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Battery Pack Design

MVKF25-vt17

Mechanical and electrical layout, Thermal modeling, Battery management

25-27/4

Avo Reinap, IEA/LU

Battery Pack Design MVKF25-vt17 Mechanical and electrical layout, Thermal modeling, Battery management 25-27/4 Avo Reinap, IEA/LU

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Goals

• Design and dimensioning of battery pack based on suitable models

– evaluate suitable battery technologies, specify cell and packing, electric and thermal termination

– battery development and energy management systems, predict state of charge, health, function, ..

– test battery compatibility to operating conditions, current waveforms

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Ageing model

Electrical model

Thermal model

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Background A

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Battery and Propulsion

Vehicular application

– Electrification improves energy

usage – hybrids

use ICE at 35% instead of 10-

 

20% efficiency

 

• Reuse deceleration energy for

 

acceleration

 

Pure renewable fuel/energy

System view

– Charging, static vs dynamic

– Compatability, AC current loading

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Background B

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Part-III Battery usage

– Pack design (Ch5) – Management (Ch6) – State and degradation (Ch7)

Part-I & II Li-ion battery

technology

Cell components (Ch1)

Cell materials (Ch3)

Cell design (Ch4)

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Fig.Ref.: EDPC’14, EDPC’15
Fig.Ref.: EDPC’14, EDPC’15

Background C

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Fig.Ref.: EDPC’14, EDPC’15 • • • Background C Electrical machine design
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Fig.Ref.: EDPC’14, EDPC’15 • • • Background C Electrical machine design

Electrical machine design Directly air-cooled cooled laminated machine windings Indirect oil-cooled stator-core and end-turns

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Enhanced winding thermal conductivity

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Content

Design

Cell “virtual” packing

 

– path from topology

Electro-Thermal models

sketching to practical realization

Packing examples

Cell, Module, Pack/Bank

Thermal design

Battery = Energy storage

– Cells, modules, backs

[Wh] & Power supply [W]

Battery Management System

Battery Management System
 

Applications: Vehicle/Grid

– Technologies: Li-ion

 

Battery cell

Geometries and dimensions

– Characteristics and properties

 

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Design

Energy Construction Conversion Production kg kW, kWh
Energy
Construction
Conversion
Production
kg
kW, kWh

A cross-road of different disciplines

Multi-dimensional (analysis) & multi-objective (synthesis)

..

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Specific energy and power

Specific energy originates from material chemistry

Capacity capability

Specific power is related to material physics and production

Internal power losses and thermal constrains – durability and safety

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Specific energy and power • Specific energy originates from material chemistry
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Specific energy and power • Specific energy originates from material chemistry
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Specific energy and power • Specific energy originates from material chemistry

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Fig.Ref.: B. Averill, P. Eldredge, “General Chemistry: Principles, Patterns and Applications”
Fig.Ref.: B. Averill, P. Eldredge, “General Chemistry: Principles, Patterns and Applications”

Value chain for EV batteries

• • From cell realization to recycling (excluding raw materials) Vehicle power (performance), energy (range) and
From cell realization to recycling (excluding raw materials)
Vehicle power (performance), energy (range) and integration (BMS)

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2PjyJhe7Q1g
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2PjyJhe7Q1g

Lithium-ion batteries:

How do they work?

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2PjyJhe7Q1g Lithium-ion batteries: How do they work? Avo R R Avo

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B. Averill, P. Eldredge, “General Chemistry: Principles, Patterns and Applications”
B. Averill, P. Eldredge, “General Chemistry: Principles, Patterns and Applications”

Electrochemical cell

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation B. Averill, P. Eldredge, “General Chemistry: Principles, Patterns and Applications” Electrochemical
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation B. Averill, P. Eldredge, “General Chemistry: Principles, Patterns and Applications” Electrochemical

Chemical reaction = two half-reactions: oxidation+reduction=redox

Side reactions due to thermal loads, pressure?

Active, electrodes, non-active, the rest including electrolyte, components

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R. Purkayastha, R.M. McMeeking, "A Linearized Model for Lithium Ion Batteries and Maps for their Performance
R. Purkayastha, R.M. McMeeking, "A Linearized Model for Lithium Ion Batteries and Maps for their Performance and Failure" ASME

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Lithium Battery Technologies

Optimal performance and lifetime capacity

Case sensitive: application vs cell configuration

R. Purkayastha, R.M. McMeeking, "A Linearized Model for Lithium Ion Batteries and Maps for their Performance
     

Abbr

Wh/kg

Lithium cobalt oxide

LiCoO 2

LCO

 

Lithium manganese oxide

LiMn 2 0 4

LMO

4.0V 114-159

Lithium iron phosphate

LiFePO 4

LFP

3.2V 114-138

Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide

LiNiMnCo0 2

NMC

3.7V 93-171

Lithium nickel manganese aluminum oxide

LiNiCoAlO 2

NCA

 

Lithium titanate

Li

4 Ti 5 O 12

LTO

 

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M. Yazdanpour, “A circuit-based approach for electro-thermal modeling of Lithium-Ion batteries”
M. Yazdanpour, “A circuit-based approach for electro-thermal modeling of Lithium-Ion batteries”

Cell material properties example

       

Thermal

Electrical

material

Thickness

[μm]

conductivity

[W/mK]

conductivity

[S/m]

+ I collector

aluminum

20

238

37.8e6

+ Electrode

 

106

1.58

(wet)

13.9 (wet)

Electrolyte

   

wet

 

Separator

 

25

0.34 (wet)

 
  • - Electrode

 

111

1.04

(wet)

100 (wet)

  • - I collector

copper

14

398

59.6e6

case

 

162

0.16

 
         

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Thermal management system

• Historic usage affects availability of energy and power in future – BMS = preferred and
Historic usage affects availability of
energy and power in future
– BMS = preferred and “optimized”
usage
– BTMS includes temperature control
Purpose of BTMS
Maintain operational temperature
– Assure temperature uniformity
Challenges
Temperature increase at high power
load
– Heat-up time in prior to start-up
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http://epg.eng.ox.ac.uk/content/degradation-lithium-ion-batteries
http://epg.eng.ox.ac.uk/content/degradation-lithium-ion-batteries

Battery performance degradation

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation http://epg.eng.ox.ac.uk/content/degradation-lithium-ion-batteries Battery performance degradation • Degradation – deterioration of useful capacity

Degradation – deterioration of useful capacity and power

capabilities Identification of physical and chemical processes behind

degradation mechanisms . Origins related to technology and usage. SoH – state of health remaining capacity due to ageing

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Battery failure

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Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Battery failure • • • Avo R R Avo Safety=thermal stability

Safety=thermal stability

BTMS is very important for performance and safety

Failure mechanisms

External/internal – internal short circuits

Mechanical, electrical, thermal – abusive conditions

Failure propagation from cell to module and pack

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Battery failure • • • Avo R R Avo Safety=thermal stability

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Thermal runaway

Rapid temperature increase

Most likely due to internal spontaneous short circuits due to impurities (that can grow during time as side effect of chemical reactions)

Avoid thermal runaway

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Thermal runaway • • Rapid temperature increase – Most likely due
– Overcharge/discharge protection activated by over pressure – – Current interrupt device (CID) Positive temperature coefficient
Overcharge/discharge protection
activated by over pressure
Current interrupt device (CID)
Positive temperature coefficient
(PTC)
Separator specified for PTC & CID,
layered separators for reducing
internal short circuits
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Question 1.1

What are the criteria for the design of suitable thermal management system for a battery back?

Battery (cell) design?

Parameters related to heating?

– Factors influencing the heat transport and dissipation?

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Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Question 1.1 • What are the criteria for the design of
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Question 1.1 • What are the criteria for the design of

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Battery modelling A

Simple approach @ limited data

Cell voltage U=E o -R o I where R o is internal resistance and E o is open circuit voltage (OCV)

– Ignoring that E o and R o depends on SoC and temperature

Heating power Q=(R o I) 2 only Ohmic losses

– Ignoring reversible heat loss, R o depends on SoC and temperature

Transient temperature rise T=QRh(1-e -t/RhCh )

– Thermal properties are not an easy target!

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Equivalent circuit relations

 

Relation

Electrical

Magnetic

Thermal

Cooling

circuit

circuit

circuit

circuit

Potential

U=E·l

N·I=H·l

=G·l

P=·l

Flow

I=J·A

Φ=B·A

Q=q·A

Q=v·A

Conductive

G=γ·A/

G=μ·A/l

G=λ·A/l

G=·A/l

element

l

Ohm’s Law

U=I·R

N·I=Φ·R

=Q·R

P=Q·R

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Battery modelling B

Electrical power Thermal • current model model temperature voltage • DoD SoH Ageing model •
Electrical
power
Thermal
current
model
model
temperature
voltage
DoD
SoH
Ageing model

Depth of discharge DoD {0 1}

{max(U cell ) min(U cell )} Inner voltage source (OCV) E(DoD)=U cell (I,DoD)R dch (DoD)*I

Charge R ch and discharge R dch resistors depends only on DoD

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Battery modelling B Electrical power Thermal • current model model temperature

– Usually Eo and Ro available – Also U and T

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www.toray-eng.com
www.toray-eng.com
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation www.toray-eng.com Cell construction • Electrode arrangement: spiral wound jelly roll, stacked

Cell construction

Electrode arrangement: spiral wound jelly roll, stacked electrodes, bobbin type

Geometry: Cylindrical, Prismatic, Pouch, Button

Components

Case: plastic (PET) or metallic (steel, Al)

Core=active components +collectors, separator – Terminals

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18650 Li-ion

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation • 18650 Li-ion Standard (size) cylindrical Li-ion cells ø18h65mm Avo R

Standard (size) cylindrical Li-ion cells

ø18h65mm

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation • 18650 Li-ion Standard (size) cylindrical Li-ion cells ø18h65mm Avo R

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Prismatic Cells

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation • Prismatic Cells Some cell producers – Hitachi, Samsung-SDI, Panasonic (Sanyo)

Some cell producers

– Hitachi, Samsung-SDI, Panasonic (Sanyo)

Prismatic

               

cell

L, [mm]

W, [mm]

T, [mm]

M, [kg]

U, [V]

C,[Ah]

p, [W/kg]

c, [Wh/kg]

Hitatchi-1

148

91

26.5

0.72

3.6

28

2300

140

SDI-1

         

37

   

SDI-2

         

60

   

SDI-3

         

94

   
                 

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Kokam.com
Kokam.com

Kokam’s SLPB cell

SLPB – Superior Lithium Polymer Battery

Pouch type improved heat dissipation due to larger surfaces

Example 240Ah 4.8kg cell

Pheat=1.1kW @ 480A Acool=2x0.15 m 2

– – V=46.2x32.7x1.58 cm

Kokam large cells

260 240 220 200 SLPB160460330 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 0 500 1000 1500
260
240
220
200
SLPB160460330
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
specific energy, w cell [Wh/kg]

specific power, p cell [W/kg]

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Overview of cell producers for xEVs

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Overview of cell producers for xEVs • It is easier to

It is easier to find producer than product ;)

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Overview of cell producers for xEVs • It is easier to

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Battery back sizing

Number of series connected cells in strings

– Ns=Udc/Ucell

Number of parallel connected strings

– Np=Energy/(Ns*[Wh/kg]*[kg]) – Np=Energy/(Ucell*”cell capacity”)

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Battery back sizing • Number of series connected cells in strings

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Calculation example

• • Ch4 – Cell data Ch5 – EV and HEV spec
Ch4 – Cell data
Ch5 – EV and HEV spec

300 V * 100 A

Pmax = 2*30kW

P/E ratio 2 and 20

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Calculation example • • Ch4 – Cell data Ch5 – EV

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Specification list

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Specification list • Forced heating/cooling for battery back – Concepts, topologies,

• Forced heating/cooling for battery back

– Concepts, topologies, realization ideas, …

• Battery cell

– Construction, properties, heat sources, thermal loads, …

• Heat conductor

– Thermal accessibility, thermal contacts, …

• Cooling plate

– Realisation, performance, …

Source
Source
Link
Link
Sink
Sink

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Question 1.2

Battery pack specification

Power demand?

– Capacity? – Weight or size?

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Thermal design

Heat Electricity
Heat
Electricity

Methods, models, calculation examples for thermal design

Practical realisation examples from some car manufacturers

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Thermal modelling

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Thermal modelling • Models 1D, 2D, 3D analytic or numeric –

• Models 1D, 2D, 3D analytic or numeric

– Computation time vs accuracy, …

• Single cell, a module of cells, battery back

– Specification of equivalent cell volume with specific losses, …

• Assembling, heat transport and temperature distribution

– Mechanical assembly and thermal accessibility, thermal contacts

• Integration of active cooling circuits

– Realisation, estimation of coolant flow and performance, …

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Source
Source
Link
Link
Sink
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Thermal integration

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Thermal integration • • • Direct cooling where it is most

Direct cooling where it is

most needed in order to

minimize heat transport

through the solids that causes interior temperature rise and uneven temperature distribution

Consider the effects of thermal cycling and expansion

Experiences from other electric drive components

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Thermal design simplifies control and BMS

Cells (EL+Chemi) – modules (Heat) – battery pack (Duty)

Battery thermal management

Keep temperature & use little energy for operation

Keep it Simple is the rule of the day

Prototype development and prototyping supported buy

models

– CAD (SW) – components and parts (Ansys or Comsol – fluids and solids) – system (Simulink/Matlab)

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Thermal design simplifies control and BMS • Cells (EL+Chemi) – modules

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Thermal model

cell

R cell

surf

R link

fluid

P
P

P

C

cell

surf

cell

R

cell

C

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Thermal model  cell R  surf R link  fluid

representing physical reality (?)

Main focus on only on reasonable cell surface temperature surf as cell is remains unknown (?)

surf = fluid + R*P

Thermal resistances: simplifications vs idealisation

C cell

  • d

dt

  • 1 Practical realization for fluid dynamics

cell

cell

Q

P

h

c

fluid in

,

fluid out

,

Thermography for rapid thermal assessment

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Model library

• Impedance based equivalent circuit models, dynamic experiment based

Impedance based equivalent circuit models, dynamic experiment based

Physics and chemistry-based models relay on model parameterisation and properties

• Energy or power-flow models are typically used on a system level

Energy or power-flow models are typically used on a system level

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Empirical models black box models suitable for control not design

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Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Cell library • Selected cell examples: cylindrical, prismatic, pouch • This
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Cell library • Selected cell examples: cylindrical, prismatic, pouch • This

Cell library

Selected cell examples:

cylindrical, prismatic, pouch

This information is used for virtual packing and rough estimation on temperature rise and distribution

Manufacturer

configuration

Geometry

Voltage

Capacity

Specific

Weight

power

   

[mm]

[V]

[Ah]

[W/kg]

[g]

Panasonic

Cylindrical

Ø18.5x65.3

3.6

3.2

120

48.5

Hitatchi

Prismatic

148x91x26.5

3.6

28

2300

720

Kokam

Pouch

462x327x15.8

3.6

240

360

4780

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Cell “virtual” packing

For 300V there is need of 84 series connected 3.6V cells

• For 300V there is need of 84 series connected 3.6V cells

First draft of 148x26.5 mm prismatic cell arrangement where 5 mm distance is left between the rows and groups of 7 cells

First draft of ø18 mm 4 parallel cylindrical cell arrangement with cooling channel in between the cells

• First draft of ø18 mm 4 parallel cylindrical cell arrangement with cooling channel in between

Not only visualization but a parameterized model with coupling to finite element analysis (FEA)

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Electric connection of cells

Series-parallel connections

Connection-bars and cables are part of heat generation but also distribution

Nickel plate + spot welding = healthy low resistance connections

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Electric connection of cells • Series - parallel connections • Connection-bars

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Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Electric connection of cells • Series - parallel connections • Connection-bars
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Electric connection of cells • Series - parallel connections • Connection-bars

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Estimation of thermal conductivity

    cond ins  eff     k   
cond
ins
eff
 k 
 1  k
ins
f
cond
f

L
L  k
L
 1 
k
L
k
1
k
f
f
ins
f
cond
f
eff
cond
ins
cond
ins

Equivalent thermal conductivity of a coil is given by the filling factor of the conductor foil (copper in this example) and the thermal conductivity of the medium between the conductor foils

jelly-roll:12% Al+Cu λ>200W/mK, 6% eparator λ<0.35W/mK,

rest λ~1W/mK Across coil or roll λ~1W/mK, along λ>>1W/mK

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Using 2D FE for sketching

• FEMM electromagnetism, heat transfer, electric currents • Easy to use, library of Matlab functions –
FEMM electromagnetism,
heat transfer, electric
currents
Easy to use, library of Matlab
functions
Drawing the endpoints of the lines
and arc segments for a region,
Connecting the endpoints with
either line segments or arc
segments to complete the region,
Defining material properties and
mesh sizing for each region,
Specifying boundary conditions
on the outer edges of the
geometry.
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Battery pack with cylindrical cells

“Empty” space between cells Cross-flow through battery module

Narrow spacing – expectedly no cooling

Large spacing for sake of better cooling is often considered impractical

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Battery pack with cylindrical cells • • “Empty” space between cells

CFD vs “fast” design approaches

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Battery pack with cylindrical cells • • “Empty” space between cells

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Battery back with prismatic cells

• • Temperature homogenization analysis Analysis of thermal runaway Avo Avo RR MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design
Temperature homogenization analysis
Analysis of thermal runaway
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Battery back with prismatic cells • • Temperature homogenization analysis Analysis of thermal runaway Avo Avo

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Battery pack with pouch cells

Coupled electro-thermal FE+model order reduction (MOR) simulation compared to thermographic images

Coupled electro-thermal FE+model order reduction (MOR) simulation compared to thermographic images
• Coupled electro-thermal FE+model order reduction (MOR) simulation compared to thermographic images

A reduced order model (ROM) based on singular value decomposition (SVD)

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Direct air-cooled Li-ion pouch battery cell in order to improve the understanding (modelling) and practical realization

Direct air-cooled Li-ion pouch battery cell in order to improve the understanding (modelling) and practical realization of battery module

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Vehicular

application

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Vehicular application Avo R R Avo MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design 46
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Vehicular application Avo R R Avo MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design 46

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Chevy 104kW 20kWh

 
• GM Volt and Spark EV use thin prismatic shaped cooling plates in between the cells

GM Volt and Spark EV use thin prismatic shaped cooling plates in between the cells with the liquid coolant circulating thru the plate.

The Volt cooling scheme is

very effective from a cooling point of view but it is complicated . The cells are

very effective from a cooling point of view but it is complicated. The cells are encased in multiple plastic frames

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Tesla S 285kW 70kWh

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Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Tesla S 285kW 70kWh Avo R R Avo • Tesla snakes
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Tesla S 285kW 70kWh Avo R R Avo • Tesla snakes

Tesla snakes a flattened cooling tube thru their cylindrical cells resulting in a very simple cooling scheme with very few points for leakage.

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Tesla S 285kW 70kWh Avo R R Avo • Tesla snakes

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BWM i3 125kW 21-33kWh

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation BWM i3 125kW 21-33kWh • The BMW i3 cools the bottom
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation BWM i3 125kW 21-33kWh • The BMW i3 cools the bottom

The BMW i3 cools the bottom of the battery case with refrigerant eliminating the liquid coolant entirely.

New energy dense lithium ion cells (50% more)

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Integration example by BMW

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Integration example by Tesla

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Integration example by Tesla • 60kWh, 352V, 14 modules, 6216 cells
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Integration example by Tesla • 60kWh, 352V, 14 modules, 6216 cells

60kWh, 352V, 14 modules, 6216 cells in groups of 74=6x14

85kWh, 402V, 16 modules, 7104 cells

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Integration example by Tesla

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Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Accommodation of cylindrical cells

Avo Avo RR MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation
Avo
Avo RR
MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

5454

Cool-plate and coolant • Single stage heat transfer insufficient hA vs UA Avo Avo RR MVKF25-vt17
Cool-plate and
coolant
Single stage heat transfer
insufficient hA vs UA
Avo
Avo RR
MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design
5555
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Coolant

 

Air

 

H 2

C0 2

H 2 0

Tr Oil

, degC

20

120

20

120

20

120

20

120

20

120

c, kJ/kgK

1.00

 
  • 1.01 14.5

14.2

 

0.85

0.94

4.19

4.25

1.71

2.11

, kg/m 3

1.20

 
  • 0.89 0.06

0.08

 

1.83

1.36

 
  • 999 816

946

879

 

λ,mW/mK

26

33

178

227

16

24

 
  • 594 102

686

111

 

, uPas

18

23

8

11

14

19

1000

200

   

Avo RR

Avo

MVKF25-vt17 BTMS Battery Pack Design
MVKF25-vt17 BTMS
Battery Pack Design

5656

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Conjugate heat transfer

Avo R

Avo R

The character of flow is described by Reinolds number,

and the coolant is described by Prandtl number

  • c p

Pr

1

Q

Re

vD

h

D

h

k

The hydraulic diameter is related to the geometric layout of the cooling channel

A

in

the heat transfer is expressed by Nusselt number

Nu

h

k

  • D h

D  h 4  area perimeter qD h k      wall
D
h
4  area
perimeter
qD
h
k
  
wall
bulk
 in
 out
P cool
cQ
d
cool
P
heat
hA
cool
d
cond
 win
L
h
MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design
L

57

57

B. Sundén, “Introduction to Heat transfer”
B. Sundén, “Introduction to Heat transfer”

Heat transfer mapping

1300 0 1000 0 1000 0 7000 1300 0 160 4000 4000 140 7000 1500 1400
1300 0
1000 0
1000 0
7000
1300 0
160
4000
4000
140
7000
1500
1400 0
1300
Cooling power, p=c p Q( out - in ) [W]
c=3500J/kgK, =900kg/m 3
120
1500
1100
220
440
1000 0
200
1200 0
200
100
Reynolds number, Re=2d h Q/(A) [-]
1200 0
200
900
120
1300
Driving parameters for cooling
220
1000
180
150
420
1100
420
Nusselts number,
420
Nu=f(Re,Pr) [-]
cooling power, p=
P=f(
c
Q(
,Q) at
-
in ) [W]
1300
200
150
80
150
700
p
160
out
out
 in
1000 0
1100
700
220
1000 0
180
100
900
80
30
1000
900
500
Heat transfer coefficient, h=Nu k/D h [W/(m 2 K)]
140
900
400
200
400
Flow (Re) and coolant (Pr)
300
400
100
400
160
500
1300
60
220
100
100
8000
120
180
700
Temperature across boundary,
29
60
characterization
8000
140
8000
40
700
200
P cool /(hA cool ) [C]
100
160
7000
380
380
380
380
220
300
500
1100
120
180
80
100
140
80
Pressure drop,
1000
dP [Pa]
28
4000
Heat transfer
200
50
100
1500
50
50
160
300
500
60
220
6000
6000
20
120
360
180
360
360
80
140
Ideal cooling supply power, dPQ [-]
1
00
correlations (Nu) and
40
200
27
100
100
40
160
40
60
1300
700
60
300
220
120
20
180
900
80
Cooling power,
- in ) [W]
coefficient h
0
100
140
200
300 400
500 600
700
800 900
1000
340
500
4000
4000
40
200
p=c p Q( out
100
flow rate, Q [L/min]
26
1100
160
60
250
120
20
100
20
180
80
Wall and winding temperature
0
100 200
140
300 400
500 600
700
800 900
1000
700
40
40
300
100
flow rate, Q [L/min]
160
20
25
60
2000
120
300
2000
900
4000
20
200
80
0
100 200
140
300 400
500 600
700
800 900
1000
Pressure across cooling channel
100
40
100
flow rate, Q [L/min]
20
500
60
24
700
120
20
80
0
100 200
300 400
500 600
700
800 900
1000
Power for supply
150
40
100
flow rate, Q [L/min]
60
23
500
20
80
Expected cooling power
0
100 200
300
400
500
600 700
800 900
1000
300
40
100
1000
100
flow rate, Q [L/min]
60
100
300
20
P=f( w ,Q) at  in
22
0
100 200
300 400
500 600
700
800 900
1000
40
flow rate, Q [L/min]
1000
100
50
20
100
0
100 200
300 400
500 600
21
700
800 900
1000
flow rate, Q [L/min]
0
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
20
flow rate, Q [L/min]
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
flow rate, Q [L/min]
Avo
Avo RR
MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design
5858
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation
outlet temperature,  out [  C]
1200
1000
1400
outlet temperature,  out [  C]
800
1000
600
7.8
1200
outlet temperature,  out [  C]
800
8
600
1600
8.2
400
400
7.6
7.4
1400
200
200
200
outlet temperature,  out [  C]
800
1200
1000
8
400
600
6.8
7
7.2
6.6
7.8
8.4
7.6
7.2
7.4
outlet temperature,  out [  C]
6.8
7
6.6
6.8
6.6
8.2
8.6
7
7.2
7.4
8
7.8
7.6
outlet temperature,  out [  C]
outlet temperature,  out [  C]
wall temperature,  out [  C]
outlet temperature,  out [  C]

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Thermal analysis of cell assembly

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Thermal analysis of cell assembly • Geometric data – Defined by

Geometric data

– Defined by German standard DIN 91252

Heat transfer inside the cell

– From cell to module and pack

– Cell = Jelly-roll (heater) + carrier (assembly)

Heating power

– Worst case P=I 2 R o =50W

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Thermal analysis of cell assembly • Geometric data – Defined by
Hitachi 3.6v 35Ah 0.8mΩ@10A 155x27x118 incl terminals 810g
Hitachi 3.6v 35Ah 0.8mΩ@10A
155x27x118 incl terminals 810g

Avo RR

Avo

MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design

5959

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Thermal accessibility of a cell

 
• Available thermal connection areas

Available thermal connection areas

Large long sides 2x134cm 2 but low thermal conductivity

– Sides, lateral sides 2x24cm 2 and Bottom side 39cm 2

• Bottom and short sides have expectedly better inherit thermal contact

Bottom and short sides have expectedly better inherit thermal contact

Avo RR

Avo

MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design

6060

H. Lundgren et al, ”Thermal Management of Large-Format Prismatic Lithium-Ion Battery in PHEV Application”
H. Lundgren et al, ”Thermal Management of Large-Format Prismatic Lithium-Ion Battery in PHEV Application”

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Inside a battery cell

H. Lundgren et al, ”Thermal Management of Large-Format Prismatic Lithium-Ion Battery in PHEV Application” Industrial Electrical

DIN SPEC 91252:2011

Lundgren et al 2016

Cell dimensions are known, jelly-roll geometry only guessed

Heat conductivity defined in-plane and cross-plane for whole cell unit and jelly roll (including heat capacity)

Important part for thermal models are termination and equivalent jelly-roll

Avo RR

Avo

MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design

6161

H. Lundgren et al, ”Thermal Management of Large-Format Prismatic Lithium-Ion Battery in PHEV Application”
H. Lundgren et al, ”Thermal Management of Large-Format Prismatic Lithium-Ion Battery in PHEV Application”

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Surface temperature response

H. Lundgren et al, ”Thermal Management of Large-Format Prismatic Lithium-Ion Battery in PHEV Application” Industrial Electrical

Thermal vs electric power extraction and comparison

Thermal conductivity

Through-foil

0.95W/mK

Along foil 30.8 W/mK

H. Lundgren et al, ”Thermal Management of Large-Format Prismatic Lithium-Ion Battery in PHEV Application” Industrial Electrical

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

2D FE over cross-sections

1 Q v =140W/dm 3 ,  surf =30 o C 3 Temperature , [C] 2
1
Q v =140W/dm 3 ,  surf =30 o C
3
Temperature , [C]
2
30
36
42
48
54
60
λ cell =20 W/mK
λ cell =20 W/mK

Case

Q base

Q lateral

max

[W]

[W]

[ o C]

 
  • 1 50

0

60

 
  • 2 33

17

55

 
  • 3 21

29

44

6363

λ cell =1 W/mK Avo RR Avo
λ cell =1 W/mK
Avo RR
Avo

MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

• Battery cell

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation • Battery cell Observations A – P=50 W heating, 1/R={0.6 0.5

Observations A

– P=50 W heating, 1/R={0.6 0.5 0.28} K/W, ={30 25 14} K

• Heat conductor

– Ideal 1/R=0 K/W, =0 K

• Cooling plate

– Ideal fluid =wall =surf =30 o C

 cell =  surf +Δ
cell =  surf +Δ
 surf =30 o C
 surf =30 o C
 wall =30 o C
 wall =30 o C
C  fluid =30 o
C
 fluid =30 o
Source Link Sink 50 W per cell Avo Avo RR MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design 6464
Source
Link
Sink
50 W per cell
Avo
Avo RR
MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design
6464

Realization A

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Mechanical assembly in “cross” plane direction

Thermal enhancement both in plane directions

– Lateral clamp or forcing plate – Battery to base contact

..

Avo RR

Avo

MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design

6565

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Cell clamped into heat conductor

Q v =140W/dm 3 ,  surf =30 o C
Q v =140W/dm 3 ,  surf =30 o C
1 3 Temperature , [C]
1
3
Temperature , [C]
2
2
30 36 42 48 54 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 -0.08
30
36
42
48
54
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
-0.08
-0.06
-0.04
-0.02
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
height, [m]

length, [m]

10μm gap ∆ gap =3 o C 100μm gap ∆ gap =21 o C
10μm gap ∆ gap =3 o C
100μm gap ∆ gap =21 o C

60

Case

Q base

Q lateral

max

[W]

[W]

[ o C]

1

 
  • 34 51

16

 

2

 
  • 32 54

18

 

3

 
  • 27 72

23

 

66

66

MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design

Avo R

Avo R

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Cell linked to cool-plate

1
1
Q v =140W/dm 3 ,  fluid =25 o C 2 3 Temperature , [C] 30
Q v =140W/dm 3 ,  fluid =25 o C
2
3
Temperature , [C]
30
36
42
48
54
60
Q base Q lateral  max Case 0.08 [W] [W] [ o C] 0.06 0.04 1-30
Q base
Q lateral
 max
Case
0.08
[W]
[W]
[ o C]
0.06
0.04
1-30
36
14
53
0.02
0
2-h 1
35
15
68
-0.02
-0.1
-0.08
-0.06
-0.04
-0.02
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
length, [m]
3-h 2
35
15
148
h 1 =1000W/Km 2 wall ∆ wall =15 o C
h 2 =200W/Km 2 wall ∆ wall =95 o C
MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design
67
67
height, [m]

Avo R

Avo R

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Transient heating

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Transient heating • 5 minutes between the frames (FEMM transient HT)
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Transient heating • 5 minutes between the frames (FEMM transient HT)

5 minutes between the frames (FEMM transient HT)

Hot side of the scale (usually presented in between 20-30 o C)

One dominating heat capacitance only

Avo RR

Avo

MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design

6868

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

• Battery cell

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation • Battery cell Summary – ∆  b={30 25 14} K

Summary

b={30 25 14} K @ 50W – actual load is lower

• Heat conductor

– Insufficient thermal contact 0.1 mm air c=20K @ 50W

• Cooling plate

– Insufficient heat transfer h 2 =200W/Km 2 wall w l =95 o C

 cell =  surf +Δb
cell =  surf +Δb
 surf =  wall +Δc
 surf =  wall +Δc
 wall =  fluid +Δw
 wall =  fluid +Δw
C  fluid =30 o
C
 fluid =30 o
Source Link Sink 50 W per cell Avo Avo RR MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design 6969
Source
Link
Sink
50 W per cell
Avo
Avo RR
MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design
6969

Evaluation of direct forced cooling

• Cooling channel arrangements • Thermography of heat transients – 300 A DC – 400-500 L/min
• Cooling channel
arrangements
• Thermography of heat
transients
– 300 A DC
– 400-500 L/min
• Location of hot-spots
– “turns” of the layer
edges where the
cross section is less
than 10 mm 2
– Edge layer 1 is
closest to air-gap
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Thermal control and management

..

by

thermal design and active cooling

J. Li, Z. Zhu, “Battery Thermal Management Systems of Electric Vehicles”, MSc Chalmers 2014

29.5/17.7 kWh

1700/270 kg

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Thermal control and management • .. by thermal design and active
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Thermal control and management • .. by thermal design and active
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Thermal control and management • .. by thermal design and active

Avo RR

Avo

MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design

7171

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Energy Management Battery management system

Information Energy
Information
Energy

Monitoring – measure what is important

Control – keep it optimal and constrained

Diagnosis – keep battery cells healthy

Avo RR

Avo

MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design

7272

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Battery Management System - BMS

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation • • • Battery Management System - BMS Best and safe

Best and safe use of energy Voltage U+U and temperature +management: cell balancing or equalizer, check margins Charge/discharge

– Integration of current – SoC – Power and capacity fade – SoH

Avo R

Avo R

MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design

73

73

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Charge and discharge control

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Charge and discharge control • maintain the voltage limits while respecting
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Charge and discharge control • maintain the voltage limits while respecting

maintain the voltage limits while respecting the current and temperature limits

LOW Constant current charging followed by voltage and temperature control

HIGH current for constant voltage charging

Combined CV+CC

 

MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design

74 74

Cell balancing

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Voltage equalization, which is to fill up energy and maximize capacity and life by ”removing” unbalanced weak links

Active/passive – taking/wasting energy

Avo R

Avo R

MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design

75

75

https://www.altera.com/solutions/industry/automotive/applications/electric-vehicles/battery-management-system.html
https://www.altera.com/solutions/industry/automotive/applications/electric-vehicles/battery-management-system.html
BMS development • Overall functional safety is better match to global FPGA than to local micro
BMS development
Overall functional safety is better match to global
FPGA than to local micro processor units
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

– parallelism for performance with fail-safe logic

Avo R

Avo R

MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design

76

76

http://www.avl-functions.de/Battery-Management-S.30.0.html?&L=1
http://www.avl-functions.de/Battery-Management-S.30.0.html?&L=1

Ageing model

Electrical model

Thermal model

BMS function structure

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Avo R

Avo R

I/O, monitoring, decisions and safety relevant funtions

MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design

77

77

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

http://mocha-java.uccs.edu/ideate/courses.html
http://mocha-java.uccs.edu/ideate/courses.html

BMS control sequence

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation http://mocha-java.uccs.edu/ideate/courses.html BMS control sequence • Intelligent batteries due to base functions

Intelligent batteries due to base functions of a battery management system

Avo R

Avo R

MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design

78

78

http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/4/11/1840/htm
http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/4/11/1840/htm

BMS basic functions

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Cell protection, charge control, demand management, SoC and SoH determination, cell balancing, authentication and identification, communication – are some objectives for BMS

Avo R

Avo R

MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design

79

79

http://www.mpoweruk.com/bms.htm
http://www.mpoweruk.com/bms.htm

BMS Scope and Failure Consequences

Avo R Avo R MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design BTMS Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation
Avo R
Avo R
MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design
BTMS
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

80

80

http://www.electronicproducts.com/Power_Products/Batteries_and_Fuel_Cells/Battery_management_architectures_for_HEVs.aspx
http://www.electronicproducts.com/Power_Products/Batteries_and_Fuel_Cells/Battery_management_architectures_for_HEVs.aspx

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

BMS architectures for xEVs

http://www.electronicproducts.com/Power_Products/Batteries_and_Fuel_Cells/Battery_management_architectures_for_HEVs.aspx Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation BMS architectures for xEVs • • • Communication, reliability and

Communication, reliability and accuracy Practical attachment, number of components and connections

Few architectures with different features in connections and communication

Avo R

Avo R

MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design

81

81

Practical implementation

• Added intelligence, where and how? Sharing information, history and communication Avo R Avo R MVKF25-vt17
Added intelligence, where and how? Sharing
information, history and communication
Avo R
Avo R
MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

82

82

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

http://www.linear.com/product/LTC6802-1
http://www.linear.com/product/LTC6802-1

Multicell Battery Stack Monitor

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation http://www.linear.com/product/LTC6802-1 Multicell Battery Stack Monitor • Component name LTC6802-1, Up to

Component name LTC6802-1, Up to 12 cells, 13 ms measurement interval, up to 1000V, passive cell balancing

Avo R

Avo R

MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design

83

83

http://www.nxp.com/products/automotive-products/energy-power-management/can-transceivers/reference-design-mm9z1-638-4-cell-
http://www.nxp.com/products/automotive-products/energy-power-management/can-transceivers/reference-design-mm9z1-638-4-cell-

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

BMS sensor module

http://www.nxp.com/products/automotive-products/energy-power-management/can-transceivers/reference-design-mm9z1-638-4-cell- Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation BMS sensor module MM9Z1 638 4-Cell Lithium Battery BMS unit
http://www.nxp.com/products/automotive-products/energy-power-management/can-transceivers/reference-design-mm9z1-638-4-cell- Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation BMS sensor module MM9Z1 638 4-Cell Lithium Battery BMS unit

MM9Z1 638 4-Cell Lithium Battery BMS unit

•battery stack monitor IC can measure a number of cell voltages and provide for the discharge of individual cells to bring them into balance with the rest of the stack

Avo R

Avo R

MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design

84

84

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Some future trends by Bosch

Avo R

MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design 85
MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design
85

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Back to Battery modelling

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Back to Battery modelling • power_battery, power_pattery_temperature • Avo R Avo

power_battery, power_pattery_temperature

Avo R

Avo R

State of the art model for concept development and evaluation

MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design

86

86

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Physics coupled equivalent circuits

Battery equivalent circuit models

 

Rint model Eo, Ro

First order (adds) R1, C1

Second order (adds) R2, C2

Impedance model

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) – Coupled to pfysics (?)

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Physics coupled equivalent circuits • Battery equivalent circuit models – Rint
Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation Physics coupled equivalent circuits • Battery equivalent circuit models – Rint

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/testing_lithium_based_batteries
http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/testing_lithium_based_batteries

Testing batteries

Avo RR

Avo

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/testing_lithium_based_batteries Testing batteries • • • Avo R R Avo Electrochemical

Electrochemical dynamic response

Respons is related to ion- current/diffusion rate in the cell

Slower response for weaker batteries

Characterization

LF dubbed diffusion

MF charge transfer

HF migration

Batteries with faded capacity suffer from low charge transfer and slow active Li- ion diffusion.

MVKF25-vt17 Battery Pack Design

8888

Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

Useful links and Aknowledgement

mpoweruk.com

Batteryuniversity.com

liionbms.com/php/cells.php

Aknowledged authors and their results shown on the previous pages (with some links and references)