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Dec 14, 2018

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Masonry Chronicles Winter

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CHRONICLES

MASONRY

Winter

2009-10

......

.........

........

ry

son include the following:

Ma

........

ncre

te

. . ........ • Correction of an idiosyncrasy of the 2005

Co

....

........

olt

si

n

. .

.... .... edition that resulted in large differences in

........

B

ch

or

.

....... . . using allowable stress design in comparison

An

. . ..

........

. .. .

.... . to values obtained using strength design.

.

.. . .

.......

.. ......

• Reorganization of the anchor bolt

requirements so provisions that are

.

and strength design are located in Chapter 1.

This includes the requirements for bolt

placement, effective embedment lengths,

and the calculation of projected areas for

Design of Anchor Bolts in tension and shear.

Concrete Masonry

• Addition of anchor bolt failure modes that

Introduction were not included in the previous code.

Tables 1 and 2 show a comparison of the

This edition of “Masonry Chronicles” will failure modes considered in the 2006 IBC

discuss the design of anchor bolts in concrete and 2009 IBC for tension and shear,

masonry and highlight the differences in the respectively.

requirements of the 2006 International Building

code1 (IBC) and the 2009 IBC2. For masonry

design, the 2006 IBC references the 2005

edition of Building Code Requirements for

Masonry Structures3 (ACI530-05/ASCE 5-05/

TMS 402-05) or simply ACI 530-05. The 2009

IBC references the 2008 edition of Building

Code Requirements for Masonry Structures4

(TMS 402-08/ACI530-08/ASCE 5-08/) or simply

TMS 402-08.

of California and Nevada

Table 1 – Tensile Failure Modes for Anchor Bolts on Masonry

2006 IBC/ACI 530-05 2009 IBC/TMS 402-08

Allowable Stress Strength Design Allowable Stress Strength Design

Design Design

Masonry Tensile Breakout Yes Yes Yes Yes

Steel Tensile Yield Yes Yes Yes Yes

Anchor Pullout (Bent-Bar

- Yes Yes Yes

Bolts Only)

2006 IBC/TMS 2009 IBC/TMS 402-08

Allowable Stress Strength Design Allowable Stress Strength Design

Design Design

Masonry Shear Breakout - Yes Yes Yes

Masonry Shear Crushing Yes - Yes Yes

Anchor Shear Pryout - - Yes Yes

Steel Shear Yielding Yes Yes Yes Yes

Anchor Bolt Placement Requirements The MSJC code requirements specify that the

minimum effective embedment depth of anchor

Anchor bolts cast in masonry are usually headed or bolts, lb, be 4 bolt diameters or 2 inches, whichever

bent-bar anchor bolts as shown in Figure 1. Headed is greater. Figure 1 illustrates the effective

bolts typically have a hexagonal or square head. Bent- embedment depth for the various types of anchor

bar bolts are usually either “J” or “L” bolts. Since bolts. The effective embedment depth for headed

these are the most commonly used bolts, the code bolts is equal to the length of embedment

provisions apply to these types of bolts. Other bolts, perpendicular from the surface of the masonry to the

such as post-installed anchors may be determined by bearing surface of the anchor head. For bent bar

testing in accordance with ASTM E448.5 anchor bolts, the effective embedment depth is

measured as the distance perpendicular from the

surface of the masonry to the bearing surface of the

bent end minus one bolt diameter.

of at least 1/2-inch of grout between bolts and the

masonry unit. Note that the code permits the grout

between the bolt and the masonry unit to be reduced

to 1/4-inch if fine grout is used.

must not be less than the diameter of the bolt or 1

inch.

Anchor bolts must be embedded in grout. The code considered and the equations for calculating the

permits 1/4-inch diameter bolts to be placed in strength corresponding to each failure mode are

mortar beds that are at least 1/2-inch thick. identical to those in the 2005 code. However, the

However, this is not commonly done. There was nomenclature has been slightly modified to be more

some confusion in the previous code, with some consistent with other parts of the code.

interpretations requiring that all masonry with anchor

bolts must be grouted solid. This has been clarified As illustrated in Table 1, three failure modes are

in the new code. Bolts may be placed in partially considered when determining the tensile strength of

grouted walls, as long as the effect of open cells or anchor bolts. Since anchor pullout is only

head joints is considered. considered in bent-bar bolts, only two failure modes

are considered for headed bolts.

The nominal axial strength of an anchor bolt, Ban, is

the smallest of the values obtained from the

following equations for the various failure modes:

Bans = Ab fy (2)

=

sectional area, f’m is the compressive strength of the

masonry, fy is the yield stress of the anchor bolt and

eb is the projected leg extension of a bent-bar

anchor, as shown in Figure 1.

of a right circular cone on the masonry surface. As

shown in Figure 2, the projected tension area is

given by:

Apt = π l b 2 (4)

bolt. The projected area should be reduced by any

portion that lies outside the masonry or overlaps an

open cell or open head joint. In addition, when the

projected areas of adjacent bolts overlap, the value

of Apt should be adjusted so that no area is included

more than once. Figure 3 shows some examples

adjustments to the of the projected tension area.

Figure 3 Examples of Adjustments to

Projected Tension Area

anchor bolts using strength design have been

modified in the new code. As shown in Table 2,

masonry shear crushing and anchor shear pryout

have been added to the masonry shear breakout

and steel shear yielding failure modes that were

considered in the previous code. The nominal shear

strength of an anchor bolt, Bav, is the smallest of the

values obtained from the following equations:

Figure 2 Tension Failure by Masonry Breakout Masonry shear breakout (φ = 0.5):

Masonry shear crushing (φ = 0.5): Masonry tensile breakout:

(11)

= =

Bvpry 2.0Banb 8 Apt f 'm (7) Bas = Ab fy

(12)

Steel shear yielding (φ = 0.9): Anchor pullout (bent bar belts out):

=

(13)

The projected shear area of half of a right circular The terms in the above equations, including the

cone, Apv, is used to calculate the strength in the projected tension area, are the same as those for

shear breakout failure mode. strength design, including the projected tension

area. This is different from the previous code, which

π l be 2 required that the projected tension area be

Apv = (9) calculated using the edge distance lbe, when the

2

edge distance was less than the effective

where lbe is the distance to the edge of the masonry embedment depth.

measured in the direction of the applied shear load.

As with the tension pullout cone, Apv must be Allowable Shear Load of Anchor Bolts

reduced to account for overlapping areas of closely

spaced bolts or for portions of the area that lie As with the allowable tensile loads, the equations for

outside the masonry. calculating the allowable shear loads on an anchor

bolt, Bv, are modifications of the strength design

equations:

Combined Axial Tension and Shear

Masonry shear breakout:

Tests on anchor bolts indicate that a linear

interaction relationship provides a conservative

Bvb = 1.25 Apv f 'm

estimate of the allowable loads on bolts subjected to (14)

both shear and tension. Thus, allowable loads are

determined with the following equation: Masonry shear crushing:

+ vf ≤ 1 (10) (15)

φ Ban φ Bvn

Anchor shear pryout:

where baf and bvf are the factored tension and shear

loads, respectively. = =

Bvpry 2.0Bab 2.5 Apv f 'm

(16)

Allowable Stress Design of Anchor Bolts

Bvs = 0.36 Ab fy

Allowable Tensile Load of Anchor Bolts (17)

TMS 402-08 considers the same tension failure Combined Axial Tension and Shear

modes for allowable stress design as strength

design, with the equations modified to working Similar to strength design, a linear interaction

values. This is different from the previous code, diagram is also used for allowable stress design

which did not consider anchor pullout for bent-bar when there is a combination of tension and shear

bolts and used equations that typically resulted in loads on an anchor bolt:

significantly lower values when compared to

strength design. ba bv

+ ≤1

The allowable axial tensile load of an anchor bolt, Ba Bv

(18)

Ba, is the smallest of the values obtained from the

following equations for the various failure modes: where ba and bv are the unfactored tension and

shear loads, respectively.

Example Therefore, the tension on the connection is given by:

Fp 0.96(1053)

shown in Figure 4 can resist the combined tension

and shear loads on the wall connected to a flexible The shear on the connection is equal to:

diaphragm. Two bolts with a yield stress of 36 ksi,

an effective embedment length of 6 inches are

spaced 7 inches apart every 4 feet, as shown in

(1.2 + 0.2SDS ) PD =

(1.2 + 0.24)80 =

115 lbs/ft

Figure 4. The projected extension of the bent bar is

4 inches. The masonry compressive strength is 1500 The nominal tensile strength of each bolt is

psi and the weight of the wall is 78 psf. The short calculated using the smaller of Equations (1), (2)

period spectral acceleration, SDS =1.2g. and (3). Without correction, the projected tension

area for each bolt would be:

Apt π=

= l b 2 π (6)

= 2

113 in2

s, is less than two times the effective embedment

depth, lb, there is overlap of the projected tension

area of adjacent bolts. From Figure 3, the adjusted

tension area is given by:

1 2

π lb2 −

Apt ' = l b (θ − sinθ )

2

s

θ = 2cos−1

2l b

−1 s −1 7

=θ 2cos

= =

2cos 2 × 6 1.9 radians

b

2l

And the modified projected tension area is equal to:

1 2

π lb2 −

Apt ' = l b (θ − sinθ )

Strength Design Solution 2

governs by inspection. From ASCE 7-05, the out-of- =

113 − ( 6 ) (1.9 − sin1.9 ) =

96 in2

2

plane anchorage force for a wall connected to a

flexible diaphragm is given by:

The tension capacity of each bolt due to masonry

Fp = 0.8SDS IWp

breakout is thus given by Equation (1):

φ Banb = φ 4 Apt ' f 'm

weight tributary to the connection. Assuming that

I =1.0:

= 0.5(4)(96)

= 1500 7436 lbs

= =

Fp 0.8 =

SDS IWp 0.8(1.2)(1.0)Wp 0.96Wp

From Equation (2), the bolt tension capacity due to

yielding of each anchor bolt is equal to:

The tributary wall weight is equal to:

φ Bans = φ Ab fy

20

Wp= 78 + 3.5 = 1053 lbs/ft

2

= 0.9(0.44)36000

= 14,256 lbs

and the bolt tension capacity due to anchor pullout is The allowable tension on each bolt is given by the

given by Equation (3): smallest of:

= Bab = 1.25 Apt f 'm

1.5(1500)(4)(0.75) = 1.25(96)

= 1500 4648 lbs

= 0.65

+300π ( 6 + 4 + 0.75 ) 0.75

Bas = 0.6 Ab fy

= 9327 lbs

= 0.6(0.44)36000

= 9504 lbs

For the capacity of the bolts in shear, the masonry

shear breakout failure mode can be ignored since

the distance to the edge of the masonry in the Bap 0.6f 'm eb d b + 120π ( l b + eb + d b ) d b

=

direction of the load is large. For masonry shear

crushing:

= 0.6(1500)(4)(0.75)

φ Bvnc = φ1050 4 f 'm Ab +120π ( 6 + 4 + 0.75 ) 0.75

= 5739 lbs

=

(0.5)1050 4

(1500)(0.44) 2661 lbs

Ignoring the masonry shear breakout failure mode,

Anchor shear pryout: the allowable shear on each bolt is the smallest of:

= 0.5(8)(96)

= 1500 14872 lbs

= 350

= 4

(1500)(0.44) 1774 lbs

Steel shear yielding:

= 0.9(0.6)(0.44)(36000)

= 8554 lbs

= 2.5(96)

= 1500 9295 lbs

Since each group of two bolts is spaced at 48 inches

on center, the interaction equation is given by:

Bvs = 0.36 Ab fy

baf b

+ vf

φ Ban φ Bvn = 0.36(0.44)(36000)

= 5702 lbs

= + =

0.36 ≤ 1.0 ...OK

2(7436) 2(2661) shear, the interaction equation is given by:

ba bv

+

Allowable Stress Design Solution Ba Bv

IBC, the governing load combination is D+E/1.4. = + =

0.40 ≤ 1.0 ...OK

2(4648) 2(1774)

The tensile load on the connection is:

1011(4)

=ba = 2889 lbs/ft

1.4

= = 320 lbs/ft

bv 80(4)

Conclusions About the Author

The new code provisions for designing anchor bolts Dr. Chukwuma Ekwueme is an Associate Principal

have been updated to include more failure modes with Weidlinger Associates, Inc. He received his

and to ensure consistency in designs using different BEng from the University of Nigeria and MS, DEng,

methods (strength design and allowable stress (Degree of Engineer) and PhD Degrees from the

design). Prior editions of the code resulted in University of California, Los Angeles. He is a

allowable stress designs for anchor bolts that were registered Civil and Structural Engineer in the State

often extremely conservative when compared to of California.

those obtained using strength design. The new

codes, on the other hand, result in similar designs. Dr. Ekwueme is a member of the Masonry

Standards Joint Committee (MSJC) and on the

Board of Directors of the Masonry Society (TMS).

References He is also active in several other organizations such

as the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE),

1. ICC, 2006 International Building Code, Structural Engineers Association of California

International Code Council, Inc., Country Club (SEAOC) and the American Concrete Institute (ACI).

Hills, Illinois, 2005.

Dr. Ekwueme has written several publications and

2. ICC, 2009 International Building Code, co-authored CMACN’s “Seismic Design of Masonry

International Code Council, Inc., Country Club Using the 1997 UBC,” and the “2006 edition of

Hills, Illinois, 2008. Design of Reinforced Masonry Structures”. He has

also received awards for his work as a structural

3. MSJC, Building Code Requirements for Masonry engineer.

Structures (ACI 530-05/ASCE 5-05/TMS 402-

05), Reported by the Masonry Standards Joints

Committee (MSJC), American Concrete

Institute, Farmington Hills, Michigan, 2005.

Structures (TMS 402-08/ACI 530-08/ASCE 5-

08/), Reported by the Masonry Standards Joints

Committee (MSJC), The Masonry Society,

Boulder, Colorado, 2008.

Anchors in Concrete and Masonry Elements,”

Standard ASTM E488-96 (2003), Volume 04.11,

ASTM International, West Conshohocken,

Pennsylvania, 2009.

Concrete Masonry Association

Presort

of California and Nevada Standard

6060 Sunrise Vista Drive, Suite 1990 U.S. Postage

Citrus Heights, CA 95610 PAID

Premit No. 604

(916) 722-1700 Sacramento, CA

Info@cmacn.org

www.cmacn.org CHANGE SERVICE REQUESTED

Concrete Masonry is

www.cmacn.org

Contact CMACN with Requests for Design Seminars at (916) 722-1700 or info@cmacn.org

Program, Typical Masonry Details CD includes AutoCAD and PDF formats

Concrete Masonry Association of California and Nevada (CMACN) is pleased to introduce updated products for

practicing engineers.

Orders can be placed on line at www.cmacn.org (all cards accepted) or by calling (916) 722-1700 (Visa and MasterCard only).

Producer Members are an individual, partnership, or corporation, which is actively engaged in the manufacture

and sale of concrete masonry units.

Air Vol Block, Inc. Calstone Company, Inc. Oldcastle APG West, Inc.

Angelus Block Company, Inc. Castlelite Block LLC ORCO Block Company, Inc.

Basalite Concrete Products, LLC CEMEX RCP Block & Brick, Inc.

Cind-R-Lite Block Company, Inc.

Blocklite (a subsidiary of Basalite Concrete Products LLC) Tri Delta (a division of Oldcastle APG West, Inc.)

Desert Block Company, Inc.

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