n , 1973b: 178. Alloformica raised
ruficeps (junior s y n o n y m of Crematogaster scutellaris), Santschi, 1924b: 200. Review of g e n u s : B r o w n , to g e n u s : DIussky & Fedoseeva, 1 9 8 7 : 7 7 ; m a i n ­
by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, W.M. 191 If: 1975:43. tained as genus: Agosti, 1 9 9 1 : 2 5 9 ; Agosti, 1994a:
158. Acrocoelia j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Crematogaster: AENICTUS (Aenictinae) 99.
Mayr, 1 8 6 3 : 4 0 4 ; Wheeler, W.M. 191 If: 158; Aenictus Shuckard, 1840b: 2 6 6 . Type-species: Aenictus ALLOMERUS (Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini)
Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 8 2 8 . Acrocoelia revived from ambiguus, by original designation. Aenictus senior Allomerus Mayr, 1878: 8 7 3 . Type-spedes: Allomerus
s y n o n y m y as subgenus of Crematogaster: Emery, s y n o n y m of Typhlatta: Forel, 1890b: riii. Aenictus decemarticulatus, b y s u b s e q u e n t designation of
1922e: 140. Acrocoelia j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Crematogas­ senior s y n o n y m of Par aenictus: Wilson, 1964a: 4 4 4 . Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 158. Reviews of genus:
ter: Buren, 1 9 5 9 : 1 2 6 . Acrocoelia revived from s y n o n ­ Key to Indo-Australian species: Wilson, 1964a: 4 3 6 ; Ettershank, 1966: 111;Bolton, 1 9 8 7 : 2 8 2 .
y m y as g e n u s : Soulie, 1964: 3 9 8 . Acrocoelia j u n i o r see also Gotwald, 1982: 157. [Enictus Walker, 1860: ALLOPHEIDOLE (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole)
s y n o n y m of Crematogaster: B r o w n , 1973b: 1 7 8 . [The 306; Smith, F. 1 8 6 5 : 7 9 ; incorrect s u b s e q u e n t spell­ Allopheidole Forel, 1912f: 237 [as subgenus of
type-species of Acrocoelia a n d Crematogaster are syn­ ings.] Pheidole]. Type-spedes: Pheidole kingi (junior syn­
o n y m o u s , t h e generic s y n o n y m y is therefore abso­ AEROMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Oligomyrmex) o n y m of Pheidole tepicana), by s u b s e q u e n t designa­
lute.] Aeromyrma Forel, 1891b: 198. Type-species: Aer- tion of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 7 9 . Allopheidole j u n i o r
ACROMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Attini) omyrma nosindambo, by m o n o t y p y . [Aeromyrma also s y n o n y m of Pheidole: Emery, 1921f: 84.
Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865: 83 [as subgenus of Atta]. described as n e w b y Forel, 189 l a : cccvii; n o species- AMAUROMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidologeton)
Type-species: Formica hystrix, b y m o n o t y p y . r a n k taxa n a m e d . ] Aeromyrma subgenus of Amauromyrmex Wheeler, W.M. 1929b: 1. Type-spedes:
Acromyrmex raised to g e n u s : Emery, 1 9 1 3 : 2 5 1 . K e y Oligomyrmex:Emery, 1915c: 59 (footnote). Aer­ Amauromyrmex speculifrons (junior s y n o n y m of
to species: Santschi, 1925a: 388 (out of date). Revi­ omyrma revived status as g e n u s : Arnold, 1 9 1 6 : 2 5 6 ; Pheidologeton silenus), b y original designation.
sion of Brazilian fauna: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 1 3 . Par­ m a i n t a i n e d as g e n u s : Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 882. Amauromyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidologeton:
tial revision of g e n u s : Fowler, 1 9 8 8 : 2 8 1 . Aeromyrma subgenus of Oligomyrmex: Emery, 1922f: Ettershank, 1 9 6 6 : 1 1 5 .
Bibliography: Cherrett & Cherrett, 1 9 8 9 : 1 . Sub­ 2 1 5 . Aeromyrma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Oligomyrmex: AMBLYOPONE (Ponerinae: Amblyoponini)
genera of Acromyrmex: norninal plus Moellerius. Ettershank, 1 9 6 6 : 1 1 9 . Key t o Afrotropical species: Amblyopone Erichson, 1 8 4 2 : 2 6 0 . Type-spedes:
ACROPYGA (Formicinae: Plagiolepidini) Weber, 1 9 5 2 : 1 1 . Amblyopone australis, by m o n o t y p y . Amblyopone
Acropyga Roger, 1862a: 2 4 2 . Type-species: Acropyga AETHIOPOPONE (junior s y n o n y m of Sphinctomyrmex) senior s y n o n y m of Stigmatomma: E m e r y & Forel,
acutiventris, by m o n o t y p y . Key t o Neotropical spe­ Aethiopopone Santschi, 1930a: 4 9 . Type-species: 1 8 7 9 : 4 5 5 ; Mayr, 1 8 8 7 : 5 4 6 . Amblyopone senior syn­
cies: Weber, 1944: 9 1 . Subgenera of Acropyga: n o m i ­ Sphinctomyrmex rufiventris, by m o n o t y p y . o n y m of Arotropus: Piovancher, 1 8 8 7 : 2 4 0 .
n a l plus Atopodon, Malacomyrma, Rhizomyrma. Aethiopopone j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Sphinctomyrmex: Bol­ Amblyopone senior s y n o n y m of Amblyopopone: Forel,
*ACROSTIGMA (junior s y n o n y m of Podomyrma) t o n , 1973a: 3 4 1 ; B r o w n , 1975: 3 1 . 1893a: 166; Emery, 191 I d : 2 5 . Amblyopone senior
*Acrostigma Emery, 1891a: 149 [as subgenus of AFROXYIDRIS (Myrmicinae: Pheidologetonini) s y n o n y m of Neoomblyopone a n d Protamblyopone:
Afroxyidris Belshaw & Bolton, 1994: 6 3 1 . Type-species: B r o w n , 1949c: 8 7 . Amblyopone senior s y n o n y m of
Podomyrma]. Type-species: *Podomyrma (Acrostigma)
Arotropus, Ericapelta, Lithomyrmex Clark,
mayri, by m o n o t y p y . *Acrostigma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Afroxyidris crigensis, by original designation.
Neoomblyopone, Protamblyopone, Stigmatomma (and its
Podomyrma: Daiia Torre, 1893: 159. AGRA ULOMYRMEX (ForTnidnae: Plagiolepidini)
j u n i o r s y n o n y m s Fulakora and Xymmer): B r o w n ,
ACROSTIGMA (junior h o m o n y m , see Stigmacros) AgraulomyrmexPfms, 1 9 8 3 : 2 . Type-spedes:
1960a: 155. Amblyopone provisional senior s y n o n y m
Acrostigma Forel, 1902h: 4 7 7 [as subgenus of Agraulomyrmexmeridionalis, b y original designation.
of Paraprionopelta: B r o w n , 1973b: 183
Acantholepis]. Type-species: Acantholepis (Acrostigma) *AGROECOMYRMEX (Myrrmcinae:
(unconfirmed). Amblyopone senior s y n o n y m of
froggatti, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, Agroecomyrmedni)
Amblyopopona: Bolton, 1994: 164. Revision of
W.M. 191 If: 158. [Junior h o m o n y m of *Acrostigma *Agroecomyrmex Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 56. Type-spe­
genus: B r o w n , 1960a: 155. Key to M e d i t e r r a n e a n
Emery, 1891a: 149, above.] Stigmacros Forel, 1905b: d e s : *Myrmica duisburgi, b y original designation.
region: Baroni Urbani, 1978a: 4 1 ; t o Neotropical:
179, r e p l a c e m e n t n a m e for Acrostigma Forel. ttALAOPONE (subgenus of Dorylus)
Lattke, 1991b: 6
ADELOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Stenammini?) Alaopone Emery, 1881a: 2 7 4 . Type-spedes: Alaopone
AMBLYOPOPONA (junior s y n o n y m of Amblyopone)
Adelomyrmex Emery, 1897c: 590. Type-species: oberthueri (junior s y n o n y m of Dorylus orientalis), by
Amblyopopona Schulz, 1 9 0 6 : 1 5 4 , unjustified e m e n d a ­
Adelomyrmex biroi, by m o n o t y p y . Adelomyrmex senior subsequent designation of Emery, 1910b: 15.
tion of Amblyopone. Amblyopopona j u n i o r s y n o n y m
s y n o n y m of Apsychomyrmex: Kempf, 1972a: 18. Alaopone j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dorylus: Dalla Torre,
of Amblyopone: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 6 4 .
Adelomyrmex provisional senior s y n o n y m of 1893: 9. Alaopone revived from s y n o n y m y as subge­
AMBLYOPOPONE (junior s y n o n y m of Amblyopone)
Arctomyrmex: B r o w n , 1973b: 178; confirmed Bolton, n u s of Dorylus: Emery, 1895i: 7 0 2 . Alaopone senior
Amblyopopone Dalla Torre, 1 8 9 3 : 1 3 , unjustified e m e n ­
1994: 106. s y n o n y m of Shuckardia: Emery, 1910b: 14. Alaopone
dation of Amblyopone. Amblyopopone j u n i o r s y n o n y m
ADETOMYRMA (Ponerinae: Amblyoponini) provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dorylus: B r o w n ,
of Amblyopone: Forel, 1 8 9 3 : 1 6 6 .
Adetomyrma Ward, 1 9 9 4 : 1 6 0 . Type-species: 1973b: 178 (unconfirmed).
*AMEGHINOIA ( M y i m e d i n a e : u n p l a c e d to tribe)
Adetomyrma venatrix, by original designation. ALFARIA (junior s y n o n y m of Gnamptogenys)
*Ameghinoia Viana & H a e d o Rossi, 1 9 5 7 : 1 0 9 . Type-spe­
ADFORMICA (junior s y n o n y m of Coptoformica) Alfaria Emery, 1896e: 177 (diagnosis in k e y ) . Type-
d e s : *Ameghinoia piatnitzkyi, by original designation.
Adformica Lomnicki, 1925a: 164 [as subgenus of For­ s p e d e s : Alfaria simulans, b y original designation.
mica] . Type-species: Formica exsecta, by s u b s e q u e n t [Alfaria also described as n e w by Emery, 1896g: 41.]
designation of Donisthorpe, 1927b: 316. Adformica Alfaria senior s y n o n y m of Opisthoscyphus: B r o w n , in

Genus-Group Taxa 19
Plagiolepis-.Brown, 1973b: 178; confirmed Bolton, transferred from P o n e r i n a e t o Myrmicinae: Carpen­ 1917: 2 4 9 . Atopodon raised to g e n u s : Wheeler, W.M.
1994: 5 1 . ter, 1930: 16. 1922a: 6 9 5 . Atopodon subgenus of Acropyga: Emery,
APSYCHOMYPMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Adelomyrmex) *ARCEUPONERA (Ponerinae: Ponerini) 1925b: 30. Atopodon provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
ApsychomyrmexYfheeler, W.M. 1910a: 2 6 1 . Type-spe­ *Archiponera Carpenter, 1 9 3 0 : 2 7 . Type-species: Acropyga:Brown, 1973b: 178 (unconfirmed).
cies: Apsychomyrmex myops, b y m o n o t y p y . Review of *Archiponera wheeleri, b y original designation. #ATOPOGYNE (subgenus of Crematogaster)
genus: Smith, M.R. 1947b: 4 6 8 . Apsychomyrmex ARCTOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Adelomyrmex) AtopogyneForel, 191 Id: 343 [as subgenus of
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Adelomyrmex: Kempf, 1972a: 18. Arctomyrmex M a n n , 1 9 2 1 : 4 5 7 [as subgenus of Crematogaster]. Type-species: Crematogaster
^APTEROCREMA (subgenus of Crematogaster) Adelomyrmex]. Type-species: Adelomyrmex (Atopogyne) hellenica, b y subsequent designation of
Apterocrema Wheeler, W.M. 1936c: 45 [as subgenus of (Arctomyrmex) hirsutus, by original designation. Wheeler, W.M. 191 If: 159. [Type-species n o t
. Crematogaster]. Type-species: Crematogaster Arctomyrmex provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Crematogaster depressa, unjustified s u b s e q u e n t desig­
(Apterocrema) atitlanica, by m o n o t y p y . Apterocrema Adelomyrmex: B r o w n , 1973b: 178; confirmed Bol­ n a t i o n by Emery, 1912d: 272; this error repeated in
provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Crematogaster: ton, 1994: 106. Emery, 1922e: 154 and in Soulie, 1965: 78.]
Brown, 1973b: 178 (unconfirmed). *ARMANIA (*Armaniinae) Atopogyne raised to g e n u s : Soulie, 1964: 398.
APTEROSTIGMA (Myrmicinae: Attini) *Armania DIussky, 1983: 67. Type-species: *Armania Atopogyne provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Crematogas-
Apterostigma Mayr, 1865: 111.Type-species: robusta, by original designation. *Armania j u n i o r ter: B r o w n , 1973b: 178 (unconfirmed); reverts h e r e
Apterostigma pilosum, by m o n o t y p y . s y n o n y m of *Sphecomyrma: Wilson, 1987: 49; to subgenus of Crematogaster.
ARATROMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Vollenhovia) Hdlldobler & Wilson, 1990: 9. *Armania revived ATOPOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Foimicoxemni)
Aratromyrmex Stitz, 1938: 105. Type-species: from s y n o n y m y : DIussky & Fedoseeva, 1987: 77; Atopomyrmex Andre, 1889: 226. Type-species:
Aratromyrmex luctuosus, by s u b s e q u e n t designation Carpenter, 1 9 9 2 : 4 9 1 . Atopomyrmex mocquerysi, by m o n o t y p y . Revision of
of Donisthorpe, 1943f: 6 2 5 . Aratromyrmex provi­ *ARMANIELLA (*Armaniinae) genus: Bolton, 1981b: 2 4 9 .
sional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Liomyrmex: B r o w n , 1973b: *Armaniella DIussky, 1983: 7 1 . Type-species: ATOPULA (junior s y n o n y m of Tetramorium)
178. Aratromyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Vollenhovia: *Armaniella curiosa, by original designation. Atopula Emery, 1912b: 104. Type-species: Atopomyrmex
Baroni Urbani, 1980a: 96. *Armaniella j u n i o r s y n o n y m of *Sphecomyrma: Wil­ nodifer, by original designation. Atopula subgenus of
ARAUCOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Cdnomyrma) son, 1987: 49; Holldobler & Wilson, 1990: 9. Vollenhovia: Emery, 1912d: 2 7 3 . Atopula revived sta­
Araucomyrmex Gallardo, 1919b: 2 4 9 . Type-species: *Armaniella revived from s y n o n y m y : DIussky & tus as genus: Emery, 1914a: 4 1 . Atopula subgenus of
Dorymyrmex tener, by original designation. Fedoseeva, 1 9 8 7 : 7 7 ; Carpenter, 1 9 9 2 : 4 9 1 . Terataner: Arnold, 1952b: 129. Atopula j u n i o r syn­
Araucomyrmex subgenus of Conomyrma: Santschi, ARNOLDIDRIS (junior s y n o n y m of Orectognathus) o n y m of Tetramorium: Bolton, 1976: 359; Bolton,
1922b: 3 6 5 . Araucomyrmex subgenus of Dorymyrmex: Arnoldidris Brown, 1950c: 143. Type-species: 1980: 195.
Kusnezov, 1952g: 4 2 8 . Araucomyrmex revived status Orectognathus chyzeri, by original designation. ATTA (Myrmicinae: Attini)
as g e n u s : Kusnezov, 1959: 5 1 ; m a i n t a i n e d as g e n u s : Arnoldidris provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Atta Fabricius, 1 8 0 4 : 4 2 1 . Type-species: Formica
Kempf, 1972a: 2 5 . Araucomyrmexvrovisional junior Orectognathus: Brown, 1973b: 178. Arnoldidris j u n i o r cephalotes, by subsequent designation of Wheeler,
s y n o n y m of Dorymyrmex: B r o w n , 1973b: 178. s y n o n y m of Orectognathus: Taylor, 1977: 5 8 1 . W.M. 191 If: 159. Atta senior s y n o n y m of Oecodoma:
Araucomyrmex m a i n t a i n e d as genus: Snelling, 1975: AROTROPUS (junior s y n o n y m of Amblyopone) Roger, 1863b: 35. Atta senior s y n o n y m of Archeatta:
9. Araucomyrmex senior s y n o n y m of Ammomyrma: Arotropus Provancher, 1881a: 2 0 5 . Type-species: Smith, M.R. 1951a: 832. Atta senior s y n o n y m of
Snelling & Hunt, 1976: 9 3 . Araucomyrmex j u n i o r syn­ Arotropus binodosus (junior s y n o n y m of Amblyopone Archeatta, Epiatta, Neoatta, Palaeatta: Weber, 1958a:
o n y m of Conomyrma: Snelling, 1 9 8 1 : 4 0 2 . [Con­ pallipes), by m o n o t y p y . Arotropus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of 8. [Each of these n a m e s has subsequently b e e n res­
omyrma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dorymyrmex: Shattuck, Amblyopone: Provancher, 1887: 2 4 0 . urrected from synonymy, see u n d e r respective
1992c: 77.] ASEMORHOPTRUM (junior s y n o n y m of Stenamma) entries; t h e y are all r e t u r n e d to t h e s y n o n y m y
Asemorhoptrum Mayr, 1 8 6 1 : 76. Type-species: Myrmica here.] Myrmegis (nomen nudum) referable to Atta:
ARCHAEOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Myrmecina)
lippula, by m o n o t y p y . Asemorhoptrum j u n i o r syn­ B r o w n , 1973b: 182; see u n d e r Myrmegis. Revision of
Archaeomyrmex M a n n , 1 9 2 1 : 4 4 8 . Type-species: genus: Borgmeier, 1959b: 3 2 1 . Bibliography:
o n y m of Stenamma: Andre, 1883a: 310.
Archaeomyrmex cacabau, by original designation. Cherrett & Cherrett, 1989: 1; see also Lofgren &
[Asemorhoptrum incorrectly as j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Archaeomyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Myrmecina: VanderMeer, 1986: 1.
Proatta: Snelling, 1 9 8 1 : 395, in e r r o r ]
B r o w n , 1971a: 1. *ATTAICHNUS (Myrmicinae: Attini [ichnotaxon])
ASKETOGENYS (Myrmicinae: Dacetini)
*ARCHAEOPONE (*Armaniinae) *Attaichnus Laza, 1982: 112. Included ichnospecies:
Asketogenys B r o w n , 1 9 7 2 : 2 3 . Type-species: Asketogenys
*Archaeopone DIussky, 1 9 7 5 : 1 2 0 . Type-species: *Attaichnus kuenzelii. fjchnofossil, purportedly fossil
acubecca, by original designation. [See n o t e u n d e r
*Archaeopone kzylzharica, by original designation. traces of ant workings attributable to attines.]
Strumigenys.]
*Archaeopone transferred from P o n e r i n a e to ATTOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Aphaenogaster)
ASPHINCTOPONE (Ponerinae: Ponerini)
*Armaniidae: DIussky, 1983: 66. *Archaeopone Attomyrma Emery, 1915d: 70 [as subgenus of
Asphinctopone Santschi, 1914d: 3 1 8 . Type-species:
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of *Sphecomyrma: Wilson, 1987: 49;
Asphinctopone silvestrii, by m o n o t y p y . Asphinctopone
Holldobler & Wilson, 1990: 9. *Archaeopone revived Aphaenogaster]. Type-species: Formica subterranea, by
senior s y n o n y m of Lepidopone: B r o w n , 1953h: 2.
from s y n o n y m y : DIussky & Fedoseeva, 1987: 77; original designation. Attomyrma provisional j u n i o r
ASPIDIDRIS (junior s y n o n y m of Basiceros)
Carpenter, 1 9 9 2 : 4 9 1 . s y n o n y m of Aphaenogaster: B r o w n , 1973b: 178.
Aspididris Weber, 1950c: 3. Type-species: Aspididris
ARCHEATTA (junior s y n o n y m oiAtta) Attomyrma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Aphaenogaster: Bolton,
militaris, by m o n o t y p y . Revision of g e n u s : B r o w n &
Archeatta Goncalves, 1942: 342 [as subgenus of Atta]. 1982: 364.
Kempf, 1960: 179. Aspididris junior s y n o n y m of
Type-species: Oecodoma mexicana, by original desig­ Basiceros: B r o w n , 1974c: 132. *ATTOPSIS (Myrmicinae: unplaced to tribe)
nation. Archeatta junior s y n o n y m of Atta: Smith, *ASYMPHYLOMYRMEX (Dolichoderinae) *AttopsisHeer, 1 8 5 0 : 1 5 5 . Type-species: *Attopsis
M.R. 1951a: 832; Weber, 1958a: 8. Archeatta revived *AsymphylomyrmexVfb.ee\er, W.M. 1915h: 96. Type-spe­ longipennis, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler,
from s y n o n y m y as s u b g e n u s of Atta, a n d revision of cies: *Asymphylomyrmex balticus, by monotypy. W.M. 191 If: 159.
subgenus: Borgmeier, 1959b: 350. Archeatta provi­ XATOPODON (subgenus of Acropyga) ^AULACOMYRMA (subgenus of Polyrhachis)
sional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Atta: B r o w n , 1973b: 178; Atopodon Forel, 1912m: 771 [as subgenus of Acropyga]. Aulacomyrma Emery, 1921e: 17 [as subgenus of Poly­
confirmed Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 5 . Type-species: Acropyga (Atopodon) inezae, by sub­ rhachis]. Type-species: Polyrhachis porcata, by original
*ARCHIMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: u n p l a c e d to tribe) sequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 79. designation. Aulacomyrma senior s y n o n y m of
*Archimyrmex Cockerell, 1923a: 52. Type-species: [Atopodon also described as n e w by Forel, 1913k: Johnia: Hung, 1967b: 4 0 2 . Aulacomyrma provisional
* Archimyrmexrostratus, by m o n o t y p y . * Archimyrmex 100.] Atopodon subgenus of Rhizomyrma: Forel, j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Polyrhachis: Brown, 1973b: 178
(unconfirmed).

Genus- Group Taxa 21


AULACOPONE (Ponerinae: Ectatorrimini) Biconomyrma raised to g e n u s : Kusnezov, 1959: 5 1 . ignation by Emery, 1901a: 43.] Brachyponera raised
Aulacopone Arnol'cii, 1930a: 139. Type-spedes: Biconomyrma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Conomyrma: Smith, to g e n u s : Bingham, 1 9 0 3 : 1 0 1 . Brachyponera subge­
Aulacopone relicta, by m o n o t y p y . [Aulacopone also M.R. 1958c: 140; Kempf, 1972a: 7 8 . [Conomyrma n u s of Euponera: Emery, 1911 d: 8 3; m a i n t a i n e d as
described as n e w by A m o l ' d i , 1930d: 159.] Reviews j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dorymyrmex: Shattuck, 1992c: subgenus: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 7 7 7 . Brachyponera
of genus: B r o w n , 1958g: 206; Taylor, 1980c: 3 5 3 . 78.] raised to genus: Wilson, 1958d: 346. Brachyponera
See also: Lattke, 1 9 9 4 : 1 1 3 . BISOLENOPSIS (junior s y n o n y m of Solenopsis) provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla: Snell­
t
#AUSTROLASIUS (subgenus of Lasius) Bisolenopsis Kusnezov, 1953d: 9. Type-spedes: ing, 1 9 8 1 : 389. Brachyponera j u n i o r S n o n y m of
Austrolasius Faber, 1967: 7 4 [as subgenus of Lasius']. Bisolenopsis sea, by m o n o t y p y . Bisolenopsis j u n i o r syn­ Pachycondyla: B r o w n , in preparation.
Type-spedes: Lasius carniolicus, by original designa­ o n y m of Solenopsis: Ettershank, 1966: 134. [Dis- *BRADOPONERA (Ponerinae: Proceratiini)
tion. Austrolasius provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of olenopsis Snelling, 1 9 8 1 : 397, i n c o r r e d subsequent *Bradoponera Mayr, 1868c: 7 3 . Type-spedes:
Lasius:Brown, 1973b: 179 (unconfirmed). spelling.] *Bradoponerameieri, by m o n o t y p y . See also: Lattke,
AXINWRIS (Dolichoderinae) BLEPHARIDATTA (Myrmicinae: Blepharidattini) 1994:116.
Axinidris Weber, 1941a: 192. Type-spedes: Axinidris Blepharidatta Wheeler, W.M. 1915e: 4 8 4 . Type-spedes: BRADYPdNERA (junior s y n o n y m of Trapeziopelta)
acholli, by original designation. Revision of genus: Blepharidatta brasiliensis, by m o n o t y p y . Blepharidatta Bradyponera Mayr, 1886c: 362. Type-spedes: Ponera
Shattuck, 1 9 9 1 : 1 0 5 . Review of g e n u s : Shattuck, provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Ochetomyrmex: nitida (junior p r i m a r y h o m o n y m in Ponera, replaced
1992c: 4 2 . B r o w n , 1973b: 179. Blepharidatta valid genus: by Myopias mayri), by m o n o t y p y . [Bradyponera
AZTECA (Dolichoderinae) Kempf, 1975c: 369; Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. Smith, F. 1873: viii, nomen nudum, attributed to
Azteca Forel, 1878: 384. Type-spedes: Liometopum 1991a: 132. Mayr.] Bradyponera provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
xanthochroum, by m o n o t y p y . Revisionary studies: BONDROITIA (Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini) Trapeziopelta: Emery, 1911d: 9 3 . Bradyponera j u n i o r
Longino, 1989: l ; L o n g i n o , 1 9 9 1 : 1 5 7 1 . Review of Bondroitia Forel, 1911c: 300 (footnote) [as subgenus s y n o n y m of Trapeziopelta: Donisthorpe, 1932c: 4 6 8 .
genus: Shattuck, 1992c: 4 9 . [Aztecum Bertkau, of Monomorium]. Type-spedes: Monomorium (Martia) [Trapeziopelta j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Myopias: Willey &
1 8 7 9 : 1 3 , i n c o r r e d subsequent spelling.] See also: coecum (junior s y n o n y m of Bondroitia lujae), by B r o w n , 1983: 249.]
Shattuck, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 . m o n o t y p y . [Bondroitia also described as new, b u t as BREGMATOMYRMA ( F o r m i d n a e : Bregmatomyrmini)
*BAIKURIS (*Sphecomyrminae) subgenus of Diplomorium, by Forel, 191 Id: 398; see Bregmatomyrma Wheeler, W.M. 1929b: 3. Type-spe­
*Baikuris DIussky, 1987: 133. Type-spedes: *Baikuris discussion in Bolton, 1 9 8 7 : 2 7 5 . ] Bondroitia raised to d e s : Bregmatomyrma carnosa, by original designation.
mandibularis; by original designation. g e n u s : Forel, 1915d: 38; m a i n t a i n e d as g e n u s by [Bregmatomyrmex Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1985:
BAJCASIDRIS ( F o r m i d n a e : Formicini) Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 6 6 3 . Bondroitia subgenus of 259, incorrect s u b s e q u e n t spelling.]
Bajcaridris Agosti, 1994a: 99. Type-spedes: Formica Diplomorium: Emery, 1922e: 194. Bondroitia j u n i o r BROWNIDRIS (junior s y n o n y m of Ochetomyrmex)
(Proformica) theryi, b y original designation. s y n o n y m of Diplomorium: Ettershank, 1966: 98. Brownidris Kusnezov, 1957a: 2 7 5 . Type-spedes:
[Bajcaridris Agosti, 1 9 9 1 : 2 9 5 , nomen nudum.] Bondroitia revived from synonymy, status as genus, Brownidris argentinus, by original designation.
BARACIDRIS (Myrmicinae: Stenanmiim?) a n d revision of genus: Bolton, 1 9 8 7 : 2 7 5 . Review of genus: Ettershank, 1 9 6 6 : 1 0 9 . Brownidris
Baracidris Bolton, 1981b: 2 5 2 . Type-spedes: Baracidris BORGMEIERITA (junior s y n o n y m of Glamyromyrmex) j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Ochetomyrmex: Kempf, 1975c:
Borgmeierita B r o w n , 1953g: 2 3 . Type-spedes: 355.
meketra, by original designation.
Codiomyrmex excisus, by original designation.
BARBOURELLA (junior s y n o n y m of Gnamptogenys) BRUCHOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole)
Borgmeierita j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Glamyromyrmex:
Barbourella Wheeler, W.M. 1930f: 10 [as subgenus of Bruchomyrma Santschi, 1922d: 2 4 8 . Type-spedes:
B r o w n , 1973a: 3 5 .
Emeryella]. Type-spedes: Emeryella (Barbourella) Bruchomyrma acutidens, by m o n o t y p y . Bruchomyrma
BOTHRIOMYRMEX (Dolichoderinae)
banksi, by original designation. Barbourella j u n i o r provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: B r o w n ,
BothriomyrrnexExaerv, 1869c: 117. Type-spedes:
s y n o n y m of Gnamptogenys: Brown, 1958g: 212. 1973b: 179. Bruchomyrma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Bothriomyrmex costae, by m o n o t y p y . Revision of
BAFJAMYRMA (Myrmicinae: Stenammini) Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366; Wilson, 1984: 327.
genus: Emery, 1925e: 5 (out of date). Bothriomyrmex
Bariamyrma Lattke, 1990a: 173. Type-spedes: BRUNELLA (junior s y n o n y m of Aphaenogaster)
senior s y n o n y m of Chronoxenus, a n d review of
Bariamyrma hispidula, by original designation. Brunella Forel, 1917: 234. Type-spedes: Aphaenogaster
genus: Shattuck, 1992c: 54. See also: Shattuck,
BARONIURBANIA (junior s y n o n y m of Lepisiota) belti, by m o n o t y p y . Brunella j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
1994:31.
Baroniurbania Pagliano 8- Scaramozzino, 1990: 4 . Atopula: Emery, 1922f: 2 4 2 . Brunella j u n i o r syn­
Unnecessary replacement n a m e for Acantholepis BOTHROPONERA (junior s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla) o n y m of Aphaenogaster: Bolton, 1982: 364.
Mayr (junior h o m o n y m ) . [Lepisiota is first available Bothroponera Mayr, 1862: 717. Type-spedes: Ponera UBRYSCHA (subgenus of Brachymyrmex)
replacement n a m e , see t h e r e a n d u n d e r pumicosa, b y s u b s e q u e n t designation of Emery, Bryscha Santschi, 1923b: 652 [as subgenus of
Acantholepis.] Baroniur junior s y n o n y m of 1901a: 4 2 . Bothroponera subgenus of Pachycondyla: Brachymyrmex]. Type-spedes: Brachymyrmex pilipes,
Lepisiota: Bolton, 1994: 5 1 . Emery, 1901a: 4 2 . Bothroponera revived status as by original designation. Bryscha provisional j u n i o r
BASICEROS (Myrmicinae: Basicerotini) genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1918c: 299 (footnote). s y n o n y m of Brachymyrmex: B r o w n , 1973b: 179
Basiceros Schulz, 1906: 156. Replacement n a m e for Bothroponera senior s y n o n y m of Pseudoneoponera: (unconfirmed).
Ceratobasis Smith, 1860c: 7 8 . [Junior h o m o n y m of Wilson, 1958d: 3 6 1 . Bothroponera provisional j u n i o r CACOPONE (junior s y n o n y m of Plectroctena)
Ceratobasis Lacordaire, 1848: 362.] Basiceros senior s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla: B r o w n , 1973b: 179. Cacopone Santschi, 1914d: 325. Type-spedes: Cacopone
s y n o n y m of Aspididris: B r o w n , 1974c: 132. Revi­ Bothroponera j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla: hastifer, by m o n o t y p y . Cacopone j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
sions of genus: B r o w n & Kempf, 1 9 6 0 : 1 7 1 ; B r o w n , B r o w n , in preparation. Plectroctena: Bolton, 1974c: 3 1 3 .
1974c: 139. BRACHYMYRMEX (Formicinae: Brachymyrmecini) CALOMYRMEX (Formicinae: Camponotini)
BELONOPELTA (Ponerinae: Ponerini) Brachymyrmex Mayr, 1868b: 163. Type-spedes: CalomyrmexEmery, 1895J: 772. Type-spedes: Formica
Belonopelta Mayr, 1870a: 374. Type-spedes: Belonopelta Brachymyrmex patagonicus, by m o n o t y p y . Subgenera laevissima, b y m o n o t y p y .
attenuata, by m o n o t y p y . Key to s p e d e s : Baroni of Brachymyrmex: n o m i n a l plus Bryscha. Key to spe­ *CALYPTTTES (dubiously F o r m i d d a e )
Urbani, 1975b: 2 9 8 . Belonopelta senior s y n o n y m of d e s : Santschi, 1923b: 652 (out of date). *Calyptites Scudder, 1877b: 270 [as m e m b e r of family
Leiopelta: Holldobler & Wilson: 1990: 10. BRACHYPONERA (junior s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla) Braconidae]. Type-spedes: *Calyptites
BICONOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Conomyrma) Brachyponera Emery, 1900c: 315 [as subgenus of antediluvianum, by m o n o t y p y . *Calyptites retained in
Biconomyrma Kusnezov, 1952g: 4 2 9 [as subgenus of Euponera]. Type-spedes: Euponera (Brachyponera) Braconidae: Scudder, 1 8 9 1 : 629. *Calyptitesin
Conomyrma]. Type-spedes: Dorymyrmex pyramicus croceicornis, by m o n o t y p y . [Brachyponera also F o r m i d d a e , position m d e t e n n i n a t e : Carpenter,
var. brunneus ( n o w Dorymyrmex brunneus), by sub­ described as n e w b y Emery, 1901a: 4 3 . Type-spedes 1 9 3 0 : 2 1 . *Calyptites probably Braconidae:
s e q u e n t designation of Kusnezov, 1959: 5 1 . n o t Ponera sennaarensis, unjustified s u b s e q u e n t des­ Donisthorpe, 1943f: 629. *Calyptites in F o r m i d d a e :

22 Genus-Group Taxa
B r o w n , 1973b: 179. Family assignment remains Campostigmacros j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Stigmacros: Tay­ date). Review of genus: Agosti, 1990a: 1457; Agosti,
unresolved. lor & B r o w n , D.R. 1985: 145 (accepted as 1994a: 103.
CALYPTOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Stenammini) confirmation). CATAULACUS (Myrmicinae: Cataulacini)
Calyptomyrmex Emery, 1887b: 4 7 1 . Type-species: CAMPTOGNATHA (junior s y n o n y m of Eciton) Cataulacus Smith, F. 1854: 2 2 5 . Type-species: Cataula­
Calyptomyrmex beccarii, by m o n o t y p y . Cafyptomyrmex Camptognatha Gray, G.R. 1832: 516. Type-species: cus taprobanae, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of
senior s y n o n y m of Weberidris: Donisthorpe, 1949f: Camptognatha testacea (junior s y n o n y m of Eciton Bingham, 1903: 120. Cataulacus senior s y n o n y m of
186; B r o w n , 1949f: 84. Revision of Oriental species: hamatum), by m o n o t y p y . Camptognatha j u n i o r syn­ Otomyrmex, a n d revision of genus: Bolton, 1974a: 1.
Baroni Urbani, 1975a: 4 1 0 ; of Afrotropical species: o n y m oiEciton: Smith, F. 1855c: 160. Key to Afrotropical species: Bolton, 1982: 354.
Bolton, 1981a: 6 1 . [CAMPYLOMYRMA (misspelling) CAULOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Nesomyrmex)
#CAMPOMYRMA (subgenus of Polyrhachis) Campylomyrma Wheeler, W.M. 1934e: 4 2 1 , incorrect Caulomyrma Forel, 1914d: 233 [as subgenus of
Campomyrma Wheeler, W.M. 1911c: 860 [as subgenus s u b s e q u e n t spelling of Condylomyrma.] Leptothorax]. Type-species: Leptothoraxechinatinodis,
of Polyrhachis]. Type-species: Polyrhachis clypeata CARDIOCONDYLA (Myrmicinae: Forrmcoxenini) by original designation. Caulomyrma provisional
(junior s y n o n y m of Polyrhachis exercita), b y original Cardiocondyla Emery, 1869b: 20. Type-species: Car- j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Nesomyrmex: Forel, 1915c: 364.
designation. Campomyrma provisional j u n i o r syn­ diocondyla elegans, by m o n o t y p y . Cardiocondyla senior Caulomyrma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Nesomyrmex: Emery,
s y n o n y m of Emeryia: Forel, 1892g: 4 6 1 ; Forel, 1915g: 24. [Caulomyrma a n d Nesomyrmex j u n i o r syn­
o n y m of Polyrhachis: B r o w n , 1973b: 179
1892i: 3 1 3 . Cardiocondyla senior s y n o n y m of o n y m s of Goniothorax: Emery, 1922f: 249 (incorrect
(unconfirmed).
Xenometra: Baroni Urbani, 1 9 7 3 : 2 0 0 . Cardiocondyla p r o c e d u r e as Goniothorax is a j u n i o r h o m o n y m , of
*CAMPONOTITES (Formicinae: Camponotini)
senior s y n o n y m of Dyclona, Loncyda a n d Prosopidris: w h i c h Nesomyrmex is first available replacement
*Camponotites DIussky, 1981b: 76. Type-species:
Bolton, 1982: 309. Revision of Palaearctic species: n a m e , see Smith, M.R. 1950: 30).] [Nesomyrmex
*Camponotites macropterus, by m o n o t y p y . [It is
Bernard, 1 9 5 6 : 2 9 9 ; of Afrotropical species: Bolton, j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Leptothorax: Bolton, 1982: 319.]
' unclear w h e t h e r this w a s i n t e n d e d as a g e n u s -
1982: 312. #CAUTOLASIUS (subgenus of Lasius)
group n a m e or as a collective group n a m e . H o w ­
CARDIOPHEIDOLE (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole) CautolasiusWilson, 1955a: 13 [as subgenus oiLasius].
ever, as t h e presentation w a s originally "genus
Cardiopheidole Wheeler, W.M. 1914b: 4 8 [as subgenus Type-species: Formica flava, by original designation.
*Camponotites", t h e former is accepted here.]
of Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole vaslitii, by original Revision of subgenus: Wilson, 1955a: 111.
CAMPONOTUS (Formicinae: Camponotini)
designation. Cardiopheidole j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cautolasius provisional s y n o n y m of Lasius: Brown,
Camponotus Mayr, 1 8 6 1 : 3 5 . Type-species: Formica
Pheidole: Emery, 192 If: 84. 1973b: 179 (unconfirmed).
ligniperda, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Bingham,
CAREBARA (Myrmicinae: Pheidologetonini) CENTROMYRMEX (Ponerinae: Ponerini)
1903: 347. Subgenera of Camponotus (alphabetical
Carebara Westwood, 1840b: 86. Type-species: Carebara Centromyrmex Mayr, 1866b: 894. Type-species: Cen-
order w i t h s y n o n y m s indicated): n o m i n a l plus Col-
lignata, by m o n o t y p y . Key to Afrotropical species: tromyrmex bohemanni (junior s y n o n y m of Cen­
obopsis, Condylomyrma (junior s y n o n y m of Colobop- tromyrmex brachycola), by m o n o t y p y . Centromyrmex
Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 172. Review of genus:
sis), Dinomyrmex, Hypercolbbopsis, Karavaievia, senior s y n o n y m of Spalacomyrmex: Emery, 1890b:
Ettershank, 1 9 6 6 : 1 2 5 .
Manniella, Mayria, Myrmacrhaphe, Myrmamblys, 4 0 . Centromyrmex senior s y n o n y m of Typhloteras:
CAREBARELLA (Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini)
Myrmaphaenus, Myrmentoma, Myrmepinotus, B r o w n , 1953c: 8. Centromyrmex senior s y n o n y m of
Carebarella Emery, 1906c: 137. Type-species: Car-
Myrmepomis, Myrmespera, Myrmeurynota, Glyphopone a n d Leptopone: B r o w n , 1963: 9. Cen­
ebarella bicolor, by m o n o t y p y . Carebarella senior syn­
Myrmisolepis, Myrmobrachys, Myrmocamelus (junior tromyrmex senior s y n o n y m of Promyopias: Bolton,
o n y m of Carebarelloides: Ettershank, 1 9 6 6 : 1 1 3 .
s y n o n y m of Myrmophyma), Myrmocladoecus, 1994; 164. Revision of Neotropical species: Kempf,
Reviews of genus: Ettershank, 1 9 6 6 : 1 1 3 ; Bolton,
Myrmodirachis, Myrmogigas (junior s y n o n y m of 1967b: 4 0 1 .
1987: 2 8 6 .
Dinomyrmex), Myrmogonia, Myrmolophus (junior syn­ CEPHALOMORIUM (junior s y n o n y m of
o n y m of Myrmepomis), Myrmomalis, Myrmonesites, CAREBARELLOIDES (junior s y n o n y m of Carebarella)
Myrmopalpella, Myrmopelta, Myrmophyma, Carebarelloides Borgmeier, 1937b: 236 [as subgenus of Hendecapheidole)
Myrmopiromis, Myrmoplatypus, Myrmoplatys, Carebarella]. Type-species: Carebarella (Car­ Cephalomorium Forel, 1922: 91 [as subgenus of
Myrmopsamma, Myrmopytia, Myrmosaga, ebarelloides) condei, by original designation. Car­ Tetramorium]. Type-species: Tetramorium
ebarelloides j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Carebarella: (Cephalomorium) bahai, by m o n o t y p y . Cephalomor­
Myrmosaulus, Myrmosericus, Myrmosphincta,
Ettershank, 1 9 6 6 : 1 1 3 . ium j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Hendecapheidole: Santschi,
Myrmostenus, Myrmotarsus, Myrmotemnus,
*CARIRIDRIS (Myrmeciinae: unplaced to tribe) 1925d: 2 2 8 . [Hendecapheidole j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Myrmothrix, Myrmotrema, Myrmoturba (junior syn­
*Cariridris B r a n d a o & Martins-Neto, 1990: 2 0 1 . Type- Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1 9 7 9 : 1 3 6 6 . ]
o n y m of Tanaemyrmex), Myrmoxygenys, Neocolobopsis
species: *Cariridris bipetiolata, by original designation. CEPHALOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Myrmhopla)
(junior s y n o n y m of Hypercolobopsis), Neomyrmamblys
*CASALEIA (Ponerinae: Amblyoponini) Cephalomyrma Karavaiev, 1935a: 115 [as subgenus of
(junior s y n o n y m of Myrmaphaenus),
*Casaleia Pagliano & Scaramozzino, 1990: 5. Replace­ Polyrhachis]. Type-species: Polyrhachis
Orthonotomyrmex, Orthonotus (junior h o m o n y m ) ,
m e n t n a m e for * Protamblyopone DIussky, 1981b: 6 5 . (Cephalomyrma) stylifera, by m o n o t y p y .
Paracolobopsis (junior s y n o n y m of Myrmaphaenus),
[Junior h o m o n y m of Protamblyopone Wheeler, W.M. Cephalomyrma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Myrmhopla: Hung,
Paramyrmamblys, Pseudocolobopsis, Rhinomyrmex, Tan­
1927c: 1.] 1967b: 4 0 2 .
aemyrmex, Thlipsepinotus. Synopses of subgenera:
Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 7 0 3 ; Emery, 1925b: 62. All CATAGLYPHIS (Formicinae: Formicini) *CEPHALOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: unplaced to tribe)
subgenera given as provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m s of Cataglyphis Foerster, 1850b: 4 9 3 . Type-species: *Cephalomyrmex Carpenter, 1930: 37. Type-species:
Cataglyphis fairmairei (junior s y n o n y m of Formica *Cephalomyrmex rotundatus, by original designation.
Camponotus: B r o w n , 1973b: 1 7 9 - 1 8 5
bicolor), by m o n o t y p y . Cataglyphis j u n i o r s y n o n y m CEPHALOTES (Myrrmcinae: Cephalotini)
(unconfirmed); see u n d e r individual entries. [The
of Myrmecocystus: Forel, 1878: 372; Forel, 1886f: Cephalotes Latreille, 1802a: 357. Type-species: Formica
entry of Myrmophyma a n d Thlipsepinotus u n d e r t h e
2 0 1 ; iMayr, 1886d: 424. Cataglyphis revived from atrata, b y m o n o t y p y . Cephalotes j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
s y n o n y m y of Camponotus by Taylor & B r o w n , D.R.
s y n o n y m y : Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 7 8 . Cataglyphis Cryptocerus: Fabricius, 1 8 0 4 : 4 1 9 . Cephalotes senior
1 9 8 5 : 1 0 9 , is n o t accepted as confirmation as n o t all
senior s y n o n y m of Monocombus: Mayr, 1 8 6 1 : 4 4 ; s y n o n y m of Cryptocerus: Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 7 8 ;
taxa are included.] Camponotus (subgenus indetermi­
s y n o n y m y confirmed by Agosti, 1990a: 1462. Smith, M.R. 1949c: 19; see also discussion in
nate) senior s y n o n y m of Dolophra: n e w s y n o n y m .
Cataglyphis senior s y n o n y m of Machaeromyrma: Kempf, 1 9 5 1 : 105. Revision of genus: Kempf, 1 9 5 1 :
CAMPOSTIGMACROS (junior s y n o n y m of Stigmacros)
Baroni Urbani, 1969d: 218; s y n o n y m y confirmed 107.
Campostigmacros McAreavey, 1957: 25 [as subgenus of
by Agosti, 1990a: 1462. Cataglyphis senior s y n o n y m CEPHALOXYS (junior h o m o n y m , see Smithistruma)
Stigmacros]. Type-species: Acantholepis aemula, by
of Eomonocombus a n d Paraformica: Agosti, 1990a: Cephaloxys Smith, F. 1 8 6 5 : 7 6 . Type-species: Cephaloxys
original designation. Campostigmacros provisional
1462. Key to species: Santschi, 1929b: 56 (out of capitata, by m o n o t y p y . [Junior h o m o n y m of
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Stigmacros: B r o w n , 1973b: 179.

Genus-Group Taxa 23
Cephaloxys Signoret, 1 8 4 7 : 2 9 4 (Hemiptera).] CHAPMANELLA (junior s y n o n y m of Euprenolepis) n a t i o n of Emery, 1925b: 232. [Chtonolasius also
Stnithistruma B r o w n , 1948e: 104, replacement n a m e Chapmanella Wheeler, W.M. 1930d: 4 1 . Type-species: described as n e w by Ruzsky, 1914a: 59.]
for Cephaloxys Smith. Chapmanella negrosensis, by original designation. Chthonolasius, justified e m e n d a t i o n of spelling:
CEPOBROTICUS (junior s y n o n y m of Megalomyrmex) Chapmanella j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Euprenolepis: Wheeler, W.M. 1916k: 170. [Donisthorpe's (1941f:
Cepohroticus Wheeler, W.M. 1925d: 168 [as subgenus B r o w n , 1953h: 6. 37) d a i m t h a t Ruzsky n o m i n a t e d Lasius flavus as
of Megalomyrmex]. Type-species: Megalomyrmex nCHARIOMYRMA (subgenus of Polyrhachis) t y p e - s p e d e s is i n c o r r e d . Ruzsky ( 1 9 1 2 : 6 3 0 )
(Cepohroticus) symmetochus, by m o n o t y p y . Cepohroti­ Chariomyrma Forel, 1915b: 107 [as subgenus of Poly­ i n d u d e d t h o s e s p e d e s "with t h e appearance of t h e
cus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Megalomyrmex: Ettershank, rhachis]. Type-species: Polyrhachisguerini, by original yellow Lasius (Las.flavusD.G.) a n d its dosely related
1966: 1 0 1 . designation. Chariomyrma provisional j u n i o r syn­ s p e d e s , a n d races (Las. carniolicus, Las. umbratus, Las.
CERAPACHYS (Cerapachyinae: Cerapachyini) o n y m of Polyrhachis: B r o w n , 1973b: 179 myops. Las. mixtus)". This is n o t a d i r e d n o m i n a t i o n
Cerapachys Smith, F. 1857a: 74. Type-species: (unconfirmed). of a type-spedes, n o r is De Geer (D.G.) t h e a u t h o r
Cerapachys antennatus, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of CHARIOSTIGMACROS (junior s y n o n y m of Stigmacros) of flavus.] Chthonolasius subgenus of Lasius: Wheeler,
Bingham, 1 9 0 3 : 2 8 . Cerapachys senior s y n o n y m of Chariostigmacros McAreavey, 1 9 5 7 : 2 3 [as subgenus of W.M. 1922a: 698; Wilson, 1955a: 13. Chthonolasius
Ceratopachys: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 7 5 5 . Cerapachys Stigmacros]. Type-species: Stigmacros provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Lasius: Brown,
senior s y n o n y m of Parasyscia a n d Syscia (and its (Chariostigmacros) hirsuta, by original designation. 1973b: 179 (unconfirmed). Revisions of subgenus:
j u n i o r s y n o n y m Cysias): Kempf, 1972a: 76. Chariostigmacros provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Wilson, 1955a: 150. Seifert, 1988a: 143; Seifert,
Cerapachys senior s y n o n y m of Chrysapace, Lioponera, Stigmacros: B r o w n , 1973b: 179. Chariostigmacros 1990: 1.
Neophyracaces, Ooceraea, Phyracaces, *Procerapachys, j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Stigmacros: Taylor & B r o w n , D.R. CLADAROGENYS (Myrmicinae: Dacetini)
a n d revision of g e n u s : B r o w n , 1 9 7 5 : 1 8 . 1 9 8 5 : 1 4 5 (accepted as confirmation). Cladarogenys B r o w n , 1976b: 3 3 . Type-spedes:
CERATOBASIS (junior h o m o n y m , see Basiceros) CHELANER (junior s y n o n y m of Monomorium) Cladarogenys lasia, by original designation. Review of
Ceratobasis Smith, F. 1860c: 7 8 . Type-species: Chelaner Emery, 1914f:410 [as subgenus of Monomor­ genus: Bolton, 1983: 3 5 3 . [See n o t e u n d e r
Meranoplus singularis, by m o n o t y p y . [Junior h o m ­ ium]. Type-species: Monomorium (Chelaner) Strumigenys^
o n y m of Ceratobasis Lacordaire, 1848: 362 (Col- forcipatum, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Emery, CLADOMYRMA (Formicinae: Brachymyrmecini)
eoptera).] Basiceros Schulz,1906:156, r e p l a c e m e n t 1922e: 168. Chelaner raised to genus, a n d senior Cladomyrma Wheeler, W.M. 1920: 53. Type-spedes:
n a m e for Ceratobasis Smith. s y n o n y m of Notomyrmex, Protholcomyrmex a n d Aphomomyrmex hewitti (junior s y n o n y m of
CERATOPACHYS (junior s y n o n y m of Cerapachys) Schizopelta: Ettershank, 1966: 9 3 . Chelaner j u n i o r Cladomyrma andrei), by original designation. Revi­
Ceratopachys Schulz, 1 9 0 6 : 1 5 5 , unjustified e m e n d a ­ s y n o n y m of Monomorium: Bolton, 1987: 300. sion of g e n u s : Agosti, 1 9 9 1 : 2 9 3 .
tion of Cerapachys. Ceratopachys j u n i o r s y n o n y m of CHELIOMYRMEX ( E d t o n i n a e : Chehomyrmecini) CLARKISTRUMA (junior s y n o n y m of Colobostruma)
Cerapachys: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 7 5 5 . Cheliomyrmex Mayr, 1870b: 968. Type-species: Clarkistruma B r o w n , 1948e: 124. Type-spedes:
CERATOPHEIDOLE (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole) Cheliomyrmex nortoni (junior s y n o n y m of Epopostruma alinodis, by original designation. Clar­
Ceratopheidole Pergande, 1896: 889 [as subgenus of Cheliomyrmex morosus), by m o n o t y p y . Revision of kistruma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Colobostruma: B r o w n ,
Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidole (Ceratopheidole) g e n u s : Borgmeier, 1955b: 62; see also Gotwald, 1959c: 1.
granulata, by m o n o t y p y . Ceratopheidole raised to 1 9 7 1 : 1 6 1 . Key t o s p e d e s : Watkins, 1976: 6.
CLAVANODA (junior s y n o n y m of Pseudomyrmex)
genus: Emery, 1914a: 40; m a i n t a i n e d as genus: CHELYSTRUMA (Myrmicinae: Dacetini)
Clavanoda E n z m a n n , E.V. 1944: 61 [as "branch" of
F o r e l , 1 9 1 7 : 2 4 1 ; Emery, 1922e: 112. Ceratopheidole Chelystruma B r o w n , 1950a: 33 [as s u b g e n u s of
Pseudomyrma]. Type-spedes: Formica gracilis, by origi­
provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: B r o w n , Glamyromyrmex]. Type-spedes: Glamyromyrmex
nal designation. Clavanoda j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
1973b: 179. Ceratopheidole j u n i o r s y n o n y m of (Chelystruma) lilloana, by m o n o t y p y . Chelystruma
Pseudomyrmex: Ward, 1 9 9 0 : 4 6 9 .
Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1 9 7 9 : 1 3 6 5 . raised to g e n u s : Kempf, 1959d: 3 3 8 . Chelystruma
CODIOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Dacetini)
CHALCOPONERA (junior s y n o n y m of Rhytidoponera) provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Glamyromyrmex:
Codiomyrmex Wheeler, WJV1.1916d: 326. Type-spedes:
Chalcoponera Emery, 1897d: 548. Type-species: Ponera B r o w n , 1973b: 179 (unconfirmed). [See n o t e u n d e r
Codiomyrmex thoxteri, by m o n o t y p y . Review of
metallica, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Emery, Strumigenys.]
genus: B r o w n , 1948e: 115. Codiomyrmex provisional
191 Id: 39. Chalcoponera subgenus of Rhytidoponera: CHIMAERIDRIS (Myrmicinae: Pheidolini)
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Glamyromyrmex: B r o w n , 1973b:
Forel, 1917: 236. Chalcoponera revived status as Chimaeridris Wilson, 1989: 6 3 . Type-spedes:
179 (unconfirmed). [See n o t e u n d e r Strumigenys.]
genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 6 4 3 . Chalcoponera Chimaeridris boltoni, by original designation.
CODIOXENXIS (Myrmicinae: Dacetini)
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Rhytidoponera: B r o w n , 1953c: 2. *CHIMAEROMYRMA (Formicinae: Camponotini)
Codioxenus Santschi, 1931c: 2 7 8 [as subgenus of
CHALEPOXENUS (Myrmicinae: Formicoxenini) *Chimaeromyrma DIussky, 1988: 58. Type-spedes:
Epitritus]. Type-spedes: Epitritus (Codioxenus)
Chalepoxenus Menozzi, 1923a: 2 5 7 . Type-species: *Chimaeromyrma brachycephala, by original designa­
simulans, by m o n o t y p y . Codioxenus raised to g e n u s :
Chalepoxenusgribodoi (junior s y n o n y m of tion.
B r o w n , 1948e: 123. [See n o t e u n d e r Strumigenys.]
Chalepoxenus muellerianus), by m o n o t y p y . [Name of
CHRONOXENUS (junior s y n o n y m of Bothriomyrmex) #COLOBOCREMA (subgenus of Crematogaster)
type-species misspelledgridoboi, p . 257; correct spell­
Chronoxenus Santschi, 1919i: 202 [as subgenus of Colobocrema Wheeler, W.M. 1927f: 31 [as s u b g e n u s of
ing as gribodoi, p . 258.] Chalepoxenus provisional
Bothriomyrmex]. Type-spedes: Bothriomyrmex my ops, Crematogaster]. Type-spedes: Crematogaster (Col­
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Leptothorax: B r o w n , 1973b: 179.
by subsequent designation of Donisthorpe, 1944e: obocrema) cylindriceps, b y m o n o t y p y . Colobocrema p r o ­
Chalepoxenus valid genus: Kutter, 1973d: 2 6 9 .
102. Chronoxenus provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of visional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Crematogaster: B r o w n ,
Chalepoxenus senior s y n o n y m of Leonomyrma:
Bothriomyrmex: B r o w n , 1973b: 179. Chronoxenus 1973b: 179 (unconfirmed).
Buschinger, 1 9 8 7 : 1 1 7 . Revision of genus: Kutter,
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Bothriomyrmex: Shattuck, 1992c: #COLOBOPSIS (subgenus of Camponotus)
1973d: 269; R a d c h e n k o , 1989a: 37.
54. Colobopsis Mayr, 1 8 6 1 : 38. Type-spedes: Formica
CHAMPSOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Odontomachus)
truncata, by subsequent designation of Bingham,
ChampsomyrmexEmery, 1892d: 558 (footnote). Type- CHRYSAPACE (junior s y n o n y m of Cerapachys)
1903: 342. Colobopsis subgenus of Camponotus:
species: Odontomachus coquereli, by m o n o t y p y . Cham­ Chrysapace Crawley, 1924: 380. Type-spedes:
Emery, 1889b: 517. Colobopsis senior s y n o n y m of
psomyrmex subgenus of Odontomachus: Forel, 1917: Chrysapace jacobsoni (junior secondary h o m o n y m in
Condylomyrma: Wheeler, W.M. 1934e: 4 2 2 (in text).
2 3 8 . Champsomyrmex revived status as genus: Cerapachys, replaced by Cerapachys crawleyi), by
Colobopsis provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 6 5 3 . Champsomyrmexprovi­ m o n o t y p y . Chrysapace junior s y n o n y m of
Camponotus:Brown, 1973b: 179 (unconfirmed).
sional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Odontomachus: B r o w n , Cerapachys:JSrown, 1975: 19.
COLOBOSTRUMA (Myrmicinae: Dacetini)
1973b: 179. Champsomyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of #CHTHONOLASIVS (subgenus of Lasius)
Colobostruma Wheeler, W.M. 1927f: 32 [as subgenus of
Odontomachus: B r o w n , 1976a: 96. Chtonolasius Ruzsky, 1912: 630 [as subgenus of Lasius].
Epopostruma]. Type-spedes: Epopostruma (Col-
Type-spedes: Formica umbrata, by s u b s e q u e n t desig­

24 Genus-Group Taxa
obostruma) leae, by m o n o t y p y . Colobostruma raised to Monomorium: Ettershank, 1966:82. Corynomyrmex Croesomyrmex raised to genus: Wheeler, W.M.
genus: Brown, 1948e: 118. Colobostruma senior syn­ j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Monomorium: Bolton, 1 9 8 7 : 2 8 7 . 1931b: 4 (in text). Croesomyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
o n y m of Alistruma a n d Clarkistruma: B r o w n , 1959c: COSMAECETES (junior s y n o n y m of Typhlopone) Macromischa: Smith, M.R. 1937: 849; Smith, M.R.
1; B r o w n & Wilson, 1959b: 2 8 1 . Cosmaecetes Spinola, 1851b: 54. Type-spedes: Cos- 1939e: 502. [Macromischa j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
COMMATETA (junior s y n o n y m of Gnamptogenys) maecetes homalinus (junior s y n o n y m of Dorylus Leptothorax: Snelling, 1986: 154.]
Commateta Santschi, 1929h: 4 7 6 [as subgenus of fulvus), b y m o n o t y p y . [Also described as n e w by [CRYPTOCEPHALUS (misspelling)
Ectatomma]. Type-species: Ectatomma (Parectatomma) Spinola, 1853: 70.] Cosmaecetes ]unior s y n o n y m of Cryptocephalus Lowne, 1865: 336, i n c o r r e d sub­
bruchi, by original designation. Commateta j u n i o r Typhlopone: Smith, F. 1858b: 110. [Cosmaegetes Dalla s e q u e n t spelling of Cryptocerus in t h e combination
s y n o n y m of Gnamptogenys: B r o w n , 1958g: 2 1 2 . Torre, 1893: 9, i n c o r r e d s u b s e q u e n t spelling.] Cryptocephalus pubescens; current combination
CONCOCTIO (Ponerinae: Amblyoponini) CRATEROPSIS (junior s y n o n y m of Oligomyrmex) Meranoplus pubescens.]
Concoctio B r o w n , 1974d: 2 9 . Type-species: Concoctio con- Crateropsis Patrizi, 1 9 4 8 : 1 7 4 [as subgenus of Solenop- CRYPTOCERUS (junior s y n o n y m of Cephalotes)
centa, by original designation. sis]. Type-spedes: Solenopsis (Crateropsis) elmenteitae, Cryptocerus Latreille, 1803: 3 1 1 . Type-spedes: Formica
CONDYLODON (dubiously Formicidae (Ponerinae?)) by original designation. Crateropsis j u n i o r s y n o n y m atrata, b y s u b s e q u e n t designation of Latreille, 1810:
Condylodon Lund, 1831a: 1 3 1 . Type-spedes: Con- of Oligomyrmex: Ettershank, 1 9 6 6 : 1 2 0 . 4 3 7 . [Type-spedes n o t Cryptocerus umbraculatus,
dylodon audouini, by m o n o t y p y . Condylodon a m e m ­ CRATOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Messor) unjustified s u b s e q u e n t designation b y Emery,
ber of family Mutillidae?: Swainson & Shuckard, Cratomyrmex Emery, 1892d: 572. Type-spedes: 1914c: 38, repeated in Emery, 1922f: 305.]
1 8 4 0 : 1 7 3 . Condylodon j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cratomyrmex regalis, by m o n o t y p y . Cratomyrmex sub­ Cryptocerus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cephalotes: Wheeler,
Pseudomyrma: Dalla Torre, 1893: 5 5 . Condylodon a g e n u s of Messor: Santschi, 1920d: 3 7 8 . Cratomyrmex W.M. 1913a: 78; Smith, M.R. 1949c: 19; see also dis­
m e m b e r of P o n e r i n a e ? : Emery, 1921f: 2 8 (foot­ j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Messor: Emery, 1922f: 357. cussion i n Kempf, 1 9 5 1 : 105.
n o t e ) . Condylodon n o t m e m b e r of Cratomyrmex revived from s y n o n y m y w i t h status as CRYPTOPONE (Ponerinae: Ponerini)
Pseudomyrmecinae, dubiously m e m b e r of Pon­ genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 802; m a i n t a i n e d as Cryptopone Emery, 1893a: cclxxv. Type-spedes:
erinae: Ward, 1 9 9 0 : 4 7 1 . genus: Bernard, 1 9 7 1 : 6. Cratomyrmex j u n i o r syn­ Cryptopone testacea, b y m o n o t y p y . [Type-spedes n o t
CONDYLOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Colobopsis) o n y m of Messor: Bolton, 1982: 3 3 8 . Amblyopone testacea; see discussion in Wilson, 1958d:
Condylomyrma Santschi, 1928c: 72 [as subgenus of CREIGHTONIDRIS (Myrmicinae: Basicerotini) 360.] [Cryptopone also described as n e w by Emery,
Camponotus]. Type-spedes: Camponotus (Con­ Creightonidris B r o w n , 1949f: 89. Type-spedes: 1893f: 240.] Key to Melanesian s p e d e s : Wilson,
dylomyrma) bryani, by m o n o t y p y . Condylomyrma Creightonidris scambognatha, by original designation. 1958d: 357; see also n o t e s in B r o w n , 1963: 6.
junior s y n o n y m of Colobopsis: Wheeler, W.M. 1934e: Review of g e n u s : B r o w n & Kempf, 1 9 6 0 : 1 7 8 . *CTENOBETHYLUS (junior s y n o n y m of Liometopum)
422 (in t e x t ) . [Campylomyrma: see above.] CREMATOGASTER (Myrmicinae: Crematogastrmi) *Ctenobethylus Brues, 1 9 3 9 : 2 6 1 [as m e m b e r of family
CONOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Dorymyrmex) Crematogaster Lund, 1831a: 132. Type-spedes: Formica Bethylidae]. Type-spedes: *Ctenobethylussuccinalis,
Conomyrma Forel, 1913b: 350 (in text) [as subgenus of scutellaris, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Bingham, by original designation. *Ctenobethylus j u n i o r syn­
Dorymyrmex]. Type-spedes: Prenolepis pyramica, by 1 9 0 3 : 1 2 4 . [Type-spedes n o t Formica acuta, o n y m of Iridomyrmex: B r o w n , 1 9 7 7 : 2 1 3 .
subsequent designation of Santschi, 1922b: 365. unjustified s u b s e q u e n t designation by Emery, *Ctenobethylus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Liometopum:
Conomyrma raised to g e n u s : Kusnezov, 1952g: 4 2 9 . 1912d: 2 7 2 ; this error repeated in, for example, Shattuck, 1992c: 1 2 1 .
Conomyrma senior s y n o n y m of Biconomyrma: Smith, Emery, 1922e: 128 a n d Soulie, 1965:78.] CTENOPYGA (junior s y n o n y m of Acanthostichus)
M.R. 1958c: 140; Kempf, 1972a: 7 8 . Conomyrma p r o ­ Crematogaster senior s y n o n y m of Acrocoelia: Mayr, Ctenopyga A s h m e a d , 1 9 0 6 : 2 9 . Type-spedes: Ctenopyga
visional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dorymyrmex: B r o w n , 1 8 6 3 : 4 0 4 (see also B u r e n , 1 9 5 9 : 1 2 5 ; Kempf, townsendi (junior s y n o n y m oi Acanthostichus
1973b: 179. Conomyrma senior s y n o n y m of 1972a: 81). Crematogaster senior s y n o n y m of texanus), by original designation. Ctenopyga subge­
Araucomyrmex: Snelling, 1 9 8 1 : 4 0 2 . Conomyrma Tranopeltoides: Kempf, 1960c: 173. [Cremastogaster n u s of Acanthostichus: Emery, 191 I d : 13. Ctenopyga
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dorymyrmex: Shattuck, 1992c: 7 7 . Mayr, 1 8 6 1 : 7 4 (and m a n y later a u t h o r s ) , i n c o r r e d provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Acanthostichus:
CONOTHORACOIDES (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole) s u b s e q u e n t spelling. Discussion of spelling: Emery, B r o w n , 1973b: 179. Ctenopyga revived status as
Conothoracoides Strand, 1 9 3 5 : 1 7 6 . Replacement n a m e 1912d: 272 (footnote); Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 7 8 ; genus, and review of g e n u s : B r o w n , 1 9 7 5 : 4 2 .
for Conothorax Karavaiev. [Junior h o m o n y m of Con- Donisthorpe, 1941f: 36 a n d B u r e n , 1 9 5 9 : 1 2 5 . ] Sub­ Ctenopyga j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Acanthostichus:
othorox Jekel, 1854: 9 b i s (foldoutpages).] Con­ genera of Crematogaster: n o m i n a l plus Apterocrema, MacKay, in preparation.
othoracoides provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: Atopogyne, Colobocrema, Decacrema, Eucrema, CYATHOCEPHALUS (junior h o m o n y m , see
Brown, 1973b: 179. Conothoracoides j u n i o r s y n o n y m Mesocrema, Nematocrema, Neocrema, Orthocrema, Oxy-
gyne, Paracrema, Physocrema, Rhachiocrema, Cyathomyrmex)
of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1 9 7 9 : 1 3 6 6 .
Sphaerocrema, Xiphocrema. Cyathocephalus Emery, 1915i: 192 [as subgenus of
CONOTHORAX (junior h o m o n y m , see Conothoracoides)
*CRETACOFORMICA (dubiously F o r m i d d a e ) Cryptocerus]. Type-spedes: Cryptocerus pollens, by orig­
ConothoraxKaravaiev, 1935a: 7 5 . Type-spedes: Con­
*Cretacoformica Jell & D u n c a n , 1 9 8 6 : 1 9 0 . Type-spedes: inal designation. [Junior h o m o n y m of
othorax bilobum, by m o n o t y p y . [Junior h o m o n y m of
*Cretacoformica explicata, by original designation. Cyathocephalus Kessler, 1 8 6 8 : 1 3 5 ( C e s t o d a ) . ]
Conothorax Jekel, 1854: 9 bis (foldout pages) (Col-
[This is almost certainly n o t a n ant.] Cyathomyrmex Creighton, 1 9 3 3 : 1 0 0 , r e p l a c e m e n t
eoptera).] Conothoracoides Strand, 1 9 3 5 : 1 7 6 , re­
*CRETOMYRMA (*Sphecomynninae) n a m e for Cyathocephalus Emery.
placement n a m e for Conothorax Karavaiev.
*Cretomyrma DIussky, 1 9 7 5 : 1 1 5 . Type-spedes: CYATHOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Paracryptocerus)
COPTOFORMICA (junior s y n o n y m of Formica)
Cyathomyrmex Creighton, 1 9 3 3 : 1 0 0 [as subgenus of
Coptoformica Muller, 1 9 2 3 : 1 4 6 [as subgenus oi For­
*Cretomyrma arnoldii, by original designation. Cryptocerus]. Replacement n a m e for Cyathocephalus
mica] . Type-spedes: Formica exsecta, b y subsequent
*CRETOPONE (*Armaniinae) Emery, above. [Junior h o m o n y m of Cyathocephalus
designation of Donisthorpe, 1941f: 3 7 . Coptoformica
*Cretopone DIussky, 1 9 7 5 : 1 1 9 . Type-spedes: *Cretopone Kessler, 1 8 6 8 : 1 3 5 . ] Cyathomyrmex subgenus of
senior s y n o n y m oi Adformica: Stitz, 1939: 306.
magna, b y original designation. *Cretopone trans­ Paracryptocerus: Smith, M.R. 1949c: 2 1 .
Coptoformica j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Formica: Smith,
ferred from P o n e r i n a e to *Armaniidae: DIussky & Cyathomyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Paracryptocerus:
M.R. 1951a: 860; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1448; Agosti,
Fedoseeva, 1 9 8 7 : 7 7 . *Cretopone possible j u n i o r syn­ Kempf, 1972a: 175. [Paracryptocerus j u n i o r syn­
1994a: 107.
o n y m of *Sphecomyrma: Holldobler & Wilson, 1990: o n y m of Zacryptocerus: Kempf, 1973c: 460.]
CORYNOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Monomorium) 9. CYLINDROMYRMEX (Cerapachyinae: Cyl-
CorynomyrmexViehmeyer, 1916a: 133 [as subgenus of CROESOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Macromischa) mdromymiedni)
Monomorium]. Type-spedes: Monomorium Croesomyrmex M a n n , 1 9 2 0 : 4 0 8 [as subgenus of Cylindromyrmex Mayr, 1870b: 9 6 7 . Type-spedes: Cyl­
(Corynomyrmex) hospitum, by m o n o t y p y . Macromischa]. Type-spedes: Macromischa indromyrmex striatals, b y m o n o t y p y . Cylindromyrmex
Corynomyrmex provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of (Croesomyrmex) wheeleri, by original designation. subgenus of Cerapachys: Forel, 18921:243. Cyl-

Genus-Group Taxa 25
indromyrmex revived status as genus: Dalla Torre, Dacetum Agassiz, 1848: 332, unjustified e m e n d a t i o n of (Ischnomyrmex) swammerdami, by original designa­
1 9 8 3 : 1 6 . Cylindromyrmex senior s y n o n y m of Daceton. Dacetum j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Daceton: B r o w n , tion. [Deromyrma also described as n e w by Forel,
Holcoponera C a m e r o n (junior h o m o n y m ) : Forel, 1973b: 179. 1913k: 49.] Deromyrma provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m
1892f: 256. Cylindromyrmex senior s y n o n y m of DACRYON (junior s y n o n y m of Podomyrma) of Aphaenogaster: B r o w n , 1973b: 180. Deromyrma
Hypocylindromyrmex a n d Metacylindromyrmex, a n d Dacryon Forel, 1895f: 4 2 1 . Type-species: Dacryon j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Aphaenogaster: Bolton, 1982: 364.
revision of genus: B r o w n , 1975: 36. omniparens, by m o n o t y p y . Dacryon provisional DESCOLEMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Mycocepurus)
CYPHOIDRJS (Myrmicinae: Stenanrmini) j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Podomyrma: B r o w n , 1973b: 179. Descolemyrma Kusnezov, 195 Id: 4 6 0 . Type-spedes:
Cyphoidris Weber, 1952: 26. Type-species: Cyphoidris Dacryon j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Podomyrma: Taylor & Descolemyrma ogloblini (junior s y n o n y m of
spinosa, by original designation. Cyphoidris provi­ Brown, D.R. 1985: 80 (accepted as confirmation). Mycocepurus goeldii), by m o n o t y p y . Descolemyrma
sional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Lordomyrma: B r o w n , #DECACREMA (subgenus of Crematogaster) j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Mycocepurus: Kempf, 1963b: 4 1 8 .
1973b: 179. Cyphoidris valid genus, a n d revision of Decacrema Forel, 1910a: 18 [as subgenus of Crematogas­ DLABOLUS (junior h o m o n y m , see Karawajewella)
genus: Bolton, 1981b: 257. ter]. Type-spedes: Crematogaster schencki, by sub­ Diabolus Karavaiev, 1926d: 4 2 4 [as subgenus of
CYPHOMANNIA (junior s y n o n y m of Cyphomyrmex) sequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911 f: 161. Dolichoderus]. Type-spedes: Dolichoderus (Diabolus)
Cyphomannia Weber, 1938b: 183 [as subgenus of [Decacrema also described as n e w by Forel, 1910f: 9.] bifurcatus (junior s y n o n y m of Dolichoderus
Cyphomyrmex]. Type-species: Cyphomyrmex Decacrema raised to genus: Soulie, 1964: 398. cuspidatus), by original designation. [Junior h o m ­
(Cyphomannia) laevigatas, by original designation. Decacrema provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Crematogas- o n y m of Diabolus Gray, J.E. 1 8 4 1 : 400
Cyphomannia j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cyphomyrmex: ter: B r o w n , 1973b: 179 (unconfirmed); h e r e reverts (Mammalia).] Karawajewella Donisthorpe, 1944b:
Kempf, 1962b: 29. Cyphomannia revived from syn­ to subgenus of Crematogaster. [Decracrema Arnold, 59, replacement n a m e for Diabolus Karavaiev.
onymy: Weber, 1966: 166. Cyphomannia j u n i o r syn­ 1920a: 547, incorrect subsequent spelling.] DIACAMMA (Ponerinae: Ponerini)
o n y m of Cyphomyrmex: Kempf, 1972a: 92. DECAMERA (junior h o m o n y m , see Hincksidris) Diacamma Mayr, 1862: 7 1 8 . Type-spedes: Ponera
CYPHOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Attini) Decamera Roger, 1863a: 166. Type-species: Decamera rugosa, by subsequent designation of Bingham,
Cyphomyrmex Mayr, 1862: 690. Type-species: nigella, by m o n o t y p y . [Junior h o m o n y m of 1903:75.
Cyphomyrmex minutus, by monotypy. [Type-species Decamera Mulsant, 1842: 503 (Coleoptera).] DIAGYNE (junior s y n o n y m of Solenopsis)
n o t Cyphomyrmex difformis, unjustified subsequent Hincksidris Donisthorpe, 1944b: 59, replacement Diagyne Santschi, 1923c: 2 6 8 [as subgenus of Solenop­
designation by Emery, 1922f: 340.] Cyphomyrmex n a m e for Decamera Roger. Decamera Roger j u n i o r sis]. Type-spedes: Solenopsis succinea by monotypy.
subgenus of Atta: Forel, 1912e: 188. Cyphomyrmex s y n o n y m of Myrmelachista: Forel, 1878: 376; m a i n ­ Diagyne j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Solenopsis: Ettershank,
revived status as genus: Bruch, 1914: 217; Emery, tained as j u n i o r s y n o n y m : Mayr, 1887: 525; Dalla 1966: 134.
1914a: 42. Cyphomyrmex senior s y n o n y m of Torre, 1 8 9 3 : 1 7 4 . Decamera Roger revived from syn­
DICERATOCLINEA (junior s y n o n y m of Dolichoderus)
Cyphomannia: Kempf, 1962b: 29; Kempf, 1972a: 92. o n y m y as subgenus of Myrmelachista:Forel, 1886f:
DiceratoclineaWheeler, W.M. 1935c: 69 [as subgenus
Revisions of genus: Kempf, 1964d: 1; Kempf, 1966: 214; m a i n t a i n e d as subgenus: Forel, 1917: 249;
of Dolichoderus]. Type-spedes: Dolichoderus scabridus,
161, Snelling & Longino, 1 9 9 2 : 4 7 9 . Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 696; Emery, 1925b: 32.
by original designation. Diceratoclinea raised to
#CYRTOMYRMA (subgenus of Polyrhachis) DECAMORIUM (Myrmicinae: Tetramoriini)
g e n u s : Brown, 1950e: 2 4 9 . Diceratoclinea provisional
Cyrtomyrma Forel, 1915b: 107 [as subgenus of Poly­ Decamorium Forel, 1913a: 121 [as subgenus of
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dolichoderus: Brown, 1973b: 180.
rhachis]. Type-species: Formica rastellata, by original Tetramorium]. Type-species: Tetramorium (Decamor­
Diceratoclinea j u n i o r s y n o n y m oi Dolichoderus:
designation. Cyrtomyrma provisional j u n i o r syn­ ium) decern, by m o n o t y p y . Decamorium raised to
Shattuck, 1992c: 66.
o n y m of Polyrhachis: B r o w n , 1973b: 179 genus: Emery, 1914a: 4 2 ; m a i n t a i n e d as genus:
DICHOTHORAX (junior s y n o n y m of Leptothorax)
(unconfirmed). Revision of subgenus: Donisthorpe, Wheeler, 1922a: 906. Revision of genus: Bolton,
Dichothorax Emery, 1895c: 323 [as subgenus of
1938c: 246 (out of date). 1976:297.
Leptothorax]. Type-spedes: Leptothorax (Dichothorax)
CYRTOSTIGMACROS (junior s y n o n y m of Stigmacros)
DECAPHEIDOLE (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole) pergandei, by subsequent designation of Wheeler,
Cyrtostigmacros McAreavey, 1957: 35 [as subgenus of
Decapheidole Forel, 1912f: 2 3 7 [as subgenus of W.M. 191 If: 1 6 1 . Dichothorax provisional j u n i o r syn­
Stigmacros]. Type-species: Acantholepis (Acrostigma)
Pheidole]. Type-species: Pheidoleperpusilla, by sub­ o n y m of Leptothorax: B r o w n , 1973b: 180. Dichothorax
australis, by original designation. Cyrtostigmacros p r o ­
s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 80. j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Leptothorax: Bolton, 1982: 319.
visional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Stigmacros: B r o w n ,
Decapheidole raised to genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: #DICHTHADIA (subgenus of Dorylus)
1973b: 179. Cyrtostigmacros j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
661; m a i n t a i n e d as genus: Borgmeier, 1927c: 78. Dichthadia Gerstacker, 1863: 9 3 . Type-spedes: Dichtha-
Stigmacros: Taylor & B r o w n , D.R. 1985: 145
Decapheidole provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: dia glaberrima (junior s y n o n y m of Dorylus
(accepted as confirmation).
Brown, 1973b: 180. Decapheidole j u n i o r s y n o n y m of laevigatus), by m o n o t y p y . Dichthadia j u n i o r syn­
CYSIAS (junior s y n o n y m of Syscia)
Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366. o n y m of Dorylus: Dalla Torre, 1893: 9. Dichthadia
Cysias Emery, 1902c: 2 4 [as subgenus of Cerapachys].
#DENDROLASIUS (subgenus oi Lasius) revived from s y n o n y m y as subgenus of Dorylus:
Type-species: Ooceraea papuana, b y original designa­
Dendrolasius Ruzsky, 1912: 630 [as subgenus of Emery, 1895J: 702. Dichthadia provisional j u n i o r
tion. Cysias raised to genus: Ashmead, 1905b: 382.
Lasius]. Type-species: Formica fuliginosa, by s y n o n y m of Dorylus: B r o w n , 1973b: 180
Cysias j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Syscia: Emery, 191 Id: 10.
monotypy. [Dendrolasius also described as n e w b y (unconfirmed).
[Syscia j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cerapachys: Kempf,
Ruzsky, 1914a: 59.] Dendrolasius subgenus of DICROASPIS (Myrmicinae: Stenammini)
1972a: 76; see also B r o w n , 1975:19.]
Formicina: Forel, 1917: 249. Dendrolasius subgenus Dicroaspis Emery, 1908b: 184. Type-spedes: Dicroaspis
DACATRIA (Myrmicinae: Stenammini)
of Lasius: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 698; m a i n t a i n e d as cryptocera, by m o n o t y p y . Dicroaspis subgenus of
Dacatria Rigato, 1994b: 155. Type-species: Dacatria tem-
subgenus: Wilson, 1955a: 14. Dendrolasius provi­ Cafyptomyrmex: Emery, 1915g: 15. Dicroaspis revived
sional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Lasius: B r o w n , 1973b: 180 status as g e n u s : Wheeler, W.M. 1935a: 7 (in key).
plaris, by original designation.
(unconfirmed). Revisions of subgenus: Wilson, Dicroaspis provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
DACETINOPS (Myrrmcinae: Stenammini)
1955a: 138; Kupyanskaya, 1989: 779. Cafyptomyrmex: B r o w n , 1973b: 180. Dicroaspis valid
Dacetinops B r o w n & Wilson, 1957a: 1. Type-species:
DENDROMYRMEX (Formicinae: Camponotini) genus, senior s y n o n y m of Geognomicus, a n d revision
Dacetinops cibdelus, by original designation. Revision
Dendromyrmex Emery, 1895J: 772. Type-species: For­ of genus: Bolton, 1981a: 56.
of genus: Taylor, 1 9 8 5 : 4 1 .
mica chartifex, b y s u b s e q u e n t designation of DILOBOCONDYLA (Myrrmcinae: Formicoxenini)
DACETON (Myrmicinae: Dacetini)
Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 1 6 1 . Dilobocondyla: Santschi, 1910h: 2 8 3 . Type-spedes:
Daceton Perty, 1833: 136. Type-species: Formica
DEROMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m oi Aphaenogaster) Atopomyrmex selebensis, by subsequent designation of
armigera, by m o n o t y p y . Daceton senior s y n o n y m of
Deromyrma Forel, 1913b: 350 [as subgenus of Wheeler, W.M. 191 If: 162. Dilobocondyla senior syn-
Dacetum: Brown, 1973b: 179.
DACETUM (junior s y n o n y m of Daceton) Aphaenogaster]. Type-spedes: Aphaenogaster

26 Genus-Group Taxa
o n y m of Mesomyrma: Emery, 1912b: 102. Key to spe­ DODOUS (junior s y n o n y m of Pristomyrmex) DORONOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Formicoxenini)
d e s : Wheeler, W.M. 1924b: 2 4 8 . Dodous Donisthorpe, 1946f: 145. Type-spedes: Dodous DoronomyrmexKutter, 1945: 4 8 5 . Type-spedes:
DLMORPHOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Gesomyrmex) trispinosus, by original designation. Dodous j u n i o r Doronomyrmexpacis, by m o n o t y p y . Doronomyrmex
Dimorphomyrmex Andre, 1892b: 4 9 . Type-spedes: s y n o n y m of Pristomyrmex: B r o w n , 1971a: 3. provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Leptothorax: B r o w n ,
Dimorphomyrmexjaneti" (junior s y n o n y m of DOLEROMYRMA (DoHchoderinae) 1973b: 180 (unconfirmed). Partial revision of
Gesomyrmex chaperi), by m o n o t y p y . Dimorphomyrmex Doleromyrma Forel, 1907a: 2 8 [as subgenus of g e n u s : Buschinger, 1 9 8 1 : 2 1 1 .
junior s y n o n y m of Gesomyrmex: Wheeler, W.M. Tapinoma]. Type-spedes: Tapinoma (Doleromyrma) DOROTHEA (junior s y n o n y m of Vollenhovia)
1929a: 1. darwinianum, by m o n o t y p y . Doleromyrma subgenus Dorothea Donisthorpe, 1948c: 6 5 . Type-spedes: Doro­
#DINOMYRMEX (subgenus of Camponotus) of Iridomyrmex: Forel, 1912a: 8 1 . Doleromyrma j u n i o r thea novobritainae, by m o n o t y p y . Dorothea j u n i o r syn­
Dinomyrmex Ashmead, 1905b: 384. Type-spedes: For­ s y n o n y m of Iridomyrmex: Emery, 1912g: 22. o n y m of Vollenhovia: Ettershank, 1966: 146.
mica gigas, by original designation. Dinomyrmex sub­ Doleromyrma revived from s y n o n y m y w i t h status as DORYLOZELUS (junior s y n o n y m of Leptogenys)
genus of Camponotus: Forel, 1913b: 350. Dinomyrmex genus: Shattuck, 1992a: 14; review of g e n u s : Dorylozelus Forel, 1915b: 2 4 . Type-species: Dorylozelus
senior s y n o n y m of Myrmogigas: Forel, 1913b: 350 Shattuck, 1992c: 60. mjobergi (junior secondary h o m o n y m in Leptogenys,
(in text). Dinomyrmex provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of DOLICHODERUS (Dolichoderinae) replaced by Leptogenys tricosa), by monotypy.
Camponotus:Brown, 1973b: 180 (unconfirmed). Dolichoderus Lund, 1831a: 130. Type-spedes: Formica Dorylozelus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Leptogenys: Taylor,
DINOPONERA (Ponerinae: Ponerini) attelaboides, by m o n o t y p y . Dolichoderus senior syn­ 1969: 132.
Dinoponera Roger, 1861a: 37. Type-spedes: Ponera o n y m of Hypoclinea a n d Monads: Forel, 1878: 386. DORYLUS (Dorylinae)
grandis (junior s y n o n y m of Dinoponeragigantea), by Dolichoderus senior s y n o n y m of Acanthoclinea a n d Dorylus Fabridus, 1793: 365. Type-spedes: Vespa
monotypy. Revision of g e n u s : Kempf, 1 9 7 1 : 369. Diceratoclinea: Taylor & B r o w n , D.R. 1985: 9 3 . helvola, by m o n o t y p y . Subgenera of Dorylus (alpha­
DIODONTOLEPIS (junior s y n o n y m of Notoncus) Dolichoderus senior s y n o n y m of Acanthoclinea, betical order w i t h s y n o n y m s indicated): n o m i n a l
Diodontolepis Wheeler, W.M. 1920: 5 3 . Type-spedes: Diabolus (junior h o m o n y m ) , Diceratoclinea, plus Alaopone, Anomma, Cosmaecetes (junior syn­
Melophorus spinisquamis, by original designation. Hypoclinea, Karawajewella, Monads a n d o n y m of Typhlopone), Dichthadia, Rhogmus, Shuckar-
Diodontolepis j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Melophorus: Emery, Monoceratoclinea, a n d review of genus: Shattuck, dia (junior s y n o n y m oi Alaopone), Sphegomyrmex
192 5b: 1 1 . Diodontolepis revived from s y n o n y m y : 1992c: 66. Key to Australian s p e d e s : Clark, 1930b: (junior s y n o n y m oi Anomma), Typhlopone. Key to
Wheeler, W.M. 1935c: 7 1 . Diodontolepis j u n i o r syn­ 252. Keys to Neotropical s p e d e s : Kempf, 1959b: Indo-Australian s p e d e s : Wilson, 1964a: 4 3 6 ; see
o n y m of Notoncus: B r o w n , 1 9 5 5 d : 4 7 7 . 227; Kempf, 1969: 292; Kempf, 1972c: 2 5 3 ; Lattke, also Gotwald, 1 9 8 2 : 1 5 7 .
DIPLOMORIUM (Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini) 1987b: 2 6 3 ; MacKay, 1993b: 17. See also: Shattuck, DORYMYRMEX (DoHchoderinae)
Diplomorium Mayr, 1901b: 16. Type-spedes: Diplomor­ 1994:39. Dorymyrmex Mayr, 1866a: 4 9 4 . Type-spedes:
ium longipenne, by m o n o t y p y . Review of genus: *DOLICHOMYRMA (*Armaniinae) Dorymyrmex flavescens, by m o n o t y p y . Dorymyrmex
Ettershank, 1966: 98. Revision of genus: Bolton, *Dolichomyrma DIussky, 1975: 1 2 1 . Type-spedes: senior s y n o n y m of Psammomyrma: Forel, 1913b: 350
1987:278. *Dolichomyrma longiceps, by original designation. (in text). Dorymyrmex senior s y n o n y m of
*Dolichomyrma placed in *Armaniidae: DIussky, Psammomyrma a n d Spinomyrma: Snelling & Hunt,
DIPLORHOPTRUM (junior s y n o n y m of Solenopsis)
1983: 66. *Dolichomyrma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of 1976: 9 3 . Dorymyrmex senior s y n o n y m y of Con­
Diplorhoptrum Mayr, 1 8 5 5 : 4 4 9 . Type-spedes: Formica
*Sphecomyrma: Wilson, 1 9 8 7 : 4 9 ; Holldobler & Wil­ omyrma (and its j u n i o r s y n o n y m s Biconomyrma and
fugax, b y m o n o t y p y . Diplorhoptrum j u n i o r s y n o n y m
son, 1990: 9. *Dolichomyrma revived from synon­ Araucomyrmex {and its j u n i o r s y n o n y m
of Solenopsis: Mayr, 1862: 7 5 1 ; m a i n t a i n e d as such:
y m y : DIussky & Fedoseeva, 1 9 8 7 : 7 7 ; Carpenter, Ammomyrma}), a n d review of genus: Shattuck,
Forel, 1915d: 9; Emery, 1922e: 195; Wheeler, W.M.
1992:491. 1992c: 77. See also: Shattuck, 1994: 7 3 .
1922a: 8 7 7 . Diplorhoptrum revived from s y n o n y m y
as subgenus of Solenopsis: Creighton, 1930b: 4 3 ; #DOLICHORHACHIS (subgenus of Polyrhachis) DREPANOGNATHUS (junior s y n o n y m of Harpegnathos)
m a i n t a i n e d as such: Kusnezov, 1962b: 160. Dolichorhachis M a n n , 1919: 386 [as subgenus of Poly­ Drepanognathus Smith, F. 1858b: 8 1 . Type-spedes:
Diplorhoptrum j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Solenopsis: rhachis]. Type-spedes: Polyrhachis (Dolichorhachis) Harpegnathos saltator, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of
Ettershank, 1966: 134. Diplorhoptrum revived from malaensis, by m o n o t y p y . Dolichorhachis provisional Bingham, 1 9 0 3 : 4 9 . [Unnecessary replacement
s y n o n y m y with status as genus: Baroni Urbani, j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Polyrhachis: B r o w n , 1973b: 180 n a m e for Harpegnathos^ Drepanognathus j u n i o r syn­
1968a: 68. Diplorhoptrum j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Solenop- (unconfirmed). o n y m of Harpegnathos: Roger, 1863b: 22; Forel,
sis:Kempf, 1972a: 232; Bolton, 1987: 2 8 5 . DOLIOPONERA (Ponerinae: Ponerini) 1900c: 6 3 . [Drepanognathus i n c o r r e d l y subsequently
DISCOTHYREA (Ponerinae: Proceratiini) Dolioponera B r o w n , 1974e: 3 1 . Type-spedes: used as senior n a m e : Bingham, 1903:49.]
Discothyrea Roger, 1863a: 176. Type-spedes: Discothyrea *DRYMOMYRMEX (Formicinae: Camponotini)
Dolioponerafustigera, by original designation.
testacea, by m o n o t y p y . Discothyrea senior s y n o n y m of *Drymomyrmex Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 135. Type-spe­
DOLOPHRA (junior s y n o n y m of Camponotus)
Prodiscothyrea a n d Pseudosysphincta, a n d revision of d e s : *Drymomyrmexfusdpennis, by original designa­
Dolophra W u & Wang, 1994: 35. Type-spedes:
genus: B r o w n , 1958g: 248; see also B r o w n , 1958j: tion. [Note: this n a m e sometimes misspelled as
Dolophrapolitae, by original designation. Dolophra
115. Key to Neotropical s p e d e s : Weber, 1939a: 99. *Dryomyrmex, for example in Donisthorpe, 1920:
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Camponotus (subgenus indetermi­
See also: Lattke, 1 9 9 4 : 1 1 3 . 93.]
nate): n e w s y n o n y m .
*DLUSSKYIDRIS (*Sphecomyrminae) DONISTHORPEA (junior s y n o n y m of Lasius) DYCLONA (junior s y n o n y m of Cardiocondyla)
*Dlusskyidris Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 8 7 . Replacement n a m e for Donisthorpea Morice & D u r r a n t , 1 9 1 5 : 4 2 3 . Type-spe­ Dyclona Santschi, 1930b: 70 (footnote) [as subgenus of
*PalaeomyrmexDIussky, 1 9 7 5 : 1 1 8 . [Junior h o m ­ d e s : Formica nigra, by original designation. [Unnec­ Cardiocondyla]. Type-spedes: Monomorium cristatum,
o n y m of *PalaeomyrmexB.eer, 1865: 91.] essary r e p l a c e m e n t n a m e for Lasius Fabridus.] by original designation. Dyclona provisional j u n i o r
DODECAMYRMICA (junior s y n o n y m of Myrmica) Donisthorpea subgenus of Formidna: Emery, 1916b: s y n o n y m of Cardiocondyla: B r o w n , 1973b: 180.
Dodecamyrmica Amol'di, 1 9 6 8 : 1 8 0 3 [as subgenus of 239. Donisthorpea j u n i o r s y n o n y m oi Acanthomyops: Dyclona j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cardiocondyla: Bolton,
Myrmica]. Type-spedes: Myrmica arnoldii, by original Forel, 1 9 1 6 : 4 6 0 . Donisthorpea junior s y n o n y m of 1982: 309.
designation. Dodecamyrmica provisional j u n i o r syn­ Lasius: Wheeler, W.M. 1916k: 172. [Lasius and DYOMORIUM (junior s y n o n y m of Vollenhovia)
o n y m of Myrmica: B r o w n , 1973b: 180. Donisthorpea share t h e same type-species; s y n o n y m y Dyomorium Donisthorpe, 1947d: 1 9 1 . Type-spedes:
Dodecamyrmica j u n i o r s y n o n y m oi Myrmica: is therefore absolute.] Dyomorium ireneum, by original designation. Dyomor­
Francoeur, 1 9 8 1 : 759. DORISIDRIS (Myrmicinae: Dacetini) ium j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Vollenhovia: Ettershank,
Dorisidris B r o w n , 1948e: 116. Type-spedes: 1966:146.
Strumigenys (Codiomyrmex) nitens, by original designa­
tion. [See n o t e u n d e r Strumigenys.]

Genus-Group Taxa 27
DYSEDROGNATHUS (Myrrmcinae: Dacetini) Electropheidole j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: Smith, *EOPONERA (junior s y n o n y m of *Formicium)
Dysedrognathus Taylor, 1968d: 132. Type-species: Dys- D.R. 1979: 1366. *Eoponera Carpenter, 1929: 3 0 1 . Type-spedes:
edrognathus extemenus, by original designation. [See *ELECTROPONERA (Ponerinae: E d a t o m m i n i ) *Eoponera berryi, by original designation. *Eoponera
n o t e u n d e r Strumigenys.] *Electroponera Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 34. Type-spedes: j u n i o r s y n o n y m of *Formitium: Lutz, 1986: 189.
ECHINOPLA (Formicinae: Camponotini) *Electroponera dubia, by m o n o t y p y . See also: Lattke, *EOTAPINOMA (Dolichoderinae)
Echinopla Smith, F. 1857a: 79. Type-species: Echinopla 1994: 116. *Eotapinoma DIussky, 1988: 54. Type-spedes:
melanarctos, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, EMERYELLA (junior s y n o n y m of Gnamptogenys) *Eotapinoma gracilis, by original designation.
W.M. 191 If: 162. Echinopla senior s y n o n y m of Emeryella Forel, 1901e: 334. Type-spedes: Emeryella EPELYSWRIS (Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini)
Mesoxena: Bolton, 1994: 50. schmitti, by m o n o t y p y . Emeryella j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Epelysidris Bolton, 1 9 8 7 : 2 7 9 . Type-spedes: Epelysidris
ECITON ( E d t o n i n a e : E d t o n i n i ) Gnamptogenys: B r o w n , 1958g: 2 1 1 . brocha, b y original designation.
Eciton Latreille, 1 8 0 4 : 1 7 9 . Type-spedes: Formica ham- EMERYIA (junior s y n o n y m of Cardiocondyla) EPHEBOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Pogonomyrmex)
ata, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Shuckard, in Emeryia Forel, 1890b: ex. Type-spedes: Emeryia EphebomyrmexWheeler, W.M. 1902c: 390 [as subge­
Swainson & Shuckard, 1 8 4 0 : 1 7 3 . Eciton senior syn­ wroughtonii, b y m o n o t y p y . Emeryia j u n i o r s y n o n y m n u s of Pogonomyrmex]. Type-spedes: Pogonomyrmex
o n y m of Camptognatha, a n d material of of Cardiocondyla: Forel, 1892g: 4 6 1 ; Forel, 1892i: naegelii, b y s u b s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler,
Ancylognathus (nomen nudum) referred h e r e : Smith, 313. W.M. 1911f: 1 6 3 . Ephebomyrmex raised to g e n u s :
F. 1855c: 160. Eciton senior s y n o n y m of May- EMERYOPONE (Ponerinae: Ponerini) Kusnezov, 1960b: 350. Ephebomyrmex subgenus of
romyrmex: Emery, 1906a: 7 1 8 . Eciton senior syn­ Emeryopone Forel, 1912m: 7 6 1 . Type-spedes: Pogonomyrmex: Cole, 1968: 2 2 . Ephebomyrmex
o n y m of Holopone: Borgmeier, 1936: 55. Revision of Emeryopone buttelreepeni, by m o n o t y p y . [Emeryopone revived status as genus: Kempf, 1972a: 106; m a i n ­
g e n u s : Borgmeier, 1955b: 162. Key to s p e d e s : also described as n e w b y Forel, 1913k: 14.] tained as g e n u s : B r o w n , 1973b: 180. Studies of
Watkins, 1976: 9. Emeryopone j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Belonopelta: Baroni N o r t h American s p e d e s : Creighton, 1957a: 54;
ECPHORELLA (Dolichoderinae) Urbani 1975b: 296 (key to s p e d e s : 2 9 8 ) . Emeryopone Cole, 1968: 22; Snelling, 1982a: 109. Ephebomyrmex
Ecphorella Forel, 1909b: 65 [as subgenus of Tapinoma]. revived from s y n o n y m y : B r o w n , in p r e p a r a t i o n . j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pogonomyrmex: Bolton, 1994:
Type-spedes: Tapinoma (Ecphorella) wellmani, by *EMPLASTUS (Ponerinae: Ponerini) 106.
m o n o t y p y . Ecphorella provisionally raised to g e n u s : *Emplastus Donisthorpe, 1 9 2 0 : 8 6 . Type-spedes: EPIATTA (junior s y n o n y m of Neoatta)
B r o w n , 1973b: 169. Ecphorella raised to genus, a n d *Emplastus emeryi, by original designation. Epiatta Borgmeier, 1950d: 246 [as subgenus oi Atta].
review of genus: Shattuck, 1992c: 8 5 . ENDIODIOCTES (junior s y n o n y m oiMyrmecocystus) Type-spedes: Oecodoma laevigata, by original designa­
ECTATOMMA (Ponerinae: E d a t o m m i n i ) Endiodioctes Snelling, 1976: 25 [as subgenus of tion. Epiatta j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Atta: Weber, 1958a:
Ectatomma Smith, F. 1858b: 102. Type-spedes: Formica Myrmecocystus]. Type-spedes: Myrmecocystus melliger, 8. Epiatta j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Neoatta: Borgmeier,
tuberculata, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Bingham, by original designation. Key to s p e d e s : Snelling, 1959b: 3 5 8 . [Neoatta j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Atta:Bo\-
1903: 82. Revisions of genus: B r o w n , 1958g: 206; 1976: 2 7 . Endiodioctes j u n i o r s y n o n y m of t o n , 1994: 105.]
Kugler, C. & B r o w n , 1982: 6. See also: Lattke, 1994: Myrmecocystus: Snelling, 1 9 8 1 : 4 0 3 . EPIMYRMA ( M y n m d n a e : Forrmcoxeirmi)
109. ENERIA (junior s y n o n y m of Strumigenys) Epimyrma Emery, 1915a: 2 6 2 . Type-spedes: Epimyrma
ECTOMOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla) Eneria Donisthorpe, 1948d: 5 9 8 . Type-spedes: Eneria kraussei, by original designation. Epimyrma provi­
Ectomomyrmex Mayr, 1867a: 8 3 . Type-spedes: excisa (junior s y n o n y m of Strumigenys loriae), by orig­ sional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Leptothorax: B r o w n ,
Ectomomyrmexjavanus, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of inal designation. Eneria j u n i o r s y n o n y m of 1973b: 180 (unconfirmed). Epimyrma provisional
Bingham, 1 9 0 3 : 8 5 . Ectomomyrmexsubgenus of Strumigenys:Biown, 1949d: 15. senior s y n o n y m of Myrmoxenus (and its j u n i o r syn­
Pachycondyla: Emery, 1901a: 4 2 . Ectomomyrmex ENGRAMMA (junior s y n o n y m of Technomyrmex) o n y m Myrmetaerus): Buschinger, 1990: 2 4 5 ;
revived status as g e n u s : Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 6 4 8 . Engramma Forel, 1905b: 180. Type-spedes: Engramma confirmed Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 5 . Revisions of g e n u s :
Ectomomyrmex provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of lujae, b y m o n o t y p y . Key t o s p e d e s : Wheeler, W.M. Menozzi, 1931c: 36; Kutter, 1973e: 2 8 1 ; Buschin­
Pachycondyla: B r o w n , 1973b: 180. Ectomomyrmex 1922a: 202 (out of date). Engramma j u n i o r syn­ ger, 1 9 8 9 : 2 6 5 . Subgenera of Epimyrma: n o m i n a l
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla: B r o w n , in prepara­ o n y m of Technomyrmex: Shattuck, 1992c: 153. plus Gonepimyrma.
tion. Key t o Melanesian s p e d e s : Wilson, 1958d: 362. *ENNEAMERUS (Myrmicinae: Myrmecinini?) EPIPHEWOLE (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole)
*ElAEOMYRMEX (Dolichoderinae) *Enneamerus Mayr, 1868c: 98. Type-spedes: Epipheidole Vi'heeler, W.M. 1903f: 664. Type-spedes:
*Elaeomyrmex Carpenter, 1 9 3 0 : 4 8 . Type-spedes: Epipheidole inquilina, by m o n o t y p y . [Epipheidole also
*Enneamerus reticulatus, by m o n o t y p y .
*Elaeomyrmex gracilis, by original designation. described as n e w by Wheeler, W.M. 1904a: 14.]
*EOCENIDRIS (Myrmicinae: u n p l a c e d to tribe)
ELASMOPHEIDOLE (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole) Epipheidole j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: Cole, 1965:
*Eocenidris Wilson, 1985d: 2 0 9 . Type-spedes: *Eocenidris
Elasmopheidole Forel, 1913k: 4 3 [as subgenus of 174.
crassa, by original designation.
Pheidole]. Type-spedes: Pheidole aberrans, by sub­ *EOFORMICA (Myrmicinae: u n p l a c e d t o tribe) EPITRITUS (Myrmicinae: Dacetini)
s e q u e n t designation of Emery, 1922e: 110. *Eoformica Cockerell, 1 9 2 1 : 3 8 . Type-spedes: *Eoformica Epitritus Emery, 1869a: 136. Type-spedes: Epitritus
Elasmopheidole provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of eocenica (junior s y n o n y m of *Eoformicapingue), by argiolus, by m o n o t y p y . Review of g e n u s : B r o w n ,
Pheidole: B r o w n , 1973b: 180. Elasmopheidole j u n i o r m o n o t y p y . *Eoformica transferred from P o n e r i n a e to 1948e: 122. Key to world s p e d e s : Bolton, 1972:
s y n o n y m of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366. Key Myrmicinae: Carpenter, 1930: 17. 208; t o Afrotropical s p e d e s : Bolton, 1983: 354. [See
to s p e d e s : Gallardo, 1932c: 179 (out of date). EOMONOCOMBUS (junior s y n o n y m of Cataglyphis) n o t e u n d e r Strumigenys.]
*ELECTROMYRMEX (Myrrmcinae: u n p l a c e d to tribe) Eomonocombus Arnol'di, 1968: 1815 [as subgenus of EPLXENUS (junior s y n o n y m oi Monomorium)
*Electromyrmex Wheeler, W.M. 1910g: 164 (by indica­ Cataglyphis]. Type-spedes: Myrmecocystus Epixenus Emery, 1908f: 556. Type-spedes: Epixenus
tion). Type-spedes: *Electromyrmex klebsi, b y cinnamomeus, by original designation. Eomonocombus andrei (junior secondary h o m o n y m i n Monomorium,
m o n o t y p y . [*Electromyrmex Wheeler, W.M. 1908g: provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cataglyphis: B r o w n , replaced b y Monomorium advena), by subsequent
4 1 3 , nomen nudum.] *Electromyrmex description of 1973b: 180. Eomonocombus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of designation of Wheeler, W.M. 191 If: 163. Epixenus
genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 55. Cataglyphis: Agosti, 1990a: 1462; Agosti, 1994a: 103. j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Monomorium: B r o w n & Wilson,
ELECTROPHEIDOLE (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole) *EOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: u n p l a c e d to tribe) 1957b: 2 4 4 ; discussion a n d confirmation of s y n o n ­
Electropheidole M a n n , 1 9 2 1 : 4 3 8 [as s u b g e n u s of *Eomyrmex Hong, 1 9 7 4 : 1 3 8 . Type-spedes: *Eomyrmex y m y : Bolton, 1987: 292; Tinaut & Ortiz, 1 9 8 8 : 1 6 7 .
Pheidole]. Type-spedes: Pheidole (Electropheidole) guchengziensis (spelling h e r e e m e n d e d from EPOECUS (junior s y n o n y m oi Monomorium)
roosevelti, by subsequent designation of *guchengzienis), by m o n o t y p y . Epoecus Emery, 1893a: eclxxvi. Type-spedes: Epoecus
Donisthorpe, 1943f: 642. Electropheidole provisional pergandei, by m o n o t y p y . Epoecus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: B r o w n , 1973b: 180. Monomorium: Ettershank, 1 9 6 6 : 8 2 ; see also Bolton,
1987: 2 9 8 .

28 Genus-Group Taxa
EPOPOSTRUMA (Myrrmcinae: Dacetini) 137; a n d Soulie, 1965: 78 incorrectly treat Eucrema EVELYN A (junior s y n o n y m of Myrmothrinax)
Epopostruma Forel, 1895f: 4 2 2 [as subgenus of as a j u n i o r s y n o n y m of subgenus Crematogaster sensu Evelyna Donisthorpe, 1937c: 2 7 3 [as subgenus of Poly­
Strumigenys]. Type-species: Strumigenys stricto. This stems from Emery's (1912d: 272) rhachis]. Type-spedes: Polyrhachis (Evelyna)
(Epopostruma) quadrispinosa, by s u b s e q u e n t designa­ unjustified s u b s e q u e n t designation oi Formica acuta cheesmanae, by original designation. Evelyna j u n i o r
tion of Wheeler, W.M. 191 If: 163. Epopostruma as t y p e - s p e d e s of Crematogaster; see above u n d e r s y n o n y m of Myrmothrinax: H u n g , 1967b: 4 0 2 .
raised to genus: Emery, 1897c: 5 7 3 . Epopostruma t h a t genus.] EXAMBLYOPONE (junior s y n o n y m of Prionopelta)
provisional senior s y n o n y m of Hexadaceton: B r o w n , EUCRYPTOCERUS (Myrmicinae: Cephalotini) Examblyopone Donisthorpe, 1949g: 4 0 1 . Type-spedes:
1973b: 1 8 1 . Epopostruma senior s y n o n y m of Eucryptocerus Kemvi, 1 9 5 1 : 1 2 7 . Type-spedes: Examblyopone churchilli (junior s y n o n y m of
Hexadaceton: Taylor 8- B r o w n , D.R. 1985: 63 Cryptocerus oculatus, b y original designation. Prionopelta majuscula), b y original designation.
(acceptedas confirmation). Eucryptocerus provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Examblyopone j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Prionopelta:
[EQUESSIMESSOR (misspelling) Cephalotes: B r o w n , 1973b: 180. Eucryptocerus valid Brown, 1951:102.
Equessimessor Santschi, 1936a: 32, incorrect sub­ g e n u s : Kempf, 1973c: 4 6 0 . Key to s p e d e s : Kempf, FLORENCEA (junior s y n o n y m of Myrmhopla)
s e q u e n t spelling of Equestrimessor.] 1 9 5 1 : 128. Florencea Donisthorpe, 1937a: 6 2 4 [as subgenus of
EQUESTRIMESSOR (junior s y n o n y m oi Monomorium) *EULITHOMYRMEX (Myrrmcinae: Polyrhachis]. Type-spedes: Polyrhachis (Florencea)
Equestrimessor Santschi, 1919d: 92 [as subgenus of Agroecomyrmedni) kirkae (junior s y n o n y m of Polyrhachis nigriceps), by
Monomorium]. Type-species: Holcomyrmex chobauti, *Eulithomyrmex Carpenter, 1935: 9 1 . R e p l a c e m e n t original designation. Florencea j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
by subsequent designation of Donisthorpe, 1943E n a m e for *Lithomyrmex Carpenter, 1930: 34. [Junior Myrmhopla:Hung, 1967b: 402.
644. Equestrimessor j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Monomorium: h o m o n y m of Lithomyrmex Clark, 1928a: 30.] FORELIFIDIS (junior s y n o n y m of Oxyepoecus)
Ettershank, 1966: 82; see also discussion in Bolton, EUMECOPONE (junior s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla) Forelifidis Smith, M.R. 1954a: 17. Replacement n a m e
1987: 2 9 7 . [Equessimessor: see above.] Eumecopone Forel, 1901e: 335 [as subgenus of for Martia Forel, 1907a: 2 0 . [Junior h o m o n y m of
EREBOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Oligomyrmex) Neoponera]. Type-spedes: Neoponera (Eumecopone) Martia Ragonot, 1887: 18.] Forelifidis j u n i o r syn­
Erebomyrma Wheeler, W.M. 1903a: 138. Type-species: agilis, by m o n o t y p y . Eumecopone provisional j u n i o r o n y m of Oxyepoecus:Brown, 1955b: 68.
Erebomyrma longii, by m o n o t y p y . Erebomyrma senior s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla: B r o w n , 1973b: 180. FORELIUS (Dolichoderinae)
s y n o n y m of Spelaeomyrmex: Wilson, 1962a: 6 3 . Eumecopone j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla: Brown, ForeliusEmtry, 1888d: 389. Type-spedes: Iridomyrmex
Erebomyrma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Oligomyrmex: i n preparation. mccooki, by m o n o t y p y . Forelius senior s y n o n y m of
Ettershank, 1966: 119. Erebomyrma revived from EUOPHTHALMA (junior s y n o n y m of Solenopsis) Amyrmex a n d Neoforelius, a n d review of g e n u s :
s y n o n y m y : Wilson, 1986b: 6 1 ; r e t u r n e d to s y n o n ­ Euophthalma Creighton, 1930b: 4 3 [as subgenus of Shattuck, 1992c: 8 7 . Key to Neotropical s p e d e s :
y m y of Oligomyrmex:Bolton, 1994: 106. Solenopsis]. Type-spedes: Myrmicaglobularia, by origi­ Kusnezov, 1957b: 16.
EREMNOCYSTUS (junior s y n o n y m of Myrmecocystus) nal designation. Euophthalma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of FORELOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Pogonomyrmex)
Eremnocystus Snelling, 1976: 92 [as subgenus of Solenopsis: Ettershank, 1966: 134. Forelomyrmex Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 80 [as subgenus
Myrmecocystus]. Type-species: Myrmecocystus EUPONERA (junior s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla) of Pogonomyrmex]. Replacement n a m e for Janetia
creightoni, by original designation. Key to species: Euponera Forel, 1891b: 126 [as subgenus of Ponera]. Forel, 1899c: 61 (footnote). [Junior h o m o n y m of
Snelling, 1976: 9 3 . Eremnocystus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Type-spedes: Ponera (Euponera) sikorae, by Janetia Kieffer, 1896: 236.] Forelomyrmex provisional
Myrmecocystus: Snelling, 1 9 8 1 : 4 0 3 . m o n o t y p y . Euponera raised to g e n u s : Emery, 1901a: j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pogonomyrmex: B r o w n , 1973b:
ERICAPELTA (junior s y n o n y m of Amblyopone) 46. Euponera j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla: 180; confirmed Bolton, 1994: 106.
Ericapelta Kusnezov, 1 9 5 5 : 2 7 3 . Type-spedes: B r o w n , in preparation.
FORELOPHILUS ( F o r m i d n a e : Camponotini)
. Ericapelta egregia, by m o n o t y p y . Ericapelta j u n i o r syn­ EUPRENOLEPIS (Formicinae: Lasiini)
Forelophilus Kutter, 1931b: 193. Type-spedes:
o n y m of Amblyopone: B r o w n , 1960a: 156. Euprenolepis Emery, 1906b: 134 [as subgenus of Pre-
Forelophilus overbecki, by m o n o t y p y .
ERIMELOPHORUS (junior s y n o n y m of Melophorus) nolepis]. Type-spedes: Prenolepis procera, by original
FORMICA (Formicinae: Formicini)
Erimelophorus Wheeler, W.M. 1935c: 71 [as subgenus designation. Euprenolepis raised t o genus, a n d senior
Formica Linnaeus, 1758: 579. Type-species: Formica
of Melophorus]. Type-species: Melophorus wheeleri, by s y n o n y m of Chapmanella: B r o w n , 1953h: 6.
rufa, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Curtis, 1829:
original designation. Erimelophorus j u n i o r s y n o n y m EURHOPALOTHRIX (Myrrmcinae: Basicerotini)
752. Formica senior s y n o n y m of Formidna: Wheeler,
of Melophorus: B r o w n , 1 9 5 5 d : 4 7 4 . Eurhopalothrix B r o w n & Kempf, 1 9 6 1 : 4 4 . Type-spe­
W.M. 1911c: 860; Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 164. For­
ERIOPHEIDOLE (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole) d e s : Rhopalothrix bolaui, by original designation.
mica senior s y n o n y m of Raptiformica and
Eriopheidole Kusnezov, 1952a: 10. Type-spedes: [EurhopalothrixBrown & Kempf, 1960: 202,
Serviformica: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 699 (footnote).
Eriopheidole symbiotica (unresolved j u n i o r secondary unavailable n a m e , p r o p o s e d w i t h o u t designation of
Formica senior s y n o n y m of Coptoformica (and its
h o m o n y m in Pheidole), by m o n o t y p y . Eriopheidole type-spedes.] Keys to world s p e d e s : B r o w n &
j u n i o r s y n o n y m Adformica), Serviformica a n d
provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: Kempf, 1 9 6 0 : 2 4 5 ; to Indo-Australian s p e d e s : Tay­
Raptiformica: Smith, M.R. 1951a: 860; Smith, D.R.
B r o w n , 1973b: 180. Eriopheidole j u n i o r s y n o n y m of lor, 1968b: 334; Taylor, 1990b: 4 0 1 .
1979: 1448. Formica senior s y n o n y m of Neoformica:
Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366. EUSPHINCTUS (junior s y n o n y m of Sphinctomyrmex)
Buren, 1968a: 39. Formica senior s y n o n y m of
ESCHERICHIA (junior s y n o n y m of Probolomyrmex) Eusphinctus Emery, 1893a: cclxxv. Type-spedes:
Serviformica: Francoeur, 1973: 34. Formica senior
Escherichia Forel, 1910c: 2 4 5 . Type-spedes: Escherichia Eusphinctusfurcatus, by m o n o t y p y . Eusphinctus subge­
s y n o n y m of Coptoformica (and its j u n i o r s y n o n y m
brevirostris, by m o n o t y p y . Escherichia j u n i o r syn­ n u s of Sphinctomyrmex: Emery, 1895k: 4 5 6 ; m a i n ­
Adformica), Formidna, Hypochira, Iberoformica,
o n y m of Probolomyrmex: Taylor, 1965d: 346. tained as subgenus: Forel, 1 9 1 7 : 2 3 9 . Eusphinctus
Neoformica, Raptiformica a n d Serviformica: Agosti,
EUBOTHROPONERA (junior s y n o n y m oi Platythyrea) revived status as g e n u s : Wheeler, W.M. 1918a: 219.
1994a: 106. Keys to Nearctic fauna: Creighton,
Eubothroponera Clark, 1930c: 8. Type-spedes: Eusphinctus provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
1950a: 4 5 6 ; Francoeur, 1973: 272 (fusca-grouv);
Eubothroponera dentinodis, b y original designation. Sphinctomyrmex:Brown, 1973b: 180. Eusphinctus
Buren, 1968a: 36 a n d Snelling & Buren, 1985: 71
Eubothroponera j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Platythyrea: j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Sphinctomyrmex: B r o w n , 1975:
(sanguinea-growp); to Palaearctic fauna: DIussky,
Brown, 1975: 6. 31.
1967a: 39 (former U.S.S.R.); DIussky, 1976b: 80
#EUCREMA (subgenus of Crematogaster)
EUTETRAMORIUM (Myrmicinae: Myrrnicini) (*Baltic Amber); DIussky, 1965a: 15 (Mongolia a n d
Eucrema Santschi, 1918d: 182 [as s u b g e n u s of
Eutetramorium Emery, 1899f: 2 8 0 . Type-spedes: Tibet); Amol'diS-DIussky, 1978: 552 (former
Crematogaster]. Type-spedes: Formica acuta, by origi­
Eutetramorium mocquerysi, by s u b s e q u e n t designa­ E u r o p e a n U.S.S.R.); Bernard, 1 9 6 7 : 2 8 7 (France
nal designation. Eucrema provisional j u n i o r syn­
tion of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 163. Notes o n genus: a n d M e d i t e r r a n e a n basin); Collingwood, 1978: 93
o n y m of Crematogaster: B r o w n , 1973b: 180
Bolton, 1976: 2 9 3 . (Iberian Peninsula); Collingwood, 1979: 112
(unconfirmed). [Emery, 1919b: 62; Emery, 1922e:
(Fennoscandia a n d D e n m a r k ) ; Agosti & Colling­
w o o d , 1987b: 285 (Balkans); Kutter, 1977c: 236

Genus-Group Taxa 29
(Switzerland); Gosswald, 1 9 8 5 : 2 7 4 (Germany). See GAUROMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Vollenhovia) GONIOMMA (Myrmicinae: Pheidolini)
also for ra/a-group: Cotti, 1 9 6 3 : 1 ; Gosswald, 1989: Gauromyrmex Menozzi, 1933c: 146. Type-spedes: Goniomma Emery, 1895c: 2 9 8 [as subgenus of
1; Gosswald, 1990: 1. Gauromyrmex bengakalisi, by m o n o t y p y . Stenamma]. Type-spedes: Aphaenogaster bland, by
FORMICINA (junior s y n o n y m of Formica) Gauromyrmex senior s y n o n y m of Acalama a n d subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 191 If:
Formidna Shuckard, in Swainson & Shuckard, 1840: Solenomyrma: B r o w n , 1953c: 10. Gauromyrmex provi­ 164. Goniomma raised to genus: Emery, 1908e: 4 6 0 .
172. Type-spedes: Formica rufa, by s u b s e q u e n t desig­ sional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Vollenhovia: B r o w n , Key to s p e d e s : Santschi, 1929e: 145 (out of date).
n a t i o n of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 164. Formidna 1973b: 180; confirmed Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 5 . Partial revision of genus: Acosta Salmeron, 1982: 7.
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Formica: Wheeler, W.M. 1911c: GEOGNOMICUS (junior s y n o n y m of Dicroaspis) GONIOTHORAX (junior h o m o n y m , see Nesomyrmex)
860; Wheeler, W.M. 191 If: 164. Formidna u n n e c e s ­ Geognomicus Menozzi, 1924b: 2 2 0 . Type-spedes: Goniothorax Emery, 1896g: 58 (diagnosis in key) [as
sarily a n d i n c o r r e d l y used as replacement n a m e for Geognomicus wheeleri (junior s y n o n y m of Diaoaspis subgenus of Leptothorax]. Type-spedes: Leptothorax
Lasius Fabridus: Emery, 1916b: 239; Bondroit, cryptocera), by original designation. Geognomicus vicinus, by subsequent designation of Wheeler,
1 9 1 8 : 1 9 ; see also Wheeler, W.M. 1916k: 172. j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Diaoaspis: Bolton, 1981a: 56. W.M. 191 If: 164. [Junior h o m o n y m of Goniothorax
Formidna incorrectly as j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Lasius: GESOMYRMEX (Formicinae: G e s o m y r m e d n i ) Milne-Edwards, 1879: 103 (Crustacea).]
Emery, 1925b: 2 2 6 . Formidna junior s y n o n y m of Gesomyrmex Mayr, 1868c: 50. Type-spedes: Goniothorax E m e r y senior s y n o n y m of Caulomyrma
Formica: Donisthorpe, 1943f: 646; Agosti, 1994a: *Gesomyrmexhoernesi, by m o n o t y p y . Gesomyrmex a n d Nesomyrmex: Emery, 1922f: 2 4 9 . Nesomyrmex
106. Formidna incorrectly as provisional j u n i o r syn­ senior s y n o n y m of Gaesomyrmex: Forel, 1893a: 167; first available replacement n a m e for Goniothorax
o n y m of Lasius: B r o w n , 1973b: 180. [As Formica a n d Emery, 1925b: 4 7 . Gesomyrmex senior s y n o n y m of Emery: Smith, M.R. 1950: 30.
Formidna share t h e s a m e t y p e - s p e d e s t h e s y n o n ­ Dimorphomyrmex: Wheeler, W.M. 1929a: 1. Revision GRANISOLENOPSIS (junior s y n o n y m of Solenopsis)
y m y is absolute.] of genus: Cole, 1949: 7 1 . Granisolenopsis Kusnezov, 1957a: 2 7 7 [as subgenus of
FORMICITES (collective group n a m e ) GIGANTIOPS (Formicinae: Gigantiopini) Solenopsis]. Type-spedes: Solenopsis (Granisolenopsis)
Formidtes DIussky, 1981b: 75 [collective group n a m e , Gigantiops Roger, 1863b: 1 1 . Type-spedes: Formica granivora, by original designation. Granisolenopsis
w i t h o u t included n a m e d taxa.] destrudor, by m o n o t y p y . j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Solenopsis: Ettershank, 1966: 134.
FORMICIUM (*Forrmciinae) GLAMYROMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Dacetini) GYMNOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Dacetini)
Formidum Westwood, 1854: 3 9 3 . Type-spedes: Glamyromyrmex Wheeler, W.M. 1915e: 4 8 7 . Type-spe­ Gymnomyrmex Borgmeier, 1954b: 279. Type-spedes:
d e s : Glamyromyrmex beebei, b y m o n o t y p y . Gymnomyrmex splendens, by original designation.
*Formidum brodiei, by m o n o t y p y . *Formidum j u n i o r
Glamyromyrmex senior s y n o n y m of Borgmeierita: Keys to s p e d e s : Kempf, 1960f: 4 5 1 ; Perrault, 1986:
s y n o n y m of *Pseudosirex (family *Pseudosiriddae):
B r o w n , 1973a: 3 5 . Key to Neotropical s p e d e s : 3. [See n o t e u n d e r Strumigenys.]
Handlirsch, 1906: 577. *Formitium revived from syn­
Kempf, 1960f: 4 4 7 ; t o Afrotropical s p e d e s : Bolton, HAGENSIA (junior s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla)
o n y m y as g e n u s of F o r m i d d a e : Cockerell, 1920:
1983: 3 2 1 . [See n o t e u n d e r Strumigenys.] Hagensia Forel, 190 If: 333 [as subgenus of
279. *Formidum senior s y n o n y m of *Eoponera, a n d
*GLAPHYROMYRMEX ( F o r m i d n a e : Formicini) Megaloponera (sic)]. Type-spedes:Megaloponera (sic)
revision of g e n u s : Lutz, 1986: 182. [*Formidum
*Glaphyromyrmex Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 1 3 1 . Type-spe­ (Hagensia) havilandi, by m o n o t y p y . Hagensia subge­
incorrectly as senior s y n o n y m of *Pseudosirex:
d e s : *Glaphyromyrmexoligocenicus, by m o n o t y p y . n u s oi Euponera: Forel, 1917: 2 3 7 . Hagensia raised to
Holldobler & Wilson, 1 9 9 0 : 1 7 ; i n c o r r e d l y retained
GLYPHOPONE (junior s y n o n y m of Centromyrmex) genus: Arnold, 1 9 2 6 : 2 0 2 . Revision of g e n u s :
in *Pseudosiriddae: Abe & Smith, 1 9 9 1 : 34.]
Glyphopone Forel, 1913b: 3 0 8 . Type-spedes: Arnold, 1 9 5 1 : 5 3 . Hagensia j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
*Formidum senior s y n o n y m of *Megapterites: Lutz,
Glyphopone bequaerti, b y m o n o t y p y . Glyphopone Pachycondyla: B r o w n , in preparation.
1990:61.
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Centromyrmex: B r o w n , 1 9 6 3 : 9 . ^HAGIOMYRMA (subgenus of Polyrhachis)
FORMICOXENUS (Myrmicinae: Formicoxenini)
GLYPTOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Myrmicocrypta) Hagiomyrma Wheeler, W.M. 1911c: 860 [as subgenus
Formicoxenus Mayr, 1 8 5 5 : 4 1 3 . Type-spedes: Myrmica
GlyptomyrmexFoxei, 1885a: 3 6 5 . Type-spedes: of Polyrhachis]. Type-spedes: Formica ammon, by
nitidula, by m o n o t y p y . Formicoxenus provisional
Glyptomyrmex dilaceratum, by m o n o t y p y . original designation. Hagiomyrma provisional j u n i o r
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Leptothorax: B r o w n , 1973b: 180.
Glyptomyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Myrmicocrypta: s y n o n y m of Polyrhachis: B r o w n , 1973b: 181
Formicoxenus valid genus, senior s y n o n y m of Sym-
Emery, 1894c: 2 2 4 . (unconfirmed).
myrmica, a n d revision of g e n u s : Francoeur, Loiselle
GNAMPTOGENYS (Ponerinae: E t t a t o m m i n i ) HAGIOSTIGMACROS (junior s y n o n y m of Stigmacros)
& Buschinger, 1985: 3 4 3 .
Gnamptogenys Roger, 1863a: 174. Type-spedes: Ponera Hagiostigmacros McAreavey, 1 9 5 7 : 1 9 [as subgenus of
FROGGATTELLA (Dolichoderinae)
tomata, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Emery, 1911 d: Stigmacros]. Type-spedes: Stigmacros barretti, by origi­
Froggattella Forel, 1902h: 4 5 9 . Type-spedes:
4 4 . [Type-spedes n o t Ectatomma condnna as desig­ n a l designation. Hagiostigmacros provisional j u n i o r
Acantholepis kirbii, by original designation. Key to
n a t e d by Wheeler, W.M. 191 If: 164; see Wheeler, s y n o n y m of Stigmacros: B r o w n , 1973b: 1 8 1 .
s p e d e s : Wheeler, W.M. 1936a: 5. Review of genus:
W.M. 1913a: 79.] Gnamptogenys subgenus of Hagiostigmacros j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Stigmacros: Taylor
Shattuck, 1992c: 9 5 .
Ectatomma: Mayr, 1887: 540; m a i n t a i n e d as subge­ & B r o w n , D.R. 1 9 8 5 : 1 4 5 (accepted as
FULAKORA (junior s y n o n y m of Stigmatomma)
n u s : Dalla Torre, 1893: 2 3 ; Emery, 191 Id: 4 4 ; confirmation).
Fulakora M a n n , 1919: 279 [as subgenus of
Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 6 4 4 . Gnamptogenys revived HAGIOXENUS (junior s y n o n y m of Rhoptromyrmex)
Stigmatomma]. Type-spedes: Stigmatomma (Fulakora) Hagioxenus Forel, 1910a: 8. Type-spedes: Hagioxenus
status as genus, senior s y n o n y m oi Alfaria (and its
celata, by original designation. Fulakora j u n i o r syn­ schmitzi, by m o n o t y p y . Hagioxenus j u n i o r s y n o n y m
j u n i o r s y n o n y m Opisthoscyphus), Barbourella, Com­
o n y m of Stigmatomma: B r o w n , 1949c: 8 8 . of Rhoptromyrmex: Bolton, 1986a: 2.
mateta, Emeryella, Holcoponera, Parectatomma, Pon-
[Stigmatomma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Amblyopone: HALMAMYRMECIA (junior s y n o n y m of Promyrmeda)
eracantha, Rhopalopone (and its j u n i o r s y n o n y m
B r o w n , 1960a: 155.] Halmamyrmecia Wheeler, W.M. 1922b: 195 [as subge­
Midoponera), Spaniopone, Stidoponera, Tammoteca,
GAESOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Gesomyrmex) n u s of Myrmeda]. Type-spedes: Myrmeda pilosula, by
Wheeleripone, a n d revision of g e n u s : B r o w n , 1958g:
Gaesomyrmex Dalla Torre, 1 8 9 3 : 1 7 5 , unjustified e m e n ­ original designation. Halmamyrmecia j u n i o r syn­
2 1 1 . Key to N e w World s p e d e s : B r o w n , 1958g: 230;
dation of Gesomyrmex. Gaesomyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m o n y m of Promyrmeda: Clark, 1 9 5 1 : 119. [Pro­
t o Old World s p e d e s : B r o w n , 1958g: 237.
of Gesomyrmex: Forel, 1893a: 167. myrmeda j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Myrmeda: B r o w n ,
#GONEPIMYRMA (subgenus oi Epimyrma)
GALLARDOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole) 1953J: 1.]
Gonepimyrma Bernard, 1 9 4 8 : 1 4 6 [as subgenus of
Gallardomyrma Bruch, 1 9 3 2 : 2 7 1 . Type-spedes:
Epimyrma]. Type-spedes: Epimyrma (Gonepimyrma)
Gallardomyrma argentina, by original designation. HARNEDIA (junior s y n o n y m of Paracryptocerus)
africana, by m o n o t y p y . Gonepimyrma provisional
Gallardomyrma provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Harnedia Smith, M.R. 1949c: 20 [as subgenus of
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Epimyrma: B r o w n , 1973b: 181
Pheidole: B r o w n , 1973b: 180. Gallardomyrma j u n i o r Paracryptocerus]. Type-spedes: Cryptocerus
(unconfirmed).
s y n o n y m of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1 9 7 9 : 1 3 6 6 ; Wil­ umbraculatus, by original designation. Revision of
son, 1984: 327. subgenus: Kempf, 1958a: 6 1 . Harnedia j u n i o r syn­
o n y m of Paracryptocerus: Kempf, 1972a: 175.

30 Genus-Group Taxa
[Paracryptocerus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Zacryptocerus: Heteromyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Vollenhovia: HOPLOMYRMUS (junior s y n o n y m of Myrma)
Kempf, 1973c: 460.] Ettershank, 1966: 146. Hoplomyrmus Gerstacker, 1 8 5 9 : 2 6 2 . Type-spedes:
HARPAGOXENUS (Myrmicinae: Formicoxenini) HETEROPONERA (Ponerinae: E d a t o m n i i n i ) Hoplomyrmus schistaceus, by m o n o t y p y .
Harpagoxenus Forel, 1893a: 167. Replacement n a m e Heteroponera Mayr, 1887: 532. Type-spedes: [Hoplomyrmus also described as n e w by Gerstacker,
for Tomognathus Mayr, 1 8 6 1 : 56. [Junior h o m o n y m Heteroponera carinifrons, by m o n o t y p y . Heteroponera 1862: 508.] Hoplomyrmus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Poly­
of Tomognathus Agassiz, 1850: 376.] j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Acanthoponera: Emery, 1911 d: rhachis: Roger, 1861b: 174; Mayr, 1863: 446; Dalla
HARPEGNATHOS (Ponerinae: Ponerini) 3 5 . Heteroponera revived from s y n o n y m y as subge­ Torre, 1 8 9 3 : 2 5 7 . Hoplomyrmus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Harpegnathos Jerdon, 1 8 5 1 : 1 1 6 . Type-species: n u s of Acanthoponera: Forel, 1 9 1 7 : 2 3 6 . Heteroponera Myrma: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 993; Emery, 1925b:
Harpegnathos saltator, b y m o n o t y p y . Harpegnathos revived status as genus: B r o w n , 1952h: 70. 198; Bolton, 1973b: 2 8 8 .
senior s y n o n y m of Drepanognathus: Roger, 1863b: Heteroponera senior s y n o n y m of Anacanthoponera: HUBERIA (Myrmicinae: Pheidolini)
22. Harpegnathos incorrectly as j u n i o r s y n o n y m of B r o w n , 1952h: 70. Heteroponera senior s y n o n y m of Huberia Forel, 1890b: cv. Type-spedes: Tetramorium
Drepanognathus:DaRa Torre, 1 8 9 3 : 2 2 . Harpegnathos Paranomopone: B r o w n , in Borgmeier, 1 9 5 7 : 1 1 2 . striatum, by m o n o t y p y . Review of g e n u s :
senior s y n o n y m of Drepanognathus: Forel, 1893a: Revision of g e n u s : B r o w n , 1958g: 194. Key to Ettershank, 1966: 155; see also notes in B r o w n ,
166; Forel, 1900c: 6 3 . Neotropical s p e d e s : Kempf, 1962a: 3 1 . 1958h:25.
ttHEDOMYRMA (subgenus of Polyrhachis) HEXADACETON (junior s y n o n y m of Epopostruma) HYLIDRIS (junior s y n o n y m of Pristomyrmex)
Hedomyrma Forel, 1915b: 107 [as subgenus of Poly­ Hexadaceton B r o w n , 1948e: 120. Type-spedes: Hylidris Weber, 1941a: 190. Type-spedes: Hylidris
rhachis] . Type-species: Polyrhachis ornata, by original Hexadaceton frosti, by original designation. myersi (junior s y n o n y m of Pristomyrmex africanus),
designation. Hedomyrma senior s y n o n y m of Hexadaceton provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of by original designation. Hylidris j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Morleyidris: H u n g , 1967b: 4 0 2 . Hedomyrma provi­ Epopostruma: B r o w n , 1973b: 1 8 1 . Hexadaceton j u n i o r Pristomyrmex: B r o w n , 1953c: 9.
sional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Polyrhachis: B r o w n , s y n o n y m of Epopostruma: Taylor & B r o w n , D.R. HYLOMYRMA (Myrmicinae: Myrrnicini)
1973b: 181 (unconfirmed). 1985: 63 (accepted as confirmation). Hylomyrma Forel, 1912g: 16 [as subgenus of
#HEMIOPTICA (subgenus of Polyrhachis) HINCKSIDRIS (junior s y n o n y m of Myrmelachista) Pogonomyrmex]. Type-spedes: Pogonomyrmex
Hemioptica Roger, 1862a: 2 3 8 . Type-species: Hemioptica Hincksidris Donisthorpe, 1944b: 59 [as subgenus of (Hylomyrma) columbicus, by original designation.
scissa, by m o n o t y p y . Hemioptica subgenus of Poly­ Myrmelachista]. Replacement n a m e for Decamera Hylomyrma raised to genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a:
rhachis: Mayr, 1872: 138. Hemioptica revived status Roger, 1863a: 166. [Junior h o m o n y m of Decamera 660 ( i n k e y ) ; m a i n t a i n e d as g e n u s B r o w n , 1953h:3.
as g e n u s : Dalla Torre, 1 8 9 3 : 2 7 1 ; m a i n t a i n e d as Mulsant, 1842: 503.] Hincksidris provisional j u n i o r Hylomyrma senior s y n o n y m of Lundella: B r o w n ,
genus: Emery, 1925b: 2 0 9 . Hemioptica provisional s y n o n y m of Myrmelachista: B r o w n , 1973b: 1 8 1 . 1953h: 3. Revision of genus: Kempf, 1973b: 2 2 5 .
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Polyrhachis: B r o w n , 1973b: 181 Hincksidris j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Myrmelachista: Snell­ #HYPERCOLOBOPSIS (subgenus of Camponotus)
(unconfirmed); h e r e reverts to subgenus of Poly­ ing & Hunt, 1976: 110. Hypercolobopsis Emery, 1920b: 250 [as subgenus of
rhachis. [HIPHOPELTA (misspelling) Camponotus]. Type-species: Colobopsisparadoxa, by
Hiphopelta Forel, 1913a: 108, i n c o r r e d s u b s e q u e n t original designation. Hypercolobopsis senior s y n o n y m
HENDECAPHEIDOLE (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole)
Hendecapheidole Wheeler, W.M. 1922d: 3 [as subgenus spelling of Xiphopelta.] of Neocolobopsis: Kempf, 1968b: 4 1 1 . Hypercolobopsis
of Pheidole]. Type-spedes: Pheidole tachigaliae, by HOLCOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Monomorium) provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Camponotus: B r o w n ,
original designation. Hendecapheidole senior syn­ Holcomyrmex Mayr, 1879: 6 7 1 . Type-spedes: 1973b: 181 (unconfirmed).
o n y m of Cephalomorium: Santschi, 1925d: 2 2 8 . Holcomyrmex scabriceps, b y s u b s e q u e n t designation of HYPOCHIRA (not identifiable to subfamily)
Hendecapheidole provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Bingham, 1 9 0 3 : 2 8 0 . [Holcomyrmex Smith, F. 1873: Hypochira Buckley, 1866a: 169 [as subgenus of For­
Pheidole: B r o w n , 1973b: 1 8 1 . Hendecapheidole j u n i o r ix, nomen nudum attributed to Mayr.] Holcomyrmex mica]. Type-spedes: Formica (Hypochira) subspinosa,
s y n o n y m oi Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366. j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Monomorium: Emery, 1908h: by m o n o t y p y . Hypochira j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Formica:
HENDECATELLA (junior s y n o n y m of Oligomyrmex) 667. Holcomyrmex revived from s y n o n y m y as subge­ Dalla Torre, 1893: 192; Agosti, 1994a: 106.
Hendecatella Wheeler, W.M. 1927h: 93 [as subgenus of n u s of Monomorium: Emery, 1915i: 190. Hypochira questionably j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Oligomyrmex]. Type-spedes: Oligomyrmex Holcomyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Monomorium: Dolichoderus:Emery, 1895c: 338; Emery, 1925b:
(Hendecatella) capreolus, by m o n o t y p y . Hendecatella Ettershank, 1966: 82; see also discussion in Bolton, 2 7 1 . Hypochira unplaced t a x o n of Dolichoderinae:
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Oligomyrmex: Ettershank, 1966: 1987:295. Smith, D.R. 1 9 7 9 : 1 4 2 2 . Unrecognisable t a x o n .
119. HYPOCLINEA (junior s y n o n y m of Dolichoderus)
HOLCOPONERA (junior s y n o n y m of Gnamptogenys)
Hypoclinea Mayr, 1855: 377. Type-spedes: Formica
HEPTACONDYLUS (junior s y n o n y m of Myrmicaria) Holcoponera Mayr, 1887: 540 [as subgenus of
quadripunctata, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of
Heptacondylus Smith, F. 1857a: 7 1 . Type-spedes: Ectatomma]. Type-spedes: Gnamptogenysstriatula, by
Wheeler, W.M. 191 If: 165. Hypoclinea j u n i o r syn­
Heptacondylus subcarinatus, by s u b s e q u e n t designa­ s u b s e q u e n t designation of Emery, 1911 d: 4 0 .
o n y m of Dolichoderus: Forel, 1878: 386. Hypoclinea
tion of Wheeler, W.M. 191 If: 164. Heptacondylus Holcoponera raised to g e n u s : Emery, 1902b: 181;
revived from s y n o n y m y as subgenus of Dolichoderus:
senior s y n o n y m of Physatta: Mayr, 1862: 755 (in m a i n t a i n e d as g e n u s : Emery, 191 I d : 40; Wheeler,
Emery, 1894c: 234; m a i n t a i n e d as subgenus: Emery,
text); see also Roger, 1863b: 2 7 . Heptacondylus j u n i o r W.M. 1922a: 6 4 3 . Key to s p e d e s : Santschi, 1929h:
1912g: 10. Hypoclinea raised to g e n u s : Kempf,
s y n o n y m oi Myrmicaria: Smith, F. 1865: 7 3 . 4 7 1 (out of date). Holcoponera j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
1972a: 118. Hypoclinea provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m
HEPTASTRUMA (junior s y n o n y m of Rhopalothrix) Gnamptogenys: B r o w n , 1 9 5 8 g : 2 1 1 .
of Dolichoderus: B r o w n , 1973b: 1 8 1 . Hypoclinea
Heptastruma Weber, 1934a: 54. Type-spedes: HOLCOPONERA (junior h o m o n y m , j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dolichoderus: Shattuck, 1992c: 66.
Heptastruma wheeleri (junior secondary h o m o n y m in Cylindromyrmex) HYPOCRYPTOCERUS (junior s y n o n y m of Zacryptocerus)
Rhopalothrix, replaced by Rhopalothrix weberi), by Holcoponera Cameron, 1 8 9 1 : 92. Type-spedes: Hypocryptocerus Wheeler, W.M. 1920: 53 [as subgenus
original designation. Heptastruma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Holcoponera whymperi (junior s y n o n y m of Cyl­ of Cryptocerus]. Type-spedes: Formica
Rhopalothrix: B r o w n 6- Kempf, 1 9 6 0 : 2 3 0 . indromyrmex striatus), b y m o n o t y p y . [Junior h o m ­ haemorrhoidalis, by original designation.
HERCYNIA (junior s y n o n y m of Wasmannia) o n y m of Holcoponera Mayr, above.] Holcoponera Hypocryptocerus raised to g e n u s : Wheeler, W.M.
Hercynia E n z m a n n , J. 1947a: 4 3 . Type-spedes: C a m e r o n j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cylindromyrmex: Forel, 1936b: 2 0 0 . Revision of genus: Kempf, 1 9 5 1 : 143.
Hercyniapanamana (junior s y n o n y m of Wasmannia 1892f: 2 5 6 . Hypocryptocerus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Zacryptocerus:
auropunctata), b y m o n o t y p y . Hercynia j u n i o r syn­ HOLOPONE (junior s y n o n y m of Eciton) Kempf, 1973c: 4 6 0 .
o n y m of Wasmannia: B r o w n , 1948d: 102. Holopone Santschi, 1925b: 11 [as subgenus of Eciton]. HYPOCYLINDROMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Cyl­
HETEROMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Vollenhovia) Type-spedes: Eciton rapax, by original designation. indromyrmex)
Heteromyrmex Wheeler, W.M. 1920: 5 3 . Type-spedes: Holopone j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Eciton: Borgmeier, HypocylindromyrmexWheeler, W.M. 1924a: 106 [as
Vollenhovia rufiventris, by original designation. 1936:55.

Genus-Group Taxa 31
subgenus of Cylindromyrmex]. Type-species: Cyl­ o n y m of Monomorium: Ettershank, 1966: 82; see #KARAVAIEVIA (subgenus of Camponotus)
indromyrmex longiceps, by original designation. also notes in Bolton, 1 9 8 7 : 2 9 8 . Karavaievia Emery, 1925b: 115 [as subgenus of
Hypocylindromyrmex provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of IRENEOPONE (Myrmicinae: Formicoxenini) Camponotus]. Type-species: Camponotusexsectus, by
Cylindromyrmex: B r o w n , 1 9 7 3 b : 1 8 1 . Ireneopone Donisthorpe, 1946d: 2 4 2 . Type-species: original designation. Karavaievia provisional j u n i o r
Hypocylindromyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cyl­ Ireneoponegibber, b y original designation. See also s y n o n y m of Camponotus: B r o w n , 1973b: 181
indromyrmex: B r o w n , 1975: 36. notes in Bolton, 1976: 2 9 2 . (unconfirmed). Key to species: D u m p e r t , 1986: 5 7 1 .
HYPOPHEIDOLE {nomen nudum) IRIDOMYRMEX (Dolichoderinae) KARAWAJEWELLA (junior s y n o n y m of Dolichoderus)
Hypopheidole Ashmead, 1905b: 383, nomennudum. Iridomyrmex Mayr, 1 8 6 2 : 7 0 2 . Type-species: Formica Karawajewella Donisthorpe, 1944b: 59. Replacement
*HYPOPOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Pheidologetonini) detecta (junior s y n o n y m of Iridomyrmexpurpureus), n a m e for Diabolus Karavaiev, 1 9 2 6 d : 4 2 4 . [Junior
*Hypopomyrmex Emery, 1891a: 148. Type-species: by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Bingham, 1 9 0 3 : 2 9 7 . h o m o n y m oiDiabolus Gray, J.E. 1841:400.]
*Hypopomyrmexbombiccii, by m o n o t y p y . Review of g e n u s : Shattuck, 1992a: 14; Shattuck, Karawajewella provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
*Hypopomyrmex transferred from Dacetini to 1992c: 1 0 1 . Keys to species: Shattuck, 1993a: 113 Dolichoderus: B r o w n , 1973b: 1 8 1 . Karawajewella
Pheidologetonini: B r o w n & Carpenter, 1 9 7 9 : 4 2 2 . (purpureus-gxoup); Shattuck, 1993b: 1303 (calvus- j u n i o r s y n o n y m oi Dolichoderus: Shattuck, 1992c: 66.
HYPOPONERA (Ponerinae: Ponerini) group). See also: Shattuck, 1994: 99. KARTIDRIS (Myrmicinae: Pheidolini)
Hypoponera Santschi, 1938b: 79 [as subgenus oi Pon­ IROGERA (junior s y n o n y m of Rogeria) Kartidris Bolton, 1 9 9 1 : 1 0 . Type-species: Kartidris nyos,
era]. Type-species: Ponera abeillei, by original desig­ Irogera Emery, 19151:191 [as subgenus of Rogeria]. by original designation. Key to species: Bolton,
n a t i o n . Hypoponera raised to genus: Taylor, 1967a: 9. Type-species: Rogeria procera, by original designa­ 1991: 12.
IBEROFORMICA (junior s y n o n y m of Formica) tion. Irogera raised to genus: B r o w n , 1953h: 4 (in *KOTSHKORKIA (Dolichoderinae)
Iberoformica Tinaut, 1 9 9 0 : 2 8 2 [as subgenus of For­ text); m a i n t a i n e d as genus: Kempf, 1961d: 4 3 6 . Key *Kotshkorkia DIussky, 1981b: 7 1 . Type-species:
mica]. Type-species: Formica subrufa, by original des­ to species: Kempf, 1964e: 66. Irogera j u n i o r syn­ *Kotshkorkia laticeps, by original designation.
ignation. Iberoformica j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Formica: o n y m of Rogeria: Kempf, 1965: 185. KYIDRIS (Myrmicinae: Dacetini)
Agosti, 1994a: 107. ISCHNOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole) Kyidris B r o w n , 1949d: 3. Type-species: Kyidris mutica,
ICOTHORAX (junior s y n o n y m of Myrafant) Ischnomyrmex Mayr, 1862: 7 3 8 . Type-species: Myrmica by original designation. Kyidris senior s y n o n y m of
Icothorax H a m a n n & Klemm, 1 9 6 7 : 4 1 5 [as subgenus longipes, by m o n o t y p y . Ischnomyrmex subgenus of Polyhomoa: Creighton, 1950b: 9 3 ; see also B r o w n &
of Leptothorax]. Type-species: Leptothorax (Icothorax) Stenamma: Emery, 1895c: 2 9 8 . Ischnomyrmex revived Yasumatsu, 1 9 5 1 : 9 3 . Revision of genus: Wilson &
megalops, by m o n o t y p y . Icothorax j u n i o r s y n o n y m of status as genus: Stitz, 1911a: 367. Ischnomyrmex sub­ B r o w n , 1 9 5 6 : 4 3 9 . [See n o t e u n d e r Strumigenys.]
Myrafant: Baroni Urbani, 1978b: 556. Icothorax g e n u s of Pheidole: Forel, 1913k: 4 9 . Ischnomyrmex LABAUCHENA (junior s y n o n y m of Solenopsis)
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Chalepoxenus: Holldobler & Wil­ revived status as g e n u s : Emery, 1914a: 40; m a i n ­ Labauchena Santschi, 1930e: 8 1 . Type-species:
son, 1990: 13; reverts h e r e to s y n o n y m y of Myraf­ tained as g e n u s : Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 6 6 1 ; Emery, Labauchena daguerrei, by m o n o t y p y . Labauchena
ant. [Myrafant j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Leptothorax: 1922e: 113. Ischnomyrmex senior s y n o n y m of j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Solenopsis: Ettershank, 1 9 6 6 : 1 3 4 .
Bolton, 1982: 319.] Isopheidole: Forel, 1913k: 4 9 . Ischnomyrmex provi­ LABIDOGENYS (junior s y n o n y m of Strumigenys)
IDRISELLA (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidologeton) sional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: B r o w n , 1973b: Labidogenys Roger, 1862a: 249. Type-species:
Idrisella Santschi, 1937h: 372. Type-species: 1 8 1 . Ischnomyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: Labidogenys lyroessa, by m o n o t y p y . Labidogenys
Pheidologeton dentiviris, by original designation. Smith, D.R. 1979: 1365. j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Strumigenys: Roger, 1863b: 40;
Idrisella j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidologeton: ISHAKIDRIS (Myrmicinae: Phalacromyrmecini) Dalla Torre, 1893: 145; Bingham, 1903: 147.
Ettershank, 1966: 115. Ishakidris Bolton, 1984: 374. Type-species: Ishakidris Labidogenys revived from s y n o n y m y : B r o w n , 1948e:
*ILEMOMYRMEX (Myrrmcinae: Stenammini?) 102. Labidogenys j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Strumigenys:
ascitaspis, b y original designation. B r o w n & Wilson, 1959b: 2 8 1 ; B r o w n , 1960b: 38;
*Ilemomyrmex Wilson, 1985a: 2. Type-species:
ISOLCOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Monomorium) Bolton, 1 9 8 3 : 3 5 8 .
*Ilemomyrmex caecus, by original designation. Isolcomyrmex Santschi, 1917b: 296 [as subgenus of LABWUS ( E d t o n i n a e : E d t o n i n i )
*IMHOFFIA (Formicinae: unplaced to tribe) Monomorium]. Type-species: Holcomyrmex santschii Labidus J u r i n e , 1 8 0 7 : 2 8 2 . Type-spedes: Labidus
*Imhoffia Heer, 1 8 5 0 : 1 5 3 . Type-species: *Imhoffia nigra, (junior secondary h o m o n y m in Monomorium, latreillei (junior s y n o n y m of Labidus coecus), by
by m o n o t y p y . replaced by Monomorium santschianum), by m o n o t y p y . Labidus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Eciton: Dalla
INDOMYRMA (Myrmicinae: Stenammini) m o n o t y p y . Isolcomyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Torre, 1 8 9 3 : 1 . Labidus revived from s y n o n y m y as
Indomyrma B r o w n , 1986: 37. Type-species: Indomyrma Monomorium: Ettershank, 1966: 82; see also notes in subgenus of Baton: Emery, 1910b: 2 1 . Labidus
dasypyx, by original designation. Bolton, 1987: 296. [Isholcomyrmex Santschi, 1936a: revived status as genus: Borgmeier, 1953: 4. Labidus
IRENE A (junior s y n o n y m of Myrmatopa) 32, incorrect s u b s e q u e n t spelling.] senior s y n o n y m of Nycteresia a n d Pseudodichthadia:
Irenea Donisthorpe, 1938e: 502 [as subgenus of ISOPHEIDOLE (junior s y n o n y m of Ischnomyrmex) Emery, 1910b: 2 1 . Revision of g e n u s : Borgmeier,
Dolichoderus]. Type-species: Dolichoderus (Irenea) Isopheidole Forel, 1912m: 765 [as subgenus of 1955b: 80. Key to s p e d e s : Watkins, 1976: 8.
omyrmex, by original designation. Irenea raised to Pheidole]. Type-species: Myrmica longipes, by LACHNOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Stenammini)
g e n u s : Donisthorpe, 1941h: 59. Irenea provisional m o n o t y p y . Isopheidole j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Lachnomyrmex Wheeler, W.M. 1910a: 2 6 3 . Type-spe­
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Polyrhachis: B r o w n , 1973b: 1 8 1 . Ischnomyrmex: Forel, 1913k: 4 9 . [Ischnomyrmex d e s : Lachnomyrmexscrobiculatus, by m o n o t y p y . Revi­
Irenea j u n i o r s y n o n y m oiMyrmatopa: Bolton, 1994: j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: sion of g e n u s : Smith, M.R. 1944e: 2 2 5 . Key to
50. 1365.] s p e d e s : Weber, 1950c: 3.
IRENEELLA (junior s y n o n y m of Rhoptromyrmex) JANETIA (junior h o m o n y m , see Forelomyrmex) LAMPROMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Monomorium)
Ireneella Donisthorpe, 1941i: 175. Type-species: Janetia Forel, 1899c: 61 (footnote) [as subgenus of LampromyrmexMayr, 1868c: 9 3 . Type-spedes:
Ireneellapapuensis (junior s y n o n y m of Pogonomyrmex]. Type-species: Pogonomyrmex
Rhoptromyrmex melleus), by original designation. (Janetia) mayri, by m o n o t y p y . [Junior h o m o n y m of *Lampromyrmexgracillimus (junior secondary h o m ­
Ireneella j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Rhoptromyrmex: Bolton, Janetia Kieffer, 1896: 236 (Diptera).] Forelomyrmex o n y m in Monomorium, replaced by *Monomorium
1976:298. Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 80, r e p l a c e m e n t n a m e for mayrianum), by m o n o t y p y . Lampromyrmex j u n i o r
IRENEIDRIS (junior s y n o n y m oi Monomorium) Janetia Forel. s y n o n y m of Monomorium: Wheeler, W.M. 1915h:
Ireneidris Donisthorpe, 1943c: 8 1 . Type-species: JOHNIA (junior s y n o n y m of Aulacomyrma) 4 5 . Lampromyrmex revived from s y n o n y m y as subge­
Ireneidris myops (junior s y n o n y m oi Monomorium Johnia Karavaiev, 1927e: 4 3 [as subgenus of Poly­ n u s oi Monomorium, a n d senior s y n o n y m of Mitara:
talpa), by original designation. Ireneidris j u n i o r syn­ rhachis]. Type-species: Polyrhachis (Johnia) Emery, 1922e: 183. Lampromyrmex junior s y n o n y m
schizospina, by m o n o t y p y . Johnia j u n i o r s y n o n y m of oiMonomorium: Ettershank, 1966: 82; see also notes
Aulacomyrma: Hung, 1967b: 4 0 2 . in Bolton, 1 9 8 7 : 2 9 9 .

32 Genus-Group Taxa
LAPAROMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Liomyrmex) original designation. Lepisiota first available replace­ LEPTOTHORAX (Myrrmcinae: Formicoxenini)
Laparomyrmex Emery, 1887b: 4 6 1 . Type-species: m e n t n a m e for Acantholepis M a y r (junior h o m ­ Leptothorax Mayr, 1 8 5 5 : 4 3 1 . Type-spedes: Formica
Laparomyrmexgestroi, by m o n o t y p y . Laparomyrmex o n y m , see Acantholepis, above), h e n c e valid n a m e of acervorum, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Bingham,
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Liomyrmex: Dalla Torre, 1893: 6 3 . g e n u s . Lepisiota senior s y n o n y m of Baroniurbania 1 9 0 3 : 2 1 4 . [Type-spedes n o t Myrmica clypeata,
LASIOPHANES (Formicinae: Melophorini) (unnecessary replacement n a m e for Acantholepis): unjustified s u b s e q u e n t designation by Emery,
Lasiophanes Emery, 1895i: 16 [as subgenus of Bolton, 1994: 5 1 . Taxa i n d u d e d in Pseudacantholepis 1922f: 248.] Leptothorax senior s y n o n y m of Tem-
Melophorus]. Type-species: Formica nigriventris (unavailable) referable to Lepisiota. [Lepisiota incor­ nothorax: Forel, 1890a: lxxii. Leptothorax senior syn­
(junior primary h o m o n y m in Formica; Lasiophanes rectly as j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Acanthomyrmex: B r o w n , o n y m oiMychothorax: Smith, M.R. 1950: 2 9 .
atriventris first available replacement n a m e ) , by sub­ 1973b: 181; Snelling, 1 9 8 1 : 397, in error.] Leptothorax provisional senior s y n o n y m of Anti-
sequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 191 If: 165. LEPTALEA (junior s y n o n y m of Pseudomyrma) llaemyrmex, Caulomyrma, Croesomyrmex, Dichothorax,
Lasiophanes raised to genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: Leptalea Erichson, 1839: 309. Type-spedes: Formica Goniothorax, Icothorax, Limnomyrmex, Macromischa,
6 9 5 . Key to species: Snelling & Hunt, 1976: 104. gradlis, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, W.M. Mychothorax, Myrmammophilus, Myrafant,
LASIUS (Formicinae: Lasiini) 1911 f: 16 6. Leptalea j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Nesomyrmex, Temnothorax: B r o w n , 1973b: 1 7 8 - 1 8 5 .
Lasius Fabridus, 1 8 0 4 : 4 1 5 . Type-spedes: Formica Pseudomyrma: Smith, F. 1858b: 153. [Pseudomyrma Leptothorax senior s y n o n y m of Dichothorax,
nigra, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Bingham, 1903: j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pseudomyrmex: Smith, M.R. Mychothorax, Myrafant (and its j u n i o r s y n o n y m
338. [Lasius J u r i n e , 1 8 0 1 : 1 6 4 (Apidae): r e s u r r e d e d 1952a: 98.] [Leptalaea Spinola, 1851b: 52; Spinola, Icothorax), Myrmammophilus, Nesomyrmex (and its
by Morice & D u r r e n t , 1 9 1 5 : 4 2 1 , suppressed by A d 1853: 6 8 , i n c o r r e d s u b s e q u e n t spelling.] j u n i o r s y n o n y m s Caulomyrma, Goniothorax (junior
of Commission.] Lasius incorrectly as j u n i o r syn­ LEPTANILLA (Leptanillinae: Leptanillini) h o m o n y m ) a n d Limnomyrmex), Temnothorax,
o n y m of Acanthomyops: Forel, 1 9 1 6 : 4 6 0 ; Leptanilla Emery, 1870: 196. Type-spedes: Leptanilla Tetramyrma: Bolton, 1982: 319. Leptothorax senior
Donisthorpe, 1916c: 2 7 6 . Lasius incorrectly as revelierii, by m o n o t y p y . Leptanilla senior s y n o n y m of s y n o n y m oi Macromischa (and its j u n i o r s y n o n y m s
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Formidna: Emery, 1916a: 6 1 ; Leptomesites: Baroni Urbani, 1977c: 4 3 3 . Revision of Antillaemyrmexand Croesomyrmex): Snelling, 1986:
Bondroit, 1 9 1 8 : 1 9 . Lasius valid g e n u s a n d senior genus: Baroni Urbani, 1977c: 4 2 7 . 154. Leptothorax senior s y n o n y m of Nesomyrmex, a n d
s y n o n y m of Donisthorpea: Wheeler, W.M. 1916k: LEPTANILLOIDES (Leptanmoidinae) h e n c e of its j u n i o r s y n o n y m Meia: Bolton, 1994:
172; Emery, 1925b: 226. Revision of genus: Wilson, Leptanilloides M a n n , 1 9 2 3 : 1 3 . Type-spedes: 105. [One or m o r e m e m b e r s of this tangle of cur­
1955a: 3. S u b s e q u e n t revisionary studies w i t h keys: r e n t j u n i o r s y n o n y m s m a y be w o r t h y of generic sta­
Leptanilloides biconstrida, by original designation.
Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b: 2 8 1 ; Arnol'di & tus, b u t until this group of n a m e s a n d t h e o t h e r
LEPTOGENYS (Ponerinae: Ponerini)
DIussky, 1978: 555; Bernard, 1967: 350; Colling­ related formicoxenine genera can b e analysed
Leptogenys Roger, 1861a: 4 1 . Type-spedes: Leptogenys
w o o d , 1978: 89; Collingwood, 1979: 92; Colling­ together, o n a world-wide basis, it is probably best
faldgera, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Bingham,
w o o d , 1982: 2 8 3 ; Kupyanskaya, 1989: 779; Kutter, t o retain t h e m as j u n i o r synonyms.] Keys to s p e d e s
1903: 52. Leptogenys senior s y n o n y m of Microbolbos:
1977c: 2 0 8 ; Seifert, 1988a: 143; Seifert, 1 9 9 0 : 1 ; formerly in Nesomyrmex (Neotropical): Kempf,
Wilson, 1955c: 136. Leptogenys senior s y n o n y m of
Seifert, 1992b: l;Tarbinsky, 1976: 1 3 3 . See also 1959c: 394; to s p e d e s formerly in Macromischa
Dorylozelus: Taylor, 1 9 6 9 : 1 3 2 . Leptogenys senior syn­
Agosti & Bolton, 1990b: 149. Subgenera of Lasius: (Neotropical): Baroni Urbani, 1978b: 5 3 3 .
o n y m of Machaerogenys a n d Lobopelta: Bolton,
n o m i n a l plus Austrolasius, Cautolasius, Chthonolasius, Leptothorax, keys t o Nearctic s p e d e s : Creighton,
1975a: 240. Leptogenys senior s y n o n y m of
Dendrolasius. 1950a: 256; to Afrotropical s p e d e s : Bolton, 1982:
Odontopelta: Taylor & B r o w n , D.R. 1985: 32.
LATINODA (junior s y n o n y m of Pseudomyrmex) 323; to Palaearctic s p e d e s : Agosti & Collingwood,
Leptogenys senior s y n o n y m of Prionogenys: Taylor,
Latinoda E n z m a n n , E.V. 1944: 62 [as "branch" of 1987b: 273 (Balkans); Arnol'di & DIussky, 1978:
1988: 3 3 . Keys to Melanesian s p e d e s : Wilson,
Pseudomyrma]. Type-spedes: Pseudomyrma latinoda, 540 (former E u r o p e a n U.S.S.R., to t h e Urals); Ber­
1958a: 113; to N e w Caledonian s p e d e s : Wilson,
by original designation. Latinoda j u n i o r s y n o n y m of nard, 1 9 6 7 : 1 9 0 (France a n d M e d i t e r r a n e a n basin);
1958a: 136; to Fijian s p e d e s : M a n n , 1 9 2 1 : 4 2 6 ; to
Pseudomyrmex: Ward, 1 9 9 0 : 4 6 9 . Collingwood, 1978: 83 (Spain); Collingwood, 1979:
Afrotropical a n d Malagasy s p e d e s : Bolton, 1975a:
LECANOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Oligomyrmex) 69 (Fennoscandia a n d D e n m a r k ) ; Kutter, 1977c:
244, 2 9 3 respectively.
Lecanomyrma Forel, 1913k: 56 [as subgenus of 103 (Switzerland); R a d c h e n k o , 1994d: 146 (central
LEPTOMESITES (junior s y n o n y m of Leptanilla)
Pheidologeton]. Type-spedes: Pheidologeton & eastern Palaearctic).
Leptomesites Kutter, 1 9 4 8 : 2 8 6 . Type-spedes: Leptomes­
(Lecanomyrma) butteli, by m o n o t y p y . Lecanomyrma LEPTOXENUS (nomen nudum)
ites escheri, by original designation. Leptomesites
subgenus of Aneleus: Emery, 1922f: 2 1 5 . Leptoxenus Forel, 1 9 1 7 : 2 4 5 (attributed to Santschi),
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Leptanilla: Baroni Urbani, 1977 c:
Lecanomyrma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Oligomyrmex:
433.
Ettershank, 1966: 119. nomen nudum.
LEIOPELTA (junior s y n o n y m of Belonopelta) LEPTOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole) *LEUCOTAPHUS ( F o r m i d n a e : Formicini)
Leiopelta Baroni Urbani, 1975b: 309. Type-spedes: Leptomyrma Motschoulsky, 1 8 6 3 : 1 7 . Type-spedes: *Leucotaphus Donisthorpe, 1920: 89. Type-spedes:
Belonopelta deletrix, by original designation. Leiopelta Leptomyrmagradlipes, by m o n o t y p y . Leptomyrma *Leptothoraxgurnetensis, by original designation.
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Belonopelta: Holldobler & Wilson, j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: Emery, 1892b: 166. LILIDRIS (junior s y n o n y m of Solenopsis)
1 9 9 0 : 1 0 , h e r e confirmed. LEPTOMYRMEX (Dolichoderinae) Lilidris Kusnezov, 1957a: 2 7 4 . Type-spedes: Lilidris
LEONOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Chalepoxenus) LeptomyrmexMayr, 1862: 6 9 5 . Type-spedes: Formica metatarsalis, by original designation. [Lilidris also
Leonomyrma Arnol'di, 1 9 6 8 : 1 8 0 9 . Type-spedes: erythrocephala, by m o n o t y p y . Revision of genus: described as n e w by Kusnezov, 1958b: 189.] Lilidris
Leonomyrma spinosa, by original designation. Wheeler, W.M. 1934c: 69. Review of genus: j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Solenopsis: Ettershank, 1 9 6 6 : 1 3 4 .
Leonomyrma provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Shattuck, 1992c: 106. LIMNOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Nesomyrmex)
Leptothorax: B r o w n , 1973b: 1 8 1 . Leonomyrma j u n i o r *LEPTOMYRMULA (Dolichoderinae) Limnomyrmex Arnold, 1948: 2 2 2 . Type-spedes:
s y n o n y m of Chalepoxenus: Buschinger, 1987: 117. *LeptomyrmulaEmery, 1912g: 16 (footnote). Type-spe­ Limnomyrmexstramineus, by original designation.
LEPIDOPONE (junior s y n o n y m of Asphindopone) d e s : *Leptomyrmex maravignae, by m o n o t y p y . Limnomyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Nesomyrmex:
Lepidopone Bernard, 1953b: 2 0 7 . Type-spedes: LEPTOPONE (junior s y n o n y m of Centromyrmex) B r o w n , 1971a: 4 . [Nesomyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Lepidopone lamottei (junior s y n o n y m of Asphindopone Leptopone Arnold, 1 9 1 6 : 1 6 3 [as subgenus of Leptothorax:'Bolton, 1982: 319.]
silvestrii), by m o n o t y p y . Lepidopone j u n i o r s y n o n y m LINEPITHEMA (Dolichoderinae)
Glyphopone]. Type-spedes: Glyphopone (Leptopone)
of Asphindopone: B r o w n , 1953h: 2. Linepithema Mayr, 1866a: 4 9 6 . Type-spedes:
rufigaster (junior s y n o n y m of Centromyrmex
LEPISIOTA ( F o r m i d n a e : Plagiolepidini) Linepithemafusca, by monotypy. Review of genus:
bequaerti), by original designation. Leptopone raised
Lepisiota Santschi, 1926a: 15 [as subgenus of Shattuck, 1992a: 16; Shattuck, 1992c: 114.
to g e n u s : Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 647. Leptopone
Acantholepis]. Type-spedes: Plagiolepis rothneyi, by LIOMETOPUM (Dolichoderinae)
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Centromyrmex: B r o w n , 1963: 9.
Liometopum Mayr, 1 8 6 1 : 38. Type-spedes: Formica
miaocephala, by m o n o t y p y . Liometopum senior syn-

Genus-Group Taxa 33
o n y m of *Ctenobethylus, a n d review of genus: Loncyda j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cardiocondyla: Bolton, #MALACOMYRMA (subgenus of Acropyga)
Shattuck, 1992c: 1 2 1 . 1982: 309. Malacomyrma Emery, 1922d: 109 [as subgenus of
LIOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Metaponini) LOPHOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Pheidolini) Acropyga]. Type-spedes: Acropyga silvestrii, by
Liomyrmex Mayr, 1865: 2 3 . Type-species: Myrmica caeca Lophomyrmex Emery, 1892a: 114. Type-species: m o n o t y p y . Malacomyrma provisional j u n i o r syn­
(junior primary h o m o n y m ; replaced by getroi, first Oecodoma quadrispinosa, b y m o n o t y p y . Review of o n y m of Acropyga: B r o w n , 1973b: 182
available replacement n a m e ) . Liomyrmex senior syn­ genus: Ettershank, 1 9 6 6 : 1 3 2 . Revision of genus: (unconfirmed).
o n y m of Laparomyrmex: Dalla Torre, 1893: 6 3 . Rigato, 1994a: 4 7 . MANICA (Myrmicinae: Myrrnicini)
Liomyrmex senior s y n o n y m of Promyrma: Forel, LORDOMYRMA (Myrmicinae: Stenammini) Monica Jurine, 1 8 0 7 : 2 7 6 . Type-spedes: Formica
1913k: 26. Review of genus: Ettershank, 1 9 6 6 : 1 5 2 . Lordomyrma Emery, 1897c: 5 9 1 . Type-species: rubida, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, W.M.
LIOPONERA (junior s y n o n y m of Cerapachys) Lordomyrmafurcifera, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of 1 9 1 1 f : 1 6 6 . Monica j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Myrmica:
Lioponera Mayr, 1879: 666. Type-species: Lioponera Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 166. Lordomyrma senior syn­ Forel, 1915d: 9. Monica revived from s y n o n y m y as
longitarsus, by monotypy. Lioponera subgenus of o n y m of Prodicroaspis a n d Promeranoplus: Bolton, subgenus of Myrmica, a n d senior s y n o n y m of
Cerapachys: Forel, 18921:244. Lioponera revived sta­ 1994:106. Neomyrma (and its j u n i o r s y n o n y m Oreomyrma):
tus as g e n u s : Dalla Torre, 1 8 9 3 : 1 7 ; m a i n t a i n e d as LOWERIELLA (Dohchoderinae) Emery, 1921f: 42; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 6 6 0 .
genus: Bingham, 1 9 0 3 : 2 6 ; Emery, 1911d: 1 1 . Loweriella Shattuck, 1992c: 126. Type-species: Monica revived status as genus: Weber, 1 9 4 7 : 4 4 0 ;
Lioponera j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cerapachys: B r o w n , Loweriella boltoni, by original designation. Creighton, 1950a: 105.
1975: 19. LUNDELLA (junior s y n o n y m of Hylomyrma) #MANNIELLA (subgenus of Camponotus)
LITHOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m oi Amblyopone) Lundella Emery, 1915i: 1 9 1 . Type-species: Tetramorium Manniella Wheeler, W.M. 1921a: 19 [as subgenus of
Lithomyrmex Clark, 1928a: 30. Type-species: reitteri, by original designation. Lundella j u n i o r syn­ Camponotus]. Type-spedes: Camponotussphaericus, by
Lithomyrmex glauerti, by original designation. o n y m of Hylomyrma: B r o w n , 1953h: 3. original designation. Manniella provisional j u n i o r
Lithomyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m oi Amblyopone: Brown, MACHAEROGENYS (junior s y n o n y m of Leptogenys) s y n o n y m of Camponotus: B r o w n , 1973b: 182
1960a: 156. Machaerogenys Emery, 191 I d : 100 [as subgenus of (unconfirmed).
*LITHOMYRMEX (junior h o m o n y m , see Leptogenys]. Type-spedes: Leptogenys truncatirostris, MARTIA (junior h o m o n y m , see Forelifidis)
by original designation. Machaerogenys provisional Martia Forel, 1907a: 20 [as subgenus oi Monomorium].
*Eulithomyrmex)
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of leptogenys: B r o w n , 1973b: 1 8 1 . Type-spedes: Monomorium (Martia) vezenyii, by
*Lithomyrmex Carpenter, 1930: 34. Type-species:
Machaerogenys j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Leptogenys: Bolton, m o n o t y p y . [Junior h o m o n y m of Martia Ragonot,
*Lithomyrmex rugosus, b y original designation.
1975a: 2 4 0 . 1 8 8 7 : 1 8 (Lepidoptera).] Forelifidis Smith, M.R.
[Junior h o m o n y m of Lithomyrmex Clark, above.]
1954a: 17, replacement n a m e for Martia Forel.
*Eulithomyrmex Carpenter, 1 9 3 5 : 9 1 , replacement MACHAEROMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Cataglyphis)
#MAYRIA (subgenus of Camponotus)
n a m e for *Lithomyrmex Carpenter. Machaeromyrma'PoxA, 1 9 1 6 : 4 4 1 [as subgenus of
Mayria Forel, 1878: 369. Type-spedes: Mayria
LOBOGNATHUS (junior s y n o n y m of Veromessor) Cataglyphis]. Type-spedes: Formica bombycina, by
madagascarensis (junior secondary h o m o n y m in
Lobognathus E n z m a n n , J. 1947b: 152 [as s u b g e n u s of original designation. Review of subgenus: Santschi,
Camponotus, replaced by Camponotus repens), by
Veromessor]. E r r o n e o u s entry for Veromessor 1929b: 31 (out of date). Machaeromyrma j u n i o r syn­
m o n o t y p y . Mayria subgenus of Camponotus: Forel,
lobognathus a n d h e n c e j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Ver­ o n y m of Cataglyphis: Baroni Urbani, 1 9 6 9 d : 2 1 8 ;
1894e: 2 2 7 . Mayria provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
omessor: B r o w n , 1949a: 4 9 . [Veromessor j u n i o r syn­ Agosti, 1994a: 1 0 3 .
Camponotus:Brown, 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed).
o n y m of Messor: Bolton, 1982: 338.] MACHOMYRMA (Myrmicinae: Pheidologetonini)
MAYRIELLA (Myrrmcinae: Stenammini?)
LOBOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Tetramorium) Machomyrma Forel, 1895f: 4 2 5 [as subgenus of
Mayriella Forel, 1902h: 4 5 2 . Type-spedes: Mayriella
Lobomyrmex Kratochvil, 1 9 4 1 : 84 [as subgenus of Liomyrmex]. Type-spedes: Liomyrmex (Machomyrma)
abstinens, by m o n o t y p y . Key t o s p e d e s : Wheeler,
Tetramorium]. Type-species: Tetramorium dispar, by m o n o t y p y . Machomyrma raised to genus:
W M . 1935e: 154.
(Lobomyrmex) ferox silhavyi (junior s y n o n y m of Emery, 1896e: 184.
MAYROMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Eciton)
Tetramorium ferox), by m o n o t y p y . Lobomyrmex provi­ MACROMISCHA (junior s y n o n y m of Leptothorax)
Mayromyrmex Ashmead, 1905b: 3 8 1 . Type-spedes:
sional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Tetramorium: B r o w n , Macromischa Roger, 1863a: 184. Type-spedes:
Labidus fargeavii (junior s y n o n y m of Eciton
1973b: 181. Lobomyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Macromischa purpurata, by s u b s e q u e n t designation
quadriglume), by original designation. Mayromyrmex
Tetramorium: Bolton, 1976: 359. of Wheeler, W.M. 1911 f: 166. Macromischa senior
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Eciton: Emery, 1906a: 718.
LOBOPELTA (junior s y n o n y m of Leptogenys) s y n o n y m oiAntillaemyrmex a n d Croesomyrmex:
MEGALOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini)
Lobopelta Mayr, 1862: 7 3 3 . Type-species: Ponera Smith, M.R. 1 9 3 7 : 8 4 9 ; Smith, M.R. 1939e: 502;
Megalomyrmex Forel, 1885a: 3 7 1 . Type-spedes:
diminuta, b y subsequent designation of Bingham, Baroni Urbani, 1978b: 3 9 8 . Macromischa provisional
Megalomyrmex leoninus, by m o n o t y p y . Megalomyrmex
1903: 54. Lobopelta subgenus of Leptogenys: Forel, j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Leptothorax: B r o w n , 1973b: 1 8 1 .
senior s y n o n y m of Cepohroticus a n d Wheelerimyrmex:
1892k: 520. Lobopelta revived status as genus: Dalla Macromischa subgenus of Leptothorax, a n d revision of
Ettershank, 1 9 6 6 : 1 0 1 . Review of g e n u s : Bolton,
Torre, 1 8 9 3 : 4 3 ; m a i n t a i n e d as genus: Bingham, subgenus: Baroni Urbani, 1978b: 3 9 8 . Macromischa
1 9 8 7 : 2 8 5 . Revision of g e n u s : Brandao, 1 9 9 0 : 4 1 1 .
1903: 54. Lobopelta j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Leptogenys: j u n i o r s y n o n y m oi Leptothorax: Snelling, 1 9 8 6 : 1 5 4 .
[MEGALOPONERA (misspelling)
Emery, 1896e: 177 (footnote). Lobopelta revived MACROMISCHOIDES (junior s y n o n y m of Tetramorium)
Megaloponera Emery, 1877b: 368, i n c o r r e d sub­
from s y n o n y m y as subgenus of Leptogenys: Forel, Macromischoides Wheeler, W.M. 1920: 5 3 . Type-spe­
s e q u e n t spelling of Megaponera.]
1900d: 304; m a i n t a i n e d as subgenus: Emery, d e s : Macromischa aculeata, b y original designation.
MEGAPONERA (junior s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla)
191 Id: 101; Forel, 1 9 1 7 : 2 3 8 ; Wheeler, W.M. Review of g e n u s : Santschi, 1924b: 206.
Megaponera Mayr, 1862: 734. Type-spedes: Formica
1922a: 6 5 3 . Lobopelta provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Macromischoides j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Tetramorium: Bol­
foetens (junior p r i m a r y h o m o n y m in Formica,
Leptogenys: B r o w n , 1973b: 1 8 1 . Lobopelta j u n i o r syn­ ton, 1976: 359; Bolton, 1 9 8 0 : 1 9 6 . [Macromichoides
replaced by Formica analis), by monotypy.
o n y m of Leptogenys: Bolton, 1975a: 2 4 0 . Santschi, 1924b: 206, i n c o r r e d s u b s e q u e n t spell­
Megaponera j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla: B r o w n ,
*LONCHOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Pheidolini?) ing-]
in preparation. [Megaloponera: see above.]
*Lonchomyrmex Mayr, 1867b: 6 1 . Type-species: *Formica
MACROPHEIDOLE (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole) *MEGAPTERITES (junior s y n o n y m of *Formicium)
freyeri, by m o n o t y p y .
Macropheidole Emery, 1915i: 190 [as subgenus of *Megapterites Cockerell, 1 9 2 0 : 2 7 8 . Type-spedes:
LONCYDA (junior s y n o n y m of Cardiocondyla)
Pheidole]. Type-spedes: Pheidole fimbriata, by *Megapterites mirabilis, by m o n o t y p y (in family
Loncyda Santschi, 1930b: 70 [as subgenus of Car­
monotypy. Macropheidole provisional j u n i o r syn­ *Pseudosiriddae). *Megapterites j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
diocondyla]. Type-species: Cardiocondyla (Loncyda)
o n y m of Pheidole: B r o w n , 1973b: 181. Macropheidole *Formicium:LaXz, 1990: 6 1 .
monardi, by monotypy. Loncyda provisional j u n i o r
s y n o n y m of Cardiocondyla: B r o w n , 1973b: 1 8 1 . j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1 9 7 9 : 1 3 6 6 .

34 Genus-Group Taxa
MEIA (junior s y n o n y m of Leptothorax) s y n o n y m of Echinopla: B r o w n , 1973b: 182; #MOELLERIUS (subgenus of Acromyrmex)
Meia Pagliano & Scaramozzino, 1990: 5. Unnecessary confirmed Bolton, 1994: 50. Moellerius Forel, 1893e: 589 [as subgenus of Atta].
replacement n a m e for Goniothorax Emery, 1896g: MESSOR (Myrmicinae: Pheidolini) Type-spedes: Atta (Acromyrmex) landolti, by sub­
58. [Junior h o m o n y m of Goniothorax Milne- Messor Forel, 1890a: lxviii [as subgenus of Aphaenogas­ s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, W.M. 191 If: 167.
Edwards, 1879:103.] [Nesomyrmex is first available ter]. Type-spedes: Formica barbara, b y s u b s e q u e n t Moellerius subgenus of Acromyrmex: Emery, 1913:
replacement n a m e for Goniothorax Emery, therefore designation of Bingham, 1 9 0 3 : 2 7 7 . Messor subge­ 2 5 1 . Moellerius provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Meia is automatically a j u n i o r s y n o n y m of n u s of Stenamma: Emery, 1895c: 2 9 8 . Messor raised Acromyrmex:Brown, 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed).
Nesomyrmex, Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 5 . Nesomyrmex junior to genus: Bingham, 1 9 0 3 : 2 7 7 ; m a i n t a i n e d as Revisionary studies: see u n d e r Acromyrmex.
s y n o n y m of Leptothorax: Bolton, 1982: 319.] g e n u s : Emery, 1908e: 4 3 7 . Messor senior s y n o n y m MONACIS (junior s y n o n y m of Dolichoderus)
MELISSOTARSUS (Myrrmcinae: Melissotarsini) of Cratomyrmex: Emery, 1922f: 357. Messor senior Monads Roger, 1862a: 2 3 3 . Type-spedes: Formica
Melissotarsus Emery, 1877b: 378. Type-spedes: s y n o n y m of Cratomyrmex a n d Veromessor (and its bispinosa, by subsequent designation of Wheeler,
Melissotarsus beccarii, by m o n o t y p y . Review of j u n i o r s y n o n y m Lobognathus): Bolton, 1982: 338. W.M. 191 If: 167. Monads j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Afrotropical s p e d e s : Bolton, 1982: 3 3 5 . S p e d e s i n d u d e d in Sphaeromessor (unavailable) ref­ Hypoclinea: Mayr, 1862: 704; of Dolichoderus: Forel,
MELOPHORUS (Formicinae: Melophorini) erable to Messor. Key to s p e d e s of former U.S.S.R.: 1878: 386. Monads revived from s y n o n y m y as sub­
Melophorus Lubbock, 1883: 5 1 . Type-spedes: Arnol'di, 1977b: 1640; to Afrotropical s p e d e s : Bol­ g e n u s of Dolichoderus: Emery, 1894c: 2 2 8 ; m a i n ­
Melophorus bagoti, by m o n o t y p y . Melophorus senior ton, 1982: 342. tained as subgenus: Emery, 1912g: 9; Wheeler,
s y n o n y m of Erimelophorus a n d Trichomelophorus: METACYLINDROMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Cyl­ W.M. 1922a: 6 8 8 . Monads revived status as genus:
Brown, 1955d:474. indromyrmex) Brown, 1950e: 249; maintained as genus, a n d revi­
MERANOPLUS (Myrmicinae: Meranoplini) Metacylindromyrmex Wheeler, W.M. 1924a: 106 [as sub­ sion of g e n u s : Kempf, 1959b: 227; e m e n d e d key:
Meranoplus Smith, F. 1 8 5 4 : 2 2 4 . Type-spedes: g e n u s of Cylindromyrmex]. Type-spedes: Cyl­ Kempf, 1972c: 2 5 3 . Monads provisional j u n i o r syn­
Cryptocerus bicolor, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of indromyrmex godmani, by original designation. o n y m of Dolichoderus: B r o w n , 1973b: 182. Monads
Bingham, 1903: 166. Revision of Afrotropical spe­ Metacylindromyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cyl­ j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dolichoderus: Shattuck, 1992c: 66.
d e s : Bolton, 1981a: 4 8 . [Cryptocephalus: see above.] indromyrmex: Kempf, 1972a: 9 1 ; B r o w n , 1975: 36. MONOCERATOCLINEA (junior s y n o n y m of
#MESANOPLOLEPIS (subgenus of Anoplolepis) METAPONE (Myrmicinae: Metaponini) Dolichoderus)
Mesanoplolepis Santschi, 1926a: 14 [as subgenus of Metapone Forel, 191 l h : 4 4 7 . Type-spedes: Metapone Monoceratoclinea Wheeler, W.M. 1935c: 68 [as subge­
Anoplolepis]. Type-spedes: Plagiolepis simulans, b y greeni, by m o n o t y p y . Review of g e n u s : Wheeler, n u s of Dolichoderus]. Type-spedes: Dolichoderus
original designation. Mesanoplolepis provisional W.M. 1919h: 173; see also Kusnezov, 1960a: 119. (Hypoclinea) monoceros, by original designation.
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Anoplolepis: B r o w n , 1973b: 182 *MIANEURETUS (Aneuretinae) Monoceratoclinea raised to g e n u s : B r o w n , 1950e:
(unconfirmed). *Mianeuretus Carpenter, 1930: 38. Type-spedes: 249. Monoceratoclinea j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
#MESOCREMA (subgenus of Crematogaster) Dolichoderus: Shattuck, 1992c: 66.
*Mianeuretus mirabilis, by original designation.
Mesocrema Santschi, 1928b: 33 [as subgenus of MONOCOMBUS (junior s y n o n y m of Cataglyphis)
MICCOSTRUMA (junior s y n o n y m of Smithistruma)
Crematogaster]. Type-spedes: Crematogaster MonocombusMayr, 1855: 3 8 1 . Type-spedes: Formica
Miccostruma B r o w n , 1948e: 123. Type-spedes: Epitritus
rasoherinae, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of viatica, b y m o n o t y p y . Monocombus j u n i o r s y n o n y m
mandibularis, by original designation. Miccostruma
Donisthorpe, 1943f: 6 6 1 . Mesocrema provisional of Cataglyphis: Mayr, 1 8 6 1 : 4 4 . Monocombus j u n i o r
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Smithistruma: Bolton, 1 9 8 3 : 2 7 4 .
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Crematogaster: B r o w n , 1973b: s y n o n y m of Myrmecocystus: Mayr, 1886d: 4 2 4 .
MICROBOLBOS (junior s y n o n y m of Leptogenys)
182 (unconfirmed). Monocombus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cataglyphis: Dalla
Microbolbos Donisthorpe, 1948f: 170. Type-spedes:
MESOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Dilobocondyla) Torre, 1893: 216; Wheeler, W M . 1922a: 944;
Microbolbos testaceus, by original designation.
Mesomyrma Stitz, 1911a: 363 [as subgenus of Emery, 192 5b: 2 6 1 . Monocombus revived from syn­
Microbolbos j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Leptogenys: Wilson,
Podomyrma]. Type-spedes: Podomyrma (Mesomyrma) o n y m y as subgenus of Cataglyphis: Santschi, 1929b:
1955c: 136.
cataulacoidea, by m o n o t y p y . Mesomyrma j u n i o r syn­ 2 9 . Monocombus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cataglyphis:
MICRODACETON (Myrmicinae: Dacetini)
o n y m of Dilobocondyla: Emery, 1912b: 102. Agosti, 1990a: 1462; Agosti, 1994a: 103.
Microdaceton Santschi, 1913g: 4 7 8 . Type-spedes:
MESOPONERA (junior s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla) MONOMORIUM (Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini)
Microdaceton exornatum, b y m o n o t y p y . [Microdaceton
Mesoponera Emery, 1900d: 6 6 8 [as subgenus of Monomorium Mayr, 1855: 4 5 2 . Type-spedes: Monomor­
also described as n e w by Santschi, 1914e: 33.] Revi­
Euponera]. Type-spedes: Ponera melanaria, by ium minutum (junior secondary h o m o n y m i n
sion of g e n u s : Bolton, 1 9 8 3 : 4 0 1 .
m o n o t y p y . [Mesoponera also described as n e w by Monomorium, replaced by Monomorium monomor­
MICROMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Tapinoma)
Emery, 1901a: 4 3 . Type-spedes n o t Ponera caffraria, ium), by m o n o t y p y . Monomorium senior s y n o n y m of
Micromyrma Dufour, 1857: 60. Type-spedes:
unjustified s u b s e q u e n t designation by Emery, Lampromyrmex: Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 4 5 . Monomor­
Micromyrma pygmaea, by m o n o t y p y . Micromyrma
1901a: 43.] Mesoponera raised to g e n u s : Bingham, ium senior s y n o n y m of Paraphacota: Santschi,
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Tapinoma: Mayr, 1 8 6 3 : 4 5 5 ;
1903: 99. Mesoponera subgenus of Euponera: Emery, 1927d: 2 4 3 . Monomorium senior s y n o n y m of
Forel, 1878: 385; Emery, 1912g: 38; Smith, M.R.
1911 d: 80; m a i n t a i n e d as subgenus: Wheeler, W.M. Epixenus: B r o w n & Wilson, 1957b: 2 4 4 . Monomorium
1951a: 837; Shattuck, 1992c: 146.
1922a: 649. Mesoponera senior s y n o n y m of senior s y n o n y m of Corynomyrmex, Epixenus, Epoecus,
MICTOPONERA (junior s y n o n y m of Rhopalopone)
Xiphopelta: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 7 7 5 . Mesoponera Equestrimessor, Holcomyrmex, Ireneidris, Isolcomyrmex,
Mictoponera Forel, 1901e: 372 [as subgenus of
revived status as g e n u s : Wilson, 1958d: 349. Lampromyrmex (and its j u n i o r s y n o n y m Mitara),
Ectatomma]. Type-spedes:Ectatomma (Mictoponera)
Mesoponera provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Paraphacota, Parholcomyrmex, Trichomyrmex, Wheele-
diehlii, by m o n o t y p y . Mictoponera j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Pachycondyla: B r o w n , 1973b: 182. Mesoponera j u n i o r ria ( h o m o n y m ) , Wheeleriella, Xenhyboma, a n d
Rhopalopone:Emery, 191 I d : 34. [Rhopalopone j u n i o r
s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla: B r o w n , in preparation. Xeromyrmex: Ettershank, 1966: 82. Monomorium
s y n o n y m of Gnamptogenys: B r o w n , 1958g: 211.]
MESOSTRUMA (Myrmicinae: Dacetini) senior s y n o n y m of Chelaner (and its j u n i o r syn­
*MIOMYRMEX (Dohchoderinae)
Mesostruma B r o w n , 1948e: 118. Type-spedes: o n y m s Notomyrmex, Protholcomyrmex, Schizopelta),
*Miomyrmex Carpenter, 1930: 5 1 . Type-spedes: *For-
Strumigenys (Epopostruma) tumeri, by original desig­ a n d Sy/fopfopris: Bolton, 1 9 8 7 : 2 8 7 . Spedes
nation. Revisions of genus: B r o w n , 1952g: 9; Taylor, mica impacta, by original designation.
i n d u d e d in Pharaophanes (unavailable) all referable
1 9 7 3 : 2 4 . Mesostruma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Col- MITARA (junior s y n o n y m of Monomorium)
to Monomorium. Reviews of genus: Ettershank,
obostruma: Baroni Urbani & De A n d r a d e , 1 9 9 4 : 1 5 . Mitara Emery, 1 9 1 3 : 2 6 1 [as subgenus of Monomor­
1966: 82; Bolton, 1 9 8 7 : 2 8 7 . Revision of Nearctic
Mesostruma h e r e : r e v i v e d f r o m s y n o n y m y . ium]. Type-spedes: Monomorium laeve, by original
s p e d e s : DuBois, 1986: 74; of Afrotropical s p e d e s :
MESOXENA (junior s y n o n y m of Echinopla) designation. Mitara j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Bolton, 1987: 307.
Mesoxena Smith, F. 1860b: 106. Type-spedes: Mesoxena Lampromyrmex: Emery, 1922e: 183; Wheeler, W.M.
mistura, by m o n o t y p y . Mesoxena provisional j u n i o r 1922a: 162; see also notes in Bolton, 1 9 8 7 : 2 9 9 .

Genus-Group Taxa 35
MORLEYIDRIS (junior s y n o n y m of Hedomyrma) MYRAFANT (junior s y n o n y m of Leptothorax) designation. Myrmatopa provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m
Morleyidris Donisthorpe, 1944c: 64 [as subgenus of Myrafant Smith, M.R. 1950: 30 [as subgenus of of Polyrhachis: B r o w n , 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed).
Polyrhachis]. Type-species: Polyrhachis (Morleyidris) Leptothorax]. Type-species: Leptothorax curvispinosus, Myrmatopa senior s y n o n y m of Irenea: Bolton, 1994:
trina, by original designation. Morleyidris j u n i o r syn­ by original designation. Myrafant provisional j u n i o r 50.
o n y m of Hedomyrma: Hung, 1967b: 4 0 2 . s y n o n y m of Leptothorax: B r o w n , 1973b: 182. Myraf­ MYRMECIA (Myrmeciinae: Myrmeciini)
HMYAGROTERAS (subgenus of Myrmoteras) ant senior s y n o n y m of Icothorax: Baroni Urbani, Myrmecia Fabricius, 1 8 0 4 : 4 2 3 . Type-species: Formica
Myagroteras Moffett, 1985b: 31 [as subgenus of 1978b: 556. Myrafant j u n i o r s y n o n y m oi Leptothorax: gulosa, by subsequent designation of Shuckard, in
Myrmoteras]. Type-species: Myrmoteras donisthorpei, Bolton, 1982: 319. Swainson & Shuckard, 1 8 4 0 : 1 7 3 . Myrmecia senior
by original designation. MYRCIDRIS (Pseudomyrmecinae) s y n o n y m of Promyrmeda (and its j u n i o r s y n o n y m s
MYCETAROTES (Myrmicinae: Attini) Myrcidris Ward, 1 9 9 0 : 4 6 5 . Type-species: Myrcidris Halmamyrmeda, Pristomyrmeda): B r o w n , 1953c: 1.
MycetarotesEmery, 1 9 1 3 : 2 5 1 [as subgenus of epicharis, by original designation. Revisions of g e n u s : Clark, 1943: 8 3 ; Clark, 1 9 5 1 : 1;
Cyphomyrmex]. Type-species: Cyphomyrmexparallelus, #MYRMA (subgenus of Polyrhachis) B r o w n , 1953j: 1; Ogata, 1 9 9 1 : 3 5 3 ; Ogata & Taylor,
by original designation. Mycetarotes raised to g e n u s : Myrma Billberg, 1 8 2 0 : 1 0 4 . Type-species: Formica 1991: 1 6 2 3 .
Borgmeier, 1950b: 384. Review of genus: Kempf, militaris, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, MYRMECINA (Myrmicinae: Myrmecmini)
1960d: 2 7 7 . W.M. 1911c: 859; a n d Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 168. Myrmedna Curtis, 1 8 2 9 : 2 6 5 . Type-species: Myrmedna
MYCETOPHYLAX (Myrmicinae: Attini) Myrma senior s y n o n y m of Hoplomyrmus: Wheeler, latreillii (junior s y n o n y m of Myrmednagraminicola),
Mycetophylax Emery, 1913: 2 5 1 [as subgenus of W.M. 1922a: 9 9 3 . Myrma senior s y n o n y m of by m o n o t y p y . Myrmedna senior s y n o n y m of
Cyphomyrmex]. Type-species: Myrmicocrypta brittoni Pseudocyrtomyrma: Bolton, 1973b: 2 8 8 . [Although Archaeomyrmex: B r o w n , 1971a: 1.
(junior s y n o n y m of Mycetophylaxconformis), by origi­ Myrma antedates Polyrhachis, it h a s b e e n treated as a MYRMECINELLA (junior s y n o n y m of Xenomyrmex)
nal designation. Mycetophylax subgenus of subgenus of t h e latter since Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: Myrmednella Wheeler, W.M. 1922d: 1. Type-species:
Myrmicocrypta: Gallardo, 1916d: 320. Mycetophylax 9 9 3 . See H u n g , 1967b: 396 for a history of t h e Myrmednella panamana, by original designation.
raised to g e n u s : Santschi, 1923c: 2 6 8 . Mycetophylax n a m e , a n d a plea for t h e conservation of Poly­ Myrmednella j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Xenomyrmex:
senior s y n o n y m of Paramycetophylax: Weber, 1958d: rhachis.] Wheeler, W.M. 1931a: 129.
2 6 2 . Key to species: Santschi, 1922b: 357 (out of ^MYRMACANTHA (subgenus of Phasmomyrmex) MYRMECOCYSTUS (Formicinae: Lasiini)
date). Myrmacantha Emery, 1920b: 2 4 6 [as s u b g e n u s of Myrmecocystus Wesmael, 1838: 7 7 0 . Type-species:
Camponotus]. Type-species: Camponotus aberrans, by Myrmecocystus mexicanus, by m o n o t y p y .
[MYCETOPURUS (misspelling)
original designation. Myrmacantha j u n i o r s y n o n y m Myrmecocystus senior s y n o n y m of Endiodioctes a n d
Mycetopurus Santschi, 1925b: 17, incorrect subsequent
of Myrmorhachis: Wheeler, W.M. 1921a: 18. Eremnocystus: Snelling, 1 9 8 1 : 4 0 3 . Revision of
spelling of Mycocepurus. [Perhaps a combination in
Myrmacantha revived status as subgenus of g e n u s : Snelling, 1976: 1; Snelling, 1982b: 7 7 .
error of Myceto>(phylax) + (Mycoce)p«ras.]
Phasmomyrmex: Emery, 1925b: 58. MYRMECOPSIS (junior h o m o n y m , see Opisthopsis)
MYCETOSORITIS (Myrrmcinae: Attini)
#MYRMACRHAPHE (subgenus of Camponotus) Myrmecopsis Smith, F. 1865: 68 [as subgenus oi For­
Mycetosoritis Wheeler, W.M. 1907c: 7 1 4 [as subgenus
Myrmacrhaphe Santschi, 1926c: 607 [as subgenus of mica]. Type-species: Formica (Myrmecopsis) respiciens,
of Atta]. Type-species: Atta (Mycetosoritis) hartmanni,
Camponotus]. Type-species: Camponotus conradti., by by m o n o t y p y . Myrmecopsis raised to g e n u s : Mayr,
by m o n o t y p y . Mycetosoritis subgenus of
original designation. Myrmacrhaphe provisional 1 8 7 6 : 7 6 . [Junior h o m o n y m oi Myrmecopsis New­
Cyphomyrmex: Emery, 1 9 1 3 : 2 5 1 . Mycetosoritis subge­
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Camponotus: B r o w n , 1973b: 182 man, 1850: aorii (Lepidoptera).] Opisthopsis Dalla
n u s of Trachymyrmex: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 669.
(unconfirmed). Torre, 1 8 9 3 : 2 1 9 , replacement n a m e for Myrmecopsis
Mycetosoritis raised to g e n u s : Creighton, 1950a: 317.
#MYRMAMBLYS (subgenus of Camponotus) Smith, F.
MYCHOTHORAX (junior s y n o n y m of Leptothorax)
Mychothorax Ruzsky, 1904a: 2 8 8 . Type-species: Formica Myrmamblys Forel, 1912i: 90 [as subgenus of MYRMECORHYNCHUS (Formicinae: Melophorini)
acervorum, b y original designation. Mychothorax sub­ Camponotus}. Type-species: Camponotus reticulatus,by Myrmecorhynchus Andre, 1896b: 2 5 3 . Type-spedes:
g e n u s of Leptothorax: Ruzsky, 1905b: 609; Emery, subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: Myrmecorhynchus emeryi, b y m o n o t y p y .
1915g: 2 4 . Mychothorax j u n i o r s y n o n y m of 80. [Type-species n o t Camponotus fastigatus, MYRMEGIS (nomen nudum)
Leptothorax: Smith, M.R. 1 9 5 0 : 2 9 . [Leptothorax a n d unjustified s u b s e q u e n t designation by Forel, 1914a: Myrmegis Ra&nesque, 1 8 1 5 : 1 2 4 , nomen nudum.
Mychothorax share t h e s a m e type-species, s y n o n y m y 263.] Myrmamblys provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of [Brown, 1973b: 182, places Myrmegis as a j u n i o r
is therefore absolute.] Camponotus:Brown, 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed). s y n o n y m of Atta, because t h e entry in Rafinesque
MYCOCEPURUS (Myrmicinae: Attini) MYRMAMMOPHILUS (junior s y n o n y m of Leptothorax) reads, "6Myrmegis R. Atta Latr."]
Mycocepurus Forel, 1893e: 602 [as subgenus at Atta}. Myrmammophilus Menozzi, 1925d: 29 [as subgenus of MYRMELACHISTA (Forrrricinae: MyrmelacMstini)
Type-species: Atta (Mycocepurus) smithii, by sub­ Leptothorax]. Type-species: Leptothorax Myrmelachista Roger, 1863a: 162. Type-spedes:
s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, W.M. 191 If: 167. (Myrmammophilus) finzii, by m o n o t y p y . Myrmelachista kraatzii, b y m o n o t y p y . Myrmelachista
[Mycocepurus also described as n e w by Forel, 1893g: Myrmammophilus provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of senior s y n o n y m of Decamyrma Roger (junior h o m ­
369.] Mycocepurus raised to g e n u s : Wheeler, W.M. Leptothorax: B r o w n , 1973b: 182. Myrmammophilus o n y m ) , Hincksidris a n d Neaphomus: Snelling & Hunt,
191 If: 167. Mycocepurus senior s y n o n y m of j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Leptothorax: Bolton, 1982: 319. 1 9 7 6 : 1 1 0 . Key t o s p e d e s : Wheeler, W.M. 1934g:
Descolemyrma, a n d revision of g e n u s : Kempf, 1963b: MYRMAPATETES (junior s y n o n y m of Anochetus) 188 (out of date).
4 1 7 . [Mycetopurus: see above.] Myrmapatetes Wheeler, W.M. 1929b: 6. Type-species: UMYRMENTOMA (subgenus of Camponotus)
MYOPIAS (Ponerinae: Ponerini) Myrmapatetesfilicomis, by original designation. Myrmentoma Forel, 1912i: 92 [as subgenus of
Myopias Roger, 1861a: 39. Type-species: Myopias Myrmapatetes j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Anochetus: B r o w n , Camponotus]. Type-spedes: Formica lateralis, by sub­
amblyops, by m o n o t y p y . Myopias senior s y n o n y m of 1953h:2. s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 80.
Trapeziopelta (and its j u n i o r s y n o n y m Bradyponera),
#MYRMAPHAENUS (subgenus of Camponotus) Myrmentoma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Orthonotomyrmex:
a n d k e y to Australasian species: Willey & B r o w n ,
Myrmaphaenus Emery, 1920b: 2 3 7 [as subgenus of Forel, 1913b: 350 (in text); m a i n t a i n e d as j u n i o r
1983:249.
Camponotus]. Type-species: Camponotusleydigi, by s y n o n y m : Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 970. Myrmentoma
MYOPOPONE (Ponerinae: Amblyoponini) original designation. Myrmaphaenus senior s y n o n y m revived from s y n o n y m y as subgenus of Camponotus:
Myopopone Roger, 1861a: 4 9 . Type-species: Myopopone of Neomyrmamblys a n d Paracolobopsis: Emery, 1925b: Emery, 1920b: 257; m a i n t a i n e d as subgenus:
maculata (junior s y n o n y m of Myopopone castanea), by 152. Myrmaphaenus provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Emery, 1925a: 62; Emery, 1925b: 116. Myrmentoma
s u b s e q u e n t designation of Bingham, 1903: 3 3 . Revi­ Camponotus:Brown, 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed). provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Camponotus: B r o w n ,
sion of genus: B r o w n , 1960a: 170. #MYRMATOPA (subgenus of Polyrhachis) 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed). Revision of N e a r d i c
Myrmatopa Forel, 1915b: 107 [as subgenus of Poly­ s p e d e s : Snelling, 1988: 5 5 .
rhachis] . Type-species: Polyrhachis schang, b y original

36 Genus-Group Taxa
#MYRMEPINOTUS (subgenus of Camponotus) Sifolinia (and its j u n i o r s y n o n y m Symbiomyrma), a n d #MYRMOCLADOECUS (subgenus of Camponotus)
Myrmepinotus Santschi, 192U: 312 [as s u b g e n u s of Sommimyrma: Bolton, 1988a: 3. Revisionary studies: Myrmocladoecus Wheeler, W.M. 1921a: 19 [as subgenus
Camponotus]. Type-species: Camponotusechinoploides, Arnol'di, 1970: 1832; Arnol'di, 1976a: 554; Finzi, of Camponotus]. Type-species: Camponotus latangulus,
by original designation. Myrmepinotus provisional 1 9 2 6 : 7 1 ; Menozzi, 1939a: 2 9 3 ; Seifert, 1988b: 1; by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1922a:
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Camponotus: B r o w n , 1973b: 182 Weber, 1 9 4 7 : 4 3 7 ; Weber, 1948a: 2 6 7 ; Weber, 7 0 9 . Myrmocladoecus provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
(unconfirmed). 1950b: 189; R a d c h e n k o , 1994a: 39; Radchenko, Camponotus: Brown, 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed).
#MYRMEPOMIS (subgenus of Camponotus) 1994c: 130. See also: Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b: UMYRMODIRACHIS (subgenus of Camponotus)
Myrmepomis Forel, 1912i: 92 [as s u b g e n u s of 267; Arnol'di & DIussky, 1978: 530; Collingwood, Myrmodirachis Emery, 1925b: 168 [as subgenus of
Camponotus]. Type-species: Formica sericeiventris, by 1978: 78; Collingwood, 1 9 7 9 : 4 0 ; Creighton, 1950a: Camponotus]. Type-spedes: Camponotusheathi, by
subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 87; Kutter, 1977c: 4 2 . original designation. Myrmodirachis provisional
8 1 . [Type-species n o t Formica fulvopilosa, unjustified MYRMICARIA (Myrmicinae: Myrmicariini) j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Camponotus: B r o w n , 1973b: 182
subsequent designation by Forel, 1914a: 265.] Myrmicaria Saunders, W . W 1842: 57. Type-species: (unconfirmed).
Myrmepomis senior s y n o n y m of Myrmolophus: Myrmicaria brunnea, by m o n o t y p y . Myrmicaria senior MYRMOGIGAS (junior s y n o n y m of Dinomyrmex)
Wheeler, W.M. 1921a: 17. Myrmepomis provisional s y n o n y m of Heptacondylus (and its j u n i o r s y n o n y m Myrmogigas Forel, 19121: 91 [as subgenus of
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Camponotus: B r o w n , 1973b: 182 Physatta): Smith, F. 1865: 7 3 . Revision of g e n u s : Camponotus]. Type-spedes: Formicagigas, by s u b ­
(unconfirmed). Santschi, 1925c: 133 (out of date). sequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 8 1 .
#MYRMESPERA (subgenus of Camponotus) *MYRMICITES (collective group n a m e ) Myrmogigas j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dinomyrmex: Forel,
Myrmespera Santschi, 1926b: 2 4 7 [as subgenus of *Myrmicites Forster, 1 8 9 1 : 4 4 8 [collective group n a m e , 1913c: 350 (in text); Forel, 1914a: 259.
Camponotus]. Type-species: Camponotus (Myrmespera) w i t h o u t included n a m e d taxa.] #MYRMOGONIA (subgenus of Camponotus)
debellator, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Santschi, *MYRMICIUM (Myrmicinae: u n p l a c e d to tribe) Myrmogonia Forel, 1912i: 92 [as subgenus of
1926c: 604. Myrmespera provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m *Myrmicium Westwood, 1854: 396. Type-species: Camponotus]. Type-spedes: Camponotus laminatus, by
of Camponotus:Brown, 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed). *Myrmicium heerii, by m o n o t y p y . *Myrmidum j u n i o r subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a:
MYRMETAERUS (junior s y n o n y m of Myrmoxenus) s y n o n y m of *Pseudosirex (family *Pseudosiricidae): 8 1 . Myrmogonia provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Myrmetaerus Soudek, 1925a: 3 3 . Type-species: Handlirsch, 1906: 577; retained i n *Pseudosiricidae: Camponotus:Brown, 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed).
Myrmetaerus microcellatus (junior s y n o n y m of Abe & Smith, D.R. 1 9 9 1 : 5 3 . *Myrmidum j u n i o r syn­ MYRMOLOPHUS (junior s y n o n y m of Myrmepomis)
Epimyrma gordiagini), by m o n o t y p y . [Myrmetaerus o n y m of Myrmica: Dalla Torre, 1893: 108; Forel, Myrmolophus Emery, 1920b: 2 3 7 [as subgenus of
also described as n e w by Soudek, 1925b: 14.] 1915d: 9. *Myrmidum: provisionally revived from Camponotus]. Type-spedes: Formica sericeiventris, by
Myrmetaerus provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of s y n o n y m y h e r e a n d r e t u r n e d to Formicidae, s u b ­ original designation. Myrmolophus j u n i o r s y n o n y m
Leptothorax:Brown, 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed). family Myrmicinae, p e n d i n g detailed investigation. of Myrmepomis: Wheeler, W.M. 1921a: 17.
Myrmetaerus incorrectly as j u n i o r s y n o n y m of [*Myrmetium Dalla Torre, 1 8 9 3 : 1 0 8 , incorrect sub­ #MYRMOMAJLIS (subgenus of Camponotus)
Camponotus: Snelling, 1 9 8 1 : 4 0 4 . Myrmetaerus j u n i o r s e q u e n t spelling.] Myrmomalis Forel, 1914a: 263 [as subgenus of
s y n o n y m of Myrmoxenus: Buschinger, W i n t e r & *MYRMICIUM (junior h o m o n y m , see *Promyrmidum) Camponotus}. Type-spedes: Camponotusdepressus, by
Faber, 1984: 336. [Myrmoxenus junior s y n o n y m of *Myrmidum Heer, 1 8 7 0 : 7 8 . Type-species: *Myrmidum original designation. Myrmomalis provisional j u n i o r
Epimyrma: Bolton, 1994: 105.] boreale, b y m o n o t y p y . [Junior h o m o n y m of *Myrmic- s y n o n y m of Camponotus: B r o w n , 1973b: 182
#MYRMEURYNOTA (subgenus of Camponotus) ium Westwood, above.] *Promyrmidum Baroni (unconfirmed).
Urbani, 1971b: 362, r e p l a c e m e n t n a m e for *Myrmic- #MYRMONESTTES (subgenus of Camponotus)
Myrmeurynota Forel, 19123:92 [as s u b g e n u s of
ium Westwood. Myrmonesites Emery, 1920b: 242 [as subgenus of
Camponotus]. Type-species: Camponotuseurynotus, by
MYRMICOCRYPTA (Myrmicinae: Attini) Camponotus]. Type-species: Camponotusputatus, by
s u b s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a:
Myrmicocrypta Smith, F. 1860c: 7 3 . Type-species: original designation. Myrmonesites provisional j u n i o r
8 1 . [Type-species n o t Camponotus gilviventris,
Myrmicocrypta squamosa, by m o n o t y p y . Myrmicocrypta s y n o n y m of Camponotus: Brown, 1973b: 182
unjustified s u b s e q u e n t designation by Forel, 1914a:
senior s y n o n y m of Glyptomyrmex: Emery, 1894c: (unconfirmed).
266.] Myrmeurynota provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
224. #MYRMOPALPELLA (subgenus of Camponotus)
Camponotus: B r o w n , 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed).
MYRMEX (junior h o m o n y m , j u n i o r s y n o n y m of #MYRMISOLEPIS (subgenus of Camponotus) Myrmopalpella Starcke, 1934: 30 [as subgenus of
Pseudomyrma) Myrmisolepis Santschi, 1921f: 310 [as s u b g e n u s of Camponotus]. Type-spedes: Camponotusmegalonyx, by
Myrmex Guerin-Meneville, 1844a: 4 2 7 . Type-species: Camponotus]. Type-species: Camponotus epinotalis, by m o n o t y p y . Myrmopalpella raised to genus: Wheeler,
Myrmexperboscii, by m o n o t y p y . [Junior h o m o n y m original designation. Myrmisolepis provisional j u n i o r W.M. 1936e: 219 (in text). Myrmopalpella provi­
of Myrmex Sturm, 1826: 32 (Coleoptera).] Myrmex s y n o n y m of Camponotus: B r o w n , 1973b: 182 sional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Camponotus: B r o w n ,
Guerin-Meneville j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pseudomyrma: (unconfirmed). 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed). Myrmopalpella h e r e
Smith, F. 1858b: 153. [Pseudomyrma j u n i o r syn­ ^MYRMOBRACHYS (subgenus of Camponotus) reverts to subgenus of Camponotus.
o n y m of Pseudomyrmex: Smith, M.R. 1952a: 98.] Myrmobrachys Forel, 1912i: 91 [as subgenus of #MYRMOPELTA (subgenus of Camponotus)
SMYRMHOPLA (subgenus of Polyrhachis) Camponotus}. Type-species: Formicasenex, b y sub­ Myrmopelta Santschi, 1921f: 310 [as subgenus of
sequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 8 1 . Camponotus]. Type-spedes: Camponotusarminius, by
Myrmhopla For-el, 1915b: 107 [as subgenus of Po/y-
Myrmobrachys provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of original designation. Review of subgenus: Santschi,
rhachis]. Type-species: Formica armata, by original
Camponotus:Brown, 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed). 1926a: 16. Myrmopelta provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m
designation. Myrmhopla senior s y n o n y m of
MYRMOCAMELUS (junior s y n o n y m of Myrmophyma) of Camponotus:Brown, 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed).
Cephalomyrma a n d Florencea: H u n g , 1967b: 4 0 2 .
Myrmocamelus Forel, 1914a: 2 6 1 [as subgenus of #MYRMOPHYMA (subgenus of Camponotus)
Myrmhopla provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Poly­
Camponotus]. Type-species: Formica ephippium, by Myrmophyma Forel, 19121: 91 [as subgenus of
rhachis: B r o w n , 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed).
MYRMICA (Myrmicinae: Myrrnicini) original designation. [Type-species n o t Camponotus Camponotus]. Type-spedes: Camponotus capita, by sub­
Myrmica Latreille, 1 8 0 4 : 1 7 9 . Type-species: Formica gambeyi, unjustified s u b s e q u e n t designation b y sequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 8 1 .
rubra, b y subsequent designation of Latreille, 1810: Forel, 1 9 2 2 : 1 0 1 . Myrmocamelus also described as [Type-spedes n o t Camponotus quadrisedus,
4 3 7 . Myrmica provisional senior s y n o n y m of n e w by Forel, 1915b: 102.] Myrmocamelus j u n i o r unjustified subsequent designation by Forel, 1914a:
Dodecamyrmica, Paramyrmica, Sifolinia, Sommimyrma, s y n o n y m of Myrmophyma: Emery, 1920b: 257; 261.] Myrmophyma senior s y n o n y m of
Symbiomyrma: B r o w n , 1973b: 1 8 0 - 1 8 5 . Myrmica Wheeler, W M . 1921a: 18. Myrmocamelus: Emery, 1920b: 257; Wheeler, W.M.
senior s y n o n y m of Dodecamyrmica: Francoeur, 1 9 8 1 : 192 l a : 18. Myrmophyma provisional j u n i o r syn­
759. Myrmica senior s y n o n y m of Paramyrmica, o n y m of Camponotus: B r o w n , 1973b: 182
(unconfirmed).

Genus-Group Taxa 37
#MYRMOPIROMIS (subgenus of Camponotus) #MYRMOSERICUS (subgenus of Camponotus) by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, W.M.
Myrmopiromis Wheeler, W.M. 1921a: 17 [as subgenus Myrmosericus Forel, 19121: 91 [as subgenus of 1913a: 8 1 . Myrmotrema provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m
of Camponotus]. Type-species: Formica fulvopilosa, by Camponotus]. Type-species: Formica rufoglauca, by of Camponotus: B r o w n , 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed).
s u b s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: s u b s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: MYRMOTURBA (junior s y n o n y m of Tanaemyrmex)
707. Myrmopiromis provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of 8 1 . Myrmosericus provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of MyrmoturbaForel, 1912i: 91 [as subgenus of
Camponotus:'Brown, 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed). Camponotus:Brown, 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed). Camponotus]. Type-spedes: Formica maculata, by sub­
#MYRMOPLATYPUS (subgenus of Camponotus) [See n o t e u n d e r Myrmosaulus, above.] s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 82.
Myrmoplatypus Santschi, 192 If: 311 [as subgenus of #MYRMOSPHFNCTA (subgenus of Camponotus) Myrmoturba j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Tanaemyrmex:
Camponotus].Type-species: Camponotusplatytarsus, Myrmosphincta Forel, 1912i: 92 [as subgenus of Emery, 1925b: 7 5 .
by original designation. Myrmoplatypus provisional Camponotus]. Type-species: Formica sexguttata, by sub­ MYRMOXENUS (junior s y n o n y m of Epimyrma)
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Camponotus: B r o w n , 1973b: 182 sequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 8 1 . Myrmoxenus Ruzsky, 1902b: 4 7 4 . Type-spedes:
(unconfirmed). [Type-species n o t Formica cinerascens, unjustified Myrmoxenus gordiagini, by m o n o t y p y . Myrmoxenus
#MYRMOPLATYS (subgenus of Camponotus) s u b s e q u e n t designation b y Forel, 1914a: 265.] senior s y n o n y m of Myrmetaerus: B u s d i m g e r , Winter
Myrmoplatys Forel, 1 9 1 6 : 4 6 0 [as subgenus of Myrmosphincta provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of & Faber, 1984: 336. Myrmoxenus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Camponotus]. Type-species: Camponotus korthalsiae, Camponotus:Brown, 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed). Epimyrma: Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 5 .
by original designation. Myrmoplatys raised to genus: #MYRMOSTBNUS (subgenus of Camponotus) ^MYRMOXYGENYS (subgenus of Camponotus)
Wheeler, W.M. 1 9 3 6 e : 2 1 9 (in text).Myrmoplatys Myrmostenus Emery, 1920b: 2 5 0 [as subgenus of Myrmoxygenys Emery, 1925b: 70 [as subgenus of
provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Camponotus: B r o w n , Camponotus]. Type-species: Camponotusmirabilis, by Camponotus]. Type-spedes: Camponotuscaesar, by
1973b: 182 (unconfirmed). Myrmoplatys h e r e original designation. Myrmostenus provisional j u n i o r m o n o t y p y . Myrmoxygenys provisional j u n i o r syn­
reverts to subgenus of Camponotus. s y n o n y m of Camponotus: B r o w n , 1973b: 182 o n y m of Camponotus:Bxown, 1973b: 182
#MYRMOPSAMMA (subgenus of Camponotus) (unconfirmed). (unconfirmed).
Myrmopsamma Forel, 1914a: 2 6 1 [as subgenus of ttMYRMOTARSUS (subgenus of Camponotus) MYRMUS (junior h o m o n y m , see Strongylognathus)
Camponotus]. Type-species: Camponotusmystaceus, by Myrmotarsus Forel, 1912i: 92 [as subgenus of Myrmus Schenck, 1 8 5 3 : 1 8 8 . Type-spedes: Myrmus
original designation. Myrmopsamma provisional Camponotus]. Type-species: Formica mistura, b y sub­ emarginatus (junior s y n o n y m of Strongylognathus tes-
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Camponotus: B r o w n , 1973b: 182 sequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 8 1 . taceus), by m o n o t y p y . [Junior h o m o n y m of Myrmus
(unconfirmed). [Type-species n o t Formica irritabilis, unjustified sub­ H a h n , 1832: 81 (Hemiptera).] Strongylognathus
#MYRMOPYTLA (subgenus of Camponotus) sequent designation by Forel, 1914a: 260.] Mayr, 1853d: 389, r e p l a c e m e n t n a m e lor Myrmus
Myrmopytia Emery, 1920b: 243 [as subgenus of Myrmotarsus provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Schenck.
Camponotus]. Type-species: Camponotus imitator, by Camponotus:Brown, 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed). MYRTOTERAS (junior s y n o n y m of Odontomachus)
original designation. Myrmopytia provisional j u n i o r #MYRMOTEMNUS (subgenus of Camponotus) Myrtoteras M a t s u m u r a , 1 9 1 2 : 1 9 1 . Type-spedes:
s y n o n y m of Camponotus: B r o w n , 1973b: 182 Myrmotemnus Emery, 1920b: 2 4 6 [as s u b g e n u s of Myrtoteras kuroiwae (junior s y n o n y m of
(unconfirmed). Camponotus]. Type-species: Camponotusmoeschi, by Odontomachus monticola), by m o n o t y p y . Myrtoteras
#MYRMORHACHIS (subgenus of Phasmomyrmex) original designation. Myrmotemnus j u n i o r s y n o n y m provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Odontomachus:
Myrmorhachis Forel, 1912i: 92 [as s u b g e n u s of of Myrmamblys: Wheeler, W M . 1921a: 19; Emery, B r o w n , 1973b: 182. Myrtoteras j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Camponotus]. Type-species: Camponotus poly- 1925b: 137. Myrmotemnus revived from s y n o n y m y : Odontomachus:Bxown, 1976a: 96.
rhachioides (unnecessary replacement n a m e for Poly­ Santschi, 1926c: 60 X. Myrmotemnus provisional MYSTRIUM (Ponerinae: Amblyoponini)
rhachis paradoxa), by s u b s e q u e n t designation of j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Camponotus: B r o w n , 1973b: 182 Mystrium Roger, 1862a: 2 4 5 . Type-spedes: Mystrium
Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 8 1 . [Type-species n o t (unconfirmed). mysticum, by m o n o t y p y . Revision of genus:
Camponotus latangulus, unjustified s u b s e q u e n t desig­ MYRMOTERAS (Formicinae: Myrmoteratini) Menozzi, 1929d: 518; B r o w n , 1960a: 169.
n a t i o n by Forel, 1914a: 265.] Myrmorhachis subge­ Myrmoteras Forel, 1893f: 6 0 7 . Type-species: Myrmoteras NEAPHOMUS (junior s y n o n y m of Myrmelachista)
n u s of Phasmomyrmex: Emery, 1925b: 58. binghamii, by m o n o t y p y . [Myrmoteras also described Neaphomus Menozzi, 1935c: 3 2 4 [as subgenus of
Myrmorhachis provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of as n e w by Forel, 1894c: 418.] Revisions of genus: Aphomomyrmex]. Type-spedes: Aphomomyrmex
Phasmomyrmex:Brown, 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed). Moffett, 1985b: 1; Agosti, 1 9 9 2 : 4 0 5 . Subgenera of (Neaphomus) goetschi, by m o n o t y p y . Neaphomus
#MYRMOSAGA (subgenus of Camponotus) Myrmoteras: n o m i n a l plus Myagroteras. raised to genus: Kempf, 1972a: 152. Neaphomus p r o ­
Myrmosaga Forel, 1912i: 92 [as subgenus of ^MYRMOTHRINAX (subgenus of Polyrhachis) visional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Myrmelachista: B r o w n ,
Camponotus], Type-species: Camponotuskelleri, by MyrmothrinaxForel, 1915b: 107 [as subgenus of Poly­ 1973b: 1 8 3 . Neaphomus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: rhachis]. Type-species: Polyrhachis thrinax, by original Myrmelachista: Snelling & Hunt, 1 9 7 6 : 1 1 0 .
8 1 . [Type-species n o t Camponotus quadrimaculatus, designation. Myrmothrinax senior s y n o n y m of NEIVAMYRMEX ( E d t o n i n a e : E d t o n i n i )
unjustified s u b s e q u e n t designation b y Forel, 1914a: Evelyna: Hung, 1967b: 4 0 2 . Myrmothrinax provi­ Neivamyrmex Borgmeier, 1940: 606 [as subgenus of
260.] Myrmosaga provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of sional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Polyrhachis: B r o w n , Eciton]. Replacement n a m e for Acamatus Emery,
Camponotus:Brown, 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed). 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed). 1894c: 1 8 1 . [Junior h o m o n y m of Acamatus
#MYRMOTHRIX (subgenus of Camponotus) Schoenherr, 1 8 3 3 : 2 0 . ] Neivamyrmex raised to
#MYRMOSAULUS (subgenus of Camponotus)
genus: Borgmeier, 1950c: 624. Neivamyrmex senior
Myrmosaulus Wheeler, W.M. 1921a: 18 [as subgenus of Myrmothrix Forel, 1912i: 91 [as subgenus of
s y n o n y m of Woitkowskia, a n d revision of genus:
Camponotus]. Type-species: Formica cinerascens, by Camponotus]. Type-spedes: Formica abdominalis
Borgmeier, 1955b: 2 7 7 . Key t o s p e d e s : Watkins,
subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: (junior primary h o m o n y m ; Formica atriceps first
1976:11.
7 0 5 . [Type-species n o t Formica singularis, unjustified available r e p l a c e m e n t n a m e ) , b y s u b s e q u e n t desig­
subsequent designation by Emery, 1925b: 113.] n a t i o n of Wheeler, W M . 1913a: 8 1 . [Type-spedes #NEMATOCREMA (subgenus of Crematogaster)
Myrmosaulus provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of n o t Formica rufipes, unjustified s u b s e q u e n t designa­ Nematocrema Santschi, 1918d: 182 [as subgenus of
Camponotus-.Brown, 1973b: 182 (unconfirmed). tion b y Forel, 1914a: 260.] Myrmothrix provisional Crematogaster]. Type-spedes: Crematogaster
[Note: Donisthorpe, 1932c: 4 4 5 , states t h a t j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Camponotus-.Brown, 1973b: 182. stadelmanni, by original designation. Nematocrema
cinerascens belongs in subgenus Myrmosericus. If so Myrmothrix subgenus of Camponotus, a n d revision of raised to genus: Soulie, 1964: 3 9 8 . Nematocrema p r o ­
Myrmosaulus falls as a j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Myrmoseri­ subgenus: Hashmi, 1973: 1. visional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Crematogaster: B r o w n ,
cus.} ttMYRMOTREMA (subgenus of Camponotus) 1973b: 183 (unconfirmed). Nematocrema reverts
Myrmotrema Forel, 1912i: 91 [as subgenus of h e r e to subgenus of Crematogaster.
Camponotus]. Type-spedes: Camponotus foraminosus,

38 Genus-Group Taxa
NEOAMBLYOPONE (junior s y n o n y m of Amblyopone) NEOPHYRACACES (junior s y n o n y m of Cerapachys) NOTHOMYRMECIA (Nothomyrmeciinae)
Neoamblyopone'Wheeler, W.M.. 1927c: 1 [as subgenus Neophyracaces Clark, 1 9 4 1 : 7 6 . Type-species: Phyracaces Nothomyrmecia Clark, 1934a: 17. Type-spedes:
of Amblyopone]. Type-species: Amblyopone clams, by original designation. Neophyracaces provi­ Nothomyrmecia macrops, by original designation.
(Neoamblyopone) clarki, by m o n o t y p y . Neoamblyopone sional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cerapachys: B r o w n , 1973b: Review of genus: Taylor, 1978a: 979; see also
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Amblyopone .-Brown, 1949c: 8 7 . 183. Neophyracaces j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cerapachys: Holldobler & Taylor, 1984: 384.
NEOATTA (junior s y n o n y m of Atta) B r o w n , 1975: 19. *NOTHOMYRMICA (Myrmicinae: M y r m i d n i ? )
Neoatta Goncalves, 1942: 346 [as subgenus of Atta]. NEOPONERA (junior s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla) *Nothomyrmica~Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 60. Type-spedes:
Type-species: Formica sexdens, by original designa­ Neoponera Emery, 1901a: 4 3 . Type-species: Formica *Macromischa rudis, by original designation.
tion. Neoatta j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Atta: Weber, 1958a: villosa, by original designation. Neoponera provi­ [*Nothomyrmica Wheeler, W.M. 1908g: 4 1 3 , a n d
8. Neoatta revived from s y n o n y m y as subgenus of sional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla: B r o w n , Wheeler, W.M. 1910g: 167, nominanuda.]
Atta, senior s y n o n y m of Epiatta, a n d revision of sub­ 1973b: 183. Neoponera j u n i o r s y n o n y m of NOTHOSPHINCTUS (junior s y n o n y m of
genus: Borgmeier, 1959b: 3 5 8 . Neoatta provisional Pachycondyla: B r o w n , in preparation. Sphinctomyrmex)
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Atta: B r o w n , 1973b: 183; NEOSTRUMA (Myrmicinae: Dacetini) Nothosphinctus Wheeler, W.M. 1918a: 219 [as subge­
confirmed Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 5 . Neostruma B r o w n , 1948e: 1 1 1 . Type-species: n u s of Eusphinctus]. Type-spedes: Sphinctomyrmex
NEOCLYSTOPSENELLA (junior s y n o n y m of Tapinoma) Strumigenys crassicornis, by original designation. Revi­ froggatti, by subsequent designation of Donisthorpe,
Neoclystopsenella Kurian, 1 9 5 5 : 1 3 3 [in family sion of genus: B r o w n , 1959b: 1. [See n o t e u n d e r 1943f: 6 7 5 . Nothosphinctus provisional j u n i o r syn­
Bethylidae]. Type-species: Neoclystopsenella luffae, by Strumigenys.] o n y m of Sphinctomyrmex: B r o w n , 1973b: 183.
m o n o t y p y . Neoclystopsenella j u n i o r s y n o n y m of NESOLASIUS (junior s y n o n y m of Pseudolasius) Nothosphinctus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Sphinctomyrmex:
Tapinoma:Brown, 1988a: 337. Nesolasius Wheeler, W.M. 1935b: 50 [as subgenus of Brown, 1975:31.
NEOCOLOBOPSIS (junior s y n o n y m of Hypercolobopsis) Pseudolasius]. Type-species: Pseudolasius (Nesolasius) NOTOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Chelaner)
Neocolobopsis Borgmeier, 1928b: 65 [as subgenus of typhlops, by original designation. Nesolasius provi­ Notomyrmex Emery, 1915i: 190 [as subgenus of
Camponotus]. Type-species: Camponotus (Neocolobop­ sional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pseudolasius: B r o w n , Monomorium}. Type-spedes: Atta antarctica, by origi­
sis) scrobifer (junior s y n o n y m of Camponotus 1973b: 183; confirmed Bolton, 1994: 50. n a l designation. Notomyrmex raised to genus:
coriolanus), by original designation. Neocolobopsis NESOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Leptothorax) Kusnezov, 1957a: 2 6 9 ; Kusnezov, 1960b: 3 4 3 .
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Hypercolobopsis: Kempf, 1968b: Nesomyrmex Wheeler, W.M. 1910a: 2 5 9 . Type-species: Notomyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Chelaner:
411. Nesomyrmex clovipilis, by m o n o t y p y . Nesomyrmex sub­ Ettershank, 1966: 9 3 . [Chelaner j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
#NEOCREMA (subgenus of Crematogaster) g e n u s of Leptothorax: Emery, 1915g: 24; Smith, M.R. Monomorium: Bolton, 1987:287.]
Neocrema Santschi, 1918d: 182 [as subgenus of 1950: 30. Nesomyrmex senior s y n o n y m of NOTONCUS (Formicinae: Melophorini)
Crematogaster]. Type-species: Crematogasterdistans, by Caulomyrma: Emery, 1915g: 24. Nesomyrmex j u n i o r Notoncus Emery, 1895g: 352. Type-spedes: Camponotus
original designation. Neocrema j u n i o r s y n o n y m of s y n o n y m of Goniothorax: Emery, 1922f: 249 (incor­ ectatommoides, by original designation. Notoncus
Orthocrema: Emery, 1922e: 130. Neocrema revived rect p r o c e d u r e as Goniothorax a j u n i o r h o m o n y m , senior s y n o n y m of Diodontolepis, a n d revision of
from s y n o n y m y a n d raised to g e n u s : Soulie, 1964: Nesomyrmex is first available replacement n a m e , see g e n u s : B r o w n , 1955d: 4 7 1 .
398. Neocrema subgenus of Crematogaster:Kempi, Smith, M.R. 1950: 30). Nesomyrmex senior s y n o n y m NOTOSTIGMA ( F o r m i d n a e : Camponotini)
1972a: 82. Neocrema provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of of Limnomyrmex: B r o w n , 1971a: 4 . Nesomyrmex Notostigma Emery, 1920b: 2 5 2 . Type-spedes:
Crematogaster:Brown, 1973b: 183 (unconfirmed). senior s y n o n y m of Meia (unnecessary replacement
Camponotus carazzii, by original designation.
Neocrema reverts h e r e to subgenus of Crematogaster. n a m e for Goniothorax): Bolton, 1994: 105.
NOVOMESSOR (junior s y n o n y m oi Aphaenogaster)
NEOFORELIUS (junior s y n o n y m oiForelius) Nesomyrmex provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Novomessor Emery, 1915d: 7 3 . Type-spedes:
Neoforelius Kusnezov, 1953b: 327. Type-species: Leptothorax: B r o w n , 1973b: 183. Nesomyrmex j u n i o r
Aphaenogaster (Ischnomyrmex) cockerelli, by original
Neoforelius tucumanus, by m o n o t y p y . Neoforelius s y n o n y m of Leptothorax: Bolton, 1982: 319.
designation. Revision of genus: Wheeler, W.M. &
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Forelius: Shattuck, 1992c: 87. [Nesomyrmex possibly valid genus: F r a n c o e u r &
Creighton, 1934: 3 4 3 . Novomessor j u n i o r s y n o n y m
NEOFORMICA (junior s y n o n y m of Formica) Loiselle, 1988b: 4 3 . Nesomyrmex revived status as
of Aphaenogaster: B r o w n , 1974b: 4 7 . Novomessor
Neoformica Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 82 [as subgenus of genus, b u t its j u n i o r s y n o n y m s left u n d e r
revived from s y n o n y m y : Holldobler, Stanton &
Formica]. Type-species: Formica pallidefulva, by origi­ Leptothorax: Holldobler & Wilson, 1990: 14.
Engel, 1976: 32. Novomessor j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
nal designation. [Neoformica also described as n e w Nesomyrmex reverts h e r e to s y n o n y m y of Leptothorax
Aphaenogaster: Bolton, 1982: 3 6 4 (discussion
by Wheeler, W.M. 1913f: 548.] Neoformica j u n i o r until g e n u s g r o u p t a x o n o m y can b e investigated.]
pp. 339-341).
s y n o n y m of Formica: Buren, 1968a: 39; Agosti, NIMBAMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Oligomyrmex)
NYCTERESIA (junior s y n o n y m of Labidus)
1994a: 107. NimbamyrmaBemard, 1953b: 240. Type-species:
Nycteresia Roger, 1861a: 2 1 . Type-spedes: Formica
NEOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Monica) Nimbamyrma villiersi, by m o n o t y p y . Nimbamyrma
coeca, by m o n o t y p y . Nycteresia j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Neomyrma Forel, 1914a: 2 7 5 [as subgenus of j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Oligomyrmex: Ettershank, 1966:
Eciton: Mayr, 1865: 76. Nycteresia junior s y n o n y m of
Aphaenogaster]. Type-species: Aphaenogaster 120.
Labidus: Emery, 1910b: 2 1 ; Borgmeier, 1955b: 80.
(Neomyrma) calderoni (junior s y n o n y m olManica NYLANDERIA (junior s y n o n y m of Paratrechina)
NOMAMYRMEX ( E d t o n i n a e : Edtonini)
bradleyi), by m o n o t y p y . Neomyrma subgenus of Nylanderia Emery, 1906b: 133 [as subgenus of Pre-
NomamyrmexBorgmeier, 1936: 55 [as subgenus of
Myrmica: Emery, 1915d: 69; Emery, 1916b: 120. nolepis}. Type-spedes: Formica vividula, by original
Eciton]. Type-spedes: Eciton crassicornis, by original
Neomyrma senior s y n o n y m of Oreomyrma: Wheeler, designation. Nylanderia subgenus of Paratrechina:
designation. Nomamyrmex raised t o genus: Borgme­
W.M. 1915a: 50; Forel, 1915c: 364; Forel, 1 9 1 5 d : 9 . Emery, 1925b: 2 1 7 . Nylanderia raised to g e n u s :
ier, 1953: 4 . Revision of genus: Borgmeier, 1955b:
Neomyrma raised to genus: Bondroit, 1918: 97. Wheeler, W.M. 1936b: 210; m a i n t a i n e d as genus:
135. Keys to s p e d e s : Watkins, 1 9 7 6 : 7 ; Watkins,
Neomyrma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Monica: Emery, 192 If: Kempf, 1972a: 166. Nylanderia provisional j u n i o r
1977a: 2 0 3 .
42. s y n o n y m of Paratrechina: B r o w n , 1973b: 183.
NOONILLA (Leptanillinae: Leptanillini)
Noonilla Petersen, 1968: 582. Type-spedes: Noonilla Nylanderia j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Paratrechina: Trager,
NEOMYRMAMBLYS (junior s y n o n y m of
copiosa, b y original designation. Review of genus: 1984b: 5 1 .
Myrmaphaenus)
Neomyrmamblys Wheeler, W.M. 1921a: 19 [as subge­ Baroni Urbani, 1977c: 4 8 2 . NYSTALOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m oi Aphaenogaster)
n u s of Camponotus]. Type-species: Camponotus NOTHIDRIS (Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini) Nystalomyrma Wheeler, W.M. 1916j: 215 [as subgenus
fastigatus, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Santschi, Nothidris Ettershank, 1 9 6 6 : 1 0 5 . Type-spedes: of Aphaenogaster}. Type-spedes: Myrmica longiceps, by
192 If: 3 1 1 . Neomyrmamblys j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Monomorium latastei, by original designation. Key to original designation. Nystalomyrma provisional
Myrmaphaenus: Emery, 1925b: 152. s p e d e s : Snelling & Hunt, 1976: 79. Review of j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Aphaenogaster: B r o w n , 1973b:
genus: Bolton, 1987: 2 8 4 .

Genus-Group Taxa 39
183. Nystalomyrma j u n i o r s y n o n y m oi Aphaenogaster: m o n o t y p y . Oecophthora j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: ORNATINODA (junior s y n o n y m of Pseudomyrmex)
Bolton, 1982: 364. Smith, F. 1858a: 282; Smith, F. 1858b: 172. Ornatinoda E n z m a n n , E.V. 1944: 61 [as "branch" of
OCHETELLUS (DoUchoderinae) OECOPHYLLA (Formicinae: Oecophyllini) Pseudomyrma]. Type-spedes: Formica tenuis, by origi­
Ochetellus Shattuck, 1992a: 16. Type-species: Oecophylla Smith, F. 1860b: 1 0 1 . Type-spedes: Formica nal designation. Ornatinoda j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Hypoclinea glabra, by original designation. Review of virescens (junior s y n o n y m of Oecophylla smaragdina), Pseudomyrmex: Ward, 1 9 9 0 : 4 6 9 .
g e n u s : Shattuck, 1992c: 129. by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Bingham, 1903: 310. #ORTHOCREMA (subgenus of Crematogaster)
OCHETOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Ochetomyrmecini) OEDALEOCERUS (junior s y n o n y m of Solenopsis) Orthocrema Santschi, 1918d: 182 [as subgenus of
Ochetomyrmex Mayr, 1878: 8 7 1 . Type-species: Oedaleocerus Creighton, 1930b: 4 3 [as subgenus of Crematogaster]. Type-spedes: Myrmica sordidula, by
Ochetomyrmex semipolitus, by m o n o t y p y . Solenopsis]. Type-spedes: Solenopsisangulata, by origi­ original designation. Orthocrema raised to genus:
Ochetomyrmex senior s y n o n y m of Brownidris, a n d nal designation. Oedaleocerus raised to genus: Soulie, 1964: 398. Orthocrema provisional j u n i o r
review of genus: Kempf, 1975c: 355; see also notes Kusnezov, 1957a: 272; Kusnezov, 1962b: 160. s y n o n y m of Crematogaster: B r o w n , 1973b: 183
in Bolton, 1987: 266. Oedaleocerus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Solenopsis: (unconfirmed). Orthocrema reverts h e r e to subgenus
OCTELLA (junior s y n o n y m of Solenopsis) Ettershank, 1966: 134. of Crematogaster. Key to Indo-Australian species:
Octella Forel, 1915b: 70 [as subgenus of Oligomyrmex]. OLIGOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Pheidologetonini) Menozzi, 1935a: 112.
Type-species: Oligomyrmex (Octella) pachycents, by OligomyrmexMayr, 1867a: 110. Type-species: ^ORTHONOTOMYRMEX (subgenus of Camponotus)
original designation. Octella j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Oligomyrmex concinnus, by m o n o t y p y . Oligomyrmex Orthonotomyrmex Ashmead, 1906: 3 1 . Replacement
Oligomyrmex: Ettershank, 1966: 119. Octella j u n i o r senior s y n o n y m of Aeromyrma, Aneleus (and its n a m e for Orthonotus Ashmead, 1905b: 384. [Junior
s y n o n y m of Solenopsis: Taylor, 1991b: 611 (not j u n i o r s y n o n y m Sporocleptes), Crateropsis, h o m o n y m of Orthonotus Westwood, in Stephens,
directly stated b u t type-species transferred to Hendecatella, Lecanomyrma, Nimbamyrma, Solenops, 1829: 344.] Orthonotomyrmex subgenus of
Solenopsis). a n d review of genus: Ettershank, 1 9 6 6 : 1 1 9 . Camponotus:Forel, 1913c: 350 (in text).
OCTOSTRUMA (Myrmicinae: Basicerotini) Oligomyrmex senior s y n o n y m of Erebomyrma (and its Orthonotomyrmex provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Octostruma Forel, 1912e: 196 [as subgenus of j u n i o r s y n o n y m Spelaeomyrmex): Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 6 . Camponotus:Brown, 1973b: 183 (unconfirmed).
Rhopalothrix]. Type-species: Rhopalothrix simoni ONYCHOMYRMEX (Ponerinae: Amblyoponini) Notes o n subgenus: Donisthorpe, 1942g: 2 4 8 .
(junior s y n o n y m of Octostruma iheringi), by sub­ Onychomyrmex Emery, 1895g: 349. Type-spedes:
ORTHONOTUS (junior h o m o n y m , see
s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 82. Onychomyrmex hedleyi, by m o n o t y p y . Revision of
Orthonotomyrmex)
Octostruma raised to genus: B r o w n , 1948e: 102. genus: B r o w n , 1960a: 178.
Orthonotus Ashmead, 1905b: 384. Type-spedes: For­
Revision of genus: B r o w n 8- Kempf, 1960: 181. OOCERAEA (junior s y n o n y m of Cerapachys)
mica sericea, by original designation. [Junior h o m ­
OCYMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Pheidolini) Ooceraea Roger, 1862a: 2 4 8 . Type-species: Ooceraea
o n y m of Orthonotus Westwood, in Stephens, 1829:
Ocymyrmex Emery, 1886: 364. Type-species: Ocymyrmex fragosa, by m o n o t y p y . Ooceraea subgenus of
344 (Hemiptera).] Orthonotomyrmex Ashmead,
barbiger, by m o n o t y p y . Revision of genus: Bolton, Cerapachys: Emery, 1902d: 24; Wheeler, W.M.
1906: 3 1 , replacement n a m e for Orthonotus
1981b: 260; Bolton & Marsh, 1989: 1267. 1902d: 185. Ooceraea provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Ashmead.
ODONTOMACHUS (Ponerinae: Ponerini) Cerapachys: B r o w n , 1973b: 183. Ooceraea j u n i o r syn­
OTOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Cataulacus)
Odontomachus Latreille, 1 8 0 4 : 1 7 9 . Type-species: For­ o n y m of Cerapachys: B r o w n , 1 9 7 5 : 1 9 .
OtomyrmexYorA, 1891b: 147 [as subgenus of Cataula­
mica haematoda, by m o n o t y p y . Odontomachus senior OPHTHALMOPONE (junior s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla)
cus}. Type-spedes: Cataulacus oberthueri, by
s y n o n y m of Pedetes: Dalla Torre, 1893: 5 1 . Ophthalmopone Forel, 1890b: ori. Type-spedes:
m o n o t y p y . Otomyrmex provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m
Odontomachus senior s y n o n y m of Champsomyrmex Ophthalmopone berthoudi, b y m o n o t y p y .
of Cataulacus: B r o w n , 1973b: 183. Otomyrmex j u n i o r
a n d Myrtoteras, a n d revision of genus: B r o w n , Ophthalmopone j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla:
s y n o n y m of Cataulacus: Bolton, 1974a: 7.
1976a: 6 7 . B r o w n , in preparation.
OVERBECKIA ( F o r m i d n a e : Camponotini)
OPISTHOPSIS (Formicinae: Camponotini)
ODONTOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Pristomyrmex) Overbeckia Viehmeyer, 1916a: 1 5 1 . Type-species: Over-
Opisthopsis Dalla Torre, 1 8 9 3 : 2 1 9 . Replacement n a m e
Odontomyrmex Andre, 1 9 0 5 : 2 0 7 . Type-species: for Myrmecopsis Smith, F. 1865: 68. [Junior h o m ­ beckia subclavata, by m o n o t y p y .
Odontomyrmex quadridentatus, by m o n o t y p y . o n y m oi Myrmecopsis N e w m a n , 1850: cxxii.] Revi­ OXYEPOECUS (Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini)
Odontomyrmex subgenus of Pristomyrmex: Forel, sion of g e n u s : Wheeler, W.M. 1918d: 341 (out of Oxyepoecus Santschi, 1926d: 6. Type-spedes: Oxyepoecus
1 9 1 7 : 2 4 4 ; m a i n t a i n e d as subgenus: Wheeler, W.M. date). bruchi, by m o n o t y p y . Oxyepoecus senior s y n o n y m of
1922a: 682. Odontomyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Forelifidis (and t h e j u n i o r h o m o n y m Martia Forel):
Pristomyrmex:Mann, 1919: 3 4 1 ; Emery, 1922f: 2 3 3 ; OPISTHOSCYPHUS (junior s y n o n y m oi Alfaria) B r o w n , 1955b: 6 8 . Review of g e n u s : Ettershank,
Taylor, 1965b: 35; Bolton, 1981b: 2 8 2 . Opisthoscyphus M a n n , 1 9 2 2 : 4 . Type-spedes: 1 9 6 6 : 1 4 4 . Revision of g e n u s : Kempf, 1974b: 4 7 1 .
ODONTOPELTA (junior s y n o n y m of Leptogenys) Opisthoscyphus scabrosus (junior s y n o n y m of #OXYGYNE (subgenus of Crematogaster)
Odontopelta Emery, 1911 d: 101 [as subgenus of Gnamptogenys minuta), by original designation. OxygyneVorA, 1901e: 375 [as subgenus oi Crematogas­
Leptogenys]. Type-species: Leptogenys turneri, by Opisthoscyphus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Alfaria: B r o w n , in ter]. Type-spedes: Crematogaster (Oxygyne) daisyi, by
m o n o t y p y . Odontopelta provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m Borgmeier, 1957: 115. [Alfaria j u n i o r s y n o n y m of s u b s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911 f:
oi Leptogenys: Brown, 1973b: 183. Odontopelta j u n i o r Gnamptogenys: B r o w n , 1958g:212.] 169. Oxygyne raised to genus: Soulie, 1964: 398. Oxy­
s y n o n y m of Leptogenys: Taylor & B r o w n , D.R. 1985: ORECTOGNATHUS (Myrmicinae: Dacetini) gyne provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Crematogaster:
32 (accepted as confirmation). Orectognathus Smith, F. 1 8 5 4 : 2 2 7 . Type-species: B r o w n , 1973b: 183 (unconfirmed). Oxygyne reverts
ODONTOPONERA (Ponerinae: Ponerini) Orectognathus antennatus, by m o n o t y p y . h e r e to subgenus of Crematogaster.
Odontoponera Mayr, 1862: 717. Type-spedes: Ponera Orectognathus senior s y n o n y m of Arnoldidris: Taylor, *OXYIDRIS (Myrrmcinae: Pheidologetonini)
denticulata (junior s y n o n y m of Odontoponera trans­ 1977: 5 8 1 . Revisions of g e n u s : B r o w n , 1953k: 84; *Oxyidris Wilson, 1985a: 5. Type-species: *Oxyidrisantill-
versa), by monotypy. B r o w n , 1958b: 17; Taylor, 1977: 585; Taylor, 1978b: ana, by original designation.
OECODOMA (junior s y n o n y m of Atta) 1. OXYOPOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Pheidolini)
Oecodoma Latreille, 1818: 222. Type-spedes: Formica Oxyopomyrmex Andre, 1881b: 72. Type-spedes: Oxy-
OREOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Neomyrma)
cephalotes, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Shuckard,
Oreomyrma Wheeler, W.M. 1914d: 118 [as subgenus of opomyrmex oculatus, b y m o n o t y p y .
in Swainson & Shuckard, 1840: 174. Oecodoma
Myrmica]. Type-spedes: Myrmica rubida, by original PACHYCONDYLA (Ponerinae: Ponerini)
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Atta: Roger, 1863b: 3 5 .
designation. Oreomyrma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla Smith, F. 1858b: 105. Type-spedes: For­
OECOPHTHORA (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole)
Neomyrma: Wheeler, W.M. 1915a: 50. [Neomyrma mica crassinoda, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of
Oecophthora Heer, 1852: 15. Type-spedes: Oecophthora
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Manica: Emery, 192 If: 42.] Emery, 1901a: 4 2 . Pachycondyla provisional senior
pusilla (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole megacephala), by
s y n o n y m of Bothroponera (and its j u n i o r s y n o n y m
Pseudoneoponera), Ectomomyrmex, Eumecopone,

40 Genus-Group Taxa
Mesoponera (and its j u n i o r s y n o n y m Xiphopelta), original designation. Paracolobopsis j u n i o r s y n o n y m [*Paraneuretus Wheeler, W.M. 1908g: 4 1 3 ; Wheeler,
Neoponera, Pseudoponera (and its j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Myrmaphaenus: Emery, 1925b: 152. W.M. 1910g: 148; Emery, 1912g: 2; nomina nuda.]
Trachymesopus), Termitopone (and its j u n i o r s y n o n y m #PARACREMA (subgenus of Crematogaster) PARANOMOPONE (junior s y n o n y m of Heteroponera)
Syntermitopone), Wadeura: B r o w n , 1973b: 1 7 9 - 1 8 5 . Paracrema Santschi, 1918d: 182 [as subgenus of Paranomopone Wheeler, W.M. 1915c: 117. Type-spe­
Pachycondyla provisional senior s y n o n y m of Crematogaster]. Type-spedes: Crematogasterspengeli, d e s : Paranomopone relicta, by m o n o t y p y .
Brachyponera: Snelling, 1981: 389. Confirmation of by original designation. Paracrema raised to g e n u s : Paranomopone j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Heteroponera:
t h e s e provisional s y n o n y m s , a n d Pachycondyla Soulie, 1964: 3 9 8 . Paracrema provisional j u n i o r syn­ B r o w n , 1958g: 194.
senior s y n o n y m of Euponera, Hagensia, Megaponera, o n y m of Crematogaster: B r o w n , 1973b: 183. PARAPARATRECHINA (junior s y n o n y m of
Ophthalmopone, Paltothyreus: B r o w n , in preparation. Paracrema h e r e reverts to subgenus of Crematogaster. Paratrechina)
PACHYSIMA (junior s y n o n y m of Tetraponera) PARACRYPTOCERUS (junior s y n o n y m of Zacryptocerus) Paraparatrechina Donisthorpe, 1947d: 192 [as subge­
Pachysima Emery, 1912b: 97 [as subgenus of Sima]. Paracryptocerus Emery, 19151: 192 [as subgenus of n u s of Paratrechina]. Type-species: Paratrechina
Type-species: Tetraponera aethiops, by m o n o t y p y . Cryptocerus]. Type-spedes: Cryptocerus spinosus, by (Paraparatrechina) pallida, by m o n o t y p y .
Pachysima raised to g e n u s : Wheeler, W.M. 1918c: original designation. Paracryptocerus raised to genus: Paraparatrechina provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
308 (footnote). Revision of g e n u s : Wheeler, W.M. Smith, M.R. 1949c: 20. Paracryptocerus senior syn­ Paratrechina: B r o w n , 1973b: 183. Paraparatrechina
1922a: 112. Pachysima provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m o n y m of Cyathocephalus ( h o m o n y m ) , Cyathomyrmex, j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Paratrechina: Trager, 1984b: 58.
of Tetraponera: B r o w n , 1973b: 183. Pachysima j u n i o r a n d Harnedia: Kempf, 1972a: 175. Paracryptocerus PARAPHACOTA (junior s y n o n y m of Monomorium)
s y n o n y m of Tetraponera: Ward, 1 9 9 0 : 4 7 0 . j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Zacryptocerus: Kempf, 1973c: Paraphacota Santschi, 1919d: 90. Type-spedes:
PAEDALGUS (Myrmicinae: Pheidologetonini) 4 6 0 . Revisionary studies: Kempf, 1 9 5 1 : 1 5 3 ; Kempf, Paraphacota surcoufi, b y m o n o t y p y . [Type-spedes not
Paedalgus Forel, 191 l i : 2 1 7 . Type-species: Paeaalgus 1952: 1; Kempf, 1958a: 6 1 . Phacota noualhieri, unjustified subsequent designa­
escherichi, by monotypy. Review of genus: PARAENICTUS (junior s y n o n y m of Aenictus) tion b y Santschi, 1927d: 2 4 5 ; this error repeated in
Ettershank, 1 9 6 6 : 1 2 8 . Revision of g e n u s : Bolton & Paraenictus Wheeler, W.M. 1929g: 27 [as subgenus of Ettershank, 1966: 82 a n d Bolton, 1973a: 352.]
Belshaw, 1 9 9 3 : 1 8 1 . Aenictus]. Type-spedes: Aenictus (Paraenictus) Paraphacota j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Monomorium:
PALAEATTA (junior s y n o n y m of Atta) silvestrii, by m o n o t y p y . Paraenictus j u n i o r s y n o n y m Santschi, 1927d: 2 4 3 ; Bolton, 1987: 2 9 3 .
Palaeatta Borgmeier, 1950d: 2 4 4 [as subgenus of Atta]. of Aenictus: Wilson, 1964a: 4 4 4 . *PARAPHAENOGASTER (Myrmicinae: Pheidolini)
Type-species: Atta bisphaerica, by original designa­ PARAFORMICA (junior s y n o n y m of Cataglyphis) *Paraphaenogaster DIussky, 1981b: 6 8 . Type-spedes:
tion. Palaeatta j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Atta: Weber, Paraformica Forel, 1915b: 95 (footnote) [as subgenus *Paraphaenogaster microphthalmus, by original desig­
1958a: 8. Palaeatta revived from s y n o n y m y as subge­ of Formica]. Type-spedes: Formica (Paraformica) nation. [*Paraphaeogaster Hong, 1984: 8, incorrect
n u s of Atta, a n d revision of subgenus: Borgmeier, emmae, by m o n o t y p y . Paraformica raised to genus: s u b s e q u e n t spelling.]
1959b: 377. Palaeatta provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Emery, 1925b: 260; Paraformica subgenus of PARAPHEIDOLE (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole)
Atta: B r o w n , 1973b: 183; confirmed Bolton, 1994: Cataglyphis: Santschi, 1925g: 353; Santschi, 1929b: Parapheidole Emery, 1915d: 68. Type-species:
105. 30. Paraformica subgenus of Proformica: Kuznetsov- Aphaenogaster oculata, by m o n o t y p y . Parapheidole
Ugamsky, 1928a: 7. Paraformica provisional j u n i o r provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: Brown,
*PALAEOMYRMEX (transferred to HOMOPTERA)
s y n o n y m of Cataglyphis: B r o w n , 1973b: 183. 1973b: 183. Parapheidole j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
*Palaeomyrmex Heer, 1 8 6 5 : 9 1 . Type-spedes: *Pal-
Paraformica j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cataglyphis: Agosti, Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366.
aeomyrmexprodromus, by m o n o t y p y . *Palaeomyrmex
1990a: 1462; Agosti, 1994a: 103. PARAPLAGIOLEPIS (junior s y n o n y m of Plagiolepis)
transferred from F o r m i d d a e to HOMOPTERA:
*PARAMERANOPLUS (Myrmicinae: Meranoplini) Paraplagiolepis Faber, 1969: 65 [as subgenus of
Handlirsch, 1906: 507.
*Parameranoplus Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 69. Type-spe­ Plagiolepis]. Type-spedes: Plagiolepis xene, by
*PALAEOMYRMEX (junior h o m o n y m , see *Dlusskyidris)
d e s : *Parameranoplus primaevus, by m o n o t y p y . m o n o t y p y . Paraplagiolepis provisional j u n i o r syn­
*PalaeomyrmexDhissky, 1 9 7 5 : 1 1 8 . Type-spedes: *Pal-
PARAMYCETOPHYLAX (junior s y n o n y m of o n y m of Plagiolepis: B r o w n , 1973b: 183; confirmed
aeomyrmexzherichini, by original designation.
Bolton, 1994: 5 1 .
[Junior h o m o n y m of *Palaeomyrmex Heer, 1865: 91 Mycetophylax)
PARAPONERA (Ponerinae: Paraponerini)
(Homoptera).] *Dlusskyidris Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 8 7 , re­ Paramycetophylax Kusnezov, 1 9 5 6 : 2 3 . Type-spedes:
Paraponera Smith, F. 1858b: 100. Type-spedes: Formica
placement n a m e for *Palaeomyrmex DIussky. *Pal- Sericomyrmex bruchi, by m o n o t y p y . Paramycetophylax
clavata, by m o n o t y p y . Revision of g e n u s : Brown,
aeomyrmex DIussky transferred to junior s y n o n y m of Mycetophylax: Weber, 1958d: 262.
1958g: 2 0 5 . See also: Lattke, 1994: 1 1 1 .
*Sphecomyrmidae: DIussky, 1983: 66. *Pal- #PARAMYRMAMBLYS (subgenus of Camponotus)
PARAPRIONOPELTA (Ponerinae: Amblyoponini)
aeomyrmex DIussky j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Paramyrmamblys Santschi, 1926c: 6 0 4 [as subgenus of
Paraprionopelta Kusnezov, 1 9 5 5 : 2 7 0 . Type-spedes:
*Sphecomyrma: Wilson, 1 9 8 7 : 4 9 ; Holldobler & Wil­ Camponotus].Type-species: Camponotus
Paraprionopelta minima, by m o n o t y p y .
son, 1 9 9 0 : 9 . *Palaeomyrmex DIussky revived from (Myrmamblys) ostiarius, by original designation.
Paraprionopelta discussed: B r o w n , 1960a: 1 8 1 .
s y n o n y m y : DIussky & Fedoseeva, 1987: 77; Carpen­ Paramyrmamblys provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Paraprionopelta provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
ter, 1 9 9 2 : 4 9 3 . Camponotus:Brown, 1973b: 183 (unconfirmed).
Amblyopone:Brown, 1973b: 183 (unconfirmed).
*PALEOSMINTHURUS (*Paleosminthurinae) PARAMYRMICA (junior s y n o n y m of Myrmica)
PARASIMA Ounior s y n o n y m of Tetraponera)
*Paleosminthurus Pierce & Gibron, 1 9 6 2 : 1 4 6 . Type-spe­ Paramyrmica Cole, 1957a: 37. Type-spedes:
Parasima Donisthorpe, 1948d: 592 [as subgenus of
d e s : *Paleosminthurusjuliae, b y m o n o t y p y . *Pale- Paramyrmica colax, by original designation.
Tetraponera]. Unnecessary replacement n a m e for
osminthurus transferred from *Paleosminthuridae to Paramyrmica provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Sima in t h e sense of Emery, 192 If: 2 3 . Parasima
F o r m i d d a e : Najt, 1 9 8 7 : 1 5 2 . Myrmica: B r o w n , 1973b: 183. Paramyrmica j u n i o r
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Tetraponera: Ward, 1 9 9 0 : 4 7 0 .
PALTOTHYREUS (junior s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla) s y n o n y m of Myrmica: Bolton, 1988a: 3.
PARASYSCIA (junior s y n o n y m of Cerapachys)
Paltothyreus Mayr, 1 8 6 2 : 7 3 5 . Type-spedes: Formica tar- PARANAMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Solenopsis)
Parasyscia Emery, i n Andre, 1882c: 2 3 5 . Type-spedes:
sata, by m o n o t y p y . Paltothyreus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Paranamyrma Kusnezov, 1953d: 17. Type-spedes:
Parasyscia piochardi, by m o n o t y p y . Parasyscia subge­
Pachycondyla: B r o w n , in preparation. Paranamyrma solenopsidis, by m o n o t y p y .
n u s of Cerapachys-.ForA, 18921:243. Parasyscia
PAPYRIUS (DoUchoderinae) [Paranamyrma also described as n e w by Kusnezov,
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cerapachys: Kempf, 1972a: 76.
Papyrius Shattuck, 1992a: 17. Type-spedes: 1954a: 9.] Paranamyrma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Solenop­
PARATOPULA (Myrmicinae: Formicoxenini)
Iridomyrmex nitida, by original designation. Review sis: Ettershank, 1 9 6 6 : 1 3 4 .
Paratopula Wheeler, WJVI. 1919e: 144. Type-species:
of genus: Shattuck, 1992c: 134. *PARANEURETUS (Aneuretinae)
Atopomyrmex ceylonicus, by original designation.
PARACOLOBOPSIS (junior s y n o n y m of Myrmaphaenus) *Paraneuretus Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 7 3 . Type-spedes:
Paratopula provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Atopula:
Paracolobopsis Emery, 1920b: 2 4 9 [as subgenus of *Paraneuretus tornquisti, by original designation.
Camponotus]. Type-species: Camponotus salvini, by

Genus-Group Taxa 41
B r o w n , 1973b: 1 8 3 . Paratopula valid genus, a n d PHALACROMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Pheidologeton senior s y n o n y m of Amauromyrmex a n d
revision of g e n u s : Bolton, 1988b: 125. Phalacromyrmecini) Idrisella, a n d review of genus: Ettershank, 1966: 115.
PARATRECHINA (Formicinae: Lasiini) PhalacromyrmexKempf, 1960b: 89. Type-spedes: PHIDOLA (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole)
Paratrechina Motschoulsky, 1 8 6 3 : 1 3 . Type-species: Phalacromyrmexfugax, by original designation. Phidola Schulz, 1 9 0 6 : 1 5 5 , unjustified e m e n d a t i o n of
Paratrechina currens (junior s y n o n y m of Paratrechina Review of genus: Bolton, 1984: 377. Pheidole. Phidola j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: Bolton,
longicornis), by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, PHARAOPHANES (unavailable n a m e ) 1994:106.
W.M. 191 If: 170. Paratrechina j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pharaophanes Bernard, 1953b: 2 3 8 (attributed to PHIDOLE (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole)
Prenolepis: Dalla Torre, 1893: 177; Wheeler, W.M. Santschi) [as subgenus of Monomorium]. [Without Phidole Bingham, 1 9 0 3 : 2 2 0 , unjustified e m e n d a t i o n
1922a: 940. Paratrechina revived from s y n o n y m y : designation of t y p e - s p e d e s ; unavailable n a m e . ] of Pheidole. Phidole j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole:
Emery, 1925b: 216. Paratrechina senior s y n o n y m of I n d u d e d s p e d e s all referable to Monomorium; see Wheeler, 1922a: 806.
Nylanderia a n d Paraparatrechina, a n d revision of also n o t e in Baroni Urbani, 1971c: 90. PHIDOLOGETON (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidologeton)
N o r t h American species: Trager, 1984b: 58. PHASMOMYRMEX (Formicinae: Camponotini) PhidologetonBingnam, 1 9 0 3 : 1 6 0 , unjustified e m e n d a ­
Paratrechina senior s y n o n y m of Andragnathus: Phasmomyrmex Stitz, 1 9 1 0 : 1 4 6 . Type-spedes: tion of Pheidologeton. Phidologeton j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Agosti & Bolton, 1990a: 7 5 . Phasmomyrmex sericeus (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidologeton: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 880.
PARECTATOMMA (junior s y n o n y m of Gnamptogenys) Phasmomyrmex buchneri), by m o n o t y p y . PHILIDRIS (Dolichoderinae)
Parectatomma Emery, 1 9 l i d : 4 4 [as subgenus of Phasmomyrmex subgenus of Camponotus: Forel, Philidris Shattuck, 1992a: 17. Type-spedes: Formica
Ectatomma]. Type-species: Ectatomma triangulare, by I912i: 90. Phasmomyrmex revived status as genus: cordata, by original designation. Review of g e n u s :
original designation. Parectatomma subgenus of Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 7 0 1 . Subgenera of Shattuck, 1992c: 140.
Gnamptogenys: Forel, 1917: 2 3 6 . Parectatomma j u n i o r Phasmomyrmex: n o m i n a l plus Myrmacantha, PHRYNOPONERA (Ponerinae: Ponerini)
s y n o n y m of Gnamptogenys:Brown, 1958g: 212. Myrmorhachis. Phrynoponera Wheeler, W.M. 1920: 5 3 . Type-spedes:
PARHOLCOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Monomorium) PHAULOMYRMA (Leptanillinae: Leptanillini) Bothroponeragabonensis, by original designation.
Parholcomyrmex Emery, 1915i: 190 [as subgenus of Phaulomyrma Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, E.W. 1930: Revision of g e n u s : Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 75 (out of
Monomorium]. Type-species: Myrmica gracillima 193. Type-spedes: Phaulomyrma javana, by original date). Phrynoponera provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
(junior s y n o n y m oi Monomorium destructor), by origi­ designation. Review of g e n u s : Petersen, 1968: 593; Pachycondyla: B r o w n , 1973b: 183 (unconfirmed).
nal designation. Parholcomyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Baroni Urbani, 1977c: 480. Phrynoponera valid g e n u s : h e r e noted.
Monomorium: Ettershank, 1966: 82; see also Bolton, PHEIDOLACANTHINUS (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole) PHYRACACES (junior s y n o n y m of Cerapachys)
1 9 8 7 : 2 9 6 . [Paraholcomyrmex Emery, 19151: 191, Pheidolacanthinus Smith, F. 1865: 7 5 . Type-spedes: Phyracaces Emery, 1902c: 2 3 . Type-spedes: Cerapachys
incorrect s u b s e q u e n t spelling.] Pheidolacanthinus armatus (junior s y n o n y m of mayri, by original designation. Phyracaces provisional
PEDETES (junior s y n o n y m of Odontomachus) Pheidole quadrispinosa), by m o n o t y p y . j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cerapachys: B r o w n , 1973b: 183.
Pedetes Bernstein, 1 8 6 1 : 7. Type-species: Pedetes Pheidolacanthinus subgenus of Pheidole: Forel, 1900a: Phyracaces j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cerapachys: Brown,
macrorhynchus, by m o n o t y p y . Pedetes j u n i o r syn­ 2 5 . Pheidolacanthinus provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of 1975: 19.
o n y m of Odontomachus: Dalla Torre, 1893: 5 1 . Pheidole: Brown, 1973b: 183. Pheidolacanthinus
PHYSATTA (junior s y n o n y m of Heptacondylus)
PENTASTRUMA (Myrmicinae: Dacetini) j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1 9 7 9 : 1 3 6 5 .
Physatta Smith, F. 1857a: 7 7 . Type-spedes: Physatta
Pentastruma Forel, 1912a: 50. Type-species: Pen- PHEIDOLE (Myrmicinae: Pheidolini)
dromedarius (junior s y n o n y m of Myrmicaria car-
tastruma sauteri, by m o n o t y p y . Revision of g e n u s : Pheidole Westwood, 1 8 3 9 : 2 1 9 . Type-spedes: Atta pro-
inata), by m o n o t y p y . Physatta j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
B r o w n & Boisvert, 1 9 7 9 : 2 0 1 . [See n o t e u n d e r videns, b y m o n o t y p y . Pheidole senior s y n o n y m of
Heptacondylus:Mayr, 1 8 6 2 : 7 5 5 ( i n t e x t ) .
Strumigenys.] Oecophthora: Smith, F. 1858a: 282; Smith, F. 1858b:
[Heptacondylus j u n i o r s y n o n y m oi Myrmicaria:
PERGANDEA (nomen nudum) 172. Pheidole senior s y n o n y m of leptomyrma.-Emery,
Smith, F. 1865:73.]
Pergandea Ashmead, 1905b: 382, nomen nudum. 1892b: 166. Pheidole senior s y n o n y m oi Allopheidole
itPHYSOCREMA (subgenus of Crematogaster)
PERISSOMYRMEX (Myrrmcinae: Myrmecmini) a n d Cardiopheidole: Emery, 1921 f: 8 4 . Pheidole senior
Physocrema Forel, 1912f: 2 2 0 [as subgenus of
Perissomyrmex Smith, M.R. 1947i: 2 8 1 . Type-species: s y n o n y m of Phidole: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 806.
Crematogaster}. Type-spedes: Crematogaster inflata, by
Pheidole senior s y n o n y m of Macropheidole: Smith,
Perissomyrmex snyderi, by original designation. subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a:
M.R. 1951a: 8 0 0 . Pheidole senior s y n o n y m of
PERONOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Formicoxenini) 82. Physocrema raised to g e n u s : Soulie, 1964: 398.
Epipheidole: Cole, 1965: 174. Pheidole provisional
Peronomyrmex Viehmeyer, 1 9 2 2 : 2 1 2 . Type-species: Physocrema provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
senior s y n o n y m of Anergatides, Bruchomyrma,
Peronomyrmex overbecki, by m o n o t y p y . Review of Crematogaster: B r o w n , 1973b: 183. Physocrema h e r e
Ceratopheidole, Conothoracoides, Conothorax (hom­
genus: Taylor, 1970b: 2 0 9 . reverts to subgenus of Crematogaster.
o n y m ) , Decapheidole, Elasmopheidole, Electropheidole,
PETALOMYRMEX (Formicinae: Brachymyrmecini) PILOTROCHUS (Myrrmcinae: P h a l a a o m y r m e c i n i )
Eriopheidole, Gallardomyrma, Hendecapheidole (and its
Petalomyrmex Snelling, 1979b: 5. Type-species: Pilotrochus B r o w n , 1978a: 2 1 8 . Type-spedes:
j u n i o r s y n o n y m Cephalomorium), Ischnomyrmex (and
Petalomyrmexphylax, by original designation. Pilotrochus besmerus, by original designation. Review
its j u n i o r s y n o n y m Isopheidole), Parapheidole,
*PETRAEOMYRMEX (Dolichoderinae) of genus: Bolton, 1984: 380.
Pheidolacanthinus, Scrobopheidole, Stegopheidole, Sym-
*Petraeomyrmex Carpenter, 1930: 5 5 . Type-spedes: *PITYOMYRMEX (Dolichoderinae)
pheidole, a n d Trachypheidole: B r o w n , 1973b: 1 7 8 -
*Petraeomyrmex minimus, by original designation. *PityomyrmexWheeler, W.M. 1915h: 9 8 . Type-spedes:
185. Confirmation of these s y n o n y m s : Smith, D.R.
*PETROPONE (*Armaniinae) *Pityomyrmex tornquisti, by m o n o t y p y .
1 9 7 9 : 1 3 6 5 . Pheidole senior s y n o n y m of Anergatides
*Petropone DIussky, 1 9 7 5 : 1 1 9 . Type-spedes: *Petropone PLAGIOLEPIS (Formicinae: Plagiolepidini)
a n d Bruchomyrma: Wilson, 1984: 327. Pheidole
petiolata, by original designation. *Petropone placed Plagiolepis Mayr, 1 8 6 1 : 4 2 . Type-spedes: Formica
senior s y n o n y m of Xenoaphaenogaster: Bolton, 1987:
in *Armaniidae: DIussky & Fedoseeva, 1 9 8 7 : 7 7 . pygmaea, by m o n o t y p y . Plagiolepis provisional senior
2 9 1 . Pheidole senior s y n o n y m of Phidola: Bolton,
*Petropone possible j u n i o r s y n o n y m of s y n o n y m of Anacantholepis, Aporomyrmex a n d
1 9 9 4 : 1 0 6 . Key to N o r t h American s p e d e s : Gregg,
*Sphecomyrma: Holldobler & Wilson, 1990: 9. Paraplagiolepis: Brown, 1973b: 178, 183. S y n o n y m y
1959:9.
*Petropone status as genus: Carpenter, 1 9 9 2 : 4 9 3 of Aporomyrmex a n d Paraplagiolepis confirmed Bol­
PHACOTA (Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini) PHEIDOLOGETON (Myrmicinae: Pheidologetonini) ton, 1994: 5 1 ; s y n o n y m y of Anacantholepis remains
Phacota Roger, 1862b: 2 6 0 . Type-spedes: Phacota Pheidologeton Mayr, 1862: 7 5 0 . Type-spedes: Oecodoma unconfirmed.
sichelii, by m o n o t y p y . Phacota j u n i o r s y n o n y m of diversa, b y s u b s e q u e n t designation of Bingham, PLANIMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Aphaenogaster)
Monomorium: Ettershank, 1 9 6 6 : 8 2 . Phacota revived 1 9 0 3 : 1 6 0 . Pheidologeton senior s y n o n y m of Planimyrma Viehmeyer, 1914d: 604 [as subgenus of
from s y n o n y m y : Bolton, 1 9 8 7 : 2 8 1 . Phidologeton:Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 8 8 0 . Aphaenogaster]. Type-spedes: Stenamma
(Ischnomyrmex) loriai, by original designation.

42 Genus-Group Taxa
Planimyrma provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Chariomyrma, Cyrtomyrma, Dolichorhachis, Evelyna PRISTOMYRMECIA (junior s y n o n y m of Promyrmeda)
Aphaenogaster: B r o w n , 1973b: 184. Planimyrma (junior s y n o n y m oi Myrmothrinax), Florencea (junior Pristomyrmeda Emery, 191 I d : 21 [as subgenus of
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Aphaenogaster: Bolton, 1982: 364. s y n o n y m oi Myrmhopla), Hagiomyrma, Hedomyrma, Myrmecia]. Type-species: Myrmeda mandibularis, by
PLATYSTRUMA (junior s y n o n y m of Smithistruma) Hemioptica, Hoplomyrmus (junior s y n o n y m of original designation. Pristomyrmeda junior s y n o n y m
Platystruma B r o w n , 1953g: 112 [as subgenus of Myrma), Irenea (junior s y n o n y m oi Myrmatopa), of Promyrmeda: Clark, 1 9 5 1 : 119. [Promyrmeda
Smithistruma]. Type-species: Strumigenys (Cephaloxys) Johnia (junior s y n o n y m of Aulacomyrma), Morleyidris j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Myrmecia: B r o w n , 1953j: 1.]
depressiceps, by original designation. Platystruma (junior s y n o n y m of Hedomyrma), Myrma, PRISTOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Myrmecinmi)
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Smithistruma: Brown, 1973a: 35. Myrmatopa, Myrmhopla, Myrmothrinax, Pristomyrmex Mayr, 1866b: 9 0 3 . Type-species:
PLATYTHYREA (Ponerinae: Platytbyreini) Pseudocyrtomyrma (junior s y n o n y m of Myrma). Revi­ Pristomyrmex pungens, by m o n o t y p y . Pristomyrmex
Platythyrea Roger, 1863a: 172. Type-species: sion of subgenera: H u n g , 1967b: 3 9 5 . All subgenera senior s y n o n y m of Odontomyrmex: M a n n , 1919: 3 4 1 .
Pachycondyla punctata, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of given as provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m s of Polyrhachis: Pristomyrmex senior s y n o n y m of Hylidris: B r o w n ,
Bingham, 1 9 0 3 : 7 3 . Platythyrea senior s y n o n y m of B r o w n , 1973b: 1 7 8 - 1 8 4 (unconfirmed); see u n d e r 1953c: 9. Pristomyrmex senior s y n o n y m of Dodous:
Eubothroponera, a n d revision of g e n u s : Brown, individual entries. The entry of Chariomyrma, B r o w n , 1971a: 3. Revision of Australasian species:
1975:6. Hagiomyrma, a n d Hedomyrma u n d e r t h e s y n o n y m y Taylor, 1965b: 35; Taylor, 1968c: 63; of Afrotropical
PLECTROCTENA (Ponerinae: Ponerini) of Polyrhachis by Taylor & B r o w n , D.R. 1985: 131, is species: Bolton, 1981b: 282.
Plectroctena Smith, F. 1858b: 1 0 1 . Type-species: n o t considered as confirmation as t h e t h r e e sub­ PROATTA (Myrmicinae: Stenammini)
Plectroctena mandibularis, by m o n o t y p y . Plectroctena genera all range outside t h e Australasian Region. Proatta Forel, 1912m: 7 6 8 . Type-species: Proatta butteli,
senior s y n o n y m of Cacopone: Bolton, 1974c: 3 1 3 . Key to Afrotropical species: Bolton, 1973b: 2 8 9 . b y m o n o t y p y . [Proatta also described as n e w by
Revisions of g e n u s : Santschi, 1924a: 155 (out of [Polyrachis Arnold, 1924: 7 4 1 , incorrect s u b s e q u e n t Forel, 1913k: 84.] [Proatta as senior s y n o n y m of
date); Bolton, 1974c: 309. spelling.] Asemorhoptrum a n d Theryella: Snelling, 1 9 8 1 : 3 9 5 , i n
PODOMYRMA (Myrmicinae: Formicoxenini) PONERA (Ponerinae: Ponerini) error; these n a m e s properly attributable to synon­
Podomyrma Smith, F. 1859a: 145. Type-species: Ponera Latreille, 1804: 179. Type-species: Formica y m y of Stenamma, see there.]
Podomyrma femorata, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of coarctata, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Westwood, PROBOLOMYRMEX (Ponerinae: Platythyreini)
Wheeler, W.M. 191 If: 170. Podomyrma senior syn­ 1840a: 8 3 (see discussion i n Taylor, 1967a: 6). Pon­ Probolomyrmex Mayr, 1901b: 2. Type-species: Pro­
o n y m of *Acrostigma: Dalla Torre, 1893: 59. era senior s y n o n y m of Pseudocryptopone a n d bolomyrmex filiformis, by m o n o t y p y . Probolomyrmex
Podomyrma senior s y n o n y m of Dacryon a n d Selenopone: Wilson, 1957b: 356. Revision of genus: senior s y n o n y m of Escherichia, a n d revision of
Pseudopodomyrma: Taylor & B r o w n , D.R. 1985: 80. Taylor, 1967a: 1. Ponera senior s y n o n y m of g e n u s : Taylor, 1965d: 346; see also B r o w n , 1 9 7 5 : 1 1 .
POECILOMYRMA (Myrmicinae: Formicoxenini) Pteroponera: B r o w n , in preparation. *PROCERAPACHYS (junior s y n o n y m of Cerapachys)
Poecilomyrma M a n n , 1 9 2 1 : 4 4 5 . Type-species: *Procerapachys Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 2 7 . Type-species:
PONERACANTHA (junior s y n o n y m of Gnamptogenys)
*Procerapachys annosus, by original designation. *Pro-
Poecilomyrma senirewae, by original designation. Poneracantha Emery, 1897d: 547 [as subgenus of
cerapachys j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cerapachys: B r o w n ,
POGONOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Myrrnicini) Ectatomma]. Type-specis: Ectatomma (Holcoponera)
1975: 19.
Pogonomyrmex Mayr, 1868b: 169. Type-species: Formica bispinosum, by original designation. Poneracantha
badia, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, W.M. j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Gnamptogenys: B r o w n , 1958g: PROCERATIUM (Ponerinae: Proceratiini)
1 9 1 1 f : 1 7 0 . Pogonomyrmex senior s y n o n y m of 211. Proceratium Roger, 1863a: 1 7 1 . Type-species: Procerat­
Ephebomyrmex a n d Forelomyrmex (and t h e j u n i o r *PONERITES (Ponerinae: Ponerini) ium silaceum, by m o n o t y p y . Proceratium senior syn­
h o m o n y m Janetia Forel): Bolton, 1 9 9 4 : 1 0 6 . Keys to *PoneritesDIussky, 1981b: 67 [collective g r o u p n a m e ] . o n y m of Sysphingta: B r o w n , in Borgmeier, 1957:
species: Gallardo, 1932b: 95 and Kusnezov, 1951a: *PONEROPSIS (Ponerinae: Ponerini) 118. Revision of g e n u s : B r o w n , 1958g: 2 4 1 . Keys to
2 5 4 (Argentina); Cole, 1968: 38 (North America); *Poneropsis Heer, 1 8 6 7 : 1 9 . Type-species: *Ponera N e w World species: Snelling, 1 9 6 7 : 8 ; B r o w n ,
Snelling & H u n t , 1976: 72 (Chile); MacKay, W.P., fuliginosa, b y s u b s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, 1980b: 342; Ward, 1 9 8 8 : 1 1 6 ; to Afrotropical spe­
MacKay, E.E., Dominguez, J.F.P., etal, 1985: 39 W.M. 191 If: 1 7 1 . cies: Terron, 1 9 8 1 : 1 0 2 . See also: Lattke, 1994: 113.
(Mexico); Shattuck, 1987: 175 (ocddentalis-com- *PONEROPTERUS (*Armaniinae) PROCRYPTOCERUS (Myrmicinae: Cephalotini)
plex); see also Holldobler, 1976: 3; Taber, 1990: 307. *Poneropterus DIussky, 1983: 7 3 . Type-species: *Pon- ProcryptocerusEmery, 1887b: 4 7 0 (footnote). Type-spe­
POLYERGVS (Forrnicinae: Formicini) eropterus sphecoides, by original designation. *Pon- cies: Meranoplus striatus, by s u b s e q u e n t designation
Polyergus Latreille, 1 8 0 4 : 1 7 9 . Type-species: Formica eropterus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of *Sphecomyrma: Wilson, of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 1 7 1 . Revision of g e n u s :
rufescens, b y m o n o t y p y . Revision of N o r t h American 1 9 8 7 : 4 9 ; Holldobler & Wilson, 1990: 9. *Pon- Kempf, 1 9 5 1 : 15.
species: Smith, M.R. 1947g: 150; Wheeler, J. 1968: eropterus revived from s y n o n y m y : DIussky & PRODICROASPIS (junior s y n o n y m of Lordomyrma)
156; see also Creighton, 1950a: 552; Agosti, 1994a: Fedoseeva, 1987: 77; Carpenter, 1 9 9 2 : 4 9 4 . Prodicroaspis Emery, 1914f: 4 1 4 . Type-species: Pro-
109. PRENOLEPIS (Formicinae: Lasiini) dicroaspis sarasini, by m o n o t y p y . Prodicroaspis j u n i o r
POLYHOMOA (junior s y n o n y m of Kyidris) Prenolepis Mayr, 1 8 6 1 : 52. Type-species: Tapinoma s y n o n y m of Lordomyrma: Bolton, 1994: 106.
Polyhomoa A z u m a , 1950: 36. Type-species: Polyhomoa nitens, b y s u b s e q u e n t designation of Bingham, 'PRODIMORPHOMYRMEX (Formicinae:
itoi (junior s y n o n y m of Kyidris mutica), by 1903:325. Gesomyrmedni)
m o n o t y p y . Polyhomoa j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Kyidris: PRIONOGENYS (junior s y n o n y m of Leptogenys) *ProdimorphomyrmexWheeler, W.M. 1915h: 111.Type-
Creighton, 1950b: 9 3 ; see also B r o w n & Yasumatsu, Prionogenys Emery, 1895g: 3 4 8 . Type-species: species: *Prodimorphomyrmexprimigenius, by
1951:93. Prionogenys podenzanai, b y m o n o t y p y . Prionogenys monotypy.
POLYRHACHIS (Formicinae: Camponotini) j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Leptogenys: Taylor, 1988: 3 3 . PRODISCOTHYREA (junior s y n o n y m oi Discothyrea)
Polyrhachis Smith, F. 1857a: 58. Type-species: Formica *PRIONOMYRMEX (Myrmeciinae: * P r i o n o m y r m e d n i ) Prodiscothyrea Wheeler, W.M. 1916i: 3 3 . Type-species:
bihamata, by original designation. [Polyrhachis *Prionomyrmex Mayr, 1868c: 7 7 . Type-species: Prodiscothyrea velutina, by m o n o t y p y . Prodiscothyrea
Shuckard, in Swainson & Shuckard, 1840: 172, *Prionomyrmex longiceps, by monotypy. j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Discothyrea: Brown, 1958g: 2 4 8 .
nomen nudum.} Polyrhachis subgenus oi Myrma: PRIONOPELTA (Ponerinae: Amblyoponini) PROFORMICA (Formicinae: Formicini)
Wheeler, W.M. 191 If: 8 6 0 . Myrma subgenus of Poly- Prionopelta Mayr, 1866a: 5 0 3 . Type-species: Prionopelta Proformica Ruzsky, 1902d: 13 [as subgenus of Formica].
rhachis: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 993 (see u n d e r punctulata, by m o n o t y p y . Prionopelta senior syn­ Type-species: Formica nasuta, by m o n o t y p y . [Pro-
Myrma). Subgenera of Polyrhachis (alphabetical o n y m of Examblyopone: B r o w n , 1 9 5 1 : 1 0 2 . formica also described as n e w by Ruzsky, 1903b:
order w i t h s y n o n y m s indicated): n o m i n a l plus Prionopelta senior s y n o n y m of Renea: B r o w n , 1953c: 303.] Proformica raised to genus: Bondroit, 1 9 1 8 : 4 0 .
Anoplomyrma, Aulacomyrma, Campomyrma, 1 1 . Revision of genus: B r o w n , 1960a: 173. Key to species of former U.S.S.R. a n d contiguous
Cephalomyrma (junior s y n o n y m of Myrmhopla), countries: DIussky, 1969a: 2 3 1 . See also: Agosti,
1994a: 112.

Genus-Group Taxa 43
PROLASIUS (Fonnicinae: Melophorini) h o m o n y m of Protamblyopone Wheeler, above.] *PSEUDARMANIA (*Armaniinae)
Prolasius Forel, 1892c: 331 [as subgenus of Lasius]. *Casaleia Pagliano 8- Scaramozzino, 1990: 5, replace­ *Pseudarmania DIussky, 1983: 69. Type-spedes:
Type-species: Formica advena, by monotypy. Prolasius m e n t n a m e for *Protamblyopone DIussky. *Pseudarmania rasnitsyni, by original designation.
subgenus of Melophorus: Forel, 1917: 2 4 8 . Prolasius *PROTANEURETUS (Aneuretinae) *Pseudarmania j u n i o r s y n o n y m of *Sphecomyrma:
raised to genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 6 9 5 . Key to *Protaneuretus'Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 7 1 . Type-species: Wilson, 1987: 49; Holldobler & Wilson, 1 9 9 0 : 9 .
species: McAreavey, 1947: 9. *Protaneuretus sucdneus, by m o n o t y p y . [*Pro- *Pseudarmania revived from s y n o n y m y : DIussky &
PROMERANOPLUS (junior s y n o n y m of Lordomyrma) taneuretus Wheeler, W.M. 1908g: 4 1 3 ; Wheeler, Fedoseeva, 1987: 77; Carpenter, 1 9 9 2 : 4 9 4 [mis­
Promeranoplus Emery, 1914f: 4 1 2 . Type-species: Pro­ W.M. 1910g: 148; Emery, 1912g: 2, nominanuda.] spelled as *Pseudoarmania].
meranoplus rouxi, b y m o n o t y p y . Promeranoplus j u n i o r PROTANILLA (Leptanillinae: A n o m a l o m y r m i n i ) PSEUDOATTA (Myrrmcinae: Attini)
s y n o n y m of Lordomyrma: Bolton, 1994: 106. Protanilla Taylor, in Bolton, 1990b: 2 7 9 . Type-species: Pseudoatta Gallardo, 1916d: 320. Type-spedes:
PROMYOPIAS (junior s y n o n y m of Centromyrmex) Protanilla rafflesi, by original designation. Pseudoatta argentina, by m o n o t y p y . Pseudoatta provi­
Promyopias Santschi, 1914d: 323 [as subgenus of Myo­ *PROTAZTECA (Dolichoderinae) sional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Acromyrmex: B r o w n ,
pias]. Type-species: Myopias (Promyopias) silvestrii, by *Protazteca Carpenter, 1 9 3 0 : 4 1 . Type-species: *Pro- 1973b: 184 (unconfirmed).
monotypy. Promyopias raised to g e n u s : Emery, tazteca elongata, by original designation. *PSEUDOCAMPONOTUS (Formicinae: Camponotini)
1915g: 26. Promyopias subgenus of Pseudoponera: PROTHOLCOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Chelaner) *Pseudocamponotus Carpenter, 1930: 22. Type-spedes:
Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 6 4 9 . Promyopias provisional Protholcomyrmex Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 162 [as subge­ *Pseudocamponotus elkoanus, by original designation.
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Centromyrmex: B r o w n , 1973b: n u s oi Monomorium]. Type-species: Monomorium #PSEUDOCOLOBOPSIS (subgenus of Camponotus)
184; confirmed Bolton, 1994: 164. rothsteini, by original designation. Protholcomyrmex Pseudocolobopsis Emery, 1920b: 249 [as subgenus of
PROMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Liomyrmex) j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Chelaner: Ettershank, 1966: 9 3 . Camponotus}. Type-spedes: Camponotusmacrocepha-
Promyrma Forel, 1912m: 7 6 4 . Type-species: Promyrma [Chelaner j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Monomorium: Bolton, lus, by original designation. Pseudocolobopsis provi­
butteli, by m o n o t y p y . Promyrma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of 1987: 287; see also discussion, p.300.] sional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Camponotus: B r o w n ,
Liomyrmex: Forel, 1913k: 26; Emery, 1921f: 191. *PROTOFORMICA (Formicinae: Formicini) 1973b: 184 (unconfirmed).
PROMYRMECIA (junior s y n o n y m oi Myrmecia) *Protoformica DIussky, 1967b: 83 [as subgenus of For­ PSEUDOCRYPTOPONE (junior s y n o n y m of Ponera)
Promyrmeda Emery, 191 Id: 19 [as subgenus of mica]. Type-species: *Formica (Protoformica) pro- PseudocryptoponeWheeler, W.M. 1933g: ^ . T y p e - s p e ­
Myrmeda]. Type-species: Myrmecia aberrans, by origi­ formicoides, by original designation. *Protoformica d e s : Cryptopone tenuis, by original designation.
nal designation. Promyrmeda senior s y n o n y m of raised to g e n u s : DIussky & Fedoseeva, 1987: 7 7 . Pseudocryptopone j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Ponera: Wilson,
Halmamyrmecia a n d Pristomyrmeda: Clark, 1927: 37; PROTOMOGNATHUS (Myrmicinae: Formicoxenini) 1957b: 356.
Clark, 1 9 4 3 : 8 4 . Promyrmeda raised to genus, a n d Protomognathus Wheeler, W.M. 1905a: 3 [as subgenus
PSEUDOCYRTOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Myrma)
revision of g e n u s : Clark, 1943: 84. [Promyrmeda of Tomognathus]. Type-species: Tomognathusamer-
Pseudocyrtomyrma Emery, 1921e: 18 [as subgenus of
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Myrmeda: B r o w n , 1953j: 1.] icanus, by m o n o t y p y . Protomognathus j u n i o r syn­
Polyrhachis]. Type-spedes: Polyrhachis revoili, by orig­
*PROMYRMJCIUM (Myrmicinae: unplaced to tribe) o n y m of Harpagoxenus: Emery, 1 9 2 2 f : 2 6 5 .
inal designation. Pseudocyrtomyrma j u n i o r s y n o n y m
*Promyrmitium Baroni Urbani, 1971b: 362. Replace­ Protomognathus revived from s y n o n y m y a n d raised
of Myrma: Bolton, 1973b: 2 8 8 .
m e n t n a m e for *Myrmidum Heer, 1870: 7 8 . [Junior to genus: Holldobler & Wilson, 1990: 6 5 .
PSEVDODICHTHADIA (junior s y n o n y m of Labidus)
h o m o n y m of *Myrmidum Westwood, 1854: 396.] *PROTOPOI>fE (Ponerinae: Ponerini)
Pseudodichthadia Andre, 1 8 8 5 : 8 3 8 . Type-spedes:
*PROPODOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Vollenhovia) *Protopone DIussky, 1988: 52. Type-species: *Protopone
Pseudodichthadia incerta (junior s y n o n y m of Labidus
*Propodomyrma Wheeler, W.M. 1910g: 163. Type-spe­
primigena, by original designation. coecus), by m o n o t y p y . Pseudodichthadia j u n i o r syn­
cies: *Propodomyrma samlandica (junior s y n o n y m of
*PROTRECHINA (Formicinae: Lasiini) o n y m of Baton: Andre, in Forel, 1899c: 160 (foot­
*Vollenhovia beyrichi), by m o n o t y p y . [*Propodomyrma
*Protrechina Wilson, 1985d: 2 1 1 . Type-spedes: *Pro- n o t e ) . Pseudodichthadia j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Labidus:
Wheeler, W.M. 1908g: 4 1 3 , nomen nudum.] *Pro-
trechina carpenteri, by original designation. Emery, 1910b: 2 1 .
podomyrma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Vollenhovia: Wheeler,
PSALIDOMYRMEX (Ponerinae: Ponerini) PSEUDOLASIUS (Formicinae: Lasiini)
W M . 1915h: 5 1 .
Psalidomyrmex Andre, 1890: 3 1 3 . Type-spedes: Pseudolasius Emery, 1887a: 2 4 4 . Type-spedes: Formica
PROSCOPOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Strumigenys)
Psalidomyrmexfoveolatus, by m o n o t y p y . Revision of familiaris, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Bingham,
Proscopomyrmex Patrizi, 1 9 4 6 : 2 9 4 . Type-species: Pro-
genus: Bolton, 1975b: 1. 1903: 337. Pseudolasius senior s y n o n y m of
scopomyrmex londianensis, by m o n o t y p y . Pro­
PSAMMOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Dorymyrmex) Nesolasius: Bolton, 1994: 50. Key to Afrotropical spe­
scopomyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Strumigenys: B r o w n ,
Psammomyrma Forel, 1912h: 4 3 [as subgenus of d e s : Menozzi, 1924b: 226 (out of date).
1949d: 15.
Dorymyrmex]. Type-spedes: Dorymyrmex planidens, by PSEUDOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Pseudomyrmex)
s u b s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: Pseudomyrma Guerin-Meneville, 1844a: 4 2 7 [as subge­
PROSOPWRIS (junior s y n o n y m of Cardiocondyla)
82. Psammomyrma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dorymyrmex: n u s of Formica]. Type-spedes: Pseudomyrma bicolor,
Prosopidris Wheeler, W.M. 1935b: 40 [as subgenus of
Forel, 1913b: 350; Snelling & Hunt, 1976: 9 3 . by m o n o t y p y . Pseudomyrma senior s y n o n y m of
Cardiocondyla}. Type-species: Cardiocondyla (Pro­
PSEUDACANTHOLEPIS (unavailable n a m e ) Leptalea a n d Myrmex: Smith, F. 1858b: 153.
sopidris) sima, by original designation. Prosopidris
Pseudacantholepis Bernard, 1953b: 256 (attributed to Pseudomyrma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pseudomyrmex:
raised to genus: Reiskind, 1965: 80. Prosopidris provi­
Santschi) [as subgenus of Acantholepis]. [Without Smith, M.R. 1952a: 9 8 .
sional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cardiocondyla: B r o w n ,
designation of t y p e - s p e d e s ; unavailable n a m e . ] PSEUDOMYRMEX (Pseudomyrmecinae)
1973b: 184. Prosopidris j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Car-
I n d u d e d s p e d e s referable to Lepisiota. Pseudomyrmex Lund, 1831b: 106. Type-spedes: Formica
diocondyla: Hohon, 1982: 309.
PSEUDAPHOMOMYRMEX (Formicinae: gradlis, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Smith, M.R.
PROTALARIDRIS (Myrmicinae: Basicerotini)
1952a: 9 8 . Pseudomyrmex senior s y n o n y m of
Protalaridris B r o w n , 1980a: 36. Type-species: Pro- Brachymymiecini)
Pseudomyrma (and its j u n i o r s y n o n y m s Leptalea a n d
talaridris armata, by original designation. Pseudaphomomyrmex Wheeler, W.M. 1920: 5 3 . Type-
Myrmex): Smith, M.R. 1952a: 9 8 . Pseudomyrmex
PROTAMBLYOPONE (junior s y n o n y m oi Amblyopone) s p e d e s : Aphomomyrmex emeryi, b y original designa­
senior s y n o n y m of Apedunculata, Clavanoda,
Protamblyopone Wheeler, W.M. 1927c: 1 [as s u b g e n u s tion. Diagnosis of g e n u s : Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 695
Latinoda, Ornatinoda, a n d Triangulinoda: Ward, 1990:
of Amblyopone]. Type-species: Amblyopone (Pro­ (in key); Pseudaphomomyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
4 6 9 . Keys to s p e d e s : Kempf, 1961a: 373 (gradlis-
tamblyopone) aberrans, by monotypy. Protamblyopone Aphomomyrmex: Emery, 1925b: 4 4 .
group); Ward, 1985b: 215 (Nearctic species); Ward,
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Amblyopone: B r o w n , 1949c: 8 7 . Pseudaphomomyrmex revived from s y n o n y m y : C h a p ­
1989: 4 0 7 (oculatus-group); Ward, 1989: 4 3 0 (sub-
*PROTAMBLYOPONE (junior h o m o n y m , see *Casaleia) m a n &Capco, 1 9 5 1 : 2 1 4 .
tilissimus-group); Ward, 1 9 9 2 : 7 6 (*Dorninican
* Protamblyopone DIussky, 1981b: 6 5 . Type-species: *Pro-
A m b e r fauna); Ward, 1993: 117 (Acaa'a-assodated
tamblyopone inversa, by original designation. [Junior
taxa). Revision of genus: Ward, 1 9 9 0 : 4 6 9 .

44 Genus-Group Taxa
PSEUDONEOPONERA (junior s y n o n y m of emmae, b y original designation. Review of genus: Rhopalothrix ciliata, b y s u b s e q u e n t designation of
Bothroponera) Bolton, 1 9 8 3 : 4 0 0 . [See n o t e u n d e r Strumigenys.] Wheeler, W.M. 191 If: 172. Rhopalothrix senior syn­
Pseudoneoponera Donisthorpe, 1943d: 4 3 9 . Type-spe­ RAPTIFORMICA (junior s y n o n y m of Formica) o n y m of Acanthidris a n d Heptastruma, a n d revision
d e s : Pseudoneoponera verecundae, b y original designa­ Raptiformica Forel, 1913i: 361 [as subgenus oi For­ of genus: B r o w n & Kempf, 1960: 2 3 0 .
tion. Pseudoneoponera j u n i o r s y n o n y m of mica]. Type-spedes: Formica sanguinea, b y original RHOPTROMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Tetramoriini)
Bothroponera: Wilson, 1958d: 3 6 1 . [Bothroponera designation. Raptiformica j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Formica: Rhoptromyrmex Mayr, 1901b: 18. Type-spedes:
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla: B r o w n , in prepara­ Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 699 (footnote); Smith, D.R. Rhoptromyrmexglohinodis, b y s u b s e q u e n t designation
tion.] 1979: 1448; Agosti, 1994a: 107. of Wheeler, W.M. 191 If: 172. Rhoptromyrmex senior
PSEUDONOTONCUS ( F o r m i d n a e : Melophorini) RECURVIDRIS (Myrrmcinae: Pheidologetonini) s y n o n y m of Acidomyrmex: B r o w n , 1964c: 1 1 .
Pseudonotoncus Clark, 1934c: 64. Type-spedes: Recurvidris Bolton, 1992: 36. Replacement n a m e for Rhoptromyrmex senior s y n o n y m of Ireneella: Bolton,
Pseudonotoncus hirsutus, b y original designation. Trigonogaster Forel, 1890b: cviii. [Junior h o m o n y m 1 9 7 6 : 2 9 8 . Rhoptromyrmex senior s y n o n y m of
PSEUDOPODOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Podomyrma) of Trigonogaster Guerin-Meneville, 1844b: 1149.] Hagioxenus-.BoWorr, 1986a: 2. Revisions of g e n u s :
Pseudopodomyrma Crawley, 1925a: 4 0 . Type-spedes: Review of g e n u s (as Trigonogaster): Ettershank, B r o w n , 1964c: 1 1 ; Bolton, 1976: 2 9 8 ; Bolton,
Pseudopodomyrma clarki, b y m o n o t y p y . 1966: 158. Revision of g e n u s : Bolton, 1992: 3 5 . 1986a: 1.
Pseudopodomyrma provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of RENEA (junior s y n o n y m of Prionopelta) RHYTIDOPONERA (Ponerinae: E d a t o m m i n i )
Podomyrma: B r o w n , 1973b: 184. Pseudopodomyrma Renea Donisthorpe, 1947d: 183. Type-spedes: Renea Rhytidoponera Mayr, 1862: 731 [as subgenus of
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Podomyrma: Taylor & B r o w n , testacea (junior s y n o n y m of Prionopelta majuscula), b y Ectatomma]. Type-spedes: Ponera araneoides, b y sub­
D.R. 1985: 80 (accepted as confirmation). original designation. Renea j u n i o r s y n o n y m of s e q u e n t designation of Emery, 1911d: 37. [Type-spe­
PSEUDOPONERA (junior s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla) Prionopelta: B r o w n , 1953c: 1 1 . d e s n o t Ponera metallica as designated b y Wheeler,
Pseudoponera Emery, 1900c: 3 1 4 [as subgenus of #RHACHIOCREMA (subgenus of Crematogaster) W.M. 1911f: 172; see Wheeler, W.M. 1913a: 79.]
Pachycondyla]. Type-spedes: Ponera quadridentata Rhachiocrema M a n n , 1919: 318 [as subgenus of Rhytidoponera raised to genus: Emery, 1897d: 547;
(junior s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla stigma), b y Crematogaster}. Type-spedes: Crematogaster Emery, 1911 d: 36. Rhytidoponera senior s y n o n y m of
m o n o t y p y . [Pseudoponera also described as n e w b y (Rhachiocrema) wheeleri, b y original designation. Chalcoponera: B r o w n , 1953c: 2 . Revision of g e n u s :
Emery, 1901a: 4 2 . Type-spedes n o t Ponera amblyops, Rhachiocrema raised to g e n u s : Soulie, 1964: 3 9 8 . B r o w n , 1958g: 2 8 8 . Keys t o s p e d e s : Clark, 1936: 16
unjustified s u b s e q u e n t designation b y Emery, Rhachiocrema provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of (Australia); Wilson, 1958d: 3 0 4 (Melanesia a n d
1901a: 42.] Pseudoponera subgenus of Euponera: Crematogaster:Brown, 1973b: 184 (unconfirmed). Moluccas); Ward, 1 9 8 0 : 4 7 8 (impressa-groxrp);
Forel, 1901c: 1 4 1 . Pseudoponera raised to g e n u s : Rhachiocrema h e r e reverts to subgenus of Crematogas­ Ward, 1 9 8 4 : 1 3 1 (New Caledonia).
Bingham, 1903: 9 1 ; m a i n t a i n e d as g e n u s : Emery, ter. K e y to s p e d e s : Creighton, 1 9 4 5 : 1 0 9 . ROGERIA (Myrmicinae: Stenamniini)
1911d: 86; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 6 4 9 . Pseudoponera #RFnNOMYRMEX (subgenus of Camponotus) Rogeria Emery, 1894c: 188. Type-spedes: Rogeria
provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla: B r o w n , RhinomyrmexToxei, 1886f: 192. Type-spedes: curvipubens, b y s u b s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler,
1973b: 184. Pseudoponera senior s y n o n y m of Rhinomyrmex klaesii, b y m o n o t y p y . Rhinomyrmex s u b ­ W.M. 191 If: 172. Rogeria senior s y n o n y m of Irogera:
Trachymesopus (because of s y n o n y m o u s type-spe­ genus of Camponotus: Emery, 1896d: 3 7 4 . Kempf, 1 9 6 5 : 1 8 5 . Key to Neotropical s p e d e s :
d e s ) : n e w s y n o n y m y . Pseudoponera j u n i o r syn­ Rhinomyrmex provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Kempf, 1963a: 195. Revision of genus: Kugler, C ,
o n y m of Pachycondyla: B r o w n , i n preparation. Camponotus:Brown, 1973b: 1 8 4 (unconfirmed). in press.
PSEUDOSTIGMACROS (junior s y n o n y m of Stigmacros) #RHIZOMYRMA (subgenus of Acropyga)
ROMBLONELLA (Myrmicinae: Formicoxerrini)
Pseudostigmacros McAreavey, 1 9 5 7 : 2 4 [as subgenus of Rhizomyrma Forel, 1893g: 3 4 7 [as subgenus of
Romblonella Wheeler, W.M. 1935a: 5. Type-spedes:
Stigmacros]. Type-spedes: Stigmacros Acropyga]. Type-spedes: Acropyga (Rhizomyrma)
Romblonella grandinodis (junior s y n o n y m of
(Pseudostigmacros) inermis, b y original designation. goeldii, b y s u b s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, W.M.
191 If: 172. Rhizomyrma raised t o g e n u s : Emery, Romblonella opaca), b y original designation. Revision
Pseudostigmacros provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
1906c: 182; m a i n t a i n e d as g e n u s : Forel, 1912i: 8 9 ; of g e n u s : Smith, M.R. 1953a: 7 5 .
Stigmacros: B r o w n , 1973b: 184. Pseudostigmacros
Forel, 1917: 2 4 9 . Rhizomyrma subgenus oi Acropyga: ROSSOMYRMEX (Formicinae: Formicini)
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Stigmacros: Taylor & B r o w n , D.R.
Emery, 1925b: 2 9 . Rhizomyrma provisional j u n i o r Rossomyrmex Arnol'di, 1928c: 2 9 9 . Type-spedes:
1 9 8 5 : 1 4 5 (accepted as confirmation).
s y n o n y m of Acropyga: B r o w n , 1973b: 184 Rossomyrmexproformicarum, b y original designation.
PSEUDOSYSPHINCTA (junior s y n o n y m of Discothyrea)
(unconfirmed). K e y t o s p e d e s : Weber, 1944: 9 1 . See also: Agosti, 1994a: 112.
Pseudosysphincta Arnold, 1 9 1 6 : 1 6 1 . Type-spedes:
#RHOGMUS (subgenus of Dorylus) ROSTROMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Stenammini)
Pseudosysphinctapoweri, b y original designation.
Rhogmus Shuckard, 1840c: 3 2 3 . Type-spedes: Rhogmus Rostromyrmex Rosdszewski, 1 9 9 4 : 1 6 0 . Type-spedes:
Pseudosysphincta j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Discothyrea:
B r o w n , 1958g: 2 4 8 . [PseudosphinctaYi'heeler, W.M. ftmhriatus, b y original designation. Rhogmus subge­ Rostromyrmexpasohensis, b y original designation.
1922a: 645, i n c o r r e d s u b s e q u e n t spelling.] n u s of Dorylus: Emery, 1895j: 7 0 2 . Rhogmus provi­ ROTASTRUMA (Myrmicinae: Formicoxemni)
PTEROPONERA (junior s y n o n y m of Ponera) sional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Dorylus: B r o w n , 1973b: Rotastruma Bolton, 1 9 9 1 : 8 . Type-spedes: Rotastruma
PteroponeraBemard, 1950a: 3. Type-spedes: 184 (unconfirmed). recava, b y original designation.
Pteroponera sysphinctoides, b y m o n o t y p y . Pteroponera RHOPALOMASTIX (Myrmicinae: Melissotarsini) SANTSCHIELLA (Formicinae: Santschiellini)
provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Ponera: B r o w n , RhopalomastixForel, 1900a: 2 4 . Type-spedes: Santschiella Forel, 1 9 1 6 : 4 3 4 . Type-spedes: Santschiella
1973b: 184. Pteroponera j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Ponera: Rhopalomastixrothneyi, b y m o n o t y p y . Review of kohli, b y m o n o t y p y .
B r o w n , in preparation. g e n u s : Wheeler, W.M. 1929d: 9 5 . SCHIZOPELTA (junior s y n o n y m of Chelaner)
PYRAMICA (junior s y n o n y m of Strumigenys) *RHOPALOMYRMEX ( F o r m i d n a e : Plagiolepidini) SchizopeltaM.cArea.vty, 1 9 4 9 : 1 4 . Type-spedes:
Pyramica Roger, 1862a: 2 5 1 . Type-spedes: Pyramica *Rhopalomyrmex Mayr, 1868c: 4 1 . Type-spedes: Schizopeltafdlcata, b y original designation. Schizopelta
gundlachi, b y m o n o t y p y . Pyramica j u n i o r s y n o n y m j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Chelaner: Ettershank, 1966: 9 3 .
of Strumigenys: Roger, 1863b: 40; Dalla Torre, 1 8 9 3 : *Rhopalomyrmexpygmaeus, b y m o n o t y p y . [Chelaner j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Monomorium: Bolton,
145; Bingham, 1903: 147. Pyramica revived from RHOPALOPONE (junior s y n o n y m of Gnamptogenys) 1987: 2 8 7 .
s y n o n y m y as subgenus of Strumigenys: B r o w n , Rhopalopone Emery, 1897d: 549. Type-spedes: SCROBOPHEIDOLE (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole)
1948e: 110. Pyramica j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Rhopalopone epinotalis, b y m o n o t y p y . Rhopalopone Scrobopheidole Emery, 19151:190 [as subgenus of
Strumigenys:Brovm & Wilson, 1959b: 2 8 1 ; B r o w n , senior s y n o n y m of Mictoponera: Emery, 191 I d : 3 4 . Pheidole}. Type-spedes: Pheidole scrobi]'era, b y
1960b: 37. Rhopalopone j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Gnamptogenys: m o n o t y p y . Scrobopheidole provisional j u n i o r syn­
Brown, 1958g:211. o n y m of Pheidole: B r o w n , 1973b: 184. Scrobopheidole
QUADRISTRUMA (Myrmicinae: Dacetini) RHOPALOTHRIX (Myrmicinae: Basicerotini) j u n i o r s y n o n y m oiPheidole: Smith, D.R. 1979: 1366.
Quadristruma B r o w n , 1949b: 4 7 . Type-spedes: Epitritus Rhopalothrix Mayr, 1870a: 4 1 5 . Type-spedes:

Genus-Group Taxa 45
SCYPHODON (Leptanillinae: Leptanillini) SIMOPONE (Cerapachyinae: Cerapachyini) son, 1962a: 6 3 . [Erebomyrma j\mior s y n o n y m of
ScyphodonBro.es, 1925: 9 3 . T y p e - s p e d e s : Scyphodon Simopone Forel, 1891b: 139. Type-spedes: Simopone Oligomyrmex: Bolton, 1994:106.]
anomalum, by original designation. Reviews of grandidieri, b y m o n o t y p y . Simopone subgenus of #SPHAEROCREMA (subgenus of Crematogaster)
genus: Petersen, 1968: 5 9 1 ; Baroni Urbani, 1977c: Cerapachys: Forel, 18921:243. Simopone revived sta­ Sphaerocrema Santschi, 1918d: 182 [as subgenus of
482. tus as g e n u s : Dalla Torre, 1 8 9 3 : 1 7 ; Emery, 191 Id: Crematogaster). Type-spedes: Crematogaster kneri, by
SECOSTRUMA (Myrmicinae: Tetramoriini) 15. Revision of g e n u s : B r o w n , 1975: 3 5 . original designation. Sphaerocrema raised to g e n u s :
Secostruma Bolton, 1988c: 2 6 4 . Type-spedes: SMITH!STRUMA (Myrmicinae: Dacetini) Soulie, 1964: 398. Sphaerocrema provisional j u n i o r
Secostruma lethifera, by original designation. Smithistruma B r o w n , 1948e: 104. Type-spedes: s y n o n y m of Crematogaster: Brown, 1973b: 185
SELBNOPONE (junior s y n o n y m of Ponera) Strumigenys pulchella, by original designation. Re­ (unconfirmed). Sphaerocrema h e r e reverts to subge­
Selenopone Wheeler, W.M. 1933g: 19. Type-spedes: p l a c e m e n t n a m e for Cephaloxys Smith, F. 1865: 76. n u s of Crematogaster.
Ponera selenophora, b y original designation. [Junior h o m o n y m of Cephaloxys Signoret, 1847: SPHAEROMESSOR (unavailable n a m e )
Selenopone j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Ponera: Wilson, 294.] Smithistruma senior s y n o n y m of Platystruma, SphaeromessorBernard, 1 9 8 5 : 4 8 . [Without designa­
1957b: 356. Weberistruma, a n d Wessonistruma:Brown, 1973a: 3 5 . tion of t y p e - s p e d e s ; unavailable n a m e . ] I n d u d e d
SEMONIUS (junior s y n o n y m of Tapinoma) Smithistruma senior s y n o n y m of Miccostruma: Bol­ s p e d e s referable t o Messor.
Semonius Forel, 1910f: 2 1 . Type-spedes: Semonius t o n , 1983: 2 7 4 . Revision of g e n u s : B r o w n , 1953g: *SPHECOMYRMA (*Sphecomyrminae)
schultzei, by m o n o t y p y . Semonius j u n i o r s y n o n y m of 3 1 ; B r o w n , 1964a: 183. Keys to Neotropical s p e d e s : *Sphecomyrma Wilson & B r o w n , in Wilson, Carpenter &
Tapinoma: Shattuck, 1992c: 146. B r o w n , 1953g: 112; to Nearctic s p e d e s : B r o w n , B r o w n , 1967: 8. Type-spedes: *Sphecomyrma freyi,
SERICOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Attini) 1953g: 96; Ward, 1988: 122; to Oriental s p e d e s : by original designation.
Sericomyrmex Mayr, 1865: 8 3 . Type-spedes: B r o w n , 1953g: 125; to Afrotropical s p e d e s : B r o w n , SPHECOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Anomma)
Sericomyrmex opacus, by m o n o t y p y . 1953g: 130; Bolton, 1 9 8 3 : 2 7 6 . [See n o t e u n d e r Sphecomyrmex Schulz, 1 9 0 6 : 1 5 4 , unjustified e m e n d a ­
SERRASTRXJMA (Myrmicinae: Dacetini) Strumigenys.] tion of Sphegomyrmex. Sphecomyrmex j u n i o r syn­
Serrastruma B r o w n , 1948e: 107 [as subgenus of SOLENOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Gauromyrmex) o n y m of Anomma: n e w s y n o n y m y .
Smithistruma]. Type-spedes: Strumigenys simoni, by Solenomyrma Karavaiev, 1935a: 103. Type-spedes: SPHEGOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Anomma)
original designation. Serrastruma raised to genus: Solenomyrma acanthina, by m o n o t y p y . Solenomyrma Sphegomyrmex Imhoff, 1 8 5 2 : 1 7 6 . Type-spedes: Dorylus
B r o w n , 1949d: 6. Revisions of genus: B r o w n , j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Gauromyrmex: B r o w n , 1953c: 10. nigricans, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of
1952e: 67; Bolton, 1983: 3 3 5 . [See n o t e u n d e r [Gauromyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Vollenhovia: Bol­ Donisthorpe, 1943g: 727. Sphegomyrmex jxmiox syn­
Strumigenys.] ton, 1994:105.] o n y m of Anomma: Smith, F. 1858b: 112.
SERVIFORMICA (junior s y n o n y m of Formica) SOLENOPS (junior s y n o n y m of Oligomyrmex) SPHINCTOMYRMEX (Cerapachyinae: Cerapachyini)
Serviformica Forel, 1913i: 3 6 1 . Type-spedes: Formica Solenops Karavaiev, 1930a: 207 [as subgenus of Sphinctomyrmex Mayr, 1866b: 8 9 5 . Type-spedes:
fusca, by original designation. Serviformica j u n i o r syn­ Solenopsis]. Type-spedes: Solenopsis (Solenops) weyeri, Sphinctomyrmex stahli, by m o n o t y p y . Sphinctomyrmex
o n y m of Formica: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 699 (foot­ by m o n o t y p y . Solenops j u n i o r s y n o n y m of senior s y n o n y m of Aethiopopone: Bolton, 1973a:
note); Francoeur, 1 9 7 3 : 34; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1448; Oligomyrmex: Ettershank, 1966: 119. 3 4 1 . Sphinctomyrmex senior s y n o n y m oi Eusphinctus,
Agosti, 1994a: 106. SOLENOPSIS (Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini) Nothosphinctus a n d Zasphinctus, a n d revision of
SHUCKARDIA (junior s y n o n y m of Alaopone) Solenopsis Westwood, 1840b: 86. Type-spedes: Solenop­ genus: B r o w n , 1975: 3 1 .
Shuckardia Emery, 1895J: 703 [as subgenus of Dorylus]. sis mandibularis (junior s y n o n y m of Solenopsis SPINOMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Dorymyrmex)
Type-spedes: Dorylus atriceps, by original designa­ geminata), by m o n o t y p y . Solenopsis senior s y n o n y m Spinomyrma Kusnezov, 1 9 5 2 g : 4 2 9 (diagnosis in key)
tion. Shuckardia j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Alaopone: of Diplorhoptrum: Kempf, 1972a: 232; Bolton, 1987: [as subgenus of Dorymyrmex]. Type-spedes:
Emery, 1910b: 15. 2 8 5 . Solenopsis senior s y n o n y m of Bisolenopsis, Dorymyrmex alboniger, b y s u b s e q u e n t designation of
*SICTLOMYRMEX (Fonriitinae: *SicUomynnecini) Diagyne, Euophthalma, Granisolenopsis, Labauchena, Kusnezov, 1959: 5 1 . Spinomyrma raised to genus:
*Sicelomyrmex Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 1 1 1 . Type-spedes: Lilidris, Oedaleocerus, Paranamyrma a n d Synsolenopsis: Kusnezov, 1959: 5 1 . Spinomyrma subgenus of
* Gesomyrmex comiger, by original designation. Ettershank, 1966: 134. Solenopsis senior s y n o n y m of Dorymyrmex: Kempf, 1972a: 100. Spinomyrma j u n i o r
*Sidhmyrmex: B r o w n & Carpenter, 1 9 7 9 : 4 2 3 , Octella: Taylor, 1991b: 6 1 1 . Revision of N e w World s y n o n y m of Dorymyrmex: Snelling & Hunt, 1976: 9 3 .
justified e m e n d a t i o n of spelling. s p e d e s : Creighton, 1930b: 39 (out of date); of SPOROCLEPTES (junior s y n o n y m oiAneleus)
SIFOLINIA (junior s y n o n y m of Myrmica) geminata-groxrp: Trager, 1 9 9 1 : 1 4 1 . Notes o n s y n o n ­ Sporocleptes Arnold, 1948: 2 1 9 . Type-spedes:
Sifolinia Emery, 1 9 0 7 : 4 9 . Type-spedes: Sifolinia laurae, y m y : Bolton, 1987: 2 8 5 . Sporocleptes nicotianae, by original designation.
by m o n o t y p y . Sifolinia senior s y n o n y m of Sym­ SOMMIMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Myrmica) Sporocleptes j u n i o r s y n o n y m oiAneleus: Consani,
biomyrma: Samsinak, 1964: 156. Sifolinia j u n i o r syn­ Sommimyrma Menozzi, 1925d: 2 5 . Type-spedes: 1951: 169; Arnold, 1952a: 4 6 0 . [Aneleus j u n i o r syn­
o n y m of Myrmica: Bolton, 1988a: 3. Sommimyrma symbiotica, by original designation. o n y m of Oligomyrmex: Ettershank, 1966: 119.]
SIMA (junior s y n o n y m of Tetraponera) Sommimyrma provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of STEGOMYRMEX (Myrrmcinae: Stegomyrmecini)
SimaRoger, 1863a: 178.Type-spedes: Simacompressa Myrmica: B r o w n , 1973b: 184. Sommimyrma j u n i o r Stegomyrmex Emery, 1912b: 99. Type-spedes:
(junior s y n o n y m of Tetraponera allaborans), by s y n o n y m of Myrmica: Bolton, 1988a: 3. Stegomyrmex connectens, by m o n o t y p y . Revision of
m o n o t y p y . [Type-spedes n o t Eciton rufonigrum, SPALACOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Centromyrmex) genus: Diniz, 1990: 277.
unjustified s u b s e q u e n t designation by Emery, Spalacomyrmex Emery, 1889b: 4 8 9 . Type-spedes: STEGOPHEIDOLE (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole)
1915b: 266 a n d Emery, 1921f: 22.] Sima j u n i o r syn­ Spalacomyrmexfeae, by m o n o t y p y . Spalacomyrmex Stegopheidole Emery, 1915i: 190 [as subgenus of
o n y m of Tetraponera: Smith, F. 1877b: 6 8 ; j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Centromyrmex: Emery, 1890b: 4 0 . Pheidole]. Type-spedes: Pheidole (Elasmopheidole)
Donisthorpe, 1916b: 244; Ward, 1990: 4 7 0 . SPANIOPONE (junior s y n o n y m of Gnamptogenys) upeneci, by m o n o t y p y . Stegopheidole provisional
SIMOPELTA (Ponerinae: Ponerini) Spaniopone Wheeler, W.M. & M a n n , 1 9 1 4 : 1 1 . Type- j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: B r o w n , 1973b: 185.
Simopelta Maim, 1 9 2 2 : 1 0 [as s u b g e n u s of Belonopelta]. s p e d e s : Spaniopone haytiana, b y m o n o t y p y . Stegopheidole j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: Smith,
Type-spedes: Belonopelta (Simopelta) jeckylli, by origi­ Spaniopone j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Gnamptogenys: D.R. 1979: 1366.
nal designation. Simopelta raised to g e n u s : Wheeler, Brown, 1958g:212. STENAMMA (Myrrmcinae: Stenanmiini)
W.M. 1935d: 8. Simopelta j u n i o r s y n o n y m of SPELAEOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Erebomyrma) Stenamma Westwood, 1 8 3 9 : 2 1 9 . Type-spedes:
Belonopelta: Baroni Urbani, 1975b: 2 9 6 . Simopelta Spelaeomyrmex Wheeler, W.M. 1922c: 9. Type-spedes: Stenamma westwoodii, by m o n o t y p y . Stenamma senior
revived from s y n o n y m y : Holldobler & Wilson, Spelaeomyrmexurichi, by original designation. s y n o n y m of Asemorhoptrum: Andre, 1883a: 310.
1990: 1 1 . Revision of genus: Gotwald & Brown, Spelaeomyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Erebomyrma: Wil­ Stenamma senior s y n o n y m of Theryella: Santschi,
1967: 2 6 1 . 1923a: 136. Keys to s p e d e s of N e w World: Smith,

46 Genus-Group Taxa
M.R. 1957b: 133; Smith, M.R. 1962a: 38; Snelling, g r o u p : Baroni Urbani, 1969c: 132. Review of genus: (junior primary h o m o n y m in Solenopsis, replaced by
1973c: 1; to species of former U.S.S.R.: A m o r d i , Bolton, 1976: 304. Key to fauna of former U.S.S.R.: Solenopsis bruchiella), by m o n o t y p y . Synsolenopsis
1975: 1826. R a d c h e n k o , 1 9 9 1 : 89. raised to genus, a n d k e y to s p e d e s : Kusnezov,
STENOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m oi Anochetus) STRUMIGENYS (Myrmicinae: Dacetini) 1953c: 3 4 1 ; m a i n t a i n e d as g e n u s : Kusnezov, 1962b:
Stenomyrmex Mayr, 1862: 7 1 1 . Type-species: Myrmecia Strumigenys Smith, F. 1860c: 72. Type-species: 160. Synsolenopsis j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Solenopsis:
emarginata, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, Strumigenys mandibularis, by m o n o t y p y . Strumigenys Ettershank, 1966: 134.
W.M. 1911 f: 173. Stenomyrmex subgenus of senior s y n o n y m of Labidogenys a n d Pyramica: Roger, *SYNTAJPHUS (Ponerinae: E d a t o m m i n i )
Anochetus: Dalla Torre, 1 8 9 3 : 4 7 ; m a i n t a i n e d as sub­ 1863b: 40; B r o w n & Wilson, 1959b: 2 8 1 ; B r o w n , *Syntaphus Donisthorpe, 1920: 84. Type-spedes: *Syn-
g e n u s : Emery, 1911d: 110; Forel, 1917: 2 3 8 ; Kempf, 1960b: 37. Strumigenys senior s y n o n y m of Eneria taphus wheeleri, by original designation.
1972a: 2 1 . Revision of subgenus: Kempf, 1964f: a n d Proscopomyrmex: B r o w n , 1949d: 15. Keys to SYNTERMITOPONE (junior s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla)
2 3 7 . Stenomyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Anochetus: Neotropical species: B r o w n , 1962c: 257; Kempf, Syntermitopone Wheeler, W.M. 1936d: 169 [as subge­
B r o w n , 1978c: 552. 1976b: 4 3 ; to Afrotropical species: B r o w n , 1954k: n u s of Termitopone.] Type-spedes: Ponera commutata,
STENOTHORAX (junior s y n o n y m oi Adlerzia) 10; Bolton, 1983: 360; to t h e Fiji Is., Tonga a n d by original designation. Syntermitopone j u n i o r syn­
Stenothorax McAreavey, 1949: 3. Type-species: Samoa: DIussky, 1993: 5 3 . [Note. Baroni Urbani & o n y m of Termitopone: Borgmeier, 1959a: 312. [Ter­
Stenothorax katerinae (junior s y n o n y m oi Adlerzia De A n d r a d e , 1994: 1 2 - 1 5 , proposed t h a t mitopone j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla: B r o w n , in
froggatti), by original designation. Stenothorax j u n i o r Asketogenys, Chelystruma, Cladarogenys, Codiomyrmex, preparation.]
s y n o n y m of Adlerzia: B r o w n , 1952a: 110. Codioxenus, Dorisidris, Dysedrognathus, Epitritus, SYSCIA (junior s y n o n y m of Cerapachys)
STEREOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Formicoxenini) Glamyromyrmex, Gymnomyrmex, Kyidris, Neostruma, Syscia Roger, 1861a: 19. Type-spedes: Syscia typhla, by
Stereomyrmex Emery, 1901f: 115. Type-species: Pentastruma, Quadristruma, Serrastruma, m o n o t y p y . Syscia subgenus of Cerapachys: Wheeler,
Stereomyrmex horni, by m o n o t y p y . Smithistruma, Tingimyrmex a n d Trichoscapa, along W.M. 1902d: 185; Emery, 1902c: 24. Syscia senior
STICTOPONERA (junior s y n o n y m of Gnamptogenys) w i t h all t h e previous j u n i o r s y n o n y m s of all t h e s e s y n o n y m of Cysias: Emery, 19 l i d : 10. Syscia j u n i o r
Stictoponera Mayr, 1887: 539 [as subgenus of genera, b e included as j u n i o r s y n o n y m s of s y n o n y m of Cerapachys: Kempf, 1972a: 76.
Ectatomma]. Type-species: Ponera coxalis, by sub­ Strumigenys. I consider this action t o o e x t r e m e by far SYSPHINGTA (junior s y n o n y m of Proceratium)
s e q u e n t designation of Bingham, 1903: 82. as it is based o n a grossly i n a d e q u a t e character set. Sysphingta Roger, 1863a: 175. Type-spedes: Sysphingta
Stictoponera raised to genus: Emery, 1911 d: 4 7 . In c o n s e q u e n c e their results are very insecure, a n d micrommata, by m o n o t y p y . Sysphingta j u n i o r syn­
Stictoponera j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Gnamptogenys: their p r o p o s e d s y n o n y m s are all r e v i v e d f r o m s y n ­ o n y m of Proceratium: Mayr, 1886d: 4 3 7 ; Dalla Torre,
Brown, 1958g:211. o n y m y here.] 1 8 9 3 : 1 8 . Sysphingta revived from s y n o n y m y :
STIGMACROS (Formicinae: Plagiolepidini) SULCOMYRMEX (unavailable n a m e ) Emery, 1895c: 2 6 2 . Sysphingta j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Stigmacros Forel, 1905b: 179 [as subgenus of Sulcomyrmex KiatochvO., 1 9 4 1 : 8 4 [as subgenus of Proceratium: B r o w n , in Borgmeier, 1 9 5 7 : 1 1 8 ;
Acantholepis]. Replacement n a m e for Acrostigma Tetramorium]. [Without designation of type-species; B r o w n , 1958g: 2 4 1 . [Sysphincta Mayr, 1865: 12 (and
Forel, 1 9 0 2 h : 4 7 7 . [Junior h o m o n y m of *Acrostigma unavailable n a m e . ] Included species referable to most subsequent authors), incorred subsequent
Emery, 1891a: 149.] Stigmacros raised t o genus: Tetramorium:Bolton, 1976: 359. spelling.]
Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 696. Stigmacros senior syn­ SYLLOPHOPSIS (junior s y n o n y m oi Monomorium)
TALARIDRIS (Myrmicinae: Basicerotini)
o n y m of Campostigmacros, Chariostigmacros, Syllophopsis Santschi, 1915c: 259 [as subgenus of
Talaridris Weber, 1941a: 184. Type-spedes: Talaridris
Cyrtostigmacros, Hagiostigmacros, a n d Pseudostigmacros: Monomorium.] Type-species: Monomorium modestum,
mandibularis, by original designation. Revision of
Taylor & B r o w n , D.R. 1985: 145. Revision of g e n u s : by m o n o t y p y . Syllophopsis raised to g e n u s : Santschi,
g e n u s : B r o w n & Kempf, 1960: 2 4 1 . Talaridris provi­
McAreavey, 1957: 7. 1921c: 119; m a i n t a i n e d as g e n u s : Ettershank, 1966:
sional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Rhopalothrix: B r o w n ,
STIGMATOMMA (junior s y n o n y m of Amblyopone) 100. Syllophopsis subgenus of Monomorium: Wheeler,
1973b: 185 (unconfirmed).
Stigmatomma Roger, 1 8 5 9 : 2 5 0 . Type-species: W.M. 1922a: 676; Arnold, 1952a: 4 6 5 . Syllophopsis
TAMMOTECA (junior s y n o n y m of Gnamptogenys)
Stigmatomma denticulatum, by s u b s e q u e n t designa­ j u n i o r s y n o n y m oi Monomorium: Bolton, 1987: 2 8 7 .
Tammoteca Santschi, 1929h: 4 7 6 [as subgenus of
tion of Bingham, 1903: 36. Stigmatomma j u n i o r syn­ [Syllopsis Santschi, 1921c: 120, incorrect s u b s e q u e n t
Ectatomma]. Type-spedes: Ectatomma concinnum, by
o n y m of Amblyopone: E m e r y & Forel, 1 8 7 9 : 4 5 5; spelling.]
original designation. Tammoteca j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Mayr, 1887: 546. Stigmatomma revived from s y n o n ­ Gnamptogenys: B r o w n , 1958g: 2 1 2 .
SYMBIOMYRMA O'unior s y n o n y m of Sifolinia)
y m y : Dalla Torre, 1 8 9 3 : 1 4 ; m a i n t a i n e d as g e n u s : #TANAEMYRMEX (subgenus of Camponotus)
Symbiomyrma A m o l ' d i , 1930c: 2 6 7 . Type-spedes: Sym­
Emery, 1911d: 2 3 ; Forel, 1 9 1 7 : 2 3 5 ; Wheeler, W.M.
biomyrma karavajevi, by m o n o t y p y . [Symbiomyrma Tanaemyrmex Ashmead, 1905b: 384. Type-spedes: For­
1922a: 6 4 1 . Stigmatomma subgenus oi Amblyopone:
also described as n e w by Arnol'di, 1933a: 41.] Sym­ mica longipes (junior p r i m a r y h o m o n y m in Formica,
Clark, 1934b: 27; B r o w n , 1949c: 8 7 . Stigmatomma
biomyrma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Sifolinia: Samsinak, replaced by Camponotus etiolipes), by original designa­
senior s y n o n y m of Fulakora a n d Xymmer: B r o w n ,
1964: 156. [Sifolinia j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Myrmica: tion. Tanaemyrmex subgenus of Camponotus, a n d
1949c: 8 7 . Stigmatomma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Bolton, 1988a: 3.] senior s y n o n y m of Myrmoturba: Emery, 1925b: 7 5 .
Amblyopone: B r o w n , 1960a: 155.
SYMMYRMICA (junior s y n o n y m of Formicoxenus) Tanaemyrmex provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
*STIGMOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Formicoxenini?)
Symmyrmica Wheeler, W.M. 1904a: 3. Type-spedes: Camponotus: Brown, 1973b: 185 (unconfirmed).
*StigmomyrmexMayr, 1868c: 9 5 . Type-species:
Symmyrmica chamberlini, by m o n o t y p y . Symmyrmica #TAPJNOLEPIS (subgenus of Anoplolepis)
Stigmomyrmexvenustus, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Leptothorax: B r o w n , Tapinolepis Emery, 1925b: 18 [as subgenus of
Wheeler, W.M. 191 If: 173. 1973b: 185. Symmyrmica junior s y n o n y m of Anoplolepis]. Type-spedes: Plagiolepis tumidula, by
*STIPHROMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Myrmecinini?) Formicoxenus: Francoeur, Loiselle & Buschinger, m o n o t y p y . Tapinolepis provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m
*Stiphromyrmex Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 6 7 . Type-spe­ 1985:347. of Anoplolepis: B r o w n , 1973b: 185 (unconfirmed).
cies: *Stigmomyrmex robustus, b y original designation. SYMPHEIDOLE (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole) TAPINOMA (Dolichoderinae)
STREBLOGNATHUS (Ponerinae: Ponerini) Sympheidole Wheeler, W.M. 1904a: 7. Type-spedes: Tapinoma Foerster, 1850a: 4 3 . Type-spedes: Tapinoma
Streblognathus Mayr, 1 8 6 2 : 7 1 6 . Type-species: Ponera Sympheidole elecebra, by m o n o t y p y . Sympheidole p r o ­ collina (junior s y n o n y m of Tapinoma erraticum), by
aethiopica, by m o n o t y p y . visional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: B r o w n , 1973b: m o n o t y p y . Tapinoma senior s y n o n y m of
STRONGYLOGNATHUS (Myrmicinae: Tetramoriini) 185. Sympheidole j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: Smith, Micromyrma:Mayr, 1 8 6 3 : 4 5 5 ; Smith, M.R. 1951a:
Strongylognathus Mayr, 1853d: 389. Type-species: D.R. 1979: 1365. 837; Shattuck, 1992c: 146. Tapinoma senior syn­
Eciton testaceum, by m o n o t y p y . Replacement n a m e SYNSOLENOPSIS (junior s y n o n y m of Solenopsis) o n y m of Neoclystopsenella: B r o w n , 1988a: 337.
iorMyrmus Schenck, 1 8 5 3 : 1 8 8 . [Junior h o m o n y m Synsolenopsis Forel, 1918b: 155 [as subgenus of Solenop­ Tapinoma senior s y n o n y m of Semonius, Tapinoptera,
of Myrmus FLahn, 1832: 81.] Revision of huberi- sis]. Type-spedes: Solenopsis {Synsolenopsis) bruchi

Genus-Group Taxa 47
Zatapinoma, a n d review of g e n u s : Shattuck, 1992c: a n d N e w World); Bolton, 1980: 193 (Afrotropical); 1973b: 185. Trachymesopus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
146. R a d c h e n k o , 1992a: 45 (formerU.S.S.R.). Pseudoponera: n e w s y n o n y m y . [Pseudoponera
TAPINOPTERA (junior s y n o n y m of Tapinoma) TETRAMYRMA (junior s y n o n y m of Leptothorax) j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla: B r o w n , in prepara­
Tapinoptera Santschi, 1925g: 348 [as subgenus of Tetramyrma Forel, 1912m: 766 [as subgenus of tion.] [Trachyponera: see below.]
Tapinoma]. Type-species: Tapinomavexatum, by Dilobocondyla]. Type-species: Dilobocondyla TRACHYMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Attini)
m o n o t y p y . Tapinoptera j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Tapinoma: (Tetramyrma) braunsi, by m o n o t y p y . Tetramyrma Trachymyrmex Forel, 1893e: 600 [as subgenus of Atta].
Shattuck, 1992c: 146. raised to genus: Forel, 1913a: 122. Tetramyrma Type-spedes: Atta septentrionalis, by s u b s e q u e n t des­
TATUIDPJS (Myrmicinae: Agroecomyrmecini) j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Leptothorax: Bolton, 1982: 319. ignation of Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 174.
Tatuidris B r o w n & Kempf, 1 9 6 8 : 1 8 6 . Type-species: TETRAPONERA (Pseudomyrmecinae) Trachymyrmex subgenus of Cyphomyrmex: Emery,
Tatuidris tatusia, by original designation. Tetraponera Smith, F. 1 8 5 2 : 4 4 . Type-species: 1 9 1 3 : 2 5 1 . Trachymyrmex raised to g e n u s : Gallardo,
TECHNOMYRMEX (Dolichoderinae) Tetraponera atrata (junior s y n o n y m of Tetraponera 1916b: 2 4 2 ; Wheeler, W.M. 1916c: 1 1 .
Technomyrmex Mayr, 1 8 7 2 : 1 4 7 . Type-species: Tech­ nigra), by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Wheeler, W.M. Trachymyrmex subgenus of Acromyrmex: Forel, 1917:
nomyrmex strenuus, by m o n o t y p y . Technomyrmex 191 If: 1 7 3 . Tetraponera senior s y n o n y m of Sima: 2 4 7 . Trachymyrmex subgenus of Cyphomyrmex:
senior s y n o n y m of Aphantolepis: B r o w n , 1953h: 5. Smith, F. 1877b: 68. Tetraponera j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Emery, 1922f: 344. Trachymyrmex raised to g e n u s :
Technomyrmex senior s y n o n y m of Engramma, a n d Sima: Dalla Torre, 1893: 5 3 . Tetraponera subgenus of Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 669; m a i n t a i n e d as genus:
review of genus: Shattuck, 1992c: 153. Sima: Emery, 1900d: 673; Emery, 1915b: 2 6 5 . Borgmeier, 1950b: 384; Kempf, 1972a: 2 5 2 .
TELEUTOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Tetramoriini) Tetraponera senior s y n o n y m of Sima: Donisthorpe, TRACHYPHEIDOLE (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole)
Teleutomyrmex Kutter, 1950a: 82. Type-species: 1916b: 244; Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 105. Tetraponera Trachypheidole Emery, 1915i: 190 [as subgenus of
senior s y n o n y m of Pachysima, Parasima, Sima, Pheidole]. Type-spedes: Pheidole bicornis, by original
Teleutomyrmex schneideri, by original designation.
Viticicola, a n d revision of g e n u s : Ward, 1 9 9 0 : 4 7 0 . designation. Trachypheidole provisional j u n i o r syn­
TEMNOTHORAX (junior s y n o n y m of Leptothorax)
TETROGMUS (junior s y n o n y m of Tetramorium) o n y m of Pheidole: B r o w n , 1973b: 185. Trachypheidole
Temnothorax Mayr, 1 8 6 1 : 68. Type-species: Myrmica
Tetrogmus Roger, 1 8 5 7 : 1 0 . Type-species: Tetrogmus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: Smith, D.R. 1 9 7 9 : 1 3 6 6 .
recedens, by m o n o t y p y . Temnothorax j u n i o r s y n o n y m
caldarius, b y m o n o t y p y . Tetrogmus j u n i o r s y n o n y m [TRACHYPONERA (misspelling)
of Leptothorax: Forel, 1890a: lxxii. Temnothorax
of Tetramorium: Roger, 1862c: 297; Bolton, 1976: Trachyponera Santschi, 1928a: 4 3 , i n c o r r e d sub­
revived from s y n o n y m y as subgenus of Leptothorax:
359. s e q u e n t spelling of Trachymesopus.]
Forel, 1892i: 315; m a i n t a i n e d as subgenus: Emery,
TRANETERA (junior s y n o n y m of Terataner)
1915g: 24; Forel, 1915d: 27; Bondroit, 1918: 117; THAUMATOMYRMEX (Ponerinae:
Tranetera Arnold, 1952b: 130 [as subgenus of Terata­
Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 679; Emery, 1922f: 2 5 9 . Tem- Thaumatomyrmecini)
ner]. Type-spedes: Terataner bottegoi, by original des­
nothorax raised to g e n u s : Bernard, 1 9 6 7 : 1 8 5 . Tem­ Thaumatomyrmex Mayr, 1887: 530. Type-species:
ignation. Tranetera provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
nothorax j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Leptothorax: Baroni Thaumatomyrmex mutilatus, b y m o n o t y p y . Keys to
Terataner: B r o w n , 1973b: 185. Tranetera j u n i o r syn­
Urbani, 1971c: 96; Bolton, 1982: 319. species: Weber, 1942b: 65; Smith, M.R. 1944b: 97
o n y m of Terataner: Bolton, 198 l b : 2 8 8 .
TERATANER (Myrmicinae: Forrmcoxenini) (both o u t of date). Revisions of g e n u s : Kempf,
TRANOPELTA (Myrrmcinae: Ochetomyrmecini)
Terataner Emery, 1912b: 103. Type-species: 1975b: 95; Longino, 1988: 3 5 .
Tranopelta Mayr, 1866a: 512. Type-spedes: Tranopelta
Atopomyrmex foreli, by original designation. Review THERYELLA (junior s y n o n y m of Stenamma) gilva, b y m o n o t y p y . Review of g e n u s : Ettershank,
of g e n u s : Arnold, 1952b: 129. Terataner senior syn­ Theryella Santschi, 1 9 2 I d : 6 8 . Type-spedes: Theryella 1966: 107.
o n y m of Tranetera, a n d revision of g e n u s : Bolton, my ops (provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Stenamma
1981b: 2 8 8 . punctiventre), b y m o n o t y p y . Theryella j u n i o r syn­ TRANOPELTOIDES (junior s y n o n y m of Crematogaster)
TERATOMYRMEX (Formicinae: Lasiini) o n y m of Stenamma: Santschi, 1923a: 136. [Theryella Tranopeltoides Wheeler, W.M. 1922e: 10. Type-spedes:
Teratomyrmex McAreavey, 1957: 54. Type-species: Ter- incorrectly as j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Proatta: Snelling, Tranopelta huberi, b y original designation.
atomyrmex greavesi, by original designation. 1 9 8 1 : 3 9 5 , i n error.] Tranopeltoides j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Crematogaster:
TERMITOPONE (junior s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla) ^THLIPSEPINOTUS (subgenus of Camponotus) Kempf, 1960c: 173.
Termitopone Wheeler, W.M. 1936d: 159. Type-species: Thlipsepinotus Santschi, 1928e: 4 8 3 [as subgenus of TRAPEZIOPELTA (junior s y n o n y m oi Myopias)
Ponera laevigata, by original designation. Termitopone Camponotus]. Type-spedes: Camponotusclaripes,by Trapeziopelta Mayr, 1 8 6 2 : 7 1 5 . Type-spedes: Ponera
senior s y n o n y m of Syntermitopone: Borgmeier, original designation. Thlipsepinotus provisional maligna, by m o n o t y p y . Trapeziopelta senior s y n o n y m
1959a: 312. Termitopone provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Camponotus: B r o w n , 1973b: 185 of Bradyponera: Donisthorpe, 1932c: 4 6 8 .
of Pachycondyla: B r o w n , 1973b: 185. Termitopone (unconfirmed). Trapeziopelta provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla: B r o w n , in prepara­ TINGIMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Dacetini) Pachycondyla: B r o w n , 1973b: 185. Trapeziopelta
tion. Tingimyrmex M a n n , 1 9 2 6 : 1 0 4 [as subgenus of j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Myopias: Willey & B r o w n , 1983:
TETHEAMYRMA (Myrmicinae: Stenammini) Strumigenys]. Type-spedes: Strumigenys 249.
Tetheamyrma Bolton, 1 9 9 1 : 9. Type-species: (Tingimyrmex) mirabilis, by m o n o t y p y . Tingimyrmex TRIANGULINODA (junior s y n o n y m oi Pseudomyrmex)
Tetheamyrma subspongia, by original designation. raised t o g e n u s : B r o w n , 1948e: 1 1 1 . [See n o t e Triangulinoda E n z m a n n , E.V. 1944: 61 [as "branch" of
TETRAMORIUM (Myrmicinae: Tettamorimi) u n d e r Strumigenys.] Pseudomyrma]. Type-spedes: Pseudomyrma spinicola,
Tetramorium Mayr, 1855: 4 2 3 . Type-species: Formica TITUSIA (nomen nudum) by original designation. Triangulinoda j u n i o r syn­
caespitum, by subsequent designation of Girard, Titusia Ashmead, 1905b: 382, nomen nudum. o n y m of Pseudomyrmex: Ward, 1 9 9 0 : 4 6 9 .
1 8 7 9 : 1 0 1 6 . Tetramorium senior s y n o n y m of TOMOGNATHUS (junior h o m o n y m , see Harpagoxenus) TRICHOMELOPHORUS (junior s y n o n y m oi Melophorus)
Tetrogmus:~Roger, 1862c: 2 9 7 . Tetramorium senior Tomognathus Mayr, 1 8 6 1 : 56. Type-spedes: Myrmica Trichomelophorus Wheeler, W.M. 1935c: 71 [as subge­
s y n o n y m oi Atopula, Lobomyrmex, Macromischoides, sublaevis, by m o n o t y p y . [Junior h o m o n y m of n u s of Melophorus]. Type-spedes: Melophorus
Tetrogmus, a n d Xiphomyrmex: Bolton, 1976: 359; Bol­ Tomognathus Agassiz, 1850: 376 (Pisces).] hirsutus, by original designation. Trichomelophorus
ton, 1 9 8 0 : 1 9 5 . Species included in Sulcomyrmex Harpagoxenus Forel, 1893a: 167, r e p l a c e m e n t n a m e j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Melophorus: B r o w n , 1955d: 4 7 4 .
(unavailable) referable to Tetramorium. Tetramorium for Tomognathus Mayr. TRICHOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m oi Monomorium)
senior s y n o n y m of Triglyphothrix: Bolton, 1 9 8 5 : 2 4 7 . TRACHYMESOPUS (junior s y n o n y m of Pseudoponera) Trichomyrmex Mayr, 1 8 6 5 : 1 9 . Type-spedes:
Revision of genus: Bolton, 1976: 359. Keys to spe­ TrachymesopusEmery, 1 9 l i d : 84 [as subgenus of Trichomyrmex rogeri, by m o n o t y p y . Trichomyrmex
cies: Bolton, 1976: 314, 341 (former Triglyphothrix Euponera]. Type-spedes: Formica stigma, by original j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Monomorium: Ettershank, 1966:
species); Bolton, 1977: 67 (Oriental, Indo-Austra­ designation. Trachymesopus raised to genus: Wilson, 82; Bolton, 1987: 2 9 6 .
lian a n d Australasian); Bolton, 1 9 7 9 : 1 2 9 (Malagasy 1958d: 352; see also B r o w n , 1963: 6. Trachymesopus
provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla: B r o w n ,

48 Genus-Group Taxa
TRICHOSCAPA (Myrmicinae: Dacetini) omessor raised to genus: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 6 6 1 . WHEELERIA (junior h o m o n y m ; see Wheeleriella)
Trichoscapa Emery, 1869b: 2 4 [as subgenus of Revision of g e n u s : Wheeler, W.M. & Creighton, Wheeleria Forel, 1905b: 1 7 1 . Type-species: Wheeleria
Strumigenys]. Type-species: Strumigenys (Trichoscapa) 1934: 354. Veromessor senior s y n o n y m of santschii, by m o n o t y p y . [Junior h o m o n y m of Wheele-
memhranifera, by m o n o t y p y . Trichoscapa j u n i o r syn­ Lobognathus: B r o w n , 1949a: 4 9 . Key to species: ria Tutt, 1905: 37 (Lepidoptera).] Wheeleriella Forel,
o n y m of Strumigenys: Dalla Torre, 1893: 145. Smith, M.R. 1956a: 36. Veromessor j u n i o r s y n o n y m 1907f: 145, r e p l a c e m e n t n a m e for Wheeleria Forel.
Trichoscapa j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cephaloxys: Wheeler, of Messor: Bolton, 1982: 338. WHEELERIELLA (junior s y n o n y m of Monomorium)
W.M. 1922a: 668; Emery, 1922f: 3 2 3 . Trichoscapa VITICICOLA (junior s y n o n y m of Tetraponera) Wheeleriella Forel, 1907f: 145. Replacement n a m e for
revived from s y n o n y m y : B r o w n , 1948e: 112. Viticicola Wheeler, W.M. 19191: 130. Type-species: Sima Wheeleria Forel, 1905b: 1 7 1 . [Junior h o m o n y m of
Review of genus: Bolton, 1983: 319. [See n o t e tessmanni, by original designation. Viticicola provi­ Wheeleria Tutt, 1905: 37.] Wheeleriella j u n i o r syn­
u n d e r Strumigenys.] sional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Tetraponera: B r o w n , o n y m of Monomorium: Ettershank, 1966: 82; Bolton,
TRICYTARUS (Myrmicinae: Formicoxenini?) 1973b: 185. Viticicola j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Tetraponera: 1987:291.
Tricytarus Donisthorpe, 1947d: 187. Type-species: Ward, 1 9 9 0 : 4 7 0 . WHEELERIMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of
Tricytarus parviumgulatus, by original designation. VOLLENHOVENIA (junior s y n o n y m of Vollenhovia) Megalomyrmex)
TRIGLYPHOTHRIX (junior s y n o n y m of Tetramorium) Vollenhovenia Dalla Torre, 1893: 6 1 , unjustified s u b ­ Wheelerimyrmex M a n n , 1 9 2 2 : 2 9 [as subgenus of
Triglyphothrix Forel, 1890b: cvi. Type-species: sequent e m e n d a t i o n of Vollenhovia. Vollenhovenia Megalomyrmex). Type-species: Megalomyrmexsilvestrii,
Triglyphothrix walshi, by m o n o t y p y . Triglyphothrix j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Vollenhovia: Forel, 1893a: 166; by original designation. Wheelerimyrmex j u n i o r syn­
subgenus of Tetramorium: Arnold, 1917: 3 3 3 ; m a i n ­ Emery, 1922e: 163. o n y m of Megalomyrmex: Ettershank, 1966: 101.
tained as subgenus: Arnold, 1926: 272. VOLLENHOVIA (Myrmicinae: Metaponini) WHEELERIPONE (junior s y n o n y m of Gnamptogenys)
Triglyphothrix revived status as g e n u s : Wheeler, Vollenhovia Mayr, 1865: 2 1 . Type-species: Vollenhovia Wheeleripone M a n n , 1919: 2 8 2 . Type-species:
W.M. 1922a: 909; Emery, 1922f: 272; m a i n t a i n e d as punctatostriata, by m o n o t y p y . Vollenhovia senior syn­ Wheeleripone albiclava, by original designation.
genus, a n d revision of g e n u s : Bolton, 1976: 310. o n y m of *Propodomyrma: Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 5 1 . Wheeleripone j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Gnamptogenys:
Triglyphothrix j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Tetramorium: Bol­ Vollenhovia senior s y n o n y m of Vollenhovenia: Forel, Brown, 1 9 5 8 g : 2 1 2 .
ton, 1985: 2 4 7 . 1893a: 166. Vollenhovia senior s y n o n y m of Dorothea, WILLOWSIELLA (Myrrnicinae: Formicoxenini)
TRIGONOGASTER (junior h o m o n y m ; see Recurvidris) Dyomorium, a n d Heteromyrmex, a n d review of genus: Willowsiella Wheeler, W.M. 1934a: 174. Type-species:
Trigonogaster Forel, 1890b: cviii. Type-species: Ettershank, 1 9 6 6 : 1 4 6 . Vollenhovia senior s y n o n y m Willowsiella dispar, by original designation.
Trigonogaster recurvispinosa, by m o n o t y p y . [Junior of Aratromyrmex: Baroni Urbani, 1980a: 96. WOITKOWSKIA (junior s y n o n y m of Neivamyrmex)
h o m o n y m of Trigonogaster Guerin-Meneville, Vollenhovia senior s y n o n y m of Gauromyrmex (and its Woitkowskia E n z m a n n , E.V. 1 9 5 2 : 4 4 3 . Type-species:
1844b: 1149 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae).] j u n i o r s y n o n y m s Acalama a n d Solenomyrma): Bol­ Woitkowskia connectens (junior s y n o n y m of
Recurvidris Bolton, 1992: 36, r e p l a c e m e n t n a m e for ton, 1994: 105. Neivamyrmex walkeri), by original designation.
Trigonogaster Forel. VOMBISIDRIS (Myrmicinae: Formicoxeruni) Woitkowskia j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Neivamyrmex:
TURNERIA (Dolichoderinae) Vombisidris Bolton, 1 9 9 1 : 1 . Type-species: Vombisidris Borgmeier, 1955b: 2 7 7 .
Turneria Forel, 1895f: 4 1 9 . Type-species: Turneria philax, by original designation. Key to species: Bol­ XENHYBOMA (junior s y n o n y m of Monomorium)
bidentata, by m o n o t y p y . Revision of genus: ton, 1 9 9 1 : 2 . Xenhyboma Santschi, 1919g: 4 0 5 . Type-species:
Shattuck, 1 9 9 0 : 1 0 1 ; review of g e n u s : Shattuck, WADEURA (junior s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla) Xenhyboma mystes (junior s y n o n y m of Monomorium
1992c: 1 6 1 . Wadeura Weber, 1939a: 102. Type-species: Wadeura medinae), b y m o n o t y p y . Xenhyboma provisional
TYPHLATTA (junior s y n o n y m of Aenictus) guianensis, by original designation. Wadeura provi­ j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Monomorium: Ettershank, 1966:
Typhlatta Smith, F. 1857a: 79. Type-species: Typhlatta sional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla: B r o w n , 82. Xenhyboma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Monomorium:
laeviceps, by m o n o t y p y . Typhlatta j u n i o r s y n o n y m of 1973b: 185. Wadeura j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Espadaler, 1982b: 112; Bolton, 1987: 2 9 3 .
Aenictus: Forel, 1890b: ciii. Typhlatta revived from Pachycondyla: B r o w n , in preparation. XENOAPHAENOGASTER (junior s y n o n y m of Pheidole)
s y n o n y m y as subgenus of Aenictus: Wheeler, W.M. WASMANNIA (Myrmicinae: Blepharidattini) Xenoaphaenogaster Baroni Urbani, 1964b: 50. Type-spe­
1930g: 198. Typhlatta j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Aenictus: Wasmannia Forel, 1893g: 3 8 3 . Type-species: Tetramor­ cies: Xenoaphaenogaster inquilina (provisional j u n i o r
Wilson, 1964a: 4 4 4 . ium auropunctatum, b y s u b s e q u e n t designation of s y n o n y m of Pheidole palliduld), by original designa­
TYPHLOMYRMEX (Ponerinae: Typhlomyrmecini) Wheeler, W.M. 191 If: 174. Wasmannia senior syn­ tion. Xenoaphaenogaster provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m
Typhlomyrmex Mayr, 1862: 736. Type-species: o n y m of Hercynia: B r o w n , 1948d: 102. Wasmannia of Monomorium: B r o w n , 1973b: 185.
Typhlomyrmex rogenhoferi, by m o n o t y p y . provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Ochetomyrmex: Xenoaphaenogaster j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pheidole: Bol­
[Typhlomyrmex Gistel, 1856: 4 4 7 , nomen nudum; see B r o w n , 1973b: 185. Wasmannia valid genus: Kempf, ton, 1987: 2 9 1 .
Wheeler, W.M. 1911c: 858.] Revision of genus: 1975c: 357; Snelling, 1 9 8 1 : 3 9 8 . XENOMETRA (junior s y n o n y m of Cardiocondyla)
B r o w n , 1965c: 6 5 . WEBERIDRIS (junior s y n o n y m of Cafyptomyrmex) Xenometra Emery, 1917a: 9 6 . Type-species: Xenometra
#TYPHLOPONE (subgenus of Dorylus) Weberidris Donisthorpe, 1949a: 2 8 1 . Type-species: monillcornis (junior s y n o n y m of Cardiocondyla
Typhlopone Westwood, 1839: 2 1 9 . Type-species: Weberidris rufobrunnea (junior s y n o n y m of emeryi), by m o n o t y p y . Xenometra j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Typhlopone fulva, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Cafyptomyrmex beccarii), by original designation. Cardiocondyla: Baroni Urbani, 1973: 199.
Emery, 1895J: 7 0 1 . Typhlopone senior s y n o n y m of Weberidris j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cafyptomyrmex: XENOMYRMEX (Myrmicinae: Metaponini?)
Cosmaecetes: Smith, F. 1858b: 1 1 1 . Typhlopone j u n i o r Donisthorpe, 1949f: 186; B r o w n , 1949f: 84. Xenomyrmex Forel, 1885a: 369. Type-species:
s y n o n y m of Dorylus: Dalla Torre, 1893: 9. Typhlopone WEBERISTRUMA (junior s y n o n y m of Smithistruma) Xenomyrmex stollii, by m o n o t y p y . Xenomyrmex senior
revived from s y n o n y m y as subgenus of Dorylus: WeberistrumaBrown, 1948e: 106 [as s u b g e n u s of s y n o n y m of Myrmednella, a n d revision of genus:
Emery, 1895j: 7 0 1 . Typhlopone provisional j u n i o r Smithistruma]. Type-species: Strumigenys (Cephaloxys) Wheeler, W.M. 1931a: 129. Key to species:
s y n o n y m of Dorylus: B r o w n , 1973b: 185 leptothrix, by original designation. Weberistruma Creighton, 1957c: 6. Review of genus: Ettershank,
(unconfirmed). raised to g e n u s : B r o w n , 1949d: 7. Weberistruma 1966: 150.
TYPHLOTERAS (junior s y n o n y m of Centromyrmex) j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Smithistruma: B r o w n , 1973a: 3 5 .
Typhloteras Karavaiev, 1925b: 128. Type-species: WESSONISTRUMA (junior s y n o n y m of Smithistruma) XEROMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Monomorium)
Typhloteras hamulatum, by m o n o t y p y . Typhloteras Wessonistruma B r o w n , 1948e: 106 [as s u b g e n u s of Xeromyrmex Emery, 1915i: 190 [as subgenus of
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Centromyrmex: B r o w n , 1953c: 8. Smithistruma]. Type-species: Strumigenys pergandei, Monomorium). Type-species: Formicasalomonis, by
VEROMESSOR (junior s y n o n y m of Messor) by original designation. Review of subgenus: original designation. Xeromyrmex jxmior s y n o n y m of
Veromessor Forel, 1 9 1 7 : 2 3 5 [as subgenus of B r o w n , 1953g: 50. Wessonistruma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Monomorium: Ettershank, 1966: 82; Bolton, 1987:
Novomessor]. Type-species: Aphaenogaster andrei, by Smithistruma: B r o w n , 1973a: 3 5 . 294.
subsequent designation of Emery, 192 If: 67. Ver­

Genus-Group Taxa 49
aXIPHOCREMA (subgenus of Crematogaster) 1 9 1 7 : 2 3 7 . Xiphopelta j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cyathomyrmex, Cyathocephalus ( h o m o n y m ) a n d
Xiphocrema Forel, 1913k: 80 [as subgenus of Mesoponera: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 7 7 5 . {Mesoponera Harnedia): Kempf, 1 9 7 3 c 4 6 0 .
Crematogaster). Type-species: Crematogaster j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Pachycondyla: B r o w n , in prepara­ ZASPHINCTUS (junior s y n o n y m of Sphinctomyrmex)
tetracantha, b y subsequent designation of Emery, tion.] [Hiphopelta: see above.] Zasphinctus Wheeler, W.M. 1918a: 219 [as subgenus of
1922e: 138. Xiphocrema raised to genus: Soulie, XYMMER (junior s y n o n y m of Stigmatomma) Eusphinctus]. Type-species: Sphinctomyrmextumeri,
1964: 398. Xiphocrema provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m Xymmer Santschi, 1914d: 311 [as subgenus of by m o n o t y p y . Zasphinctus provisional j u n i o r syn­
of Crematogaster:Brown, 1973b: 185 (unconfirmed). Stigmatomma]. Type-species: Stigmatomma (Xymmer) o n y m of Sphinctomyrmex: B r o w n , 1973b: 185.
Xiphocrema h e r e reverts to subgenus of Crematogaster. muticum, by m o n o t y p y . Xymmer raised to genus: Zasphinctus j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Sphinctomyrmex:
XIPHOMYRMEX (junior s y n o n y m of Tetramorium) Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 6 4 1 . Xymmer subgenus of Brown, 1975:31.
Xiphomyrmex Forel, 1887: 385 [as subgenus of Amblyopone: Clark, 1934b: 2 7 . Xymmer j u n i o r syn­ ZATAPINOMA (junior s y n o n y m of Tapinoma)
Tetramorium). Type-species: Tetramorium o n y m of Stigmatomma: B r o w n , 1949c: 8 7 . Zatapinoma Wheeler, W.M. 1928a: 20. Type-species:
(Xiphomyrmex) kelleri, by subsequent designation of [Stigmatomma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Amblyopone: Zatapinoma annandalei, by original designation.
Wheeler, W.M. 1911f: 175. Xiphomyrmex raised to Brown, 1960a: 155.] Zatapinoma j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Tapinoma: Shattuck,
genus:Emery, 1896e: 183 (in key). Xiphomyrmex YAVNELLA (Leptanillinae: Leptanillini) 1992c: 146.
j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Tetramorium: Bingham, 1903: Yavnella Kugler, J. 1987: 52. Type-species: Yavnella #ZEALLEYELLA (subgenus of Anoplolepis)
175. Xiphomyrmex revived from s y n o n y m y as subge­ argamani, by original designation. Zealleyella Arnold, 1922: 579 (diagnosis in key) [as
n u s of Tetramorium: Arnold, 1917: 345; m a i n t a i n e d ZACRYPTOCERUS (Myrmicinae: Cephalotini) subgenus of Plagiolepis]. Type-species: Formica
as subgenus: Arnold, 1926: 2 7 7 . Xiphomyrmex raised Zacryptocerus Wheeler, W.M. 191 If: 175 (see also foot­ custodiens, by s u b s e q u e n t designation of Santschi,
to g e n u s : Forel, 1 9 1 7 : 2 4 5 ; m a i n t a i n e d as genus: n o t e ) . Type-species: Cryptocerus clypeatus, by original 1926a: 14. Zealleyella subgenus of Anoplolepis:
Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 193; Emery, 1922f: 2 8 6 . designation. [Zacryptocerus Ashmead, 1905b: 384, Santschi, 1926a: 14. Zealleyella provisional j u n i o r
Xiphomyrmex j u n i o r s y n o n y m of Tetramorium: Bol­ nomen nudum. (Based o n a n o n - e x i s t e n t type-spe­ s y n o n y m of Anoplolepis: B r o w n , 1973b: 185
ton, 1976: 359; Bolton, 1980: 195. cies: Cryptocerus multistrigus, nomen nudum, attrib­ (unconfirmed).
XIPHOPELTA (junior s y n o n y m of Mesoponera) uted to Smith, F.).] Revision of g e n u s : Kempf, 1 9 5 1 : *ZHERICHINIUS (Donchoderinae)
Xiphopelta Fortl, 1913a: 108 [as subgenus of Ponera]. 134. Zacryptocerus senior s y n o n y m of Hypocryptocerus *Zherichinius DIussky, 1988: 57. Type-species:
Type-species: Ponera (Xiphopelta) arnoldi, by a n d Paracryptocerus (and its j u n i o r s y n o n y m s *Zherichinius horribilis, by original designation.
monotypy. Xiphopelta subgenus of Euponera: Forel,

50 Genus-Group Taxa
Catalogue of Species-Group Taxa

Names in the genus-group menclature (Third Edition, 1985), regardless of h o w the name first
appeared in print.
Names in the genus-group are listed in alphabetical order throughout, 2. Names with the current rank of species or subspecies are in bold
whatever their current status. For data on genus-group names, refer italic lower case; the two are distinguished by the symbol #, which
to the catalogue of genus-group taxa. Typography of genus-group precedes all current subspecies-rank names. All other entries (junior
names used here is as follows: synonyms, junior homonyms, unavailable names, etc.) are in italic
lower case; see note 5, below.
1. Genus-group names which are currently regarded as valid genera
3. Each name entered is immediately followed by its full original
are listed in BOLD ITALIC CAPITALS and are followed by parenthe­
combination together with name(s) of author(s), bibliographical ref­
ses indicating the global distribution of each. Valid names of subgenus
erence, sex or caste of material included in the original description
rank are prefixed by the symbol #. Species-group names contained
(abbreviated in parentheses), and the name of the territory containing
wiliiin each genus follow immediately in alphabetical order; see notes
the type-locality (in CAPITALS).
below.
Abbreviations denoting material mentioned in descriptions are as
2. Genus-group names which are junior synonyms, junior homo­
follows: (s.) = soldier caste or major worker, w h e n appropriate; (w.)
nyms, or any other category are listed in ITALIC CAPITALS and are
= worker; (q.) = queen; (m.) = male; (1.) = larva; (k.) = karyotype.
followed b y : "see under ," plus the name in BOLD ITALIC CAPI­
Details of type-locality are omitted, primarily because they can be
TALS of the currently valid genus where their included species-group
obtained by reference to the original publication, and secondarily to
names can be found. For example, the entry for Triglyphothrix, a junior
economise on space.
synonym of Tetramorium, reads "TRIGLYPHOTHRIX: see under
4. Immediately following the basic data outlined above is the fol­
TETRAMORIUM/' indicating that taxa originally described under the
lowing supplementary information, w h e n available:
former name can be found under the latter.
i. References to later descriptions of sexes, castes, etc., not
covered by the original description.
ii. References to changes in genus-group combination of the
N a m e s in t h e species-group
species-group name, introduced by "Combination in: ."
Every published name in the species-group, regardless of its rank and iii. References to changes in rank of the species-group name.
status, has its own entry and is cross-referred within the catalogue iv. References to synonymy and/or homonymy of the species-
where necessary. As in previous sections serious misspellings of group name, whether junior or senior.
names, which may cause confusion, are listed, but simple and obvious v. References to other literature for consultation, introduced by
typographical errors are omitted. The object of this catalogue is to be "See also: ."
functional and useful, not to provide an inflated list of typographical vi. List of subspecies-rank names currently attached to a species-
errors for ant names. The following notes indicate the standardised rank name, introduced by "Current subspecies: nominal
system used throughout the catalogue. plus ," and followed by a list of their names which can be
referred to under their individual headings.
1. Taxa within each currently recognised genus are listed alphabeti­ vii. A name originally described in one genus but subsequently
cally, regardless of their current status. Fossil forms are preceded by *. transferred to another, either because the original
The incorrect appearance of diacritical marks, hyphens, capital letters, combination was incorrect or because of genus-level
etc., in original descriptions of species-group names are corrected here synonymy, is listed under its original combination but is
in accordance with the rules of the International Code of Zoological No­ followed by "; see under ." This is followed by the
currently recognised genus-level combination where full Permanantly unavailable names are stated as such. Where an
information may be found. For example in Acromyrmex the earlier author has referred an unavailable name to the
entry for tucumana reads: "tucumana Forel, 1914; see under synonymy of an available name, an incorrect procedure as
TRACHYMYRMEX." unavailable names have no status, the phrase "Unavailable
Where a name was originally described in a genus n o w name; material referred to ," followed by available name
synonymised but later transferred elsewhere, the genus of the plus reference(s), is utilised.
original combination is quoted in square brackets. Thus in References to unavailable names, other than their original
Atta the entry for malabarica reads: "malabarica Jerdon, 1851 appearances, are ignored. Similarly, references to originally
[Oecodoma]; see under PHEIDOLE." This shows that the available names in an unavailable subsequent context, are
original combination was in Oecodoma, that the genus ignored. For instance, the imaginary taxon X-us x-us subsp. y-us
Oecodoma is n o w recognised as a junior synonym of Atta, but is available. A later reference in the unavailable form X-us x-us
that the particular species 0. malabarica should be sought subsp. z-us var. y-us is ignored.
under Pheidole. 6. Newly detected junior homonyms in the species-group, primary
In species whose names occur many times in the literature or secondary, are treated in one of several ways.
only critical references in categories ii-iv are recorded. The
reason for this is that a complete list would be very repetitive i. In genera whose species-level taxonomy is comprehensively
and to a large extent sterile and uninformative. For example, understood, or which have been recently revised, replacement
a common name treated as a subspecies by one author names for newly detected junior homonyms at species rank are
throughout his life, but as a species by another, would show proposed.
dozens of pointless entries in category iii. Similarly, frequent ii. Junior homonyms at species rank in genera whose species-
alternations of generic combination would produce a plethora level taxonomy is not well understood are replaced only if
of information-free entries in category ii. there is minimal chance of later synonymy of the junior
viii. Some entries in categories i-iv above may show numerous homonym and its replacement name, and only if the species in
references in certain taxa. In such cases the first reference is question has no complement of infraspecific taxa. If
always the earliest to any particular event. Later references infraspecific taxa are present, revisionary work may show one
indicate confirmation or continuity of the decision indicated of these to be available as a replacement name, which would
by the earliest reference. make redundant any n e w name proposed here. Conversely, if
subsequent taxonomic studies remove the infraspecific taxa
5. All names other than those currently valid at species rank or
from association with the species in question, proposal of a
subspecies rank are in italic lower case.
replacement name will become necessary at that time.
i. Old terms for ranks treated here as available names with the iii. Replacement names are not proposed for junior homonyms
rank of subspecies (subsp.) include stirps (st.), race (r.), and currently of infraspecific rank. Most infraspecific taxa turn out
variety (var.); the last only w h e n applied directly to a name of to be junior synonyms for which, if homonymous,
species rank in an original description. The terms used in the replacement names are unnecessary (see iv, below). If on
original descriptions are reproduced in the catalogue, and their revision any homonymous infraspecific name is raised to the
equivalence to subspecies must be borne in mind. rank of species, then a replacement name can be proposed at
Although subspecies are listed in the catalogue, the reader that time.
should be aware that I am categorically opposed to the use of iv. Replacement names are not proposed for junior homonyms
this taxonomic rank. Such names appear here only because that are currently also junior synonyms. If the name is later
time is not available to ascertain their real value. The revived from synonymy, then a replacement name can be
uselessness of the subspecies rank was demonstrated by Wilson proposed at that time.
& Brown (1953: 97), and most serious myrmecologists v. Replacement names are not proposed for junior homonyms in
immediately accepted the logic of their arguement. genera where I know that other workers are currently carrying
Unfortunately the taxonomic literature remains clogged with out taxonomic studies.
the infraspecific descriptive excesses of earlier authors, and vi. Replacement names are not proposed for junior homonyms
even a few recent authors adhere to the sorry practice of that are unidentifiable to genus and appear in the text as
creating subspecies. incertae sedis in any given genus.
ii. Variety names appended to any name of subspecies rank are W h e n a junior homonym is detected but not replaced, for
infrasubspecific and hence taxonomically unavailable, unless any of the above reasons, its entry in the catalogue is followed
made available by action of some later author. In such instances by the statement "Unresolved junior primary (or secondary)
the name becomes available under the authorship and date of homonym."
the later author, in accordance with the ICZN rules. Such
names are entered in the catalogue under their first available
usage; the reference to the unavailable original then follows the
first available use in square brackets.

52 Species-Group Taxa
colei. Acanthomyops colei Wing, 1968: 88, figs. 6 4 - 6 7 pubescens. Lasius (Acanthomyops) pubescens Buren,
T h e c a t a l o g u e of s p e c i e s - g r o u p t a x a
(w.m.) U.S.A. 1 9 4 2 : 4 0 5 (w.q.) U.S.A. C o m b i n a t i o n i n
ACALAMA: see u n d e r VOLLENHOVIA. coloradensis. Lasius (Acanthomyops) interjectus subsp. Acanthomyops: Creighton, 1950a: 4 3 3 . See also:
coloradensis Wheeler, W.M. 1917a: 532 (w.q.m.) Wing, 1968: 138.
ACAMATUS: see u n d e r NEIVAMYRMEX. U.S.A. Combination in Acanthomyops, a n d subspe­ rufoniger Donisthorpe, 1933; see u n d e r
cies of claviger: Creighton, 1950a: 4 2 9 . Raised t o spe­ LASIOPHANES.
ACANTHIDRIS: see u n d e r RHOPALOTHRIX.
cies: Buren, 1950: 185. See also: Wing, 1968: 7 8 . subglaber. Lasius (Acanthomyops) subglaber Emery,
ACANTHOCLINEA: see u n d e r DOLICHODERUS. creightoni. Acanthomyops creightoniWmg, 1968:141, 1893i: 642 (w.q.m.) U.S.A. Wheeler, G.C. &
figs. 1 7 7 - 1 8 5 (w.q.m.) U.S.A. Wheeler, J. 1953c: 155 (1.). C o m b i n a t i o n i n
ACANTHOGNATHUS (Neotropical)
edwardsi Donisthorpe, 1933; see u n d e r Acanthomyops, a n d senior s y n o n y m of clavigeroides:
brevicornis. Acanthognathus brevicomis Smith, M.R.
LASIOPHANES. Creighton, 1950a: 4 3 3 . See also: B u r e n , 1950: 185;
1944c: 151 (w.q.) PANAMA. See also: B r o w n &
flavidus Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1927; see u n d e r LASIUS. Wing, 1968: 1 2 1 .
Kempf, 1 9 6 9 : 9 4 .
hingstoni Donisthorpe, 1929; see u n d e r LASIUS. turkmenus Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1927; see u n d e r
lentus. Acanthognathus lentus M a n n , 1922: 34, fig. 16
interjectus. Lasius interjectus Mayr, 1866b: 888, pi. 20, LASIUS.
(w.q.) HONDURAS. See also: B r o w n S- Kempf,
fig. 3 (q.) U.S.A. Emery, 1893i: 642 (w.); Wing,
1 9 6 9 : 9 5 ; Kempf, 1975a: 4 1 2 . ACANTHOMYRMEX (Oriental, Indo-Australian)
1968: 93 (m.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1953c:
ocellatus. Acanthognathus ocellatus Mayr, 1887: 579 (w.) basispinosus. Acanthomyrmex basispinosus Moff ett,
156 (1.). Combination in Lasius (Acanthomyops):
BRAZIL. M a n n , 1 9 1 6 : 4 5 2 (q). See also: B r o w n & 1986c: 67, figs. 8A, 9 - 1 4 (s.w.) SULAWESI.
Emery, 1893i: 642; Wheeler, W.M. 1917a: 5 3 1 ; in
Kempf, 1 9 6 9 : 9 5 . careoscrobis. Acanthomyrmex careoscrobis Moff ett,
Acanthomyops: Creighton, 1950a: 4 3 0 . See also:
*poinari. *Acanthognathus poinariBaroni Urbani, in 1986c: 78, figs. 39A, 4 0 - 4 3 (w.) BORNEO.
W m g , 1968: 92; Smith, D.R. 1979: 1 4 4 1 .
Baroni Urbani & De A n d r a d e , 1 9 9 4 : 4 1 , figs. 2 0 , 2 1 , concavus. Acanthomyrmex concavus Moff ett, 1986c: 80,
kashmirensis Donisthorpe, 1930; see u n d e r LASHJS.
26, 27 (q.) DOMINICAN AMBER. figs, 39B-C, 44-^17 (w.) BORNEO.
kosswigi Donisthorpe, 1950; see u n d e r PROFORMICA.
rudis. Acanthognathus rudis B r o w n & Kempf, 1969: crassispinus. Acanthomyrmex crassispina Wheeler, W.M.
latipes. Formica latipes Walsh, 1 8 6 3 : 3 1 1 (w.q.m.)
100, figs. 1 , 2 , 4 - 1 0 (w.qjn.) BRAZIL. Wheeler, G.C. 1930a: 1 0 1 , fig. 2 (w.) TAIWAN. Moffett, 1986c: 69
U.S.A. Combination in Lasius: Mayr, 1866b: 889; in
& Wheeler, J. 1 9 6 9 : 1 1 0 (1.). See also: Dietz & (s.).
Lasius (Acanthomyops): Emery, 1893i: 642; in
B r a n d a o , 1993: 6 8 3 . dusun. Acanthomyrmex dusun Wheeler, W.M. 1919e:
Acanthomyops: Creighton, 1950a: 4 3 1 . See also:
stipulosus. Acanthognathus stipulosus B r o w n & Kempf, 89 (s.) BORNEO. See also: Moffett, 1986c: 70.
Wheeler, W.M. & McClendon, 1 9 0 3 : 1 4 9 ; Wing,
1 9 6 9 : 1 0 4 , fig. 3 (w.) BRAZIL. dyak. Acanthomyrmex ayafe Wheeler, W.M. 1919e: 86
1968: 98; Smith, D.R. 1 9 7 9 : 1 4 4 1 .
teledectus. Acanthognathus teledectus B r o w n & Kempf, (s.w.) BORNEO. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of ferox: Moffett,
mexicanus. Lasius (Acanthomyops) interjectus subsp.
1969: 105, fig. 11 (w.) COLOMBIA. 1986c: 70.
mexicanus Wheeler, W.M. 1914b: 55 (w.q.m.) MEX­
ferox. AcanthomyrmexferoxEmexy, 1 8 9 3 f : 2 4 5 (foot­
ACANTHOLEPIS: see u n d e r LEPISIOTA. ICO. Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1970: 6 4 8 (1.).
n o t e ) , pi. 6, fig. 11 (w.) WEST MALAYSIA. Moffett,
Combination in Acanthomyops: Wing, 1968: 146.
ACANTHOMYOPS (Nearctic) 1986c: 72 (s.q.m.). Senior s y n o n y m of dyak:
Raised to species: B u r e n , 1 9 5 0 : 1 8 5 .
arizonicus. Lasius (Acanthomyops) interjectus subsp. Moffett, 1986c: 70. See also: Moffett, 1985a: 165.
murphyi. Lasius (Acanthomyops) murphii Forel, 1901e:
arizonicus Wheeler, W.M. 1917a: 532 (w.) U.S.A. foveolatus. Acanthomyrmexfoveolatus Moffett, 1986c:
367 (w.q.m.) U.S.A. [Justified e m e n d a t i o n of spell­
Wing, 1968: 90 (q.m.). Combination in 82, figs. 39D, 4 8 - 5 0 (s.) BORNEO.
ing to murphyi: Wheeler, W.M. 1905f: 398.] Combi­
Acanthomyops: Creighton, 1950a: 4 3 1 . Raised to spe­ kochi Emery, 1911; see u n d e r PHEIDOLE.
n a t i o n in Acanthomyops: Creighton, 1950a: 4 3 1 . See
cies: B u r e n , 1950: 184. See also: Wing, 1968: 90. laevis. Acanthomyrmex laevis Moffett, 1986c: 76, figs.
also: Wing, 1 9 6 8 : 1 1 3 .
bureni. Acanthomyops bureniWmg, 1 9 6 8 : 1 3 5 , figs. 8F, 2 9 - 3 2 (w.) WEST MALAYSIA.
negrensis Donisthorpe, 1933; see u n d e r
1 5 9 - 1 6 7 (w.q.m.) U . S A . luciolae. Acanthomyrmex luciolae Emery, 1893a: cclxxvi
LASIOPHANES.
californicus. Lasius (Acanthomyops) interjectus subsp. (s.w.) SRI LANKA. [Also described as n e w by
nigrobrunneus Donisthorpe, 1926; see u n d e r LASIUS.
califomicus Wheeler, W.M. 1917a: 531 (w.q.) U.S.A. Emery, 1893f:245.] See also: Moffett, 1986c: 76.
nitidus Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1927; see u n d e r LASIUS.
Wing, 1968: 85 (m.). Combination in Acanthomyops, mindanao. Acanthomyrmex mindanao Moffett, 1986c:
a n d subspecies of claviger: Creighton, 1950a: 4 3 0 . occidentalis. Lasius (Acanthomyops) occidentalis
82, figs. 39E, 5 1 - 5 6 (s.w.) PHILIPPINES.
Raised to species: B u r e n , 1 9 5 0 : 1 8 5 . See also: Wing, Wheeler, W.M. 1909e: 83 (w.q.m.) U.S.A. Combina­
notabilis. Pheidole notabilis Smith, F. 1860b: 111, pL 1,
1968:85. tion in Acanthomyops: Creighton, 1950a: 4 3 2 . See
figs. 3 , 4 (s.w.) INDONESIA (BatjanL). Wheeler,
also: Wing, 1 9 6 8 : 1 4 3 .
capitatus Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1927; see u n d e r G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1983: 606 (1.). Combination in
parvula. Lasius (Acanthomyops) parvula Smith, M.R.
LASIUS. Acanthomyrmex: Emery, 1893a: cclxxvi. See also:
1 9 3 4 b : 2 1 3 (w.) U.S.A. Combination in
claviger. Formica clavigera Roger, 1862a: 2 4 1 , pi. 1, fig. Moffett, 1985a: 165; Moffett, 1986c: 86.
Acanthomyops: Creighton, 1950a: 4 3 2 . J u n i o r syn­
13 (q.) U.S.A. Mayr, 1870b: 950 (w.m.); W h e e l e r
o n y m of claviger: Wing, 1968: 6 7 . ACANTHOPONERA (Neotropical)
G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1953c: 155 (1.). Combination in
pilicornis Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1927; see u n d e r aurea Forel, 1913; see u n d e r HETEROPONERA.
Acanthomyops: Mayr, 1 8 6 2 : 7 0 0 ; in Lasius: Mayr,
LASIUS. crassa. Acanthoponera crassa B r o w n , 1958g: 2 5 5 , fig. 10
1870b: 950; in Lasius (Acanthomyops): Emery, 1893i:
642; in Acanthomyops: Donisthorpe, 1916c: 2 7 6 . plumopilosus. Lasius (Acanthomyops) plumopilosus (w.) ECUADOR. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of minor: Kempf &
Senior s y n o n y m of parvula: Wing, 1968: 67. See Buren, 1 9 4 1 : 2 3 1 , fig. 1 (w.q.m.) U.S.A. Combina­ Brown, 1968:90.
also: Creighton, 1950a: 4 2 9 ; Regnier & Wilson, tion in Acanthomyops: Creighton, 1950a: 4 3 3 . See goeldii. Acanthoponeragoeldii Forel, 1912c: 34 (w.)
1968: 955; Smith, D.R. 1 9 7 9 : 1 4 4 0 . also: Wing, 1 9 6 8 : 1 3 2 . BRAZIL.
pogonogynus. Lasius (Acanthomyops) pogonogynus goyana. Acanthoponera goeldii subsp. goyana Borgmeier,
clavigeroides. Lasius (Acanthomyops) clavigeroides Buren,
B u r e n , 1 9 5 0 : 1 8 6 (w.q.) U.S.A. C o m b i n a t i o n i n 1 9 3 9 : 4 1 8 (w.) BRAZIL. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of
1 9 4 2 : 4 0 6 (w.q.m.) U.S.A. Subspecies of subglaber:
Acanthomyops:Y^n\g, 1 9 6 8 : 1 1 7 . [According t o Wing mucronata: B r o w n , 1958g: 194.
B u r e n , 1950: 185. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of subglaber:
(1968: 117) pogonogynus is a n A. murphyiXA. latipes imbellis Emery, 1895; see u n d e r HETEROPONERA.
Creighton, 1950a: 4 3 3 .
hybrid; t h e n a m e is not, however, formally syn- kirki Wheeler, W.M. 1923; see u n d e r
onymised.] HETEROPONERA.

Species-Group Taxa 53
ACANTHOPONERA (continued) ramosmexiae. Acanthostichus ramosmexiae Bruch, 1924b: balzani. Atta (Acromyrmex) balzaniEmery, 1890a: 67
260, fig. (w.) ARGENTINA. Bruch, 1925a: 110 (footnote) (w.) PARAGUAY. Combination in Atta
leae Wheeler, W.M. 1923; see u n d e r (m.l.). J u n i o r s y n o n y m of brevicornis: Kusnezov, (Moellerius): Forel, I 8 9 3 e : 589; in Acromyrmex
HETEROPONERA. 1962a: 130. (Moellerius): Santschi, 1916e: 389; Gallardo, 1916d:
minor. Ectatomma (Acanthoponera) mucronatum var. sanchezorum. Acanthostichus sanchezorum MacKay, 334. Subspecies of landolti: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 124;
minor Forel, 1899c: 9 (w.) MEXICO. [Acanthoponera 1985: 128, figs. 1-5 (w.) COLOMBIA. Kempf, 1972a: 15. Revived status as species:
minor Emery, 1896g: 3 3 . Nomen nudum, attributed serratulus. Typhlopone sen alula Smith, F. 1858b: 111 Fowler, 1988: 284. Senior s y n o n y m of gallardoi:
to Forel.] Combination in Acanthoponera: Emery, (w.) BRAZIL. Mayr, 1887: 551 (m.); Emery, 1899c: Santschi, 1922b: 362; of nivalis: Fowler, 1988: 284;
191 Id: 36. Raised to species, a n d senior s y n o n y m of 6 (L). Combination in Acanthostichus: Mayr, 1887: of parens: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 124. Current subspecies:
schwarziand spininodis:Brown, 1958g: 194. Senior 549. See also: Gallardo, 1918b: 9. n o m i n a l plus multituber.
s y n o n y m of crassa: Kempf & B r o w n , 1 9 6 8 : 9 0 . skwarrae. Acanthostichus skwarrae Wheeler, W.M. bigener. Acromyrmex rugosus St. bigener Santschi, 1925d:
mucronata. Ponera mucronata Roger, 1 8 6 0 : 2 9 9 (q.) 1934g: 161 (w.) MEXICO. 243 (w.q.m.) BRASJX. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of rugosus:
BRAZIL.Mayr, 1862: 733 (w.). C o m b i n a t i o n i n texanus. Acanthostichus texanus Forel, 1904d: 168 (q.) Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 159.
Ectatomma (Acanthoponera): Mayr, 1862: 7 3 3 ; in U.S.A. Combination in Acanthostichus (Ctenopyga): biscutatus. Formica biscutata F a b r i d u s , 1775: 3 9 4 (q.)
Acanthoponera: Emery, 191 Id: 36. Senior s y n o n y m Emery, 191 I d : 14; in Ctenopyga:Brown, 1975:42. FRENCH GUIANA. Combination in Atta: Fabridus,
of goyana, plaumanni a n d wagneri: B r o w n , 19 58g: Senior s y n o n y m of townsendi: Smith, M.R. 1955a: 1 8 0 4 : 4 2 2 . Incertae sedis in Acromyrmex: Kempf,
194. 49. 1972a: 16.
nigra Clark, 1930; see u n d e r HETEROPONERA. townsendi. Ctenopyga townsendi Ashmead, 1906: 29, fig. #boliviensis. Atta (Acromyrmex) boliviensis Emery, 1905c:
occidentalis Clark, 1926; see u n d e r HETEROPONERA. 4 (q.m.) MEXICO. Combination in Acanthostichus 51, fig. 19 (w.m.) BOLIVIA. Combination in
peruviana. Acanthoponera peruviana B r o w n , 1958g: (Ctenopyga): Emery, 191 Id: 14. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Acromyrmex: Santschi, 1 9 I 6 e : 386. Subspedes of
254, figs. 6,7 (w.) PERU. texanus: Smith, M.R. 1955a: 4 9 . lundii: Santschi, 1916e: 386; Kempf, 1972a: 13.
plaumanni. Acanthoponera plaumanni Donisthorpe, bonariensis. Atta (Acromyrmex) pubescens var. bonariensis
ACHANTILEPIS: see u n d e r LEPISIOTA.
1938a: 140 (w.) BRAZIL. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Emery, 1905c: 52 (w.) ARGENTINA. Combination
mucronata: B r o w n , 1958g: 194. ACIDOMYRMEX: see u n d e r RHOPTROMYRMEX. in Acromyrmex: Bruch, 1914: 2 1 6 . Variety/stirps of
reichenspergeri Santschi, 1929; see u n d e r lundii:Bruch, 1914: 216; Santschi, 1925a: 385.
ACROCOELIA: see u n d e r CREMATOGASTER.
GNAMPTOGENYS. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of lundii: Gallardo, 1916d: 3 3 1 ;
scabra Wheeler, W.M. 1923; see u n d e r ACROMYRMEX (Neotropical, s o u t h e r n Nearctic) Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 150.
HETEROPONERA. affinis. Acromyrmex aspersus var. affinis Santschi, 1925a: #bruchi. Atta (Moellerius) silvestriir. bruchiEorel, 1912e:
schwarzi. Acanthoponera goeldii subsp. schwarzi Wheeler, 369 (w.) BRAZIL. Stirps of aspersus: Santschi, 1925d: 180 (w.) ARGENTINA. Forel, 19131: 236 (q.m.).
W.M. 1923e: 188, fig. 5 (w.) GUATEMALA. J u n i o r 2 4 3 . J u n i o r s y n o n y m of aspersus: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : Combination in Acromyrmex (Moellerius): Forel,
s y n o n y m of minor: B r o w n , 1958g: 194. 132. 19131:236. M a i n t a i n e d as subspedes of silvestrii:
schwebeli Luederwaldt, 1918; see u n d e r tiajax.Atta (Acromyrmex) emilii var. fl/ax Forel, 1909b: Emery, 1922f: 3 5 1 ; Kempf, 1972a: 16.
HETEROPONERA. 58 (w.) "GUINEA" (in error; in text Forel states Hbrunneus. Atta (Acromyrmex) subterranea var. brunnea
spininodis. Acanthoponera (Acanthoponera) spininodis "probablement d u Bresil"). Variety of hystrix: Forel, 1912e: 181 (w.q.m.) BRAZIL. [First available
Weber, 1939a: 97, fig. 2 (w.) TRINIDAD. J u n i o r syn­ Santschi, 1925a: 358. use of Atta (Acromyrmex) coronata subsp. subterranea
o n y m of minor: B r o w n , 1958g: 194. ambiguus. Atta (Acromyrmex) lundi var. ambigua var. brunnea Forel, 1911c: 2 9 1 ; unavailable n a m e . ]
wagneri. Acanthoponera mucronata var. wagneri Emery, 1888c: 358 (w.) BRAZIL. Gometal, 1983: [Unresolved j u n i o r p r i m a r y h o m o n y m of Atta
Santschi, 1921g: 8 4 (w.) ARGENTINA. J u n i o r syn­ 365 (k.). Combination in Acromyrmex: Bruch, 1914: brunnea Pattern, 1894: 618 ( n o w in Odontomachus).]
o n y m of mucronata: B r o w n , 1958g: 194. 2 1 6 . Raised to species: Emery, 1905c: 50. Senior Combination in Acromyrmex: Luederwaldt, 1918:
s y n o n y m of erectus: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 3 1 . 39. S u b s p e d e s of subterraneus: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 :
ACANTHOSTICHUS (Neotropical, s o u t h e r n Nearctic)
#andicola. Acromyrmex moelleri subsp. andicola Emery, 167; Kempf, 1972a: 15.
afflictus Gallardo, 1919; see u n d e r N O M A M Y R M E X
1922f: 349 (w.) ECUADOR. [First available use of bucki. Acromyrmex bucki W a s m a n n , 1 9 3 1 : 1 0 6 (w.)
brevicornis. Acanthostichus brevicornis Emery, 1894c:
Atta (Acromyrmex) moelleri St. modesta var. andicola BRAZIL. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of lobicomis: Goncalves,
142 (w.) FRENCH GUIANA. Senior s y n o n y m of
Emery, 1905c: 4 5 ; unavailable n a m e . ] Subspecies of 1961: 148.
ramosmexiae: Kusnezov, 1962a: 130.
coronatus: Santschi, 1925a: 366; Santschi, 1925d: #carli. Acromyrmex lundi subsp. carli Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 :
femoralis. Acanthostichus femoralis Kusnezov, 1962a:
239; Kempf, 1972a: 1 1 . 152 (w.) MEXICO. [First available use of
126, figs. 2, 3 (w.) ARGENTINA.
angustata. Atta (Acromyrmex) moelleri subsp. panamensis Acromyrmex lundi St. pubescens var. carli Santschi,
fuscipennis. Acanthostichus fuscipennis Emery, 1895j:
var.angustata Forel, 1 9 0 8 b : 4 1 (w.q.) COSTARICA. 1925a: 385; unavailable n a m e . ]
752, pi. 17, fig. 13 (m.) BRAZIL.
Unavailable n a m e . chacoensis. Acromyrmex lundi st. pubescens var. chacoensis
kirbyi. Acanthostichus kirbyi Emery, 1895j: 7 5 1 , fig.
aspersus. Oecodoma aspersa Smith, F. 1858b: 185, pi. Santschi, 1916e: 387 (w.) ARGENTINA. Unavail­
OO.B (w.) PARAGUAY.
10, fig. 17 (q.) BRAZIL. Emery, 1905c: 49 (w.m.). able n a m e .
laticornis. Acanthostichus laticornis Forel, 1908c: 345
Combination in Atta: Roger, 1863b: 35; mAtta tichisosensis. Atta (Moellerius) versicolor subsp. chisosensis
(w.) PARAGUAY. Santschi, 1933e: 106 (m.). Senior
(Acromyrmex): Forel, 1893e: 590; in. Acromyrmex: Wheeler, W.M. 1907c: 705 (w.) U.S.A. Combination
s y n o n y m of obscuridens: Kusnezov, 1962a: 1 3 1 .
Gallardo, 1916d: 3 2 8 . J u n i o r s y n o n y m of in Acromyrmex: Emery, 1922f: 3 5 1 .
niger. Acanthostichus serratulus var. niger Santschi,
octospinosa:Forel, 1893e: 590. Revived from synon­ clarus. Acromyrmex aspersus st. mesonotalis var. clarus
1933e: 105 (q.) ARGENTINA. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of
ymy: Emery, 1905c: 4 8 . Senior s y n o n y m of affinis, Santschi, 1925d: 243 (w.) BRAZIL. Unavailable
serratulus: Kusnezov, 1962a: 132. Revived from syn­
inquirens a n d mesonotalis, a n d material of t h e n a m e ; material referred to aspersus by Goncalves,
o n y m y and raised to species: B r o w n , 1975: 42.
unavailable n a m e clarus referred h e r e : Goncalves, 1961: 132.
obscuridens. Acanthostichus laticornis var. obscuridens
1 9 6 1 : 1 3 2 . Current subspecies: n o m i n a l plus cloosae.Atta (Moellerius) landolti r. cloosae Forel, 1912e:
Santschi, 1934c: 23 (w.) ARGENTINA. Bruch,
fuhrmanni. 179 (w.) COLOMBIA. Combination in Acromyrmex
1934a: 4 (q.m.). J u n i o r s y n o n y m of laticornis:
atratus. Acromyrmex hispidusst. atratus Santschi, 1925a: (Moellerius): Emery, 1922f: 3 5 1 . J u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Kusnezov, 1962a: 1 3 1 .
376 (w.q.) ARGENTINA. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of landolti: Fowler, 1 9 8 8 : 2 8 8 .
quadratus. Acanthostichus quadrants Emery, 1895J:
crassispinus: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 139. #cochlearis. Acromyrmex lobicornis var. cochlearis
750, fig. OO.A; pi. 16, figs. 5, 6; pi. 17, fig. 12 (w.q.)
Santschi, 1933e: 120 (w.) ARGENTINA.
BOLIVIA.

54 Species-Group Taxa
corallina. Acromyrmex lundi st. decolor var. corallina #ekchuah. Acromyrmex octospinosus subsp. ekchuah hispidus. Acromyrmex hispidus Santschi, 1925a: 376
Santschi, 1919f: 51 (w.) ARGENTINA. Unavailable Wheeler, W.M. 1937c: 73 (s.) MEXICO. (w.) BOLIVIA. Zolessi 6- A b e n a n t e , 1974: 154
name. emilii.Atta (Acromyrmex) emilii Forel, 1904c: 32 (w.) (q.m.); Gometal, 1983: 365 (k.). Current subspe­
cordovana Bruch, 1921; see u n d e r TRACHYMYRMEX. BRAZIL. Wheeler, G.C. 1 9 4 9 : 6 7 5 (1.). Combination d e s : n o m i n a l plus fallax, formosus.
coronatus. Formica coronata Fabridus, 1 8 0 4 : 4 1 3 (q.) in Acromyrmex: M a n n , 1 9 1 6 : 4 5 4 . J u n i o r s y n o n y m homalops. Atta (Acromyrmex) muticinoda var. homalops
SOUTH AMERICA. Forel, 1885a: 356 (w.). Combi­ of hystrix: Santschi, 1925a: 357. Emery, 1905c: 47, figs. 10, 11 (w.m.) BRAZIL. Com­
n a t i o n in Atta: Roger, 1863b: 35; in Atta erectus. Acromyrmex ambiguus var. erectus Santschi, bination in Acromyrmex: Luederwaldt, 1918: 38. Sub­
(Acromyrmex): Forel, 1885a: 355; in Acromyrmex: 1925a: 384, fig. 2 (w.) BRAZIL. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of s p e d e s of coronatus: Forel, 1911c: 2 9 1 ; of muticinoda:
Bruch, 1914: 216. Subspedes of hystrix: Forel, ambiguus: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 131. Santschi, 1925a: 370. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of
1885a: 355. Revived status as s p e d e s : Dalla Torre, evenkul. Acromyrmex evenkul n e w n a m e . Replace­ muticinoda: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 5 3 .
1893: 152. Senior s y n o n y m of: meinerti, modesta, m e n t n a m e for Acromyrmexgallardoi Santschi, hortulanus. Acromyrmex laticeps var. hortulanus Santschi,
moelleri a n d ochraceolus, and material of t h e unavail­ 1936d: 4 1 1 . [Junior secondary h o m o n y m of 1925a: 381 (w.) URUGUAY. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of
able n a m e s flavescens, medianus, obscurior a n d omatus Sericomyrmex gallardoi Santschi, 1920d: 379.] laticeps: Goncalves, 1961: 144.
referred h e r e : Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 135. Current sub­ t#allax. Acromyrmex hispidus var. fallax Santschi, 1925a: hystrix. Formica hystrix Latreille, 1802c: 230, pi. 10, fig.
spedes: nominal plus andicola, globoculis, importunus, 377 (w.) ARGENTINA. S u b s p e d e s of hispidus: 61 (w.) FRENCH GUIANA. Emery, 1888c: 357 (m.).
panamensis, rectispinus. Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 142; Kempf, 1972a: 12. Combination in Atta: Haliday, 1836: 328;inAff«
crassispinus. Atta (Acromyrmex) mesonotalis var. ttferrugineus. Atta (Acromyrmex) lobicomis var. ferruginea (Acromyrmex): Mayr, 1865: 83; in Acromyrmex:
crassispina Forel, 1909a: 257 (w.) PARAGUAY. Emery, 1905c: 52 (w.) BRAZIL. C o m b i n a t i o n i n Santschi, 1925a: 357. Subspedes of octospinosus:
Santschi, 1925a: 374 (q.). C o m b i n a t i o n i n Acromyrmex: Bruch, 1914: 216. Forel, 1893e: 590; Emery, 1894c: 220. J u n i o r syn­
Acromyrmex: Emery, 1922f: 349. Subspedes of flavescens. Acromyrmex coronatus st. andicola var. o n y m of octospinosus: Emery, 1922f: 350. Revived
mesonotalis: Forel, 1914e: 1 1 . Raised to s p e d e s : flavescens Santschi, 1925d: 239 (w.) BRAZIL. from synonymy, revived status as spedes, and
Santschi, 1925a: 374. Senior s y n o n y m of: atratus, Unavailable n a m e ; material referred to coronatus by senior s y n o n y m of emilii: Santschi, 1925a: 357. See
diabolica, insularis, mediocris a n d rusticus, a n d m a t e ­ Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 135. also: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 143. Current subspedes:
rial of t h e unavailable n a m e rufescens referred h e r e : #formosus. Acromyrmex hispidus st. formosus Santschi, n o m i n a l plus ajax.
Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 139. 1925a: 377 (w.) ARGENTINA. ^importunus. Acromyrmex coronatus st. importunus
ttcubanus. Acromyrmex octospinosus subsp. cubanus fracticornis. Atta (Moellerius) fracticornis Forel, 1909a: Santschi, 1925a: 362 (w.) COSTARICA.
Wheeler, W.M. 1937c: 74 (s.) CUBA. 2 5 7 (w.) PARAGUAY. Fowler, 1 9 8 8 : 2 8 6 (m.). Com­ inquirens. Atta (Acromyrmex) mesonotalis var. inquirens
#decolor. Atta (Acromyrmex) pubescens subsp. decolor bination in Acromyrmex (Moellerius): Forel, 19131: Forel, 1914e: 11 (w.) BRAZIL. C o m b i n a t i o n i n
Emery, 1905c: 52 (w.) PARAGUAY. C o m b i n a t i o n i n 236. S u b s p e d e s of landolti, and senior s y n o n y m of Acromyrmex: Emery, 1922f: 349. Variety of aspersus:
Acromyrmex, a n d s u b s p e d e s of lundii: Bruch, 1914: jorgenseni: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 126; Kempf, 1972a: 16. Santschi, 1925a: 368. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of aspersus:
216. Revived status as s p e d e s : Fowler, 1 9 8 8 : 2 8 6 . Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 132.
depressoculis. Acromyrmex subterranea var. depressoculis #fuhrmanni. Atta (Acromyrmex) mesonotalis var. insularis. Acromyrmex aspersus var. insularis Santschi,
Forel, 19131: 237 (w.) BRAZIL. Stirps olmuticinoda: fuhrmanniForel, 1914e: 10 (w.) COLOMBIA. Com­ 1925d: 242 (w.) BRAZIL. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Santschi, 1925a: 3 7 1 . J u n i o r s y n o n y m of bination in Acromyrmex: Emery, 1922f: 349. Variety crassispinus: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 139.
muticinoda: Goncalves, 1961: 153. of aspersus: Santschi, 1925a: 369. #inti. Acromyrmex octospinosus subsp. inti Wheeler, W.M.
diabolica. Acromyrmex nigrosetosa var. diabolica Santschi, gaigei Forel, 1914; see u n d e r TRACHYMYRMEX. 1937c: 72 (s.) PERU.
1922b: 362 (w.) BRAZIL. Santschi, 1925d: 240 (m.). gallardoi. Sericomyrmex gallardoi Santschi, 1920d: 379 jorgenseni. Acromyrmex (Moellerius) fracticornis var.
Stirps of crassispinus: Santschi, 1925a: 375. Raised to (w.) PARAGUAY. Combination in Acromyrmej:, a n d jorgenseni Forel, 19131: 236 (w.q.) ARGENTINA.
spedes: Santschi, 1925d: 240. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of j u n i o r s y n o n y m of balzani: Santschi, 1922b: 362. Bruch, 1916: 325 (m.). J u n i o r s y n o n y m of
crassispinus: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 139. gallardoi. Acromyrmex gallardoi Santschi, 1936d: 4 1 1 fracticornis: Goncalves, 1961: 126.
diasi. Acromyrmex (Acromyrmex) diasi Goncalves, (w.q.m.) ARGENTINA. [Junior secondary h o m ­ laeviventris. Acromyrmex (Moellerius) striatus var.
1983a: 4 8 5 , fig. 1 (w.q.m.) BRAZIL. o n y m of Sericomyrmex gallardoi Santschi, above.] Re­ laeviventris Santschi, 1925a: 388 (w.) ARGENTINA.
dimidiata. Atta (Acromyrmex) aspersa subsp. dimidiata placement n a m e : evenkul n e w n a m e . [First available use of Acromyrmex (Moellerius) striatus
Forel, 1911c: 292 (w.m.) BRAZIL. C o m b i n a t i o n i n garbei. Acromyrmex laticeps st.garbei Santschi, 1925a: st. silvestrii var. laeviventris Santschi, 1920d: 380;
Acromyrmex: Emery, 1922f: 348. Stirps of dimidiata: 381 (w.) BRAZIL. Stirps of nigrosetosus: Santschi, unavailable n a m e . ] J u n i o r s y n o n y m of striatus:
Santschi, 1925a: 392. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of 1925b: 18 (also described as n e w in this publica­ Fowler, 1 9 8 8 : 2 9 0 .
nigrosetosus: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 4 6 . tion). J u n i o r s y n o n y m of nigrosetosus: Goncalves, landolti. Atta (Acromyrmex) landolti Forel, 1885a: 357
disciger. Atta discigera Mayr, 1887: 551 (w.q.m.) BRA­ 1961: 146. (w.) COLOMBIA. Forel, 1911c: 293 (q.). Combina­
ZIL. Combination in Atta (Acromyrmex): Forel, gaudens. Acromyrmex (Moellerius) heyeri var. gaudens tion in Atta (Moellerius): Forel, 1893e: 589; in
1893e: 590; in Acromyrmex: Luederwaldt, 1918: 38. Santschi, 1925e: 164 (w.) ARGENTINA. J u n i o r syn­ Acromyrmex (Moellerius): M a n n , 1 9 1 6 : 4 5 3 . Senior
See also: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 4 1 . o n y m of heyeri: Fowler, 1988: 287. s y n o n y m of senex: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 120; of cloosae
dubia. Atta (Acromyrmex) laticeps var. dubia Forel, ^globoculis. Acromyrmex coronatus subsp. globoculis a n d planorum: Fowler, 1988: 2 8 8 . Current subspe­
1908c: 350 (w.) BRAZIL. C o m b i n a t i o n i n Kempf, 1972a: 11 (w.) GUIANA. [First available use d e s : n o m i n a l plus myersi.
Acromyrmex: Emery, 1922f: 349. Variety of lundii: of Acromyrmex moelleri r. meinerti var. globoculis Forel, laticeps. Atta (Acromyrmex) laticeps Emery, 1905c: 50,
Santschi, 1925a: 3 8 5 . J u n i o r s y n o n y m of lundii: 1 9 1 6 : 4 2 9 ; unavailable n a m e . ] Weber, 1 9 3 7 : 4 0 8 figs. 16, 17 (w.q.m.) BRAZIL. C o m b i n a t i o n i n
Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 150. <q->- Acromyrmex: Emery, 1922f: 349. Senior s y n o n y m of
#echinatior. Atta (Acromyrmex) octospinosa var. echinatior hortulanus: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 4 4 . Current subspe­
guentheri. Atta (Acromyrmex) guentheriForel, 1893e:
Forel, 1899c: 34 (w.q.) MEXICO. Wheeler, W.M. d e s : n o m i n a l plus nigrosetosus.
594 (s.w.q.m.) TRINIDAD. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of
1937c: 72 (m.). Combination in Acromyrmex: Emery, lillensis. Acromyrmex (Moellerius) heyeri var. lillensis
octospinosus: Emery, 1894c: 220.
1922f: 350. Subspedes of octospinosus: Wheeler, Santschi, 1925e: 165 (w.) ARGENTINA. J u n i o r syn­
heyeri. Atta (Moellerius) heyeri Forel, 1899c: 31 (foot­
W.M. 1937c: 7 1 . o n y m of heyeri: Fowler, 1988: 287.
note) (s.w.) BRAZIL. Emery, 1905c: 4 3 (q.m.);
eidmanni. Acromyrmex (Acromyrmex) subterraneus var. lobicomis. Atta (Acromyrmex) lobicomis Emery, 1888c:
Bruch, 1 9 2 1 : 1 9 9 (q.m.); Gonirtal. 1983: 365 (k.).
eidmanni Santschi, 1937f: 232, figs. 1, 6 (w.q.m.) 358 (w.) BRAZIL. Emery, 1905c: 52 (q.m.). Combi­
Combination in Acromyrmex: Bruch, 1914: 2 1 7 .
BRAZIL. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of molestans: Goncalves, n a t i o n in Acromyrmex: Bruch, 1914: 216. [Incor­
Senior s y n o n y m of gaudens a n d lillensis: Fowler,
1961: 168. r e d l y recorded from Ivory Coast: Santschi, 1928f:
1988: 287. See also: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 2 7 .

Species-Group Taxa 55
ACROMYREX (continued) landolti: Kempf, 1972a: 16. See also: Fowler, 1988: pampanus. Acromyrmex (Moellerius) balzani subsp.
288. pampanus Weber, 1938b: 200 (w.q.m.) BOLIVIA.
209.] Senior s y n o n y m of bucki a n d rufidens: navarroi. Acromyrmex rugosus var. navarroi Borgmeier, Subspedes of landolti: Kempf, 1972a: 16. S y n o n y m
Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 4 8 . Current s u b s p e d e s : n o m i n a l 1937b: 249 (w.) BRAZIL. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of rochai: of multituber: Fowler, 1988: 284. [Fowler gives
plus cochlearis, ferrugineus, pencosensis, pruinosior. Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 6 2 . pampanus as senior n a m e , b u t multituber c o r r e d l y
lundii. Myrmica lundii Guerin-Meneville, 1838: 206 niger. Oecodoma nigra Smith, F. 1858b: 186 (q.) BRA­ has priority.]
(q.m.) BRAZIL. Roger, 1863a: 2 0 1 (w.); Forel, ZIL. Emery, 1905c: 4 8 (w.m.). Combination in Atta: #panamensis. Atta (Acromyrmex) moelleri var. panamen-
1885a: 356 (w.); Wheeler, G.C. 1949: 675 (1.). Com­ Roger, 1863b: 35; in Atta (Acromyrmex): Forel, sis Forel, 1899c: 35, pi. 1, figs. 16, 17 (w.q.) GUATE­
bination in Atta: Roger, 1863a: 200; in Atta 1893e: 590; in Acromyrmex: Bruch, 1914: 216. MALA. Combination in Acromyrmex: Emery, 1922f:
(Acromyrmex): Forel, 1885a: 356; in Acromyrmex: Senior s y n o n y m of muticinoda (and its j u n i o r syn­ 350. S u b s p e d e s of moelleri: Forel, 1908b: 40; of
Forel, 19131: 237. Senior s y n o n y m of bonariensis: o n y m s depressoculis a n d homalops): Goncalves, 1967: coronatus: Santschi, 1925a: 360; Kempf, 1972a: 1 1 .
Gallardo, 1916d: 331; of risii: Santschi, 1925a: 384; 18. "parallelus. Acromyrmex lundi var. parallela Santschi,
of dubia: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 5 0 . See also: Bruch, nigripes. Acromyrmex lundi st. boliviensis var. nigripes 1916e: 387 (w.) ARGENTINA.
1 9 2 1 : 1 9 2 . Current s u b s p e d e s : n o m i n a l plus Santschi, 1929d: 304 (w.q.) ARGENTINA. Unavail­ parens. Acromyrmex (Moellerius) landolti var. parens
boliviensis, carli, decolor, parallelus. pubescens. able n a m e . Santschi, 1925d: 239 (w.) BRAZIL. J u n i o r s y n o n y m
medianus. Acromyrmex coronatus st. andicola var. ^nigrosetosus. Atta (Acromyrmex) nigrosetosa Forel, of balzani.-Goncalves, 1961:124.
medianus Santschi, 1925a: 367 (w.) BRAZIL. 1908c: 350 (s.w.) BRAZIL. Santschi, 1922b: 361 ^pencosensis. Acromyrmex lobicomis var. pencosensis
Unavailable n a m e ; material referred to coronatus by (q.). Combination in Acromyrmex: M a n n , 1 9 1 6 : 4 5 4 . Forel, 1914d: 282 (w.) ARGENTINA. S u b s p e d e s of
Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 3 5 . Stirps/subspedes of laticeps: Santschi, 1925a: 382; lobicomis: Santschi, 1916e: 388.
mediocris. Acromyrmex diabolicus var. mediocris Santschi, Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 4 6 ; Kempf, 1972a: 12. Senior ttperuvianus. Acromyrmex (Acromyrmex) subterraneus
1925d: 2 4 1 (w.) BRAZIL. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of s y n o n y m of dimidiata, garbei a n d pulchella: var. peruvianus Borgmeier, 1 9 4 0 : 6 0 6 (w.m.) PERU.
crassispinus: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 3 9 . Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 4 6 . S u b s p e d e s of subterraneus .Kempf, 1972a: 15.
meinerti. Atta (Acromyrmex) moelleri st. meinerti Forel, nivalis. Acromyrmex (Moellerius) landolti var. nivalis planorum. Acromyrmex (Moellerius) balzani subsp.
1893e: 599 (q.) BRAZIL. Emery, 1905c: 45 (w.); Santschi, 1922b: 362 (w.) BRAZIL. J u n i o r s y n o n y m planorum Weber, 1 9 3 7 : 4 0 9 (w.) VENEZUELA. Sub­
Santschi, 1925a: 364 (w.). C o m b i n a t i o n i n of landolti: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 120; of balzani: Fowler, s p e d e s of landolti: Kempf, 1972a: 16. J u n i o r syn­
Acromyrmex: Forel, 1 9 1 6 : 4 2 9 . Stirps of coronatus: 1988:284. o n y m of landolti: Fowler, 1 9 8 8 : 2 8 8 .
Santschi, 1925a: 364. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of coronatus: nobilis. Acromyrmex (Acromyrmex) nobilis Santschi, ^pruinosior. Acromyrmex lobicomis var. pruinosior
Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 135. 1939e: 317 (w.) BRAZIL. [Also described as n e w by Santschi, 1916e: 388, fig. (w.) ARGENTINA.
mesonotalis. Atta (Acromyrmex) mesonotalis Emery, Santschi, 1939f: 164.] See also: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : #pubescens. Atta (Acromyrmex) pubescens Emery, 1905c:
1905c: 4 6 , fig. 8 (w.) PERU. Combination in 156. 51, fig. 20 (w.) PARAGUAY. C o m b i n a t i o n i n
Acromyrmex: Luederwaldt, 1918: 3 8 . Stirps of obscurior. Acromyrmex coronatus st. moelleri var. obscurior Acromyrmex, a n d variety of lundii: Bruch, 1 9 1 4 : 2 1 6 .
aspersus: Santschi, 1925d: 242. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Santschi, 1925d: 2 4 0 (w.) BRAZIL. Unavailable Subspedes of lundii: Gallardo, 1916d: 3 3 3 ; Santschi,
aspersus: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 3 2 . n a m e ; material referred t o coronatus by Goncalves, 1 9 I 6 e : 386; Kempf, 1972a: 13.
mesopotamicus. Acromyrmex (Moellerius) mesopotamicus 1961:135. pulchella. Acromyrmex nigrosetosa st. pulchella Santschi,
Gallardo, 1916d: 337, fig. 3 (w.) ARGENTINA. ochraceolus. Acromyrmex coronatus st. ochraceolus 1925b: 18 (w.) BRAZIL. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of silvestrii: Fowler, 1 9 8 8 : 2 9 0 . Santschi, 1925a: 365 (w.) BRAZIL. [First available nigrosetosus: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 4 6 .
mixtus. Acromyrmex subterraneus var. mixtus Santschi, use of Acromyrmex moelleri r. panamensis var. pulvereus. Acromyrmex (Moellerius) pulvereus Santschi,
1925a: 373 (w.) BRAZIL. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of sub- ochraceolus Forel, 1922: 97; unavailable n a m e . ] 1919f: 52 (w.) ARGENTINA. See also: Fowler, 1988:
terraneus: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 6 4 . J u n i o r s y n o n y m of coronatus: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 135. 289 ( w h o notes this as nomen dubium).
modesta. Atta (Acromyrmex) moelleri r. modesta Forel, octospinosus. Formica octospinosa Reich, 1 7 9 3 : 1 3 2 (w.) purensis. Atta (Acromyrmex) subterranea var. purensis
1901h: 49 (s.) BRAZIL. Combination in Acromyrmex: FRENCH GUIANA. Forel, 1893e: 590 (S.q.m.); Forel, 1912e: 181 (w.) BRAZIL. C o m b i n a t i o n i n
Luederwaldt, 1918: 39. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Wheeler, G.C. 1 9 4 9 : 6 7 4 (1.); Wheeler, G.C. & Acromyrmex: Emery, 1922f: 350. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of
coronatus: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 135. Wheeler, J. 1986d: 4 9 6 (1.). Combination i n Atta: subterraneus: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 164.
moelleri. Atta (Acromyrmex) moelleri Forel, 1893e: 596 Emery, 1892b: 163; in Atta (Acromyrmex): Forel, Urectispinus. Atta (Acromyrmex) moelleri subsp. rectispina
(s.w.q.m.) BRAZIL. Combination i n Acromyrmex: 1893e: 590; in Acromyrmex: M a n n , 1 9 1 6 : 4 5 4 . Forel, 1908b: 4 1 (w.) COSTA RICA. Combination in
Forel, 1 9 1 6 : 4 2 9 . Stirps of coronatus: Santschi, Senior s y n o n y m of guentheri: Emery, 1894c: 220; of Acromyrmex-: Emery, 1922f: 350. Stirps/subspedes of
1925a: 3 6 3 . J u n i o r s y n o n y m of coronatus: pallida Crawley: Wheeler, W.M. 1937c: 70. See also: coronatus: Santschi, 1925a: 362; Kempf, 1972a: 12.
Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 135. Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 157. Current subspedes: n o m i n a l risii. Atta (Acromyrmex) lundii var. risii Forel, 1908c:
#molestans. Acromyrmex subterraneus st. molestans plus cubanus, echinatior, ekchuah, inti, volcanus. 350. (w.) ARGENTINA. Combination in
Santschi, 1925a: 373 (w.) BRAZIL. Senior s y n o n y m #ogloblini. Acromyrmex subterraneus var. ogloblini Acromyrmex: Forel, 19131:237. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of
of eidmanni: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 168. Santschi, 1933e: 121 (w.) ARGENTINA. lundii: Santschi, 1925a: 384.
#multituber. Acromyrmex (Moellerius) balzani var. multitu- omatus. Acromyrmex coronatus st. ochraceolus var. omatus #rochai. Atta (Acromyrmex) rugosus var. rochai Forel,
ber Santschi, 1922b: 362 (w.) BOLIVIA. S y n o n y m Santschi, 1925a: 365 (w.) BRAZIL. Unavailable 1904c: 34 (w.) BRAZIL. Combination in
of pampanus, a n d s u b s p e d e s of balzani: Fowler, n a m e ; material referred to coronatus by Goncalves, Acromyrmex: Santschi, 1925a: 379. J u n i o r s y n o n y m
1988: 284. [Fowler incorrectly gives pampanus as 1961: 135. of aspersus: Emery, 1905c: 4 8 . Revived from s y n o n ­
senior synonym, b u t multituber has priority.] pallida. Oecodoma pallida Smith, F. 1858b: 187 (s.) BRA­ y m y as variety of rugosus: Santschi, 1925a: 379. Sub­
muticinoda. Atta (Acromyrmex) nigra r. muticinoda Forel, ZIL. Combination in Atta: Roger, 1863b: 35; in Atta s p e d e s of rugosus, a n d senior s y n o n y m of navarroi:
1901e: 336 (w.) BRAZIL. C o m b i n a t i o n i n (Acromyrmex): Forel, 1893e: 590. J u n i o r s y n o n y m Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 6 2 .
Acromyrmex: Luederwaldt, 1918: 39. Raised t o spe­ of rugosus: Forel, 1893e: 590. rufescens. Acromyrmex hispidus st. formosus var. rufescens
d e s : Emery, 1905c: 4 7 ; Emery, 1922f: 350. Senior pallida. Acromyrmex octospinosa var. pallida Crawley, Santschi, 1925a: 377 (w.) BRAZIL. Unavailable
s y n o n y m of depressoculis a n d homalops: Goncalves: 1 9 2 1 : 9 2 (s.w.) GUIANA. [Unresolved j u n i o r sec­ n a m e ; material referred to crassispinus by Goncalves,
1 9 6 1 : 153. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of niger: Goncalves, o n d a r y h o m o n y m of Oecodoma pallida Smith, 1961:139.
1967:18. above.] J u n i o r s y n o n y m of octospinosus: Wheeler, rufidens. Acromyrmex lobicomis var. rufidens Santschi,
Umyersi. Acromyrmex (Moellerius) balzani subsp. myersi W.M. 1937c: 70. 1933e: 120 (w.) BRAZIL. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of
Weber, 1 9 3 7 : 4 0 8 (w.) GUIANA. S u b s p e d e s of lobicomis: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 4 8 .

56 Species-Group Taxa
rugosus. Oecodoma rugosa Smith, F. 1858b: 186 (q.) tralis: Taylor, 1992a: 58. Current subspecies: n o m i ­ fuhrmanni. Rhizomyrma fuhrmanm Forel, 1914e: 12
BRAZIL. Forel, 1904c: 33 (w.); Emery, 1905c: 109 n a l plus bugnioni, carinata, javana, rubescens. (w.q.) COLOMBIA. Weber, 1944: 97 ( m l ) . Combi­
(m.). C o m b i n a t i o n i n Afia: Roger, 1863b: 35; in Atta ambigua. Acropyga (Atopodon) ambigua Emery, 1922d: n a t i o n in Acropyga (Rhizomyrma): Emery, 1925b: 29.
(Acromyrmex): Forel, 1893e: 590; in Acromyrmex: 107, fig. 1 (w.q.) N E W GUINEA. goeldii. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) goeldii fore), 1893g:
Emery, 1922f: 348. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of coronatus: amblyops. Acropyga (Atopodon) amblyops Forel, 1915a: 348 (footnote) (w.) BRAZIL. Combination in
Dalla Torre, 1893: 152; Forel, 1895b: 139. Revived 34 (w.) SUMATRA. Rhizomyrma: Forth 1912i: 60; in Acropyga
from s y n o n y m y as variety of coronatus: Emery, arnoldi. Acropyga (Malacomyrma) arnoldi Santschi, (Rhizomyrma): Emery, 1925b: 2 9 . J u n i o r s y n o n y m
1905c: 49. Revived status as species: Santschi, 1926b: 245 (w.q.) SOUTH AFRICA. Prins, 1982: 245 of decedens: Costa Lima, 1 9 3 1 : 7 . Revived from syn­
1925a: 378; Santschi, 1925d: 2 4 3 . Senior s y n o n y m (m.). Senior s y n o n y m of rhodesiana: Prins, 1982: o n y m y : Wheeler, W.M. 1935f: 322; Weber, 1944:
oipatlida Smith: Forel, 1893e: 590; of bigener a n d 238. 9 3 . Current subspecies: n o m i n a l plus columbica,
vestitus: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 5 9 . Current subspecies: australis. Acropyga moluccana var. australis Forel, 1902h: tridentata.
noniinal plus rochai, santschii. 4 7 7 (w.) AUSTRALIA. Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. gowdeyi. Acropyga gowdeyi Gowdey, 1917: 187
rusticus. Acromyrmex crassispinus st. rusticus Santschi, 1 9 6 8 : 2 0 9 (1.). Subspecies of acutiventris: Forel, UGANDA. Nomen nudum. [Note: these specimens
1925a: 375 (w.q.) BRAZIL. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of 1911 e: 286; of moluccana: Taylor & B r o w n , D.R. w e r e later described as Pseudolasius gowdeyi; see
crassispinus: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 3 9 . 1 9 8 5 : 1 0 8 . J u n i o r s y n o n y m of acutiventris: Taylor, there.]
^santschii. Atta (Acromyrmex) aspersa var. santschii Forel, 1992a: 58. guianensis. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) guianensis Weber,
1912e: 182 (w.) COLOMBIA. C o m b i n a t i o n i n baodaoensis. Acropyga (Atopodon) baodaoensis Ter- 1944: 120, fig. 1 (w.) GUIANA.
Acromyrmex: Emery, 1922f: 3 4 8 . Variety of rugosus: ayama, 1985b: 284, figs. 1-13 (w.q.m.) TAIWAN. indistincta. Acropyga indistincta Crawley, 1923b: 178
Santschi, 1925a: 379. berwicki. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) berwicki Wheeler, (w.) AUSTRALIA.
senex. Acromyrmex (Moellerius) balzani var. senex W.M. 1935f: 325, fig. 1 (w.) TRINIDAD. indosinensis. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) indosinensis
Santschi, 1925b: 19 (w.) BRAZIL. J u n i o r s y n o n y m borgmeieri. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) borgmeieri Wheeler, W.M. 1935c: 72. Replacement n a m e for
of landolti: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 2 0 . Donisthorpe, 1939c: 153 (m.) GUIANA. Acropyga silvestrii Wheeler, W.M. 1927h: 100.
silvestrii. Atta (Moellerius) silvestrii Emery, 1905c: 42 bruchi. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) bruchi Santschi, 1929d: [Junior p r i m a r y h o m o n y m of Acropyga silvestrii
(w.) ARGENTINA. Forel, 1911c: 292 (q.m.); 308 (w.) ARGENTINA. Emery, 1915g:21.]
Santschi 1912e: 530 (q.m.). Combination in tibugnioni. Acropyga acutiventris subsp. bugnioni Forel, inezae. Acropyga (Atopodon) inezae Forel, 1912m: 772
Acromyrmex (Moellerius): Forel, 19131:236. Stirps of 191 l i : 2 2 6 (w.q.) SRI LANKA. (w.) SUMATRA. Karavaiev, 1933a: 314 (q.m.).
striatus: Santschi, 1920d: 380. Revived status as spe­ butteli. Acropyga (Atopodon) butteli Forel, 1912m: 772 [Also described as n e w by Forel, 1913k: 102.]
cies: Emery, 1922f: 3 5 1 . Senior s y n o n y m of (q.) WEST MALAYSIA. [Also described as n e w by #javana. Acropyga (Acropyga) acutiventris var. javana
mesopotamicus: Fowler, 1 9 8 8 : 2 9 0 . Current subspe­ Forel, 1913k: 101.] Karavaiev, 1933a: 308 (w.m.) JAVA.
cies: n o m i n a l plus bruchi. ticarinata. Acropyga acutiventris var. carinata Karavaiev, jiangxiensis. Acropyga (Atopodon) jiangxiensis Wang &
striatus. Atta striata Roger, 1863a: 202 (w.q.m.) URU­ 1933a: 310 (w.) SUMATRA. W u , 1992a: 226, figs. 1-4 (w.m.) CHINA.
GUAY. Combination in Atta (Acromyrmex): Emery, #columbica. Rhizomyrma goeldii var. columbica Forel, kathrynae. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) kathrynae Weber,
1888c: 357; in Atta (Moellerius): Emery, 1905c: 42; in 1912i: 61 (w.) COLOMBIA. C o m b i n a t i o n i n 1944: 114, fig. 12 (w.) TRINIDAD.
Acromyrmex: Bruch, 1914: 2 1 7 . Senior s y n o n y m of Acropyga (Rhizomyrma): Emery, 1925b: 29. lauta. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) lauta M a n n , 1919: 365
laeviventris: Fowler, 1 9 8 8 : 2 9 0 . See also: Goncalves, crassicornis. Acropyga crassicornis Emery, 1900d: 698 (w.q.) SOLOMON IS.
1961: 129. (footnote), fig. 13 (w.) N E W GUINEA. major. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) major Donisthorpe,
subterraneus. Atta (Acromyrmex) subterranea Forel, decedens. Brachymyrmex decedens Mayr, 1887: 521 - 1949c: 755 (m.) NEW GUINEA.
1893e: 593 (s.w.q.) BRAZIL. Forel, 1901d: 301 (m.). (w.q.m.) BRAZIL. Combination i n Rhizomyrma: marshalli. Rhizomyrma marshalli Crawley, 1 9 2 1 : 9 3 ,
Race/subspecies of coronatus: Forel, 1 9 0 I d : 3 0 1 ; Emery, 1906c: 184; in Acropyga (Rhizomyrma): fig. 2 (w.) BARBADOS. Combination in Acropyga
Forel, 1911c: 2 9 1 ; Bruch, 1 9 1 4 : 2 1 6 . Status as spe­ Emery, 1925b: 29. (Rhizomyrma): Emery, 1925b: 30.
cies: Emery, 1905c: 48; Forel, 1912e: 181; distinguenda. Acropyga (Atopodon) distinguenda meermohri. Atopodon meermohri Starcke, 1930: 3 7 5 , pi.
Luederwaldt, 1918: 39; Santschi, 1925a: 372; Karavaiev, 1935a: 110, fig. 2 8 (w.q.m.) VIETNAM. 18, fig. oben (w.) INDONESIA (Palau I.). Combina­
Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 6 4 . Senior s y n o n y m oimixtus dodo. Pseudolasius dodo Donisthorpe, 1946c: 782 (w.) tion i n Acropyga: n e w c o m b i n a t i o n .
and purensis: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 6 4 . Current subspe­ MAURITIUS. Combination in Acropyga: n e w c o m ­ mesonotalis. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) mesonotalis Weber,
cies: n o m i n a l plus brunneus, molestans, ogloblini, per- bination. 1944: 1 1 1 , fig. 13 (w.q.) HAITI.
uvianus. donisthorpei. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) donisthorpei moluccana. Acropyga moluccana Mayr, 1879: 658 (w.)
tucumana Forel, 1914; see u n d e r TRACHYMYRMEX. Weber, 1 9 4 4 : 1 1 8 , figs. 9, 20, 21 (w.) GUIANA. INDONESIA ( S e r a m I . ) . Karavaiev, 1933a: 310
versicolor. Atta versicolor Pergande, 1894a: 31 (w.) dubia. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) dubia Karavaiev, 1933a: (q.m.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1953c: 137 (1.).
MEXICO. Wheeler, W.M. 1907c: 7 0 4 (q.m.). Combi­ 3 1 1 , fig. 3 (w.m.) SUMATRA. Current subspecies: norninal plus mysolensis,
nation in Atta (Acromyrmex): Emery, 1895c: 330; in dubitata. Rhizomyrma dubitata Wheeler, W.M. & occipitalis, opaca, papuana.
Affa (Moellerius): Emery, 1905c: 108; in Acromyrmex M a n n , 1 9 1 4 : 4 7 (m.) HATTI. C o m b i n a t i o n i n myops. Acropyga my opsFort), 1910b: 59 (w.m.) AUS­
(Moellerius): Emery, 1922f: 3 5 1 . See also: Fowler, Acropyga (Rhizomyrma): Emery, 1925b: 29. TRALIA. Combination in Acropyga (Rhizomyrma):
1988: 2 9 1 . Current subspecies: noniinal plus emeryi. Rhizomyrma emeryi Forel, 1915c: 347 (w.) Emery, 1925b: 30.
chisosensis. NEW GUINEA. Combination in Acropyga #mysolensis. Acropyga moluccana subsp. mysolensis Forel,
vestitus. Acromyrmex rugosus var. vestitus Santschi, (Rhizomyrma): Emery, 1925b: 30. 191 l e : 2 8 5 (w.) INDONESIA (MysolL).
1925a: 380 (w.) BRAZIL. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of epedana. Acropyga epedana Snelling, 1973a: 7, fig. 1 nipponensis. Acropyga (Atopodon) nipponensisTtr-
rugosus: Goncalves, 1 9 6 1 : 1 5 9 . (w.) U.S.A. ayama, 1985b: 287, figs. 1 4 - 1 8 (w.) JAPAN.
#volcanus. Acromyrmex octospinosus subsp. volcanus exsanguis. Rhizomyrma exsanguis Wheeler, W.M. ^occipitalis. Acropyga moluccana var. occipitalis Stitz,
Wheeler, W.M. 1 9 3 7 c : 7 3 (s.) COSTARICA. 1909b: 2 3 8 (w.) MEXICO. Combination in Acropyga 1912: 510, fig. 12 (w.) NEW GUINEA.
(Rhizomyrma): M a n n , 1922: 53. oceanica. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) oceanica Emery,
ACROPYGA (World tropics a n d subtropics)
flava. Plagiolepis flava Mayr, 1862: 699 (q.m.) 1900c: 333, pi. 8, fig. 4 4 (w.q.m.) NEW GUINEA.
acutiventris. Acropyga acutiventris Roger, 1862a: 243
NICOBAR IS. Combination in Acropyga: Mayr, 1862: oko. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) oko Weber, 1944: 119, fig.
(w.q.) SRI LANKA. Imai, B r o w n era/. 1984: 68 (k.).
769. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of acutiventris: Forel, 1894c: 16 (w.) GUIANA.
Senior s y n o n y m of flava: Forel, 1894c: 4 1 8 ; of aus-
418. #opaca. Acropyga moluccana var. opaca Stitz, 1911a: 370
(w.) N E W GUINEA. Donisthorpe, 1948g: 139 (m.).

Species-Group Taxa 57
ACROPYGA (continued) undecema. Pseudolasius undecemus Donisthorpe, 1949c: AENICTOGITON (west a n d central Africa)
756 (w.) NEW GUINEA. Combination in Acropyga: attenuatus. Aenictogiton elongatus var. attenuatus
pachycera. Rhizomyrma pachycera Emery, 1906c: 182 n e w combination. Santschi, 1919c: 247, fig. 2 (m.) ZAIRE. Raised to
(w.q.) PARAGUAY. Combination in Acropyga urichi. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) urichiVfeber, 1944: species: Santschi, 1924b: 199.
(Rhizomyrma):Emery, 1925b: 30. 115, figs. 2,3 (w.q.m.) TRINIDAD. bequaerti. Aenictogiton bequaerti Forel, 1913b: 314 (m.)
paleartica. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) paleartica Menozzi, wheeleri. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) wheeleri M a n n , 1922: ZAIRE.
1936d: 298, fig. 17 (w.) GREECE. 52 (w.q.) HONDURAS. elongatus. Aenictogiton elongatus Santschi, 1919c: 246,
pallida. Bothriomyrmexpallidus Donisthorpe, 1938d: fig. 2 (m.) ZAIRE.
598 (w.) NEW GUINEA. Combination in Acropyga: EXCURSUS emeryi. Aenictogiton emeryi Forel, 1913b: 315 (m.)
Shattuck, 1992c: 60. S p e c i e s - r a n k t a x a of ACROPYGA, g r o u p e d b y ZAIRE.
paludis. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) paludis Weber, 1944: subgenus. fossiceps. Aenictogiton fossiceps Emery, 1901 d: 49, figs.
121, fig. 15 (w.m.) GUIANA. ttACROPYGA: acutiventris, crassicornis, indistincta, 3,4 (m.) ZAIRE.
panamensis. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) panamensis moluccana, undecema. schoutedeni. Aenictogiton schoutedeni Santschi, 1924b:
Weber, 1944: 113, fig. 2 4 (w.) PANAMA. #ATOPODON: ambigua, amblyops, baodaoensis, butteli, 198, fig. 2 (m.) ZAIRE.
#papuana. Acropyga (Acropyga) moluccana subsp. papu- distinguenda, inezae, jiangxiensis, meermohri, sulcatus. Aenictogiton sulcatus Santschi, 1919c: 247, fig.
ana M a n n , 1919: 364 (w.) SOLOMON IS. Wheeler, nipponensis, termitobia. 2 (m.) ZAIRE.
G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1953c: 136 (1.). XMALACOMYRMA: arnoldi, dodo, silvestrii.
AENICTUS (Old World tropics a n d temperates)
paramaribensis. Acropyga paramaribensis Borgmeier, #RHIZOMYRMA: berwicki, borgmeieri, bruchi, decedens,
donisthorpei, dubia, dubitata, emeryi, epedana, abeillei. Alaopone abeillei Andre, 1886: 855 (q., n o t w.;
1933c: 2 6 3 (w.q.) SURINAM. Borgmeier, 1 9 3 4 : 1 0 9
exsanguis, fuhrmanni, goeldii, guianensis, indosinen­ see Emery, 190Id: 43) ALGERIA. Combination in
(m.); Bunzli, 1935: 519 (1.). C o m b i n a t i o n i n
sis, kathrynae, lauta, major, marshalli, mesonotalis, Dorylus (Shuckardia): Emery, 1895j: 740; in Aenictus:
Acropyga (Rhizomyrma): Kempf, 1972a: 17.
myops, oceanica, oko, pachycera, paleartica, pallida, Emery, 190 Id: 4 3 . Provisional j u n i o r s y n o n y m of
parvidens. Rhizomyrma parvidens Wheeler, W.M. &
paludis, panamensis, paramaribensis, parvidens, pick­ atriceps: Emery, 1891b: 2. Revived from synonymy:
M a n n , 1 9 1 4 : 4 6 (w.) HATTT. Combination in
eli, quadriceps, robae, rutgersi, sauteri, smithii, Emery, 1895J: 740.
Acropyga (Rhizomyrma): Emery, 1925b: 30.
trinitatis. urichi, wheeleri. aitkenii. Aenictus aitkenii Forel, 1901a: 475 (w.) INDIA.
pickeli. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) pickeli Borgmeier,
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of aratus: Wilson, 1964a: 446.
1927a: 287, figs. 1, 2 (w.q.) BRAZIL. Weber, 1944:
alluaudi. Aenictus bottegoi var. alluaudi Santschi,
102 (m.). J u n i o r s y n o n y m of decedens: Costa Lima,
1910g: 754, fig. 10 (m.) KENYA. Raised to species:
1931: 7. Revived from s y n o n y m y : Borgmeier, *ACROSTIGMA Emery: see u n d e r PODOMYRMA.
Santschi, 1924b: 2 0 3 . Current subspecies: n o m i n a l
1932a: 2 3 8 . See also: Wheeler, W.M. 1935f: 322;
ACROSTIGMA Forel: see u n d e r STIGMACROS. plus falcifer.
Weber, 1944: 102.
ADELOMYRMEX (Indo-Australian, Neotropical) alticola. Aenictus (Typhlatta) alticola Wheeler, W.M. &
quadriceps. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) quadriceps Weber,
biroi. Adelomyrmex biroi Emery, 1897c: 590, pi. 15, C h a p m a n , in Wheeler, W.M. 1930g: 2 0 5 , fig. 5 (w.)
1944: 113, fig. 5 (w.) TRINIDAD.
figs. 3 5 - 3 7 (w.q.) NEW GUINEA. PHILIPPINES. See also: Wilson, 1964a: 4 4 5 .
rhodesiana. Acropyga (Malacomyrma) rhodesiana
hirsutus. Adelomyrmex (Arctomyrmex) hirsutus M a n n , ambiguus. Aenictus ambiguus Shuckard, 1840b: 2 6 8
Santschi, 1928f: 211 (w.) ZIMBABWE. J u n i o r syn­
1 9 2 1 : 4 5 8 , fig. 21 (w.). FIJI IS. (m.) INDIA. See also: Wilson, 1964a: 444.
o n y m of arnoldi: Prins, 1982: 238.
myops. Apsychomyrmex myops Wheeler, W.M. 1910a: anceps. Aenictus bottegoi subsp. anceps Forel, 1910c: 249
robae. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) robae Donisthorpe,
2 6 1 , fig. 2 (w.) GUATEMALA. Wheeler, G.C. & (m.) ETHIOPIA. Raised to species: Santschi, 1920d:
1936b: 108, figs. 1-3 (w.q.m.) COLOMBIA.
Wheeler, J. 1955b: 29 (1.). Combination in 374.
rubens. Acropyga acutiventris subsp. rubens Forel, 191 l e :
Adelomyrmex: Kempf, 1972a: 18. #andrieui. Aenictusfurculatus st. andrieui Santschi,
286 (w) n o locality stated. [This n a m e most proba­
samoanus. Adelomyrmex (Arctomyrmex) samoanus Wil­ 1930a: 56, figs. 1 5 - 1 7 (m.) SUDAN.
bly in error for rubescens.) J u n i o r s y n o n y m of
son & Taylor, 1967: 77, fig. 62 (w.) SAMOA. annae. Aenictus annae Forel, 1911b: 194 (m.) JAVA.
rubescens: Emery, 1925b: 2 8 .
silvestrii. Apsychomyrmex silvestrii Menozzi, 1931b: aratus. Aenictus aratusTorek 1900b: 74 (w.) AUS­
#rubescens. Acropyga acutiventris var. rubescens Forel,
270, fig.6 (w.) COSTA RICA. Combination in TRALIA. Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1984: 265 (1.).
1894c: 4 1 8 (w.q.m.) INDIA. Senior s y n o n y m of
Adelomyrmex: Kempf, 1972a: 18. Senior s y n o n y m of aitkenii, asiatica, levior and
rubens:Emery, 1925b: 2 8 .
tristani. Apsychomyrmex tristaniMenozzi, 1931b: 269, nesiotis, a n d material of t h e unavailable n a m e
rutgersi. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) rutgersiBunzli, 1935:
fig. 6 (w.) COSTA RICA. Combination in fraterculus referred h e r e : Wilson, 1964a: 4 4 6 .
464, figs. 8 - 1 1 , 12, 14-16, 18, 20, 2 4 (w.q.m.) SURI­
Adelomyrmex: Kempf, 1972a: 18. artipus. Aenictus artipus Wilson, 1964a: 4 4 9 , fig. 60
NAM.
(w.) THAILAND.
sauteri. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) sauteri Eore\, 1912a: 72 ADETOMYRMA (Madagascar) arya. Aenictus arya Forel, 1901a: 472 (m.) INDIA.
(w.) TAIWAN. Wheeler, W.M. 1928c: 31 (q.); venatrix. Adetomyrma venatrix Ward, 1994: 161, figs. 1 - asantei. Aenictus asantei Campione, Novak & Gotwald,
Santschi, 1928b: 36 (q.m.). 7, 12, 13, 18, 24, 30, 36, 4 1 (w.) MADAGASCAR. 1983: 873, 7 figs, (w.q.) GHANA.
silvestrii. Acropyga silvestrii Emery, 1915g: 2 1 , fig. 11
ADFORMICA: see u n d e r FORMICA. asiatica. Aenictus aratus var. asiatica Forel, 191 l h : 4 5 3
(w.) ETHIOPIA. Combination in Acropyga
(w.) SRI LANKA. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of aratus: Wilson,
(Malacomyrma): Emery, 1922d: 109. ADLERZIA (Australia) 1964a: 4 4 6 .
silvestrii. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) silvestriiWheeler, froggatti. Monomorium (Adlerzia) froggatti Forel, 1902h: ttashaverus. Aenictus gibbosus r. ashaverus Forel, 1913k:
W.M. 1927h: 100, fig. 7 (w.) VIETNAM. [Junior pri­ 4 4 5 (w) AUSTRALIA. Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 22 (m.) SUMATRA.
m a r y h o m o n y m of silvestrii Emery, above.] Replace­ 1977: 583 (1.). Combination in Adlerzia: B r o w n , asperivalvus. Aenictus asperivalvus Santschi, 1919b:
m e n t n a m e : indosinensis Wheeler, W.M. 1935c: 72. 1952j: 176. Senior s y n o n y m of katerinae a n d 2 3 3 (m.) IVORY COAST.
smithii. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) smithii Forel, 1893g: silvestrii: B r o w n , 1952a: 110. #atripennis. Aenictus clavatus r. atripennis Forel, 1913k:
349 (q.) ANTILLES IS. katerinae. Stenothorax katerinae McAreavey, 1949: 3, 2 4 (m.) SUMATRA.
termitobia. Acropyga (Atopodon) termitobia Forel, figs. 7 - 1 6 (s.w.) AUSTRALIA. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of bakeri. Aenictus bakeriMenozzi, 1925c: 4 3 9 , fig. 1 (m.)
1912m: 773 (q.) WEST MALAYSIA. [Also described froggatti: Brown, 1952a: 110. PHILIPPINES.
as n e w by Forel, 1913k: 101.] silvestrii. Machomyrma silvestrii Emery, 1914b: 182, fig. bated. AenictusbatesiForel, 1911e: 255 (w.) NIGERIA.
#tridentata. Rhizomyrma goeldii var. tridentata Forel, 2 (s.) AUSTRALIA. Viehmeyer, 1924b: 311 (w.). J u n i o r s y n o n y m of decolor: Gotwald & Leroux,
19121: 61 (q.m.) PANAMA. C o m b i n a t i o n i n Junior s y n o n y m of froggatti: B r o w n , 1952a: 110. 1980:600.
Acropyga (Rhizomyrma): Emery, 1925b: 29.
trinitatis. Acropyga (Rhizomyrma) trinitatis Weber,
1944: 117, figs. 7, 8, 17-19 (w.q.) TRINIDAD.

58 Species-Group Taxa
bayoni. Aenictus bayoni Menozzi, 1933a: 94, fig. 1 (m.) cornutus. Aenictus comutus Forel, 1900b: 75 (w.) BOR­ fuscipennis. Aenictus fuscipennis Forel, 1913k: 24 (m.)
UGANDA. NEO. See also: Wilson, 1964a: 4 5 7 . SUMATRA.
bengalensis. Typhlatta bengalensis Mayr, 1879: 669 (w.) crucifer.AenictuscruciferSantschi, 1 9 1 4 b : 6 8 , f i g 5 (m.) fuscovarius. Aenictus fuscovarius Gerstacker, 1 8 5 9 : 2 6 2
INDIA. Combination in Aenictus: Dalla Torre, 1893: KENYA. Current subspecies: n o m i n a l plus (m.) MOZAMBIQUE. [Also described as n e w by
7. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of pachycerus: Bingham, 1 9 0 3 : 2 0 . tuberculatus. Gerstacker, 1862: 501.] C u r r e n t subspecies: n o m i ­
bidentatus. Aenictus bidentatus Donisthorpe, 1942e: 701 currax. Aenictus currax Emery, 1900c: 310, pi. 8, fig. 1 nal plus laetior, magrettii, Sagittarius.
(w.) GHANA. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of decolor: Gotwald 8- (w.) NEW GUINEA. See also: Wilson, 1964a: 4 5 9 . gatesi. Aenictus binghami var. gatesi Wheeler, W.M.
Leroux, 1980: 600. decolor. Typhlatta decolor Mayr, 1879: 668 (diagnosis in 1927b: 42 (w.) BURMA. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of
binghami. Aenictus binghaniri Forel, 1900b: 76 (w.) key) (w.) EAST AFRICA. Gotwald & Leroux, 1980: binghami: Wilson, 1964a: 4 5 0 .
BURMA. Aenictus binghami: Forel, 1901e: 382, 602 (q.). Combination in Aenictus: Dalla Torre, 1893: gibbosus. Aenictusgibbosus Dalla Torre, 1893: 7 (m.)
justified e m e n d a t i o n of spelling. Senior s y n o n y m of 7. Senior s y n o n y m of batesi a n d bidentatus: Gotwald SUMATRA. Current subspecies: n o m i n a l plus
gatesi: Wilson, 1964a: 4 5 0 . & Leroux, 1980: 600. ashaverus.
biroi. Aenictus biroi Forel, 1907a: 10 (w.) SRI LANKA. dentatus. Aenictusaitkenivar. dentata Forel, 191 Id: 383 gleadowii. AenictusgleadowiiForel, 1901a: 4 6 9 (m.)
See also: Wilson, 1964a: 4 5 1 . (w.) WEST MALAYSIA. Raised to species: Wilson, INDIA.
boelianensis. Aenictus martini var. boelianensis Forel, 1964a: 4 6 0 . gracilis. Aenictus gracilis Emery, 1893e: 187, pi. 8, fig. 1
1913k: 20 (w.) SUMATRA. J u n i o r s y n o n y m oigraci- deuqueti. Aenictus deuqueti Crawley, 1923b: 177 (w.) (w.) BORNEO. Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1990a:
& : Wilson, 1964a: 4 6 3 . AUSTRALIA. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of turneri: B r o w n , 460 (1.). Senior s y n o n y m of boelianensis, elongatus
bottegoi. Aenictus bottegoi Emery, 1899a: 4 9 9 (m.) ETHI­ 1952b: 1 2 3 . a n d martini: Wilson, 1964a: 4 6 3 .
OPIA. Current subspecies: n o m i n a l plus noctivagus. dlusskyi. Aenictus dlusskyi Arnol'di, 1968: 1800, fig. 1 grandis. Aenictusgrandis Bingham, 1903: 11, fig. 9
brazzai. Aenictuseugeniivzr. brazzai Santschi, 1910c: (w.q.) ARMENIA. (m.) BURMA.
355 (w.) CONGO. Raised to species: Santschi, doryloides. Aenictus doryloides Wilson, 1964a: 460, figs. greeni. Aenictusgreeni Bingham, 1903: 11 (m.) SRI
1924b: 2 0 4 . 54, 55 (w.) INDIA. LANKA. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of porizonoides:
breviceps. Aenictus fergusoni var. breviceps Forel, 1912d: elongatus. Eciton (Aenictus) fergusoni subsp. elongatus Donisthorpe, 1932b: 576.
105 (w.) JAVA. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of laeviceps: Wilson, Karavaiev, 1926d: 4 2 4 , fig. 3 (w.) SRI LANKA. #guineensis. Aenictus rotundatus st. guineensis Santschi,
1964a: 4 6 7 . J u n i o r s y n o n y m of gracilis: Wilson, 1964a: 4 6 3 . 1924b: 204, fig. 7 (w.) GUINEA.
brevicornis. Typhlatta brevicornis Mayr, 1 8 7 9 : 6 6 9 (w.) eugenii. Aenictus eugenii Emery, 1895h: 17, pi. 2, figs. hamifer. Aenictus hamifer Emery, 1896i: 153, fig. (m.)
INDIA. Imaiettf., 1 9 8 4 : 8 (k.). {Typhlatta brevicornis 1-4 (w.) SOUTH AFRICA. Gotwald & C u n n i n g h a m - KENYA. Current subspecies: n o m i n a l plus spinosior.
Smith, F. 1873: ix. Nomen nudum, attributed to Van Someren, 1 9 7 6 : 1 8 3 (q.). Senior s y n o n y m of fthenrii. Aenictus eugenii var. henrii Santschi, 1924b: 204
Mayr.) Combination in Aenictus: Dalla Torre, 1893: kenyensis: Gotwald & C u n n i n g h a m - V a n Someren, (w.) ZAIRE.
7. See also: Wilson, 1964a: 4 5 1 . 1976: 183. C u r r e n t subspecies: n o m i n a l plus caroli, hilli. Aenictus hilli Clark, 1928a: 38, pi. 1, figs. 3 2 - 3 6
#brunneus. Aenictus soudanicus var. brunnea Forel, henrii. (m.) AUSTRALIA.
1913b: 313 (m.) ZAIRE. exiguus. Aenictus exiguus Clark, 1934b: 2 1 , pi. 2, fig. 1 hodgsoni. Aenictus fergusoni var. hodgsoni Forel, 1901a:
buttelreepeni. Aenictus buttelreepeni Forel, 1913k: 20, (w.) AUSTRALIA. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of ceylonicus: Wil­ 4 7 4 (w.) BURMA. J u n i o r s y n o n y m oi fergusoni: Wil­
fig. F (m.) SUMATRA. son, 1964a: 4 5 2 . son, 1964a: 4 6 2 .
buttgenbachi. Aenictus buttgenbachi Forel, 1913b: 313 exilis. Aenictus exilis Wilson, 1964a: 462, fig. 33 (w.) hottai. AenictushottaiTerayama & Yamane, 1989: 598,
(m.) ZAIRE. NEW GUINEA. figs. 1, 2 (w.) SUMATRA.
camposi. Aenictus camposi Wheeler, W.M. & C h a p m a n , #facetus. Aenictus clavitibia subsp. facetus Forel, 191 l b : humeralis. Aenictus humeralis Santschi, 1910g: 752, fig.
1925: 4 8 , pi. 1, figs. 3, 4 (w.) PHILIPPINES. See also: 196 (m.) JAVA. 9 (m.) SUDAN. Current subspecies: n o m i n a l plus
Wilson, 1964a: 452. ttfalcifer. Aenictus alluaudi var. falcifer Santschi, 1924b: chevalieri, viridans.
#caroli. Aenictus eugenii subsp. caroli Forel, 1910c: 2 4 8 2 0 3 , fig. 6 (m.) ZAIRE. huonicus. Aenictus huonicus Wilson, 1964a: 4 6 5 , figs.
(w.) ETHIOPIA. feae. Aenictus feae Emery, 1889b: 486, pi. 10, figs. 4 - 9 24, 25 (w.) NEW GUINEA.
certus. Aenictus certus Westwood, 1842: 79 (m.) n o (m.) BURMA. icarus. Aenictus icarus Forel, 1911b: 197 (m.) JAVA.
locality stated ( m a y b e India, see Bingham, 1903: fergusoni. Aenictus fergusoni Forel, 1901a: 4 7 3 (w.) Current subspecies: n o m i n a l plus incautus.
10). INDIA. Senior s y n o n y m of hodgsoni, karawaiewi, idoneus. Aenictus idoneus Menozzi, 1928b: 1, figs. 1, 2
ceylonicus. Typhlatta ceylonica Mayr, 1866a: 505 (w.) montanus a n d piltzi: Wilson, 1964a: 462. (m.) SUMATRA.
SRI LANKA. Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1984: 265 foreli. Aenictus foreli Santschi, 1919b: 2 3 4 (m.) IVORY Uimpressus. Aenictus bengalensis r. impressus Forel, in
(1.). Combination in Aenictus: Dalla Torre, 1893: 7. COAST. [Also described as n e w by Santschi, 1920d: Karavaiev, 1927e: 7 (w.) n o locality given (probably
Senior s y n o n y m oiformosensis, latro, orientalis, 369.] India). Subspecies of pachycerus: Karavaiev, 1927e: 6.
papuanus, similis a n d turneri (and its j u n i o r syn­ formosensis. Aenictus ceylonicus var. formosensis Forel, Hncautus. Aenictus icarus var. incauta Forel, 191 l b : 198
o n y m s deuqueti a n d exiguus): Wilson, 1964a: 4 5 2 . 1913f: 188 (w.) TAIWAN. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of ceyloni- (m.) JAVA.
chapmani. Aenictus chapmani Wilson, 1964a: 456, figs. o«: Wilson, 1964a: 4 5 2 . inconspicuus. Aenictus inconspicuus Westwood, 1843:
45, 46 (w.) NEW GUINEA. fraterculus. Aenictus (Aenictus) aratus subsp. nesiotis var. 85 (m.) SOUTH AFRICA. [Also described as n e w by
#chevalieri. Aenictus humeralis var. chevalieri Santschi, fraterculus Wheeler, W.M. & C h a p m a n , in Wheeler, Westwood, 1847a: 238.]
1910g: 7 5 4 (m.) SENEGAL. W M . 1930g: 209 (w.) PHILIPPINES. Unavailable jacobsoni. Aenictus jacobsoni Forel, I909d: 222 (m.)
clavatus. Aenictus clavatus Forel, 1901a: 4 7 1 (m.) n a m e ; material referred to aratus by Wilson, 1964a: JAVA.
INDIA. Current subspecies: n o m i n a l plus atripennis, 446. javanus. Aenictusjavanus Emery, 1896f: 245, fig. (m.)
kanariensis, sundaicus. #fumatus. Aenictus latiscapus var. fumatus Wheeler, W.M. (attributed to Ritsema) JAVA. Forel, 1909d: 222
clavitibia. Aenictus clavitibia Forel, 1901a: 4 7 2 (m.) 1927d: 1 (m.) CHINA. (w.). See also: Wilson, 1964a: 467.
INDIA. Current subspecies: n o m i n a l plus facetus. furculatus. Aenictus forculatus Santschi, 1919b: 2 3 3 #kanariensis. Aenictus clavatus var. kanariensis Forel,
congolensis. Aenictus rixator var. congolensis Santschi, (m.) SENEGAL. Aenictus furculatus: Santschi, 1919h: 1901a: 4 6 7 (diagnosis in key) (m.) INDIA.
191 Ig: 207 (w.) CONGO. Santschi, 1917a: 277 (q.). 91, justified e m e n d a t i o n of spelling. [Also described karawaiewi. Aenictus fergusoni var. karawaiewi Wheeler,
Raised to species: Santschi, 1917a: 277. as n e w by Santschi, 1920d: 372. Current subspecies: W M . & C h a p m a n , in Wheeler, W.M. 1930g: 199
continuus. Aenictus bengalensis var. continuus Forel, n o m i n a l plus andrieui. (diagnosis in key) (w.) n o locality given. J u n i o r syn­
1901a: 476 (w.) SRI LANKA. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of furibundus. Aenictus furibundus Arnold, 1959: 335, fig. o n y m of fergusoni: Wilson, 1964a: 462.
pachycerus: Wilson, 1964a: 4 7 1 . 20 (w.) ZIMBABWE.

Species-Group Taxa 59
AENICTUS (continued) mutatus. Aenictus moebii st. mutatus Santschi, 1913c: reyesi. Aenictus (Aenictus) reyesi Chapman, 1963: 250,
304, fig. 2 (m.) IVORY COAST. Raised to species: fig. 3 (w.) PHILIPPINES. See also: Wilson, 1964a:
kenyensis. Aenictus eugeniae var. kenyensis Santschi, Santschi, 1920d: 370. Current subspecies: nominal 477.
1933b: 100 (w.) KENYA. Junior synonym of eugenii: plus pudicus. rhodiensis. Aenictus rhodiensis Menozzi, 1936d: 266,
Gotwald & Cunningham-Van Someren, 1 9 7 6 : 1 8 3 . ^natalensis. Aenictus mariae var. natalensis Forel, in fig. 1,1-1 (w.) GREECE.
#laetior. Aenictus fuscovarius var. laetior Forel, 1910c: 249 Emery, 190Id: 4 9 (w.) SOUTH AFRICA. fixator. Aenictus rixator Forel, in Emery, 1901d: 4 8 (w.)
(m.) ETHIOPIA. nesiotis. Aenictus (Aenictus) aratus subsp. nesiotis SOUTH AFRICA.
laeviceps. Typhlatta laeviceps Smith, F. 1857a: 79 (w.) Wheeler, W.M. & Chapman, in Wheeler, W.M. rotundatus. Aenictus rotundatus Mayr, 1901b: 1 (w.)
BORNEO. Wheeler, W.M. 1930g: 2 0 0 (q.); Wheeler, 1930g: 2 0 8 , fig. 7 (w.) PHILIPPINES. Junior syn­ SOUTH AFRICA. Current subspecies: nominal plus
G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1984:265 (1.). Combinationin o n y m of aratus: Wilson, 1964a: 4 4 6 . guineensis, merwei.
Aenictus: Forel, 1890b: ciii. Senior synonym of nganduensis. Aenictus nganduensis Wilson, 1964a: 4 7 0 , rougieri. Aenictus rougieri Andre, 1893a: cxci (m.)
breviceps, smythiesii and sundaica:Wilson, 1964a: 4 6 7 . figs. 47, 4 8 (w.) NEW GUINEA. TUNISIA.
latifemoratus. Aenictus latifemoratus Terayama & Yam- #noctivagus. Aenictus bottegoi st. noctivagus Santschi, sagei. Aenictus wroughtonii var. sageiForel, 1901a: 4 6 9
ane, 1989: 600, figs. 3 - 6 (w.) SUMATRA. 1913c: 303, fig. 1 (m.) ETHIOPIA. (w.) INDIA. Raised to species: Wilson, 1964a: 4 7 7 .
latiscapus. Aenictus latiscapus Forel, 1901a: 471 (m.) obscurus. Aenictus obscurus Smith, F. 1865: 79 (m.) #sagittarius. Aenictus fuscovarius st. Sagittarius Santschi,
INDIA. Current subspecies: nominal plus fumatus, NEW GUINEA. 1938a: 30,fig.2 (m.) EGYPT.
sauteri. orientalis. Eciton (Aenictus) ceylonicus subsp. orientalis #sankisianus. Aenictus moebii r. sankisianus Forel,
latro. Aenictus ceylonicus var. latro Forel, 1901a: 4 7 7 (w.) Karavaiev, 1926d: 4 2 3 , fig. 2 (w.) INDONESIA (Aru 1913b: 312 (m.) ZAIRE.
INDIA. Junior synonym of ceylonicus: Wilson, I.). Junior synonym of ceylonicus: Wilson, 1964a: satoi. Aenictus latiscapus st. sauteri var. satoi Santschi,
1964a: 4 5 2 . 452. 1937h: 367 (m.) TAIWAN. Unavailable name.
leliepvrei. Aenictus leliepvrei Bernard, 1953a: 134, fig. 1 pachycerus. Eciton pachycerus Smith, F. 1858b: 153 (w.) #sauteri. Aenictus latiscapus r. sauteriForel, 1913f: 188
(m.) ALGERIA. "South America ?" (in error; type-locality INDIA, (m.) TAIWAN.
levior. Eciton (Aenictus) impressus var. levior Karavaiev, see Bingham, 1903: 21). Combination in Aenictus: schneirlai. Aenictus schneirlaiWilson, 1964a: 4 7 9 , figs.
1926d: 4 2 5 (w.) INDONESIA (Buru I.). Junior syn­ Dalla Torre, 1893: 8. Senior synonym of bengalensis: 49, 50 (w.) NEW GUINEA.
o n y m of aratus: Wilson, 1964a: 4 4 6 . Bingham, 1 9 0 3 : 2 0 ; of continuus: Wilson, 1964a: #scutellaris. Aenictus punctiventris var. scutellaris Forel,
tifuiae. Aenictus lifuiae Terayama, 1984: 13, figs. 1-13 4 7 1 . Current subspecies: nominal plus impressus. 1912n: 53 (m.) SUMATRA.
(w.m.) TAIWAN. papuanus. Aenictus papuanus Donisthorpe, 1941c: 129 shuckardi. Aenictus shuckardi Forel, 1901a: 471 (m.)
longi. Aenictus longiForel, 1901a: 4 7 0 (m.) INDIA. Cur­ (w.) NEW GUINEA. Junior synonym of ceylonicus: INDIA.
rent subspecies: nominal plus taivanae. Wilson, 1964a: 4 5 2 . silvestrii. Aenictus (Paraenictus) silvestrii Wheeler, W.M.
luteus. Aenictus luteus Emery, 1892d: 568, pi. 15, figs. peguensis. Aenictuspeguensis Emery, 1895k: 4 5 2 (w.) 1929g: 28, fig. 1 (w.) WEST MALAYSIA. See also:
11, 12 (m.) SIERRA LEONE. Current subspecies: BURMA. Subspecies of ceylonicus: Forel, 1901a: 4 7 7 . Wilson, 1964a: 4 7 9 .
nominal plus moestus. Revived status as species: Bingham, 1903: 2 2 . See similis. Aenictus similis Donisthorpe, 1948g: 131 (w.)
luzoni. Aenictus luzoni Wheeler, W.M. & Chapman, also: Wilson, 1964a: 4 7 2 . NEW GUINEA. Junior synonym of ceylonicus: Wil­
1925:48, pi. 1, figs. 1, 2 (w.) PHILIPPINES. See also: pharoa. Aenictus pharao Santschi, 1924b: 2 0 1 , fig. 4 son, 1964a: 4 5 2 .
Wilson, 1964a: 4 7 0 . (m.) SUDAN. smythiesii. Aenictus laeviceps var. smythiesii Forel, 1901a:
#magrettii. Aenictus magrettiiEmery, 1892d: 569, pi. 15, philiporum. Aenictus philiporum Wilson, 1964a: 4 7 3 , 465 (diagnosis in key) (w.) INDIA. Junior synonym
figs. 13, 14 (m.) SUDAN. Subspecies of fuscovarius: fig. 74 (w.) AUSTRALIA. of laeviceps: Wilson, 1964a: 4 6 7 .
Emery, 1895j:747. phitippinensis. Aenictus (Aenictus) philippinensis Chap­ soudanicus. Aenictus soudanicus Santschi, 1910g: 758,
mariae. Aenictus mariae Emery, 1895h: 18, pi. 2, figs. 5 - man, 1963: 247, fig. 1 (w.) PHILIPPINES. See also: fig. 12 (m.) SUDAN. Current subspedes: nominal
7 (w.) SOUTH AFRICA. Current subspecies: nomi­ Wilson, 1964a: 4 7 3 . plus brunneus.
nal plus natalensis. piercei. Aenictus (Aenictus) piercei Wheeler, W.M. & spathifer. Aenictus spathifer Santschi, 1928h: 119, fig. 1
maroccanus. Aenictus maroccanus Santschi, 1926e: 2 3 2 Chapman, in Wheeler, W.M. 1930g: 209, fig. 7 (w.) (m.) SUMATRA.
(w.) MOROCCO. PHILIPPINES. See also: Wilson, 1964a: 4 7 4 . ttspinosior. Aenictus hamifer r. spinosior Stitz, 1 9 1 7 : 3 3 5 ,
martini. Aenictus martini Forel, 1901a: 4 7 3 (w.) WEST piltzi. Aenictus fergusoni var. piltziForel, 1901a: 4 7 4 (w.) fig. 1 (m.) ALGERIA.
MALAYSIA. Wheeler, W.M. 1930g: 203 (q.); Chap­ INDIA. Junior synonym oi fergusoni: Wilson, 1964a: steindachneri. Aenictus steindachneri Mayr, 1901b: 2
man, 1963: 251 (m.); Wheeler, G.C. 1943: 326 (1.). 462. (w.) SOUTH AFRICA.
Junior synonym of gracilis: Wilson, 1964a: 4 6 3 . porizonoides. Aenictus porizonoides Walker, 1860: 306 sumatrensis. Aenictus sumatrensis Forel, 1913k: 23 (m.)
mauritanicus. Aenictus mauritanicus Santschi, 1910g: (m.) SRI LANKA. Senior synonym of greeni: SUMATRA. Current subspedes: nominal plus max-
756, fig. 11 (m.) "Cote atlantique du Sahara". Donisthorpe, 1932b: 576. illosus.
#maxillosus. Aenictus sumatrensis var. maxillosa Forel, powersi. Aenictus (Aenictus) powersi Wheeler, W.M. & #sundaicus. Aenictus clavatus subsp. sundaicus Forel,
1913k: 2 4 (m.) SUMATRA. Chapman, in Wheeler, W.M. 1930g: 210, fig. 6 (w.) 1909d: 223 (m.) JAVA.
mentu. Aenictus mentu Weber, 1942a: 40, fig. 2 (w.) PHILIPPINES. See also: Wilson, 1964a: 4 7 5 . sundaica. Eciton (Aenictus) fergusoni var. sundaica
SUDAN. pubescens. Aenictus pubescens Smith, F. 1859b: 10, pi. 2, Karavaiev, 1927e: 7 (w.) JAVA. [Unresolved junior
#merwei. Aenictus rotundatus var. merwei Santschi, fig. 17 (m.) INDIA. secondary h o m o n y m of sundaicus Forel, above.]
1932a: 382 (w.) SOUTH AFRICA. tipudicus. Aenictus mutatus st. pudicus Santschi, 1919b: Junior synonym of laeviceps: Wilson, 1964a: 467.
minutulus. Aenictus minutulus Terayama & Yamane, 2 3 4 (m.) IVORY COAST. #taivanae. Aenictus longi r. taivanae Forel, 1913f: 189
1989: 601, figs. 7 - 1 0 (w.) SUMATRA. punctiventris. Aenictus punctiventris Emery, 190 Id: 4 7 (m.) TAIWAN.
mocsaryi. Aenictus mocsaryi Emery, 1901h: 152, fig. (m.) BORNEO. Current subspecies: nominal plus togoensis. Aenictus togoensis Santschi, 1915c: 2 4 8 (m.)
(m.) NEW GUINEA. scutellaris. TOGO.
moebii. Aenictus moebiiEmery, 1895J: 747, fig. NN (m.) punensis. Aenictus punensis Forel, 1901a: 4 7 6 (w.) tricarinata. Typhlatta tricarinata Smith, F. 1873: ix.
TOGO. Current subspecies: nominal plus sankisianus. INDIA. See also: Wilson, 1964a: 4 7 6 . Nomen nudum, attributed to Mayr.
#moestus. Aenictus luteus var. moestus Santschi, 1930a: rabori. Aenictus (Aenictus) rabori Chapman, 1 9 6 3 : 2 4 9 , trigonus. Aenictus trigonus Forel, 1911b: 195 (m.) JAVA.
56, figs. 18, 19 (m.) SUDAN. fig. 2 (w.) PHILIPPINES. See also: Wilson, 1964a: tttuberculatus. Aenictus tuberculatus Arnold, 1 9 1 5 : 1 4 2
montanus. Aenictus fergusoni var. montanus Forel, 1901a: 476. (m.) ZIMBABWE. Subspedes of crucifer: Santschi,
4 7 4 (w.) INDIA. Junior synonym of fergusoni:^ Wil­ raptor. Aenictus raptorForel, 1913b: 314 (m.) ZAIRE. 1924b: 2 0 4 .
son, 1964a: 4 6 2 .

60 Spedes-Group Taxa
turneri. Aenictus turneri Forel, 1900b: 75 (w.) AUS­ Raised t o species: DIussky, 1969a: 2 2 0 . See also: armigera. Amblyopone armigera Mayr, 1887: 547 (w.)
TRALIA. Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1964c: 131 Agosti, 1994a: 99. BRAZIL. Combination in Stigmatomma: Dalla Torre,
(1.). Senior s y n o n y m of deuqueti: B r o w n , 1952b: obscurior. Alloformica obscurior DIussky, in DIussky, 1 8 9 3 : 1 4 ; in Stigmatomma (Fulakora): M a n n , 1919:
123; of exiguus: B r o w n , 1958a: 5. J u n i o r s y n o n y m S o y u n o v & Zabelin, 1 9 9 0 : 1 4 5 , fig. 15 (w.) 279; in Amblyopone: Borgmeier, 1 9 5 7 : 1 0 9 .
of ceylonicus: Wilson, 1964a: 4 5 2 . TURKMENISTAN. australis. Amblyopone australis Erichson, 1 8 4 2 : 2 6 1 , pi.
unicolor. Aenictus unicolor Radoszkovsky, 1 8 8 1 : 1 9 8 . 5, fig. 7 (w.) AUSTRALIA. Smith, F. 1858b: 109
ALLOMERUS (Neotropical)
Nomen nudum, attributed to Smith, F. (q.m.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1952a: 116 (1.);
angulatus. Allomerus decemarticulatus subsp.
vagans. Aenictus vagans Santschi, 1924b: 200, fig. 3 Imai, Crozier & Taylor, 1977: 347 (k.). Senior syn­
octoarticulatus var. angulatus Wheeler, W.M. & M a n n ,
(m.) NIGER. o n y m of laevidens a n d nana: Wilson, 1958a: 142; of
i n Wheeler, W.M. 1 9 4 2 : 2 0 1 (w.) BOLIVIA. Unavail­
vaucheri. Aenictus vaucheri Emery, 1915a: 252, pi. 4, cephalotes (and its j u n i o r s y n o n y m maculata):
able n a m e . [Allomerus octoarticulatus var. angulatus:
figs. 1,2 (q.) MOROCCO. Santschi, 1936c: 198 (w.). B r o w n , 1958h: 14; of fortis, foveolata, minor a n d
Kempf, 1972a: 19; unavailable name.]
villiersi. Aenictus villiersiBernard, 1953b: 2 2 1 , fig. 7 obscura, a n d material of the unavailable n a m e s
decemarticulatus. Allomerus decemarticulatus Mayr,
(w.) GUINEA. howensis, norfolkensis, pallens a n d queenslandica
1878: 8 7 4 (w.) BRAZIL. Kempf, 1975c: 347 (q.).
#viridans. Aenictus humeralis var. viridans Santschi, referred here: Brown, 1960a: 167 (these previously
Current subspecies: n o m i n a l plus novemarticulatus,
1915c: 2 4 8 (m.) BENIN. provisional s y n o n y m s in B r o w n , 1958h: 13). See
septemarticulatus.
weissi. Aenictus weissi Santschi, 1910c: 354, fig. 2 (w.) also: Taylor, 1 9 7 9 : 8 3 5 .
Udemerarae. Allomerus octoarticulatus var. demerarae
CONGO. Santschi, 1920b: 9 (q.). barretoi. Stigmatomma (Fulakora) elongata st. barretoi
Wheeler, W.M., i n Wheeler, G.C. 1935: 92, pis. 7, 8
westwoodi. Aenictus ambiguus var. westwoodi Forel, Bruch, 1 9 2 1 : 184, fig. 6 (w.) ARGENTINA. J u n i o r
(1.) GUIANA. [Allomerus octoarticulatus var. demerarae
1901a: 469 (m.) INDIA. Raised to species: Bingham, s y n o n y m of elongata: Borgmeier, 1 9 5 7 : 1 1 0 .
Wheeler, W.M. 1929h: 3 4 3 . Nomen nudum.)
1903: 10. bellii. Amblyopone (Stigmatomma) ie/ZzYForel, 1900c: 55
Wheeler, W.M. 1942: 200 (w.q.m.).
wroughtonii. Aenictus wroughtoniiForel, 1890b: ciii (w.) INDIA. Combination in Stigmatomma: Bingham,
exsanguis. Allomerus decemarticulatus subsp.
(w.m.) INDIA. See also: Wilson, 1964a: 4 8 0 . 1903: i8; inAmblyopone:Brown, 1960a: 193.
octoarticulatus var. exsanguis Wheeler, W.M. & M a n n ,
besucheti. Amblyopone besucheti Baroni Urbani, 1978a:
AEROMYRMA: see u n d e r OLIGOMYRMEX. in Wheeler, W.M. 1 9 4 2 : 2 0 0 (w.q.) BOLIVIA.
4 9 , figs. 15, 16 (w.) SEYCHELLES IS.
Unavailable n a m e . [Allomerus octoarticulatus var.
AETHIOPOPONE: see u n d e r SPHINCTOMYRMEX. bierigi. Stigmatomma (Fulakora) bierigi Santschi, 1930c:
exsanguis: Kempf, 1972a: 19; unavailable n a m e . ]
75 (w.) CUBA. Combination in Amblyopone: Brown,
AFROXYIDRIS (west Africa) melanoticus. Allomerus decemarticulatus subsp.
1960a: 167.
crigensis. Afroxyidris crigensis Belshaw & Bolton, 1994: octoarticulatus var. melanoticus Wheeler, W.M. &
M a n n , in Wheeler, W.M. 1942: 202 (w.q.m.) binodosus. Arotropus binodosus Provancher, 1881 a: 206,
632, figs. 1-3 (w.) GHANA.
BOLIVIA. Unavailable n a m e . [Allomerus figs. 32, 33 (q.) CANADA. Provancher, 1 8 8 7 : 2 4 0
AGRAULOMYRMEX ( s o u t h e r n Africa) octoarticulatus var. melanoticus:Kempf, 1972a: 19; (w.). Combination in Amblyopone: Provancher,
meridionalis. Agraulomyrmex meridionalis Prins, 1983: unavailable n a m e . ] 1887: 240; in Stigmatomma: Dalla Torre, 1 8 9 3 : 1 4 .
2, fig. 1 (w.) SOUTH AFRICA. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of pallipes: Emery, 1895c: 2 6 1 .
^novemarticulatus. Allomerus decemarticulatus subsp.
wilsoni. AgraulomyrmexwilsoniPrins, 1983: 5, fig. 2 bruni. Stigmatomma bruni Forel, 1912a: 45 (w.) TAI­
novemarticulatus Wheeler, W.M. & M a n n , in
(w.q.) ZIMBABWE. WAN. Forel, 1913f: 183 (m.). C o m b i n a t i o n i n
Wheeler, W.M. 1942: 199 (w.) BOLIVIA.
Amblyopone, a n d senior s y n o n y m oijuergi: B r o w n ,
*AGROECOMYRMEX (Baltic Amber) octoarticulatus. Allomerus octoarticulatus Mayr, 1878:
1960a: 168.
*duisburgi. *Myrmica duisburgi Mayr, 1868c: 87, pi. 5, 8 7 4 (w.) BRAZIL. Forel, 1904e: 679 (q.m.);
castaneus Smith, F. 1860; see u n d e r MYOPOPONE.
figs. 87, 88 (w.) BALTIC AMBER (Oligocene). Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1955c: 125 (J.). Subspe­
celata. Stigmatomma (Fulakora) celata M a n n , 1 9 1 9 : 2 7 9 ,
Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 58 ( q ) . Combination in cies of decemarticulatus: Wheeler, W.M. 1 9 4 2 : 1 9 9 .
fig. 2 (w.) SOLOMON IS. C o m b i n a t i o n i n
*Agroecomyrmex: Wheeler, W.M. 1915h: 57. Revived status as species: Kempf, 1972a: 19. Cur­
Amblyopone: Wilson, 1958a: 143. See also: Taylor,
rent subspecies: n o m i n a l plus demerarae, tuberculatus.
#ALAOPONE: see u n d e r DORYLUS. 1979:830.
^septemarticulatus. Allomerus septemarticulatus Mayr,
cephalotes. Amblyopone cephalotes Smith, F. 1876c: 4 9 0
ALFARIA: see u n d e r GNAMPTOGENYS. 1878: 8 7 4 (w.) BRAZIL. Forel, 1904e: 6 8 0 (q.). Vari­
(w.) NEW ZEALAND. Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J.
ety of octoarticulatus: Forel, 1904e: 680. Subspecies
ALISTRUMA: see u n d e r COLOBOSTRUMA. 1952a: 117 (1.). Subspecies of australis a n d senior
of decemarticulatus: Wheeler, W.M. 1942: 2 0 3 .
s y n o n y m of maculata: Wheeler, W.M. 1927c: 13.
ALLOFORMICA (Palaearctic) #tuberculatus. Allomerus octoarticulatus r. tuberculatus
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of australis: B r o w n , 1958h: 14.
aberrans. Formica aberrans Mayr, 1 8 7 7 : 7 (w.) Forel, 1912g: 2 (w.m.) BRAZIL.
chilensis. Amblyopone chilensis Mayr, 1887: 547 (w.)
TURKESTAN. [Redescribed in Latin: Mayr, 1880: vogeli. Allomerus vogeliKempf, 1975c: 348, figs. 1-4
CHILE. Combination in Stigmatomma: Dalla Torre,
27.] Combination in Formica (Proformica): Ruzsky, (w.m.) BRAZIL.
1 8 9 3 : 1 4 ; in Stigmatomma (Fulakora): M a n n , 1919:
1905b: 4 2 1 ; in Proformica: Kuznetsov-Ugamsky,
ALLOPHEIDOLE: see u n d e r PHEIDOLE. 279; in Amblyopone: B r o w n , 1960a: 183.
1927b: 28; in Proformica (Alloformica): DIussky,
clarki. Amblyopone clarki Wheeler, W.M. 1 9 2 7 c 24, fig.
1969a: 219; in Alloformica: DIussky, S o y u n o v & AMAUROMYRMEX: see u n d e r PHEIDOLOGETON.
7 (w.q.) AUSTRALIA.
Zabelin, 1 9 9 0 : 1 4 3 . See also: Agosti, 1994a: 99.
AMBLYOPONE (World tropics a n d t e m p e r a t e zones) degenerata. Amblyopone degenerate Borgmeier, 1957:
flavicornis. Cataglyphis cursor subsp. flavicornis
aberrans. Amblyopone aberrans Wheeler, W.M. 1927c: 111, figs. 1 8 - 2 0 (w.) BRAZIL.
Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1926a: 72 (w.) UZBEKISTAN.
26, fig. 8 (w.q.m.) AUSTRALIA. denticulata. Stigmatomma denticulatum Roger, 1859:
Combination in Alloformica: Agosti, 1990a: 1495.
amblyops. Stigmatomma amblyops Karavaiev, 1935a: 57, 2 5 1 , pi. 7, fig. 2 (w.) GREECE. Emery, 1875a: 74
J u n i o r s y n o n y m of Cataglyphis rockingeri: Santschi,
fig. 1 (w.) VIETNAM. Combination in Amblyopone: (m.);Emery, 1909c: 357 (q.). C o m b i n a t i o n i n
1929b: 36; of Cataglyphis aenescens: DIussky,
B r o w n , 1960a: 167. Amblyopone: E m e r y & Forel, 1 8 7 9 : 4 5 5 ; in
S o y u n o v & Zabelin, 1990: 149. Revived from s y n o n ­
annae. Amblyopone (Stigmatomma) annae Arnol'di, Stigmatomma: Dalla Torre, 1 8 9 3 : 1 4 ; in Amblyopone:
y m y a n d raised to species: Agosti, 1990a: 1495. See
1968: 1801, fig. 2 (w.) TURKMENIA. See also: B r o w n , 1960a: 168. Senior s y n o n y m of gheorghieffi:
also: Agosti, 1994a: 99.
DIussky & Zabelin, 1 9 8 5 : 2 0 9 . Emery, 1915a: 2 5 5 , Emery, 1916b: 100; of
nitidior. Formica (Proformica) aberrans var. nitidior gracilicornis: B r o w n , 1960a: 168. See also: Baroni
arizonense. Stigmatomma pallipes subsp. arizonense
Forel, 1904b: 383 (w.) TURKESTAN. Combination Urbani, 1978a: 42; Atanassov & DIussky, 1992: 6 1 .
Wheeler, W.M. 1915b: 389 (w.) U.S.A. J u n i o r syn­
in Proformica (Alloformica): DIussky, 1969a: 220; in
o n y m of pallipes: Creighton, 1940b: 3.
Alloformica: DIussky, S o y u n o v & Zabelin, 1990: 144.

Species-Group Taxa 61
AMBLYOPONE (continued) laevidens. Amblyopone laevidens Emery, 1887b: 4 4 7 (w.) Brown, 1960a: 169. See also: Baroni Urbani, 1978a:
NEW GUINEA. Subspecies of australis: Wheeler, 45.
egregia. Ericapelta egregia Kusnezov, 1955: 274, figs. 5 - W.M. 1927c: 12. Junior synonym of australis: Wil­ obscura. Amblyopone obscura Smith, F. 1858b: 109
7 (m.) ARGENTINA. Combination in Amblyopone: son, 1958a: 142. (w.q.) AUSTRALIA. Clark, 1925b: 138 (m.). Variety
Brown, 1960a: 168. leae. Amblyopone leae Wheeler, W.M. 1927c: 16,fig.3 of flHJfra&:Froggatt, 1905: 8; Forel, 1910b: 2. Sub­
elongata. Stigmatomma elongata Santschi, 1912e: 519, (w.) AUSTRALIA. species of australis: Wheeler, W.M. 1927c: 10. Junior
fig. 1 (w.) URUGUAY. Borgmeier, 1957: 110 (q.). longidens. Amblyopone ferruginea var. longidens Forel, synonym of australis: Brown, 1960a: 167.
Combination in Stigmatomma (Fulakora): Santschi, 1910b: 1 (w.) AUSTRALIA. Wheeler, G.C. & ophthalmica. Amblyopone ophthalmica Baroni Urbani,
1922d: 241; in Amblyopone: Borgmeier, 1957: 110. Wheeler, J. 1964b: 446 (1.). Junior synonym of 1978a: 44, figs. 3, 9 (w.) ISRAEL.
Senior synonym of barretoi, minor and paranense: ferruginea: Wheeler, W.M. 1927c: 20. Revived from oregonensis. Stigmatomma pallipes subsp. oregonense
Borgmeier, 1 9 5 7 : 1 1 0 . synonymy and raised to species: Brown, 1952i: 266. Wheeler, W.M. 1915b: 389 (w.q.) U.S.A. Combina­
emeryi. Stigmatomma emeryi Saunders, 1890: 203, fig. See also: Brown, 1960a: 207. tion in Amblyopone, and raised to species: Brown,
(w.) MOROCCO. Emery, 1915a: 2 5 4 (m.). Combina­ lucida. Amblyopone (Fulakora) lucida Clark, 1934b: 27, 1960a: 169. See also: Ward, 1988: 105.
tion in Amblyopone: Brown, 1960a: 168. pi. 2, fig. 8 (w.) AUSTRALIA. orizabana. Amblyopone orizabana Brown, 1960a: 190
exigua. Amblyopone exigua Clark, 1928a: 35, pi. 1, figs. lurilabes. Amblyopone lurilabes Lattke, 1991b: 2, fig. 2 (w.) MEXICO. Senior synonym of tropicalis: Lattke,
2 0 - 2 3 (q.) AUSTRALIA. (w.q.) VENEZUELA. 1991b: 5.
falcata. Amblyoponefalcata Lattke, 1991b: 1, fig. 1 (w.) luzonica. Stigmatomma (Fulakora) luzonicum Wheeler, pollens. Amblyopone australis subsp. obscura var. pallens
PUERTO RICO. W.M. & Chapman, 1925: 56, pi. 1, fig. 18 (q.) PHIL­ Wheeler, W.M. 1927c: 11 (w.) AUSTRALIA.
feae. Stigmatomma feae Emery, 1895k: 4 5 4 (w.) IPPINES. Combination in Amblyopone, and senior Unavailable n a m e (Taylor, 1986: 34); material
BURMA. Combination in Amblyopone: Forel, 1900c: synonym of williamsi: Brown, 1960a: 168. referred to australis by Brown, 1960a: 167.
56. maculata. Amblyopone cephalotes var. maculata Stitz, pallipes. Typhlopone pallipes Haldeman, 1844: 54 (w.)
ferruginea. Amblyopone ferruginea Smith, F. 1858b: 110 1911a: 351 (w.) NEW ZEALAND. Junior synonym U.S.A. Emery, 1895c: 261 (q.m.); Wheeler G.C. &
(w.) AUSTRALIA. Andre, 1896b: 261 (q.). Senior of cephalotes: Wheeler, W.M. 1927c: 13. Wheeler, J. 1 9 5 2 : 1 1 4 (1.). Combination in
synonym of mandibularis .-Brown, 1952i: 265. See mandibularis. Amblyopone mandibularis Clark, 1928a: Amblyopone: Haldeman, 1849a: 201 (footnote); in
also: Brown, 1960a: 206. 33, pi. 1, figs. 12-15 (w.) AUSTRALIA. Junior syn­ Stigmatomma: Roger, 1863b: 20; in Amblyopone:
fortis. Amblyopone australis var. fortis Forel, 1910b: 1 (w.) o n y m of ferruginea: Brown, 1952i: 265. Brown, 1960a: 169. [Stigmatomma pallidipes: Dalla
AUSTRALIA. Wheeler, W.M. 1927c: 9 (q.). Junior mercovichi. Amblyopone mercovichi Brown, 1960a: 2 0 1 , Torre, 1893: 14, unjustified emendation.] Senior
synonym of australis: Brown, 1960a: 167. figs. 29, 32 (w.) AUSTRALIA. synonym of serratum: Mayr, 1886d: 439; of
foveolata. Amblyopone australis subsp. foveolata Wheeler, michaelseni. Amblyopone michaelseni Forel, 1907h: 2 6 3 binodosus: Emery, 1895c: 2 6 1 ; of arizonense and
W.M. 1927c: 9 (w.q.m.) AUSTRALIA. Junior syn­ (w.) AUSTRALIA. Clark, 1928a: 33 (q.). wheeleri: Creighton, 1940b: 3; of montigena: Brown,
onym of australis: Brown, 1960a: 167. minor. Amblyopone minor Forel, 1915b: 1 (w.q.m.) AUS­ 1949c: 84; of subterranea: Brown, 1960a: 169. See
fulvida. Amblyopone fulvida Terayama, 1987: 31, figs. 1 - TRALIA. Junior synonym of australis: Brown, also: Whelden, 1 9 5 8 : 1 ; TranieUo, 1982: 65.
5 (w.) JAPAN. 1960a: 167. papuana. Amblyopone papuana Taylor, 1979: 828, figs.
gaetulica. Amblyoponegaetulica Baroni Urbani, 1978a: minor. Stigmatomma (Fulakora) elongata var. minor 5-8 (w.q.) NEW GUINEA.
47, figs. 6, 12 (w.) MOROCCO. See also: Tinaut, Santschi, 1922d: 241 (w.) ARGENTINA. [Unre­ paranense. Stigmatomma (Fulakora) elongatum var.
1990d: 189. solved junior secondary h o m o n y m of minor Forel, paranense Santschi, 1925b: 6 (w.) BRAZIL. Junior
gheorghieffi. Amblyoponegheorghieffi Forel, 1892i: 309 above.] Junior synonym of elongata: Borgmeier, synonym of elongata: Borgmeier, 1957: 110.
(m.) BULGARIA. Combination in Stigmatomma: 1957:110. pertinax. Amblyoponepertinax Baroni Urbani, 1978a:
Dalla Torre, 1 8 9 3 : 1 4 . Junior synonym of minuta. Stigmatomma minuta Forel, 1913k: 4 (w.) 48, figs. 13, 14 (w.) INDIA.
denticulata:Emery, 1915a: 255. SUMATRA. Combination in Stigmatomma pluto. Amblyopone pluto Gotwald & Levieux, 1972:
gingivalis. AmblyoponegingivalisBrown, 1960a: 205, (Fulakora): Mann, 1919: 279; in Amblyopone: 384, figs. 1-26 (w.q.m.) IVORY COAST.
figs. 30, 31 (w.) AUSTRALIA. Brown, 1960a: 168 (see also p. 196). punctulata. Amblyopone (Fulakora) punctulata Clark,
glauerti. Lithomyrmexglauerti Clark, 1928a: 31, pi. 1, monrosi. Amblyopone monrosiBrown, 1960a: 188, fig. 1934b: 28, pi. 2, figs. 9, 10 (w.q.) AUSTRALIA.
figs. 1-11 (w.q.m.) AUSTRALIA. Combination in 20 (w.) CHILE. quadrata. Stigmatomma quadratum Karavaiev, 1935a:
Amblyopone: Brown, 1960a: 168. montigena. Stigmatomma pallipes subsp. montigena 58 (w.) VIETNAM. Combination in Amblyopone:
gnoma. Amblyoponegnoma Taylor, 1979: 829, figs. 1 3 - Creighton, 1940b: 7 (w.q.) U.S.A. Junior synonym Brown, 1960a: 169.
16 (w.q.) SOLOMON IS. of pallipes: Brown, 1949c: 8 4 . queenslandica. Amblyopone australis subsp. laevidens var.
gracilicomis. Stigmatomma denticulatum var. gracilicornis mutica. Stigmatomma (Xymmer) muticum Santschi, queenslandica Wheeler, W M . 1927c: 12 (w.q.) AUS­
Menozzi, 1936d: 2 6 8 (w.) GREECE. Junior syn­ 1914d: 311, fig. 2 (w.) NIGERIA. Combinationin TRALIA. Unavailable n a m e (Taylor, 1986: 34);
onym of denticulata: Brown, 1960a: 168. Xymmer: Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 758; in Amblyopone: material referred to australis by Brown, 1960a: 167.
gracilis. Amblyopone (Fulakora) gracilis Clark, 1934c: Brown, 1960a: 168. reclinata. Amblyopone reclinata Mayr, 1879: 6 6 7 (w.)
52, pi. 4, figs. 3, 4 (w.q.) AUSTRALIA. mystriops. Amblyopone mystriops Brown, 1960a: 185, JAVA. Stitz, 1 9 2 5 : 1 1 0 (m.); Imai, Brown etal. 1984:
hackeri. Amblyopone hackeriWheeler, W.M. 1927c: 22, fig. 19 (q.) GUATEMALA. Lattke, 1991b: 5 (w.). 67 (k.). Combination in Stigmatomma: Dalla Torre,
fig. 6 (w.) AUSTRALIA. nana. Amblyopone nana Emery, 1914f: 394 (w.q.) NEW 1893:14; in Amblyopone: Brown, 1960a: 169 (see
howensis. Amblyopone australis subsp. cephalotes var. CALEDONIA. Subspecies of australis Wheeler, W.M. also p. 193).
howensis Wheeler, W.M. 1927c: 15 (w.q.m.) AUS­ 1927c: 16. Junior synonym of australis: Wilson, rothneyi. Amblyopone (Stigmatomma) rothneyi Forel,
TRALIA. Unavailable name (Taylor, 1986: 34); 1958a: 142. 1900c: 56 (w.) INDIA. Combination in Stigmatomma:
material referred to australis by Brown, 1960a: 167. noonadan. Amblyopone noonadan Taylor, 1965a: 6, figs. Bingham, 1903: 37; in Amblyopone: Brown, 1960a:
impressifrons. Stigmatomma impressifrons Emery, 3, 4 (w.) NEW BRITAIN. Taylor, 1979: 826 (m.). 169.
1869b: 13, pi. 1, fig. 8 (w.q.) ITALY. Emery, 1915a: norfolkensis. Amblyopone australis subsp. cephalotes var. rubiginoa. Amblyopone rubiginous Wu & Wang, 1992:
2 5 4 (m.). Combination in Amblyopone: Emery & norfolkensis Wheeler, W.M. 1927c: 15 (w.) AUS­ 1303, fig. 4 5 6 7 (w.) CHINA.
Forel, 1 8 7 9 : 4 5 5 . See also: Baroni Urbani, 1978a: TRALIA. Unavailable n a m e (Taylor, 1986: 34); sakaii. Amblyopone sakaiiTerayama, 1989b: 344, figs.
44; Atanassov & DIussky, 1992: 62. material referred to australis by Brown, 1960a: 167. 1, 2 (w.) TAIWAN.
juergi. Stigmatomma brunir.juergiForel, 1 9 2 2 : 8 7 (w.) normandi. Stigmatomma normandi Santschi, 1915a: 54,
TAIWAN. Junior synonym of bruni: Brown, 1960a: fig. 1 (w.) TUNISIA. Combination in Amblyopone:
168.

62 Species-Group Taxa
santschii. Stigmatomma santschii Menozzi, 1922a: 347 ANELEUS: see under OLIGOMYRMEX. synonym of lippulum: Brown, 1953h: 7; of myops:
(w.) SENEGAL. Combination in Amblyopone: Emery, 1921f: 83. Junior synonym of antipodum:
ANERGATES (west Palaearctic, east Nearctic)
Brown, 1960a: 169. Ettershank, 1966: 132.
atratulus. Myrmica atratula Schenck, 1852:91 (q.m.)
saundersi. AmblyoponesaunderstForel, 1892c: 336 (q.) lippulum. Monomorium lippulum Wheeler, W.M. 1927h:
GERMANY. Wheeler, W.M. 1909g: 182 (1.). Combi­
NEW ZEALAND. Clark, 1928a: 36 (w.). Combina­ 89, fig. 3 (w.) AUSTRALIA. Junior synonym of
n a t i o n i n Tetramorium: Mayr, 1855: 429; in
tion in Stigmatomma: Dalla Torre, 1893: 15;in froggatti: Brown, 1953h: 7.
Anergates: Forel, 1874: 68 (see also p. 93). [Also
Stigmatomma (Fulakora): Mann, 1919:279; in myops. Pheidole myops Forel, 1902h: 421 (w.) AUS­
described as n e w by Schenck, 1853:186.] Senior
Amblyopone: Brown, 1958h: 15. See also: Brown, TRALIA. Junior synonym oi froggatti: Emery, 1921f:
synonym of friedlandi: Creighton, 1950a: 2 4 3 . See
1960a: 209. 83.
also: Donisthorpe, 1915d: 89; Boven, 1977: 81;
serratum. Stigmatommaserratum Roger, 1859:251 (w.)
Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1955c: 128; Atanassov ANKYLOMYRMA (west Africa)
U.S.A. Junior synonym of pallipes: Mayr, 1886d:
& DIussky, 1 9 9 2 : 1 6 1 . coronacantha. Ankylomyrma coronacantha Bolton,
439.
friedlandi. Anergates friedlandi Creighton, 1 9 3 4 : 1 9 3 (q.) 1973c: 235, figs. 1-3 (w.) GHANA. See also: Bolton,
silvestrii. Stigmatomma silvestrii Wheeler, W.M. 1928d:
U.S.A. Junior synonym of atratulus: Creighton, 1981b: 247.
97 (w.) JAPAN. Ogata, 1 9 8 7 : 1 0 3 (m.); Terayama,
1950a: 243.
1989b: 345 (q.);Masuko, 1990b: 221 (1.). Combina­ ANOCHETUS (World tropics and subtropics)
tion in Amblyopone: Brown, 1960a: 169 (see also ANERGATIDES: see under PHEIDOLE. abstracta. Anochetus bequaerti st. abstracta Santschi,
p. 197). See also: Masuko, 1993: 35. 1914e: 12 (w.) SOUTH AFRICA. Junior s y n o n y m of
*ANEURETELLUS (Russia)
smithi. Amblyopone smithi Brown, 1960a: 2 1 1 , fig. 40 bequaerti:Brown, 1978c: 556.
*deformis. *Aneuretellus deformis DIussky, 1988: 54, fig.
(w.) AUSTRALIA. africanus. Stenomyrmexafricanus Mayr, 1865:11 (foot­
2 (w.q.) RUSSIA (Palaeocene?).
subterranea. Stigmatomma pallipes subsp. subterranea note) (w.) GHANA. Andre, 1892a: 47 (q.). Combi­
Creighton, 1940b: 8 (w.) U.S.A. Raised to species: ANEURETUS (Sri Lanka) nation in Anochetus: Forel, 1887: 382. Senior
Brown, 1949c: 85. Junior synonym of pallipes: simoni. Aneuretus simoni Emery, 1893a: cclxxvi (w.) synonym of camerunensis: Mayr, 1904b: 2; of
Brown, 1960a: 169. SRI LANKA. Wilson, Eisner et al. 1956: 82 (q.m.l.). pasteuri: Brown, 1978c: 556 (see also p. 602).
testacea. ~>Amblyopone testacea Motschoulsky, 1 8 6 3 : 1 5 [Also described as n e w by Emery, 1893f: 242.] agilis. Anochetusagilis Emery, 1901a: 52 (w.) BOR­
(q.) SRI LANKA. Nomen dubium (not congeneric Senior synonym of butteli: Wilson, Eisner etal. 1956: NEO. Viehmeyer, 1916a: 116 (q.). See also: Brown,
with Cryptopone testacea Emery, 1893a: cclxxv), see 8 1 . See also: Gotwald, 1970: 950; Jayasuriya & 1978c: 578.
Wilson, 1958d: 360. Traniello, 1986: 363; Traniello & Jayasuriya, 1986: altisquamis. Anochetus altisquamis Mayr, 1887: 529
trigonignatha. Amblyopone (Stigmatomma) 375; Shattuck, 1994: 1.. (w.) BRAZIL. Senior synonym of fumata: Kempf &
trigonignatha Brown, 1949c: 81, fig. 1 (w.) U.S.A. butteli. Aneuretus butteli forel, 1912m: 770 (q.) SRI Lenko, 1976: 58.
tropicalis. Amblyopone tropicalis Brown, 1962a: 73 (w.q.) LANKA. [Also described as n e w by Forel, 1913k: amati. Anochetus amati Karavaiev, 1925c: 285, fig. 8
PANAMA. Junior synonym of orizabana: Lattke, 87.] Junior synonym of simoni: Wilson, Eisner et al. (q.) INDONESIA (Aru I.). Junior synonym of
1991b: 5. 1956:81. graeffei: Wilson, 1959a: 507.
wheeleri. Stigmatomma pallidipes [sic] var. wheeleri * ambiguus. *Anochetus ambiguus De Andrade, 1994:17,
ANILLWRIS (Neotropical)
Santschi, 1914a: 4 2 9 (w.q.m.) U.S.A. Junior syn­ fig. 18 (w.) DOMINICAN AMBER.
bruchi. Anillidris bruchi Santschi, 1936d: 414, figs. 2 1 -
o n y m of pallipes: Creighton, 1940b: 3. angolensis. Anochetus angolensis Brown, 1978c: 600,
28 (w.) ARGENTINA. Santschi, 1937c: 69 (q.m.).
williamsi. Stigmatomma (Fulakora) williamsi Wheeler, fig. 49 (w.) ANGOLA.
Combination in Linepithema: Kempf, 1972a: 135; in
W.M. & Chapman, 1925: 56, pi. 1, fig. 19 (w.q.) angusticomis. Anochetus angusticomis Arnold, 1946: 56
Anillidris: Shattuck, 1994: 3.
PHILIPPINES. Junior synonym of luzonica: Brown, (w.q.) ZIMBABWE. Junior synonym of traegaordhi:
gallardoi. Anillidris gallardoiKusnezov, 1954b: 37.
1960a: 168. Brown, 1978c: 559.
Nomen nudum.
wilsoni. Amblyopone wilsoni Clark, 1928a: 34, pl.l, figs. armstrongi. Anochetus armstrongi McAreavey, 1 9 4 9 : 1 ,
16-19 (w.) AUSTRALIA. ANILLOMYRMA (Oriental, Indo-Australian) figs. 1-6 (w.q.) AUSTRALIA. See also: Brown,
zwaluwenburgi. Stigmatomma (Fulakora) #continentis. Anillomyrma decamera subsp. continentis 1978c: 597.
zwaluwenburgiWMams, 1946: 639 (w.) HAWAH. Wheeler, W M . 1927h: 96 (w.) VIETNAM. aurifrons. Anochetus pellucidus var. aurifrons Santschi,
Combination in Amblyopone: Brown, 1960a: 169. decamera. Monomorium decamerum Emery, 1 9 0 1 e : 1 1 7 1910c: 351 (w.) CONGO. Junior synonym of
(w.) SRI LANKA. Combination in Monomorium pellucidus:Brown, 1978c: 558.
*AMEGHINOIA (Argentina)
(Anillomyrma): Emery, 1 9 1 3 : 2 6 1 ; in Anillomyrma: australis. Anochetus australis Emery, 1906c: 117, fig. 2
*piatnitzkyi. *Ameghinoiapiatnitzkyiyxana &Haedo
Ettershank, 1966: 98. See also: Bolton, 1 9 8 7 : 2 7 4 . (w.) URUGUAY. Santschi, 1929d: 278 (q.). Subspe­
Rossi, 1 9 5 7 : 1 1 3 , figs. 1-3, 3 pis. (q.) ARGENTINA
Current subspecies: nominal plus continentis. cies of mayri:Emery, 1911d: 110; Bruch, 1915: 528.
(Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene).
tridens. Anillomyrma tridens Bolton, 1987: 274, figs. 1, Junior synonym of neglectus: Brown, 1978c: 558.
AMMOMYRMA: see under DORYMYRMEX. 4 (w.) BORNEO. beccarii. Anochetus beccarii Emery, 1884a: 379 (diagno­
sis in key) (w.) SUMATRA. Junior synonym of
AMYRMEX: see under FORELWS. AN1SOPHEWOLE (Australia)
rugosus: Brown, 1964d:214.
antipodum. Atta antipodum Smith, F. 1858b: 166 (q.)
ANACANTHOLEPIS: see under PLAGIOLEPIS. bequaerti. Anochetus bequaerti Forel, 1913b: 309 (w.)
AUSTRALIA. Combination in Pheidole: Mayr, 1886c:
ZAIRE. Arnold, 1915: 104 (q.m.). Senior synonym
ANACANTHOPONERA: see under HETEROPONERA. 360; in Aphaenogaster: Wheeler, W.M. 1916j: 216; in
of abstracta, estus and opaciventris: Brown, 1978c: 556.
Pheidole: Emery, 1922e: 97; in Anisopheidole:
ANCYLOGNATHUS: see under ECITON. bierigi. Anochetus bierigi Santschi, 1931c: 268, figs. 4 - 6
Ettershank, 1 9 6 6 : 1 3 2 . Junior synonym of
(w.q.) PANAMA. Junior synonym of diegensis:
ANCYRIDRIS (New Guinea) Aphaenogaster longiceps: Wheeler, W.M. 1916j: 216.
Brown, 1964d:215.
polyrhachioides. Ancyridris polyrhachioides Wheeler, Revived from synonymy, and senior synonym of
bispinosus. Odontomachus bispinosus Smith, F. 1858b:
W.M. 1935a: 2, fig. 1 (w.) NEW GUINEA. froggatti (and its junior synonyms lippulum and
199 (w.) BRAZIL. Combination in Stenomyrmex:
rupicapra. Pheidole (Pheidolacanthinus) rupicapra Stitz, myops): Ettershank, 1966: 132.
Mayr, 1886c: 361; in Anochetus: Dalla Torre, 1893:
1938: 99, fig. 1 (w.) NEW GUINEA. Combination in froggatti. Pheidole froggatti Forel, 1902h: 4 1 4 (q.m.)
47. See also: Brown, 1976a: 103.
Ancyridris: n e w c o m b i n a t i o n . AUSTRALIA. Forel, 1907h: 282 (s.w.). Combination
*brevidentatus. *Anochetus brevidentatus MacKay, 1991:
in Pheidole (Allopheidole): Forel, 1912f: 237; in
ANDRAGNATHUS: see under PARATRECHINA. 138, figs. 1-3, 8 (w.) DOMINICAN AMBER. See
Pheidole (Anisopheidole): Forel, 1914c: 616. Senior
also: De Andrade, 1994:19.

Species-Group Taxa 63
ANOCHETUS (continued) friederichsi. Anochetus africanus var. friederichsi Forel, ineditus. Anochetus ineditus Baroni Urbani, 1971b: 360.
1918b: 155 (w.) MADAGASCAR. Junior synonym Unnecessary second replacement name for
brevis. Anochetus brevis Brown, 1978c: 581, fig. 2 (w.) of madagascarensis:Brown, 1978c: 557. Anochetus jacobsoni Menozzi, 1939b: 178.
PHILIPPINES. fuliginosus. Anochetus fuliginosus Arnold, 1948:214, inermis. Anochetus (Stenomyrmex) inermis Andre, 1889:
butteli. Anochetus longifossatus r. butteli Forel, 1913k: 18 fig. 3 (w.) SOUTH AFRICA. See also: Brown, 1978c: 221 (w.) TRINIDAD. Forel, 1897b: 298 (m.);
(w.) SRI LANKA. Junior synonym of longifossatus: 605. Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1976a: 60 (1.). Senior
Brown, 1978c: 557. fumata. Anochetus altisquamis forma fumata synonym of meinerti: Brown, 1978c: 557.
cameroni. Anochetus cameroni Forel, 1915c: 352 (w.) Luederwaldt, 1918: 53 (w.) BRAZIL. Junior syn­ Hntermedius. *Anochetus intermedius De Andrade, 1994:
BRAZIL. Junior synonym of ghilianii: Brown, o n y m of altisquamis: Kempf & Lenko, 1976: 58. 13, fig. 16 (w.) DOMINICAN AMBER.
1964d:214. ghilianii. Odontomachus ghilianii Spinola, 1851b: 55 isolatus. Anochetus cato subsp. isolatus Mann, 1919:
camerunensis. Anochetus africanus var. camerunensis (w.) MOROCCO. [Also described as n e w by Spinola, 302, fig. 11 (w.m.) SOLOMON IS. Raised to species:
Mayr, 1 8 9 6 : 2 3 6 (w.m.) CAMEROUN. Emery, 1853:71.] Emery, 1909c: 376 (q.m.). Combination Wilson, 1959a: 508. Senior synonym of rossi and
1899e: 476 (q.). Junior synonym of africanus: Mayr, in Anochetus: Mayr, 1861: 54. Senior synonym of splendens: Brown, 1978c: 557 (see also p. 585).
1904b: 2. cameroni: Brown, 1964d: 214. See also: Brown, jacobsoni.AnochetusjacobsoniVorel, 1911b: 193 (w.)
cato. Anochetus cato Forel, 1901b: 6 (w.) NEW BRIT­ 1978c: 598. JAVA. Forel, 1913k: 18 (q.). Junior synonym of
AIN. Senior synonym of rossi and subfasciatus: Wil­ gladiator. Stenomyrmex gladiator Mayr, 1862: 712 (w.) princeps: Brown, 1964d: 213.
son, 1959a: 504. See also Brown, 1978c: 585. INDONESIA (Misool I.). Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, jacobsoni. Anochetus jacobsoni Menozzi, 1939b: 178, fig.
chirichinii. Anochetus chirichiniiEmery, 1897c: 597, pi. J. 1976a: 62 (1.). Combination in Anochetus: Dalla 3 (w.) SUMATRA. [Junior primary h o m o n y m of
15, figs. 4 6 , 4 7 (w.) NEW GUINEA. See also: Brown, Torre, 1893:48. Junior synonym of Odontomachus jacobsoni Forel, above.] First replacement name:
1978c: 590. tyrannicus Smith, F. 1861b: 4 4 (Dalla Torre, 1893: menozzii Donisthorpe, 1941k: 237. Second (unnec­
concinnus. Anochetus concinnus Santschi, 1920b: 9 (q.) 48), hence first available replacement name for essary) replacement name: ineditus Baroni Urbani,
ZAIRE. Junior synonym of katonae: Brown, 1978c: Odontomachus tyrannicus Smith, F. 1861b: 4 4 [junior 1971b: 360.
557. primary h o m o n y m of Odontomachus tyrannicus jonesi. Anochetus jonesi Arnold, 1926:216, fig. 61
*conisquamis. * Anochetus conisquamis De Andrade, Smith, F. 1859a: 144], and senior synonym of (w.q.m.) SOUTH AFRICA.
1994: 22, fig. 20 (w.) DOMINICAN AMBER. smithii and gladiator Donisthorpe (unnecessary sec­ kanariensis. Anochetus orientalis r. kanariensis Forel,
consultans. Formica consultans Walker, 1859: 373 (m.) ondary replacement names): Brown, 1978c: 556. 1900c: 62 (w.) INDIA. Raised to species: Bingham,
SRI LANKA. Combination in Euponera: See also Brown, 1978c: 574). 1 9 0 3 : 4 4 . See also: Brown, 1978c: 594.
Donisthorpe, 1932b: 576; in Anochetus: Brown, gladiator. Odontomachus gladiator Donisthorpe, 1932c: katonae. Anochetus grandidieri var. katonae Forel,
1978c: 556 (see also p. 588). 467. Unnecessary replacement name for 1907a: 1 (w.) TANZANIA. Raised to species, and
*corayi. *Anochetus corayi Baroni Urbani, 1980c: 2, figs. Odontomachus tyrannicus Smith, F. 1861b: 44, and senior synonym of concinnus, durbanensis, gnomulus,
1-4 (q.) DOMINICAN AMBER (30-40 M. years old). hence junior synonym of gladiator Mayr, 1862: 712, lamottei, longiceps, occidentalis, parvus and punctatus:
diabolus. Anochetus rectangularis var. diabolus Forel, the first available replacement name: Brown, Brown, 1978c: 557 (see also p. 607).
1915b: 35 (w.) AUSTRALIA. Junior synonym of 1978c: 556. kempfi. Anochetus kempfi Brown, 1978c: 6 1 1 , fig. 52
rectangularis: Brown, 1978c: 558. gnomulus. Anochetusgnomulus Bernard, 1953b: 214, fig. (w.) PUERTO RICO.
diegensis. Anochetus diegensis Forel, 1912c: 29 (w.) 6 (w.) GUINEA. Junior synonym of katonae: Brown, laeta. Anochetus princeps var. laeta Forel, 1910a: 27 (w.)
COLOMBIA. Senior synonym of bierigi: Brown, 1978c: 557. SUMATRA. Junior synonym of princeps: Brown,
1964d: 215. See also: Brown, 1978c: 614. gracilicornis. Anochetusgracilicomis Viehmeyer, 1923: 1964d:213.
*dubius. *Anochetus dubius De Andrade, 1994: 15, fig. 87, fig. 1 (w.) SUDAN. Senior synonym of sudanicus: laeviusculus. Anochetus mayri subsp. laeviusculus
17 (w.) DOMINICAN AMBER. Brown, 1964d: 215. Junior synonym of traegaordhi: Wheeler, W.M. 1911a: 22 (w.q.) JAMAICA. Junior
durbanensis. Anochetus punctatus var. durbanensis Brown, 1978c: 559. synonym of mayri: Brown, 1978c: 557.
Arnold, 1926:215 (w.) SOUTH AFRICA. Junior syn­ gracilis. Anochetus gracilis Karavaiev, 1925c: 286, fig. 9 lamottei. Anochetus lamottei Bernard, 1953b: 212, fig. 5
onym of katonae: Brown, 1978c: 557. (w.q.) JAVA. Junior s y n o n y m of risii: Brown, 1978c: (w.) GUINEA. Junior s y n o n y m of katonae: Brown,
elegans. Anochetus elegans Lattke, 1987a: 353, figs. 1, 2 558. 1978c: 557.
(w.) COLOMBIA. graeffei. AnochetusgraeffeiMayr, 1870b: 961 (w.) latunei. Anochetus turneri var. latunei Forel, 1915b: 35
emarginatus. Myrmecia emarginata Fabricius, 1804: SAMOA. Mayr, 1876: 86 (q.); Wheeler, G.C. & (w.) AUSTRALIA. Junior synonym of turneri:
426 (w.) CENTRAL AMERICA. Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1971b: 1212 (l.);Imairtai 1984: 5 (k.). Brown, 1978c: 559.
Wheeler, J. 1952c: 6 4 4 (1.). Combination in Senior synonym of amati, minutus, oceanicus and levaillanti. Anochetus levaillanti Emery, 1 8 9 5 h : 2 1 (w.)
Odontomachus: Illiger, 1807: 194; in Stenomyrmex: punctiventris: Wilson, 1959a: 507; oi rudis, ruginotus SOUTH AFRICA. Arnold, 1915: 108 (q.). See also:
Mayr, 1862: 711; in Anochetus: Emery, 1890a: 63. and taylori: Brown, 1978c: 557 (see also p. 586). Brown, 1978c: 594.
Senior synonym of quadrispinosus: Roger, 1862c: grandidieri. Anochetus grandidieri Forel, 1891b: 108, longiceps. Anochetus parvus var. longiceps Santschi,
289; of rugosus: Kempf, 1964f: 238. See also: Brown, pi. 3, fig. 9 (w.) MADAGASCAR. Senior synonym of 1914d: 331 (q.) CAMEROUN. Junior synonym of
1978c: 609. madecassus:Brown, 1978c: 557. katonae:Brown, 1978c: 557.
estus. Anochetus estus Wheeler, W.M. 1922a: 98 (w.) haytianus. Anochetus (Stenomyrmex) haytianus longifossatus. Anochetus longifossatus Mayr, 1897:425
ZAIRE. Junior synonym of bequaerti: Brown, 1978c: Wheeler, W.M. & Mann, 1914:15, fig. 6 (w.) HAITI. (w.) SRI LANKA. Senior synonym of butteli: Brown,
556. See also: Brown, 1978c: 6 1 1 . 1978c: 557.
evansi. Anochetus evansi Crawley, 1922a: 85 (w.) IRAN. horridus. Anochetus (Stenomyrmex) horridus Kempf, longispinus. Anochetus (Stenomyrmex) haytianus subsp.
See also: Brown, 1978c: 595. 1964f: 239, figs. 4, 8, 12, 14 (gynecoid w.) BRAZIL. longispina Wheeler, W.M. 1936b: 196 (w.) HAITI.
*exstinctus. *Anochetus exstinctus De Andrade, 1994: 11, Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1971b: 1212 (1.). See Raised to species: Brown, 1978c: 6 1 1 .
fig. 15 (w.) DOMINICAN AMBER. also: Brown, 1978c: 612. Hucidus. *Anochetus lucidus De Andrade, 1994: 19, fig.
faurei. Anochetusfaurei Arnold, 1948: 215, fig. 4 (w.) inca. Anochetus (Stenomyrmex) inca Wheeler, W.M. 19 (w.) DOMINICAN AMBER.
SOUTH AFRICA. See also: Brown, 1978c: 609. 1925a: 8 (w.) PERU. madagascarensis. Anochetus africanus var.
filicornis. Myrmapatetes /z/icornw Wheeler, W.M. 1929b: incultus. Anochetus incultus Brown, 1978c: 578, fig. 37 madagascarensis Forel, 1887: 382 (w.) MADAGAS­
6, fig. 3 (m.) NEW GUINEA. Combination in (w.q.) PHILIPPINES. CAR. Raised to species, and senior s y n o n y m of
Anochetus: Brown, 1953h: 2. indicus. Anochetus sedilloti var. indicus Forel, 1900c: 61 friederichsi: Brown, 1978c: 557.
fricatus. Anochetus fricatus Wilson, 1959a: 506 (w.) (w.q.m.) INDIA. Junior synonym of sedilloti: Brown,
NEW GUINEA. See also: Brown, 1978c: 590. 1978c: 559.

64 Species-Group Taxa
madaraszi. Anochetus madaraszi Mayr, 1 8 9 7 : 4 2 4 (w.) occidentalis. Anochetus punctatus var. occidentalis o n y m of rossi Donisthorpe, above.] J u n i o r s y n o n y m
SRI LANKA. Forel, 1900c: 61 (q.m.); Imai etal. Santschi, 1914d: 330 (w.) CAMEROUN. J u n i o r syn­ of isolatus: B r o w n , 1978c: 557.
1984: 5 (k.). See also: B r o w n , 1978c: 590. o n y m of katonae: B r o w n , 1978c: 557. rothschildi. Anochetus rothschildi Forel, 1907c: 129
madecassus. Anochetus madecassus Santschi, 1928d: 54 oceaniaa. Anochetus punctiventris subsp. oceanicus (W.m.) SOMALIA.
(q.) MADAGASCAR. J u n i o r s y n o n y m oi grandidieri: Emery, 1897c: 597 (w.) NEW GUINEA. Emery, rudis. Anochetus rudis Emery, 1889b: 4 9 9 (w.) BURMA.
B r o w n , 1978c: 557. 1914f: 400 (q.m.). J u n i o r s y n o n y m of graeffei: Wil­ Subspecies of punctiventris: Forel, 1900c: 60; Emery,
maynei. Anochetus pellucidus var. maynei Forel, 1913h: son, 1959a: 507. 191 I d : 109. Retained as species: Bingham, 1903:
347 (q.) ZAIRE. B r o w n , 1978c: 601 (w.). Raised to opaciventris. Anochetus opaciventris Wheeler, W.M. 4 1 . J u n i o r s y n o n y m of graeffei: B r o w n , 1978c: 577.
species: B r o w n , 1978c: 557. 1922a: 98 (w.) ZAIRE. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of bequaerti: rufus. Odontomachus rufus Jerdon, 1 8 5 1 : 116 (w.)
mayri. Anochetus mayri Emery, 1884a: 3 7 8 (diagnosis B r o w n , 1978c: 556. INDIA. Combination in Anochetus: Emery, 1892d:
in key) (w.) ANTILLES IS. Emery, 1890a: 65 (q.); orchidicola. Anochetus orchidicola B r o w n , 1978c: 619 5 6 1 . Senior s y n o n y m of mordax: B r o w n , 1978c: 558
Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1964b: 455 (1.). Senior (w.) MEXICO. (see also p . 593).
s y n o n y m of laeviusculus: B r o w n , 1978c: 557 (see oriens. Anochetus (Stenomyrmex) oriens Kempf, 1964f: ruginotus. Anochetus ruginotus Stitz, 1 9 2 5 : 1 1 4 (w.)
also p . 617). 240, figs. 2, 6, 10, 13 (w.) BRAZIL. PHILIPPINES. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of graeffei: B r o w n ,
meinerti. Anochetus inermis var. meinerti Forel, 1905b: orientalis. Anochetus orientalis Andre, 1 8 8 7 : 2 9 1 (w.) 1978c: 557.
156 (w.) VENEZUELA. Wheeler, W.M. 1916d: 323 VIETNAM. See also: B r o w n , 1978c: 594. rugosus. Odontomachus rugosus Smith, F. 1857a: 65 (w.)
(q.m.). J u n i o r s y n o n y m of inermis: B r o w n , 1978c: pangens. Formicapangens Walker, 1859: 371 (m.) SRI SINGAPORE. Wheeler,G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1976: 61
557. LANKA. Combination in Euponera (Brachyponera): (1.). Combination in Anochetus: Emery, 1911 d: 109.
menozzii. Anochetus menozzii Donislhorpe, 1941k: 237. Donisthorpe, 1932b: 575; in Anochetus: B r o w n , Senior s y n o n y m of beccarii: B r o w n , 1964d: 214; of
Replacement n a m e for jacobsoni Menozzi, 1939b: 1978c: 558. ineditus a n d menozzii: Brown, 1978c: 558. See also:
178. [Junior primary h o r n o n y m oi jacobsoni Forel, paripungens. Anochetus paripungens B r o w n , 1978c: B r o w n , 1978c: 575.
191 l b : 193.] J u n i o r s y n o n y m of rugosus: Brown, 596, fig. 35 (w.) AUSTRALIA. rugosus. Anochetus (Stenomyrmex) emarginatus r. rugosus
1978c: 558. parvus. Anochetus parvus Santschi, 1914d: 330 (w.) Emery, 1890a: 63 (w.) BRAZIL. M a n n , 1 9 1 6 : 4 1 8
micans. Anochetusmicans B r o w n , 1978c: 557 (w.) NIGERIA. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of katonae: B r o w n , (m.); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1952c: 645 (1.).
COSTA RICA. [First available use of Anochetus 1978c: 557. [Unresolved j u n i o r secondary h o m o n y m of
(Stenomyrmex) emarginatus subsp. testaceus var. micans pasteuri. Anochetuspasteuri Santschi, 1 9 2 3 e : 2 6 5 (w.q.) Odontomachus rugosus Smith, above.] J u n i o r syn­
Forel, 1908b: 36; unavailable n a m e . ] ZAIRE. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of africanus: B r o w n , 1978c: o n y m of emarginatus: Kempf, 1964f: 2 3 8 .
minans. Anochetus minans M a n n , 1 9 2 2 : 1 7 (w.) HON­ 556. schoutedeni. Anochetus schoutedeni Santschi, 1923e: 264
DURAS. pellucidus. Anochetus pellucidus Emery, 1902d: 33 (w.) (w.) ZAIRE. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of obscuratus: B r o w n ,
minutus. Anochetus minutus Karavaiev, 1925c: 288, fig. CAMEROUN. Senior s y n o n y m of aurifrons: Brown, 1978c: 5 5 8 .
10 (w.q.) WEST MALAYSIA. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of 1978c: 558 (see also p . 605). sedilloti. Anochetus sedilloti Emery, 1884a: 377, fig. (w.)
graejfei: Wilson, 1959a: 507. peracer. Anochetus peracer Brown, 1978c: 579, figs. 40, TUNISIA. Forel, 1907b: 202 (m.); Santschi, 1907:
mixtus. Anochetus mixtus R a d c h e n k o , 1993a: 77, figs. 3 - 53 (w.) NEW GUINEA. 325 (m.). Senior s y n o n y m of indicus: B r o w n , 1978c:
5 (w.) VIETNAM. princeps. Anochetus princeps Emery, 1884a: 379 (diag­ 559 (see also p . 594).
modicus. Anochetus modicus Brown, 1978c: 582 nosis in key) (w.) JAVA. B r o w n , 1978c: 577 (m.); seminiger. Anochetus seminiger Donisthorpe, 1943a:
(w.q.m.) BORNEO. Imai, Kubota et al. 1 9 8 5 : 4 7 (k.). Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1976a: 61 (1.). Senior 170 (w.) NEW GUINEA.
mordax. Anochetus mordax Donisthorpe, 1942d: 452 s y n o n y m of jacobsoni Forel, laeta, serratus and serratus. Anochetus serratus Stitz, 1 9 2 5 : 1 1 3 (w.) JAVA.
(w.) INDIA. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of rufus: B r o w n , taipingensis: B r o w n , 1964d: 2 1 3 . * J u n i o r s y n o n y m of princeps: B r o w n , 1964d: 2 1 3 .
1978c: 558. pubescens. Anochetus pubescens Brown, 1978c: 607, silvaticus. Anochetussilvaticus Bernard, 1953b: 212, fig.
muzziolii. Anochetus muzziolii Menozzi, 1932d: 4, fig. 2 figs. 10, 16 (w.) ZIMBABWE. 5 (w.q.) GUINEA. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of traegaordhi:
(w.) SUMATRA. See also: B r o w n , 1978c: 576. punctaticeps. Anochetus punctaticeps Mayr, 1901b: 4 Brown, I964d:215.
myops. Anochetus myops Emery, 1893e: 2 0 1 , pi. 8, figs. (w.) SOUTH AFRICA. See also: B r o w n , 1978c: 606. simoni. Anochetus (Stenomyrmex) simoni Emery, 1890a:
1 1 , 1 2 (w.) WEST MALAYSIA. punctatus. Anochetus punctatus Santschi, 1914e: 13 (w.) 64 (w.) VENEZUELA. See also: B r o w n , 1978c: 6 1 3 .
natalensis. Anochetus natalensis Arnold, 1 9 2 6 : 2 1 5 (w.) SOUTH AFRICA. J u n i o r s y n o n y m of katonae: siphneus. Anochetus siphneus B r o w n , 1978c: 608, figs.
SOUTH AFRICA. See also: B r o w n , 1978c: 6 0 3 . Brown, 1978c: 557. 11, 19 (w.) IVORY COAST.
neglectus. Anochetus mayri subsp. neglectus Emery, punctiventris. Anochetus punctiventris Mayr, 1 8 7 9 : 6 5 9 smithii. Odontomachus smithii Roger, 1863b: 2 1 . Combi­
1894c: 188 (w.q.) BRAZIL. Raised to species, senior (w.) INDIA. Forel, 1900c: 63 (q.). J u n i o r s y n o n y m n a t i o n in Anochetus: Forel, 1911e: 250. [Unneces­
s y n o n y m of australis, a n d material of the unavail­ of graeffei: Wilson, 1959a: 507. sary replacement n a m e for tyrannicus Smith, F.
able n a m e nobilis referred h e r e : B r o w n , 1978c: 558. pupulatus. Anochetus pupulatus B r o w n , 1978c: 5 9 1 , 1861b: 44.] J u n i o r s y n o n y m of gladiator: B r o w n ,
nietneri. Odontomachus nietneriRoger, 1861a: 2 3 (w.) figs. 1 4 , 2 1 , 2 2 (w.) INDIA. 1978c: 556.
SRI LANKA. Combination in Anochetus: Mayr, 1865: quadrispinosus. Odontomachus quadrispinosus Smith, F. splendens. Anochetussplendens Karavaiev, 1925c: 289,
63 (footnote). See also: B r o w n , 1978c: 5 9 3 . 1858b: 7 8 , pi. 5, figs. 1 5 - 1 7 (w.) BRAZIL. J u n i o r fig. 11 (q.) INDONESIA (Aru I.). J u n i o r s y n o n y m of
nobilis. Anochetus mayri st. neglectus var. nobilis Santschi, s y n o n y m of emarginatus: Roger, 1862c: 2 8 9 . isolatus: B r o w n , 1978c: 557.
1925e: 155 (m.) ARGENTINA. Unavailable n a m e ; rectangularis. Anochetus rectangularis Mayr, 1876: 86 splendidulus. Anochetus splendidulus Yasumatsu,
material referred to neglectus by B r o w n , 1978c: 558. (w.) AUSTRALIA. Senior s y n o n y m of diabolus: 1940b: 313, fig. 2 (w.q.) CAROLINA IS.
obscuratus. Anochetus madagascarensis var. obscurata B r o w n , 1978c: 558 (see also p . 597). striatulus. Anochetus (Stenomyrmex) emarginatus r.
Santschi, 191 l c : 351 (w.q.) TANZANIA. Variety of risii. Anochetus risii Forel, 1900c: 60 (w.) HONG striatulaEmery, 1890a: 64 (w.) COSTARICA. Raised
africanus:Emery, 191 Id: 108; Santschi, 1914b: 56. KONG. Wheeler, W.M. 1927h: 84 (m.); Wheeler, to species: B r o w n , 1978c: 559 (see also p . 610).
Raised to species: Santschi, 1923e: 2 6 5 . Senior syn­ W.M. 1928c: 8 (q.). Senior s y n o n y m of gracilis: strigatellus. Anochetus strigatellus Brown, 1978c: 582
o n y m of schoutedeni a n d ustus: B r o w n , 1978c: 558 Brown, 1978c: 558 (see also p . 577). (w.) WEST MALAYSIA.
(see also p . 602). rossi. Anochetus rossi Donis