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(India) Private Limited
(Paper & Solutions)
Time : 3 Hours Date : 07-10-2018
Instructions
 Calculators (in any form) and protractors are not allowed.

 Rulers all the questions.

 All questions carry equal marks. Maximum marks : 102.

 Answer to each question should start on a new page. Clearly indicate the question number.

1. Let ABC be a triangle with integer sides in which AB < AC. Let the tangent to the circumcircle of triangle
ABC at A intersect the line BC at D. Suppose AD is also an integer. Prove that gcd (AB, AC) > 1.
Sol. In ABD
d x d x
=  = A
sin(  – B) sinC sinB sinC
b c C
In ABC  =
sinB sinC c b
d
d x dc d b
 = x=  = …(i)
b c b x c D a C
2
Now, d = x (a + x) x B C
2
d a b2 ab b2 ab  cd
 x  = 1 + x  c 2 = 1 + cd  c = d
 
(b2 – c 2 )d (b  c)(b – c)d
b2d = abc + c2d a = a =
bc bc
If GCD of (b, c) = 1, then 
b does not divides (b + c), c does not divides (b + c), b does not divides (b – c), c does not divides(b – c)
d
So  bc divides d and = k (some natural no.)
bc
Now, a = (b + c) (b – c) k ..(ii)
but  b + c > a
So (ii) is not possible  GCD of (b, c) > 1.

2. Let n be a natural number. Find all real number x satisfying the equation.
n
kx k n(n  1)
 1 x
k 1
2k

4
n k
k.x n(n  1)
Sol.  1 x
k 1
2k
=
4
n
k n(n  1)
 1
=
4
…(1)
k 1 xk 
xk
1
We know that  for n  0 xk +  2
xk
k 1
if x = 1 x + = 2  then equation (1) satisfies
xk
1
if x > 1 xk + >2
xk
then we observe that L.H.S. 
n
k 1 2 3 n
 k 1
=
1
+
2 1
+
3 1
+ …. +
n 1
k 1 x  x x  2 x   x 
x k x x x xn
Here each term’s denominator is greater than 2, so each term will become less than half of the
1 n(n  1)
corresponding natural no. So overall L.H.S. will be less than .
2 2
So less than R.H.S, have no solution.
If x < 0. So whenever k is even each term is still less than half the corresponding natural
number & whenever k is odd the term become negative.
So the L.H.S will have alternatively positive and negative terms. The overall sum is less than
the previous case. So still not equal to R.H.S.
Hence only one solution x = 1.

3. For a rational number r, its period is the length of the smallest repeating block in its decimal expansion.
For example, the number r = 0.123123123 ... has period 3. If S denotes the set of all rational numbers r
of the form r = 0.abcdefgh having period 8, find the sum of all the elements of S.
8
1  10 –2 
Sol. Total = 8   (k)  A  (9999, 9999 cannot be counted)
10  1  k 1 
104 – 2
A =  (104 + 1).abcd = (10 4 + 1) ×  (r)
r 1

4
4 4 (10  1)
= (10 + 1) × (10 – 2) ×
2
 (108 – 2)(108 – 1) (108 – 1)(10 4 – 2)  1
 Total =  – . 8
 2 2  10 – 1
 10 8 – 104  1
=   × 10 4 (104 – 1)
 2  2

4. Let E denote the set of 25 points (m, n) in the xy-plane, where m, n are natural numbers. 1  m  5, 1  n  5.
Suppose the points of E are arbitrarily coloured using two colours, red and blue. Show that there always
exist four points in the set E of the form (a, b), (a + k, b), (a + k, b + k), (a, b + k) for some positive
integer k such that at least three of these four points have the same colour. (That is, there always exist
four points is the set E which form the vertices of a square with sides parallel to axes and having at least
three points of the same colour.)
Sol. Let the bold dot represent red and other dot represent blue. Now consider this entire diagram be made
up of building blocks (B.B) which are squares of 1 sq. units area
So we can have only 2 types of BB.
I II
There are other orientations possible,
still they belong to I or II
Now we are placing these squares on the grid below.
B C
A D
Case A (Use only I)
B B C There is no way
A to place I in D
A A
case B (Use only II)
B B C There is no way
A to place II in D
A A
case C (Use only I & II)

B B C B C
A
A A A D
Wow, we have now arrived at two 2 × 2
BB satisfying the given condition.
(or) But there two BB are falling in case A,
which we have ruled out.
B B C B C Hence proved
A
A A A D

5. Find all natural numbers n such that 1 + [ 2n] divides 2n. (For any real number x, [x] denotes the
largest integer not exceeding x).
Sol. Let 2n  k
 k  2n < k + 1
2 2
 k  2n < k + 2k + 1
k2, k2 + 1, k2 + 2, ......, k2 + k ...... k2 + 2k

Not divisible by k + 1 divisible by Not divisible by k + 1
(k + 1)
k(k  1)
 All the numbers (n) of the form ; k = 1, 2, 3, ..... will satisfy the given condition.
2

6. Let ABC be an acute-angled triangle with AB < AC. Let I be the incentre of triangle ABC and let D, E, F
be the points at which its incircle touches the sides BC, CA, AB, respectively. Let BI, CI meet the line EF
at Y, X respectively. Further assume that both X and Y are outside the triangle ABC. Prove that
(i) B, C, Y, X are concyclic ; and
(ii) I is also the incentre of triangle DYX.
A
BC
Sol. (i) GIC =
2
C
EIC = 90° –
2
X F E Y
C BC B
EIG = EIC – GIC = 90° – – = 90° – C –
2 2 2 G
B
EGI = 90° – (EIG) = C  I
2
B B/2 C/2
YGC = EGI = C 
2 B/2 C/2
Now, AEF = AFE (as AF = AE) B D C
180  A B  C
 AEF = 
2 2
BC
AEF = YEG =
2
B BC C
 EYG = YGC – YEG = C   =
2 2 2
C
 EYG = XYB = XCB =
2
 BCYX is cyclic.
C
(ii) XYB = ECI =
2
 EYCI is cyclic
IEC = IYC = 90°
IYC = 90° & IDC = 90°
 IDCY is cyclic
C
IYD = ICD = , So YI is bisector of XYD
2
Similarly XI is the bisector of YXD
 I is incentre of DXY