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Running head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1

Annotated Bibliography

Social Mobility at UTEP

Dariela Ramirez-Guzman

The University of Texas at El Paso

RWS1301

Dr.Vierra

October 22, 2018


ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 2

Research Questions

1. What is social mobility?

2. How does social mobility connect to students or people nationwide?

3. Is there a specific group of people that this only applies to?

4. How does social mobility in UTEP help the student or person receive a higher income

in later years?

5. Are the results of social mobility in UTEP graduates showing?


ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 3

Annotated Bibliography

Adame, C. (2014). Estudiantes buscan quedarse en el Pais . The Prospector , 8.

According to Adame (2014), international students seek the way to continue living and

working in the United States once to complete their university studies, but professional

practices open job gaps for students international. The visas that students use the most are

the H-1B visa, visa temporary work for those who have at least a bachelor's degree, and

visas NAFTA, which facilitate temporary transfer of professionals among Canada,

Mexico and the United States. From 1 January 2004, the procedures have been simplified

for Mexicans to eliminate the requirement of requests and requests for working

conditions.

Andrews, D., & Lh, A. (2009). More inequality, less social mobility. More inequality, less social

mobility, 1489-1492.

According to Andrews and Leigh that very little is known about the association between

inequality and intergenerational mobility (Social mobility). Inequality is offset by more

income mobility across generations, it turns out that in unequal countries it is harder to

move from poor to rich. Social mobility is a change in social status relative to one’s

current social location within a given society. The argument about the difference between

these two topics is that if its fair for people that have worked hard all their life to receive

education, benefits, or a good pay, rather than just getting it handed to. In conclusion, it’s

fair if people have more money and wealth, but only if there are equal opportunities.
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Balán, J., Browning, H. L., & Jelin, E. (2014). Men in a developing society: Geographic and

social mobility in Monterrey, Mexico (Vol. 30) (pp.141-162). University of Texas Press.

According to Balan (2014), the 2013 Social Mobility Report in Mexico conducted by the

Espinosa Yglesias Study Center presents data indicating that Mexico is a country with

low social mobility. Among them, that 48 of every 100 Mexicans who come from the

lowest socioeconomic level remain there in the next generation (Pg.145). This means that

the socioeconomic level of the home in which they are born is determinant in the level of

well-being that they reach in their life. In the country, for a very high percentage of the

population, the cradle has become a destination. In these countries, the number of people

who are in the lowest socioeconomic level and who remain there throughout their lives is

practically half that of ours. Likewise, while in Mexico only 4 out of 100 people who

start from the lowest level manage to progress and climb to the highest level of the

socioeconomic structure, in these Scandinavian countries the number is three times

higher.

Boudon, R. (1974). Education, Opportunity, and Social Inequality: Changing Prospects in

Western Society.

Boudon claimed that social mobility refers to the differences in level of education

attainment according to social background. Social mobility is exactly that; it is a

difference in social achievement according to social background. If a person has a low

income and really can’t afford playing for school, that’s where the social mobility kicks

in. It helps students to be able to pay for school by giving them scholarships, loans and
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financial aid. If social mobility was to be removed, the rate of attendance would go

down and that would impact the school financially and companies that are looking for

employers.

Filgueira, C. H. (2001). La actualidad de viejas temáticas: sobre los estudios de clase,

estratificación y movilidad social en América Latina. (pp.1-51). CEPAL.

On three reasons that support the need to update the old theme of Social Stratification and

Mobility in America Latina First; its inexplicable postponement among the main research

topics that predominated in the region during the last three decades. Second; the

enormous impact of transformations on the social structure that accompany the process of

globalization and technical change. Third; the limitations conceptual and theoretical

concepts of the classic stratification paradigm (pg. 3). After reviewing these three

aspects, the work suggests the convenience of adopting a renewed conceptual approach to

dimensions traditionally incorporated into the study of Stratification and Social Classes

as well as the introduction of others Among the first is suggested, the need to unravel the

impact of recent changes in work and employment. Among the latter, abandonment is

proposed of the "productivism paradigm" and its replacement by an approximation

integrated structure of the stratification with the incorporation of dimensions related to

"social capital", demographic change and welfare regimes. Finally, strategies and

strategies are suggested guiding contents for research (pg. 42).


ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 6

Goldthorpe, J. H., Halsey, A. H., Heath, A. F., Ridge, J. M., Bloom, L., & Jones, F. L. (1982).

Social mobility and class structure in modern Britain.

According to Goldthorpe (1982), social mobility is an issue in modern Britain. one of

the richest countries in the world, although also one of the most unequal. A report

prepared by a committee of the British Parliament, presented last December 8 in this city

(Goldthorpe, 1982), at least 4 million people in the United Kingdom are at risk of going

hungry because of a sharp drop in the level of income, delays in the payment of

subsidies and high costs of services such as gas, water and electricity. The parliamentary

committee's extensive research on hunger, poverty and social exclusion, which also

counted on the collaboration of the Church of England authorities, concluded that many

families are on the verge of an unprecedented financial crisis, while the government

does nothing to fix it. The group of legislators indicated that less income per household,

a high cost of living in the country, added to delays in the payment of housing subsidies

and child support, have led to an increase in the number of popular pots and food bags

for homeless people now proliferating in the United Kingdom.

Martinez, A. (2011). Again..., Lack of Notice. The Prospector, 2.

According to Martinez (2011), UTEP students where not aware that price in tuition was

going to go up. Since the enrollment increased, the tuition price is going to rise. The

way the whole situation was handled confused students on why this was reasonable or

even fair.
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Race and Culture. (1950). In R. Redfield, Our Social Class (pp. 138-151). New York: The Free

Press.

According to Redfield (1950), social class is nothing but attitudes towards each other

(Pg. 139). Redfield states that social class is something humans have classified each

other. No matter if a person is rich or poor, at the end everybody is the same, and

everybody is just trying to live their life to the greatest ability. Each class lives within

the limitations of its own world and accepts the definition imposed upon it as if it were a

part of the order or nature. In conclusion, everyone who feels the need to step up their

game and try to be in the rich social class, their mentality is wrong (Pg. 151). It does not

matter how society has defined people by their income, but what does matter is that

everyone should realize that money does not make them the person they want to

become.

Rosenbaum, J. E. (1984). Carrer Mobility in a Corperate Hierarchy. In The Enduring Effects of

Early Jobs and Earnings (pp. 175-200). Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers.

According to Rosenbaum, job structures have no impact on earnings, and that the early

earnings are inversely related to later attainment. There have been various studies that

have shown how careers are structured by early social forces and barriers is seen in the

conflict between human capital theory in economics. Early jobs strongly affect
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individual’s attributes, a finding which implies that the organization’s job assignments

cause a greater structuring of career attainments than human capital theory suggests.

Career mobility has a big role in a corporate hierarchy.

Spack, R. (1988). Initiating ESL students into the academic discourse community: How far

should we go? Tesol quarterly, 22(1), 29-51.

According to Spack (1988), the effort to determine what academic writing is and what

ESL students need to know to produce it has led to the development of several different

approaches to teaching of writing (Pg. 33). English teachers should concentrate more on

general principles of inquiry and rhetoric, with emphasis on writing from sources.

Teaching ESL students the principles of writing rather than what should be the content of

their paper, will help them develop skills that in the future, for the students writing an

essay will be easy.

Rosenbaum, J. E. (1984). Carrer Mobility in a Corperate Hierarchy. In The Enduring Effects of

Early Jobs and Earnings (pp. 175-200). Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers.

According to Rosenbaum, job structures have no impact on earnings, and that the early

earnings are inversely related to later attainment. There have been various studies that
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 9

have shown how careers are structured by early social forces and barriers is seen in the

conflict between human capital theory in economics. Early jobs strongly affect

individual’s attributes, a finding which implies that the organization’s job assignments

cause a greater structuring of career attainments than human capital theory suggests.

Career mobility has a big role in a corporate hierarchy.

Torche, F. (2004). Estratificación y movilidad social en Chile: entre la adscripción y el

logro (Vol. 98). United Nations Publications.

According to Torche ( 2004), if there is a basic concept in which virtually every Chilean

citizen agrees, education is the best tool for progress, for this country and for each of its

inhabitants. Regrettably, this powerful idea has proven to be extremely weak in practice,

if this data is not nuanced, the entire scaffolding of the educational reforms would have

to be carefully re-evaluated. Indeed, in a recent report by the Organization for Economic

Cooperation and Development (OECD), it is crudely concluded that children from low-

income families in Chile take six generations to reach average income, this means, if the

concept is accepted. of genealogy that considers that a generation covers a lapse of 25

years, for a family to leave poverty it takes 150 years, a period equivalent to three

quarters of the history of independent Chile.