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Structural Concrete

1.Introduction

2. Why do we need to consider fracture

mechanics in concrete?

3. Fracture mechanics for concrete

4. Computational Models for fracture

1

Introduction

length, it can propagate, even though the

average stress is much less than the tensile

strength of the test specimen.

Fracture mechanics tries to find the

quantitative relations between crack length,

material’s resistance to crack growth, and the

stress at which cracks start to propagate.

2

Introduction

calculate the stress concentration effect.

However, at the very sharp crack tip, the

theory generate an infinite stress.

Evidently, it is nonphysical.

If it is true, the strength will be near zero.

Therefore, more rational method needed.

3

Introduction

Energy-balance approach

energy does not change or decrease, even

though work is required for the crack to grow.

dE d dW

0

dA dA dA Critical condition

E : Total energy

: Potential energy supplied by release in internal strain energy

W : Work required to create new surfaces

4

Introduction

d 2 a dW

and 2 s

dA E dA

d /dA: internal strain

energy decreasing rate

dW/dA: work required to

create new surface dA

s : surface energy

5

Introduction

free surface.

Energy-balance concept can be expressed in

energy-release rate (G) concept.

Crack occurs when G reaches a critical value.

d

G

dA

: Potential energy defined by U-F

U : Strain energy stored in the body

F : Work done by external force

6

Introduction

Crack modes

7

Fracture Mechanics for

Structural Concrete

1. Introduction

2.Why fracture mechanics in concrete?

3. Fracture mechanics for concrete

4. Computational Models for fracture

8

Why fracture mechanics in concrete?

of energy, which agrees with the fracture

mechanics concept.

Finite element analysis based on the strength

criteria is unobjective around sharp crack,

that is, the analysis depends on the choice of

mesh size.

9

Why fracture mechanics in concrete?

(cont’d)

theory cannot be justified in brittle types of

failures, e.g., punching shear, shear failure

without shear reinforcement, etc.

Size effect can be addressed by fracture

mechanics.

After all, tension softening type failure

(Quasi-brittle failure) can be tackled by

fracture mechanics.

10

Why fracture mechanics in concrete?

Loading (a)

(b) (c)

11

Why fracture mechanics in concrete?

Stre ss Distribution

7.0E-04

Size 50

Size 25

6.0E-04 Size 5

5.0E-04

Stress (Mpa)

4.0E-04

3.0E-04

2.0E-04

1.0E-04

0.0E+00

0 50 100 150 200 250

Dista nce (m m )

12

Why fracture mechanics in concrete?

Limit analysis can not explain crack propagation.

13

Why fracture mechanics in concrete?

Size effect

not depend on the structure size.

effect, that is, the cracking stress depends on

the specimen or structure size.

14

Why fracture mechanics in concrete?

f 't

N

d

1

da

f 't : tensile strength

da : maximum aggregate size

: an empirical constant

d : structure or specimen size

15

Why fracture mechanics in concrete?

16

Large Beam Failing in Shear

17

(Photo Courtesy of Shimizu Corporation)

Influence of Member Depth and Maximum Aggregate Size

on Shear Stress at Failure (Experimental Results, Shioya)

18

19

Shear Design of Transfer Beams

20

Construction and Loading of the Large Wide Beam, AT-1 Under

Testing Machine at the University of Toronto

21

Observed Load-Deformation Response of Beam AT-1

22

Crack Development for Beam AT-1

23

Failure Surface of Beam AT-1

24

Failure of Large Beam at 47% of ACI Shear Failure Load

25

Observed Load-Deformation Response of Beam AT-1

26

Influence of Minimum Shear Reinforcement on

Load-Deformation Response of Large Beams

27

Fracture Mechanics for

Structural Concrete

1. Introduction

2. Why fracture mechanics in concrete?

3.Fracture mechanics for concrete

4. Computational Models for fracture

28

Fracture mechanics for concrete

stress to approach infinity at a crack tip.

However, infinite stress cannot develop in real

materials.

A certain range of inelastic zone must exist

around crack tip.

In metal, this zone is a yielding zone.

29

Fracture mechanics for concrete

- Cohesive pressure still exists

- Must be nonlinear.

- Finite tensile strength f ' t

steel.

- In contrast to metals,

strain-softening, instead of

strain-hardening, dominates.

30

Fracture mechanics for concrete

Linear Fracture Metal Concrete

N : Nonlinear hardening zone

L : Linear zone

31

Fracture mechanics for concrete

shows strain-softening, is usually small.

In concrete, fracture process zone is large

compared to metal.

Therefore, in concrete, crack tip is not

defined clearly.

32

Fracture mechanics for concrete

Fracture energy

Fracture energy is the energy required to

open unit area of crack surface.

Fracture energy is a material constant.

It is independent of structure size or

geometry of structure.

33

Fracture mechanics for concrete

wt

Gq GIc w dw

0

Gq : Fracture energy

GIc : Energy to create new surface

wt

0

surfaces completely

34

Fracture mechanics for concrete

To determine this curve, f’t, Gf,

and the shape of curve have

to be known.

The shape can be linear, bi-

linear, quadratic, etc.

Note that the energy is not a

function of strain, but

Typical shape of fracture energy displacement.

35

Fracture Mechanics for

Structural Concrete

1. Introduction

2. Why fracture mechanics in concrete?

3. Fracture mechanics for concrete

4.Computational Models for fracture

36

Computational Models for Fracture

Two models

Fictitious Crack Model by Hillerborg (1976)

- First proposed model applying fracture energy

- Discrete model approach

- Smeared crack model approach

- Proposed minimum element size

37

Computational Models for Fracture

zone near the crack tip.

In that model, the stress

equals to the yield stress

across the crack.

Barenblatt model is similar to

the Dugdale model, but the

stress is assumed to vary with

the deformation.

38

Computational Models for Fracture

Fictitious crack model -

assumption

when the stress reaches the tensile

strength, f 't

When the crack opens, the stress is

not assumed to fall to zero at once.

After cracking, the stress at the

node is calculated by the fracture

energy curve.

When implemented in finite element

method, the node is separated into

two nodes. (discrete model)

39

Computational Models for Fracture

F1 is computed based on

fracture energy, not by the

linear elastic fracture

Result mechanics

40

Computational Models for Fracture

Characteristic length

characteristic length, lc EGc / f 't2

Characteristic length is material property also.

Characteristic length is index for the

brittleness.

If it is large, the material is ductile, whereas if

it is small, brittle.

41

Computational Models for Fracture

node, the node must be split into two nodes.

The optimized band should be calculated in

each step.

If the direction of crack is not known in

advance, identifying the direction in which the

energy release rate is maximum should be

carried out.

42

Computational Models for Fracture

(cont’d)

direction may not propagate through nodes. In

that case, the calculation may be misleading.

43

Computational Models for Fracture

In the theory of randomly inhomogeneous

materials, equivalent continuum stresses and

strains are defined over a certain

representative volume.

The volume size must be at least several

times the maximum aggregate size.

The distribution of stress or strain over

distance less than several aggregate sizes

has no physical meaning.

44

Computational Models for Fracture

(Cont’d)

fracture process zone by a

band of smeared crack band

with a fixed width hc.

To remedy the

unobjectivity of finite element

analysis, cracking criterion of

fracture energy was

introduced.

45

Computational Models for Fracture

is calculated as the product of average strain and

band width.

Note that the fracture energy relation is changed

into one between stress and strain.

46

Computational Models for Fracture

relation in the fracture process zone as linear.

In this case, the crack band width (wc) is calculated as

1

2G f 1 1

wc 2

f 't E Et

47

Computational Models for Fracture

stiffness in the direction normal to crack is decreased

gradually according to fracture energy relationship.

48

Computational Models for Fracture

(Cont’d)

x 1 x 0 Where x, y and z are principal

1

y 0

direction.

y E 1

f is the additional strain due

z 1 z f

to opening of the microcracks.

z z

f 't f 't

1

1 1

1

Cf E

Et f f 't z

Cf

f z

0 p 0

49

Computational Models for Fracture

(Cont’d)

1 1 1

x 1 x 0 where 0

1 1 y 0

Et E C f

y E

z E Et z 0 f 't

0

Cf

x E 2 E 't E 't x 1

where E 't

z E 't E 't z 0 E '1 C f 1

E

E'

1 2

50

Computational Models for Fracture

element size of fracture process path.

Since the size of fracture process zone is wc, the

smaller element than wc makes no sense.

However, larger element than wc can be used with

proper correction.

The crack width will be the product of crack band

width and element strain.

51

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