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Energy Monitoring by Energy Audit and Supply side


Abstract— Educational Institutions are often overlooked as a are crucial for the utility activities. In general, Energy and
contributor to energy intensive operations in India within the Power Quality Audit is the transformation of conservation
commercial buildings sector. Energy cost is one of the major ideas into realities for techno-economic solution for an
costs in the institute’s budget. Electricity consumption can be organization within a specified time frame. After the detailed
reduced with targeted efforts. Resultant energy savings provides study of energy audit and quality of power in the organization,
a venue for reinvestment within the educational institute itself. it would be convenient to check the technical feasibility and
Energy audit aims at loss reduction, improvement in energy economic viability of distributed sources that can be made
efficiency and integrated resource planning. The paper gives available in the campus of the organization.
analysis of energy audit at College of Engineering, Pune-5
(COEP) hostel campus. An attempt is made to simulate Hostel The organization of the paper is as follows. Section II
Single Line Diagram with various distributed sources and their gives a brief review on techniques used for energy
combination. A generic program to calculate effective tariff using management. The section also deals with the application of
the different sources has been developed. distributed generators for energy management. Section III
deals with the case study taken at COEP Hostel. COEP Hostel
Keywords —Energy Management, Energy Audit,Supply side is currently feed by Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution
management, Distributed Generator(DG) Company (MSEDCL). Diesel Generator is the only available
source which could work as a back-up supply. Hence section
I. INTRODUCTION IV describes various combinations of the sources that could be
Restructuring and deregulation of power system has used in future for Distributed Generation. A simulation study
given a momentum to energy management policies. The has been done for various distributed sources using PSCAD.
vertically integrated system had a limited scope of expansion Section V concludes the paper.
in generation and transmission of power. Hence a concept of
Distributed Generation started becoming popular after
deregulation. The shortage of fossil fuels, increased cost of
expansion of existing transmission lines and complicated II. ENERGY MANAGEMENT BY ENERGY MONITORING
regulations in erection of new lines have made distributed The energy management is defined as the effective
generation a popular strategy. However a thorough study of utilization of energy to increase profit or to reduce cost of
existing power system is essential before the implementation energy per unit for an organization. This strategy is
of distributed generation at a particular place. implemented by setting the procedures to minimize energy
requirements per unit of the systems.
The need to reduce cost of energy in the existing system
has been a traditional and important strategy for the success of The objective of Energy Management is
any organization. So the energy audits have to play a
significant role in managing energy expenses. Also energy x To attain optimum energy utilization throughout the
audit analysis would be helpful in finding out energy organization
conservation measures in any organization. Energy audit is a
surveying technique which consists of an analysis of energy x To minimize energy cost per unit or wastage of
usage of a organization. The information required for energy energy without affecting quality and production
audits can be obtained from building management systems x To minimize environmental effects.
(BMS) without affecting day-today working of the
organization [1].
A. Energy Audit Methodology for Energy Monitoring
The Energy Audit coupled with power quality analysis Energy Audit is the key to a systematic approach for
would give a definite direction to the energy cost reduction, energy management. As per the Energy Conservation Act,
preventive maintenance and quality control programs which

2001, Energy Audit is defined as the verification, monitoring standards in the power quality area are devoted to maintaining
and analysis of use of energy including submission of supply voltage within certain limits.
technical report containing recommendations for improving
AC power systems are designed to operate at a sinusoidal
energy efficiency with cost benefit analysis and an action plan
voltage of a fundamental frequency of 50 Hz or 60 Hz. Hence
to reduce energy consumption. Thus Energy Audit would
any deviation of a voltage source from the fundamental
result in reduction of the cost of energy per unit thereby
frequency is considered as a power quality problem.
making proper scheduling of preventive maintenance and
quality control programs for an organization [1].
C. Energy Management by Use of Distributed Generators
The type of Energy Audit to be performed depends on: - Today there is rapid growth of the use of Distributed
x Function and type of industry Generators (DGs) at distribution level in restructured power
system. This is due to the obvious advantages like increase in
x Depth to which final audit is needed reliability of supply, voltage profile improvement and
x Desirable reduction in per unit cost of energy reduction in transmission loss. But there are some drawbacks
of use of DG in the network like increased complication of the
Thus Energy Audit can be classified into the following two system protection and control, weather dependant output
types. characteristics of renewable sources and lack of co-ordination
among the DG units and with main supply [2-7].
x Preliminary Audit
The focus of research has been on the behaviour of
x Detailed Audit
generators connected to the utility. The broad categories in
which the classification of distributed sources can be done is-
In any audit, one of the key elements is the energy balance. x Directly connected and inverter interfaced
It is based on systems using energy, assumptions in present
operating conditions and calculations of energy consumption
per month. This estimated use is then compared to utility bill x Renewable and non-renewable sources
charges. x AC sources and DC sources
Detailed energy auditing is carried out in three phases: So IEEE std.1547-2003 gives the upgraded information
on interconnection between Distributed generators and the
x Phase I - Pre Audit Phase utility grid [8].
x Phase II - Audit Phase
x Phase III - Post Audit Phase
The energy audit study has been considered at COEP
B. Energy Management by Power Quality Analysis hostel.
Both electric utilities and end users of electric power are
becoming increasingly concerned about the quality of electric
power. The term power quality has become one of the most A. Data Analysis
important words in the power industry. It is a concept College of Engineering, Pune-5 (COEP) Hostels is an
responsible for development of disturbances in a system. H.T. consumer of Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution
Hence there is need to analyze these disturbances by using a Company (MSEDCL). The total connected load at COEP
system approach rather than handling them as individual hostel was 424 kW and the contract demand was 200kVA.
problems. The distribution of the connected load in the hostel
Power quality, like quality in other goods and services, is premises is given in Table I and fig.1. Maharashtra State
difficult to quantify. There is no single accepted definition of Electricity Distribution Company (MSEDCL) is the main
power quality. There are standards for voltage and other supplier for the electricity to the Hostels. Diesel Generator set
technical criteria that may be measured, but the ultimate is used as a back-up supply for emergency loads as in fig.2.
measure of power quality is determined by the performance The load curves of various blocks were analyzed for checking
and productivity of end-user equipment. If the electric power the feasibility of various distributed generators in energy
is inadequate for those needs, then it is said that the quality is management of the premise. The Load curve of LT side is
deteriorated. The common term for describing the subject is given in Fig 3.
power quality; however, it is actually the quality of the voltage
that is being addressed in most cases. Technically, in
engineering terms, power is rate of energy delivery and is
proportional to the product of the voltage and current. It would
be difficult to define the quality of this quantity in any
meaningful manner. The power supply system can only
control the quality of the voltage; it has no control over the
currents that particular loads might draw. Therefore, the

Load kW Percentage
(in %)
Lighting Loads 81.298 19
Fans 51.23 12
Water Cooler 46 11
Geysers 90 21
Fig. 3. Load Curve of LT side (17/4/2015)
CCTV 23.15 6
Air Conditioners 25.025 6 The electricity bill data has been analyzed for the
calculation of Effective Tariff of each month for last three
Computers 54.9 13 years. Average cost of unit calculated for the period of 12
months from Jan-14 to Dec-14, is Rs. 11.63/kWh.
Other 52.26 12
Power Quality analysis was done to check the presence of
Total 423.863 100 harmonics. Voltage harmonics were near about the ranges
while current harmonics were more as per IEEE standard 519-
1992. Percentage of THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) in
current was up to 16% as observed in Fig.4. Current depends
upon the appliances that have been used by the students. With
the use of non-linear loads such as computers, laptops,
variable frequency drives harmonic percentage increases. The
maximum percentage of harmonics is observed during evening
6 P.M. to 12 A.M. Harmonics also result in higher wattages
and higher VA consumption being recorded in electronic
meters resulting in higher electricity bills. Harmonics results
in consumption of more reactive power which results in
heating of the cable. Power factor decreases with more
Fig. 1. Percentage of total connected load
percentage of THD.

3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21

Fig. 4. Current Harmonics in COEP Hostel

B. Energy Conservation Measures

Some of the energy conservation measures are already
taken at COEP Hostels. They are-
x Tube-lights constitute a major load in COEP
Hostel Campus. The tube-lights in the campus
working on magnetic ballast with T12/T8 tube,
are now being replaced by T5 tube lights. The life
of T5 tubes is 15,000 hours and that of T12 is
around 5000 hours. So, changing to T5
technology has helped in reducing the
replacement of tube-lights as their life is
Fig. 2. Single line Diagram of COEP Hostel
comparatively higher. Also the tube-lights used
for corridor lighting were T8, of which half are

replaced by LED tubes. LED tubes offer excellent When the grid is used as the source, no voltage or power
lumen maintenance. fluctuations are observed as in Fig.6 and7. The net load is
157.9 kW.
x COEP Hostel consists of 11 Blocks consisting of
around 2100 students. Each Block consisted
(Except Girls Hostel Building) of 2-4 geysers of
2000 W capacity each and usage was for 3 ½
hours daily. So as to reduce the amount of
electricity required, solar water heaters are
installed in most of the Blocks reducing the
consumption as well as the bill.
x Around two-third days of the year, the solar
energy available is not sufficient to heat the water
Fig. 6. Power Vs Time when grid is used as a source
up to 60o C (Ideal hot water requirement). An
alternate assisting system of Heat –Pump has
been installed to raise the efficiency of solar water
heating system as expansion of solar system is not
permitted due to the unavailability of space.
Installation of heat pumps had increased the
efficiency of solar water heating system.
x APFC panel has micro-controller based
programmable controller which switches the
capacitor banks of suitable capacity automatically
in multiple stages by directly reading load
(kVAr). It works on the principle of VAR sensing
that tends to maintain the power factor to 0.99 Fig. 7. Voltage Vs Time when grid is used as a source
lag. APFC has been installed in hostel campus on
15th March, 2013. It results into 6-7% on energy When the diesel generator is used as the source as in
charge per month. fig. 8 and 9, no voltage or power fluctuations are observed.
The net load is 155.5 kW.


A. Use of Distributed Generators

The single line diagram of the Hostel is simulated in
PSCAD as in Fig.5. The three sources considered for
simulation are i) the main utility grid (200kVA) ii)Diesel
generator (82.5kVA and 250 kVA) iii)Solar PV (125kW). The
simulation was carried out to observe the efficiency of the
sources used and load behavior using these sources.


Solar PV
Fig. 8. Power Vs Time when Diesel Generator is used as a source
Diesel Generator Transformer
750 kVA,



Mess E, F, G C, D H block, A and B I

block Girls Hostel block
block Director block
bunglow, block

Fig. 9. Voltage Vs Time when Diesel Generator is used as a source

Fig. 5. Simulation Model Of COEP Hostel using different sources

When the solar PV source is used, voltage and power B. Economic Analysis For Distributed Generators
fluctuations are observed as shown in fig. 10 and 11. Also the The program has been developed in MATLAB which
loads are not satisfied due to fluctuations in solar radiations. deals with the calculation of effective tariff using different
sources in order to check the optimal solution to reduce the
total bill per day. Table II shows the effective cost of energy
per unit.
Step 1: Display energy sources available.
Step 2: Enter the average load per hour of
system under consideration.
Step 3: Enter the no. of sources being used.
Step 4: Enter the no. hours for each source being
Fig. 10. Power Vs Time when Solar PV is used as a source used.
Step 5: Check if the summation of all the
hours of the sources being used is
equal to 24 hours of the day or not.
Step 6: Now when the sum is equal to 24, then
get the tariff for each source.
Step 7: Calculate the total bill per day
Step 8: Calculate Effective tariff per day


Fig. 11. Voltage Vs Time when Solar PV is used as a source

When all the three sources are used together, they exhibit
Sr. Type of source Effective
their individual characteristics.
No. Tariff
1 Grid 10.5
2 Diesel Generator 18.7
3 Solar PV 7.5
4 Grid +Solar PV+ Diesel 12.5

Fig. 12. Power Vs Time when all three sources are used together
The energy audit was conducted to find the average
consumption of electricity. During weekdays morning peak
has been observed in the blocks without solar water heating
system. The minimum energy consumption was observed on
Sunday evening as the students are outside the hostel. The
various energy conservation measures that have been
implemented are verified. The campus has no alternate source
of energy except diesel generator. Hence the arrangement for
use of other green distributed sources has been suggested. The
grid is a cost effective source. Diesel Generator set is a
reliable source but not cost effective. The green source that
Fig. 13. Voltage Vs Time when all three sources are used together has been implemented in the simulation study is a solar PV
system. It has been found to be cost effective but not reliable.