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Communication skill by ATIF

Communication Skills
The term 'Communication' has been derived from the Latin word 'communis' that means 'common'. Thus 'to communicate'
means 'to make common' or 'to make known'. This act of making common and known is carried out through exchange of
thoughts, ideas or the like. The exchange of thoughts and ideas can be had by gestures, signs, signals, speech or writing.
People are said to be in communication when they discuss some matter, or when they talk on telephone, or when they
exchange information through letters. Basically, communication is sharing information, whether in writing or orally.

Effective communication is all about conveying your messages to other people clearly and unambiguously. It's also about
receiving information that others are sending to you, with as little distortion as possible. In fact, communication is only
successful when both the sender and the receiver understand the same information as a result of the communication.

The Communication Process

Communication that is what we try to do speak to those near us
Thought: First, information exists in the mind of the sender. This can be a concept, idea, information, or feelings.

Encoding: Next, a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols’

Decoding: lastly, the receiver translates the words or symbols into a concept or information that he or she can understand.

Types of communication
1. Verbal Communication
The basis of communication is the interaction between people. Verbal communication is one way for people to
communicate face-to-face. Some of the key components of verbal communication are sound, words, speaking, and

Types of Verbal Communication

There are basically two types of verbal communication:-

* Oral-which means spoken words

* Written-which means in written form

2 Non Verbal Communication

Communication skill by ATIF

Nonverbal communication can be best defined as the procedure of communicating with a person or party without using
any form of speech to grab an audience attention or to exploit a message. Nonverbal communication is often used to make
an expression of a thought or thoughts and make your message more appealing and interesting to whom you are speaking.

The advantages of non-verbal communication are:

1) You can communicate with someone who is hard of hearing of deaf.

2) You can communicate at place where you are supposed to maintain silence.

3) You can communicate something which you don't want others to hear or listen to.

4) You can communicate if you are far away from a person. The person can see but not hear you.

5) Non-verbal communication makes conversation short and brief.

6) You can save on time and use it as a tool to communicate with people who don’t understand your language.

The disadvantages of non-verbal communication are:

1) You cannot have long conversation.

2) Cannot discuss the particulars of your message

3) Difficult to understand and requires a lot of repetitions.

4) Cannot be used as a public tool for communication.

6) Less influential and cannot be used everywhere.

7) Not everybody prefers to communicate through non-verbal communication.

8) Cannot create an impression upon people/listeners.

Types of Nonverbal Communication

What are the types of nonverbal communication? There are 5 types of nonverbal communication; the 5 types of nonverbal
communication are the following:

1. Eye Contact 2. Facial Expressions 3. Gestures 4. Posture & Body Orientation 5. Proximity 6. Vocal

Eye contact: This helps to regulate the flow of communication. It signals interest in others and increases the speaker's
credibility. People who make eye contact open the flow of communication and convey interest, concern, warmth, and

Facial Expressions: Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits happiness, friendliness, warmth, and liking. So, if you smile
frequently you will be perceived as more likable, friendly, warm and approachable. Smiling is often contagious and people
will react favorably. They will be more comfortable around you and will want to listen more.

Gestures: If you fail to gesture while speaking you may be perceived as boring and stiff. A lively speaking style captures
the listener's attention, makes the conversation more interesting, and facilitates understanding.

Posture and body orientation: You communicate numerous messages by the way you talk and move. Standing erect and
leaning forward communicates to listeners that you are approachable, receptive and friendly. Interpersonal closeness
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results when you and the listener face each other. Speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should
be avoided as it communicates disinterest.

Proximity: Cultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interaction with others. You should look for signals of
discomfort caused by invading the other person's space. Some of these are: rocking, leg swinging, tapping, and gaze

Vocal: Speaking can signal nonverbal communication when you include such vocal elements as: tone, pitch, rhythm,
timbre, loudness, and inflection. For maximum teaching effectiveness, learn to vary these six elements of your voice. One
of the major criticisms of many speakers is that they speak in a monotone voice. Listeners perceive this type of speaker as
boring and dull

Mediums of communication
Speech, letters, signs, colors, gestures/action, technology, mobile, internet, mail, Email, SmS, post, TV, social
media, newspaper and magazine, and many more
There must be a receiver of every sender’s message

Barriers to Communication
Any difficulty which partly or fully prevent any activity is called a barrier

1 the improper use of language

2 the noise

3 physical disability

4 hesitation/lack of confidence

5 the improper medium

6 the discouraging attitude

Physical barriers

Environmental Disturbances: Traffic nuisances, loud speakers, unwanted noise.

Physical health: Ability to receive when not well.

Poor hearing: Born deaf, lost hearing due to accident, excess use of earphones.

Distance- Proxemics or choice of medium. Four distinct zones that people unconsciously used as they interact with others.
The four zones may vary greatly from culture to culture.

18”<Intimate– Lovers, family, or close friends

4’ <Personal– Talking at a party

12’ <Social– Interpersonal business – clients.

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20’ <Public– Supervisor talking employees


We use different instruments and machines for communicating our messages. Very often the selected medium itself
becomes a barrier.

*Absence of means of communication.

*Faulty instruments.

*Interruptions on radio and television.

Types of Mechanical Barriers.

*Non availability of proper machines.

*Presence of defective machines.


*Power failure.

Nothing is so simple that it cannot be misunderstood. - Freeman Teague, Jr.

Anything that prevents understanding of the message is a barrier to communication. Many physical and psychological
barriers exist:

Culture, background, and bias -We allow our past experiences to change the meaning of the message. Our culture,
background, and bias can be good as they allow us to use our past experiences to understand something new, itis when
they change the meaning of the message that they interfere with the communication process.

Noise -Equipment or environmental noise impedes clear communication. The sender and the receiver must both be able
to concentrate on the messages being sent to each other.

Ourselves -Focusing on ourselves, rather than the other person can lead to confusion and conflict. The "Me Generation" is
out when it comes to effective communication. Some of the factors that cause this are defensiveness (we feel someone is
attacking us), superiority (we feel we

Know more than the other), and ego (we feel we are the center of the activity).

Perception - If we feel the person is talking too fast, not fluently, does not articulate clearly, etc., we may dismiss the
person. Also our preconceived attitudes affect our ability to listen. We listen uncritically to persons of high-status and
dismiss those of low status.

Message -Distractions happen when we focus on the facts rather than the idea. Our educational institutions reinforce this
with tests and questions. Semantic distractions occur when a word is used differently than you prefer. For example, the
word chairman instead of chairperson, may cause you to focus on the word and not the message.

Environmental -Bright lights, an attractive person, unusual sights, or any other stimulus provides a potential distraction.
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Smothering -We take it for granted that the impulse to send useful information is automatic. Not true! Too often we believe
that certain information has no value to others or they are already aware of the facts.

Stress -People do not see things the same way when under stress. What we see and believe at a given moment is influenced
by our psychological frames of references - our beliefs, values, knowledge, experiences, and goals

It is connection b/t two people to convey your message. Sharing some information >effectively >very clearly having an
positive effect/impact

1 sender of the message or information

2 encoding of the message to compose there message e.g. a bird in the cage

3 audience or receiver

4 decoding of the senders message to understand (interpersonal<1 to 1 or face to face> intrapersonal<with yourself>)

5 medium: the source through which a message travel.

6 feedback: a response attentive alert active

Components of Communication
Communication is a two way process of transmitting & receiving verbal & nonverbal messages & exchanging
ideas or information.
Communication is considered effective when it achieves the desired response from the receiver. There are six
components through which communication can be effective, these are discussed below:
•Context •Sender-Encoder •Message •Medium •Receiver-Decoder •Feedback
Context :-Every message whether oral or written starts with context. Context is a broad term that includes country,
culture, organization & external & internal stimuli. Every country, culture & organization has its own conventions
for processing & communicating information. This aspect is a playing field on which we must plan, communicate
& design the message successfully. Another aspect is the external stimulus that prompts us to send a message. The
message may be letter, email, fax or telephone call & response to this message may also be oral or written. Next
internal stimuli have a complex influence on how we translate ideas into a message. Our attitudes, opinions, likes
& dislikes, education all influence the way we communicate our ideas. So we must consider all these aspects of
context in order to communicate a message successfully.
Sender-Encoder:-Encoder is the sender of message, the writer or speaker depends on whether the message is oral
or written. We use symbols, graphics or pictures to express our message so that the receiver will understand it &
react with the response we desire. After considering all these factors, we decide which symbol best convey the
message & which message channel will be most effective among oral & written media.
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Message:-The message is the core idea we wish to communicate. It consists of both verbal &nonverbal symbols.
Our first task is & what content to include. We must consider our context &especially the receiver of our message,
how the receiver will interpret it & how it may affect our relationship.
Medium:-Medium is the way through which the sender sends the message. Like message content the choice of
medium is influenced by the relationship between sender & receiver. It depends on the message, cost of message,
the amount of information & number of receiver to select the channel of message. The written channel is preferred
when the message is long, technical & formalin nature while oral medium is effective when the message is urgent
or immediate feedback is required.
Receiver-Decoder:-Decoder is the receiver of the message & he may be more than one. The receiver as well as
the sender are influenced by context & by external & internal stimuli. Both receive messages through the eyes &
ears but are also influenced by nonverbal factors such as touch, taste & smell. All factors of message are filtered
through receiver's view & experience in the world.
Feedback:-It is the response of receiver based on a clear understanding of the symbols. Feedback can be oral or
written. It can also be an action such as silence which is almost ineffective. Sender need feedback in order to
determine the success or failure of the message.

Principles of effective communication

. Effective communication is a part and parcel of any successful organization. A communication should be free
from barriers so as to be effective. Communication is a two way process where the message sent by the sender
should be interpreted in the same terms by the recipient. The characteristics of effective communication are as
Clarity of purpose: The message to be delivered must be clear in the mind of sender. The person to whom it is targeted and
the aim of the message should be clear in the mind of the sender.
Completeness: The message delivered should not be incomplete. It should be supported by facts and observations. It should
be well planned and organized. No assumptions should be made by the receiver.
Conciseness: The message should be concise. It should not include any unnecessary details. It should be short and complete.
Feedback: Whether the message sent by the sender is understood in same terms by the receiver or not can be judged by the
feedback received. The feedback should be timely and in personal. It should be specific rather than general.
Empathy: Empathy with the listeners is essential for effective verbal communication. The speaker should step into the shoes
of the listener and be sensitive to their needs and emotions. This way he can understand things from their perspective and
make communication more effective.
Modify the message according to the audience: The information requirement by different people in the organization differs
according to their needs. What is relevant to the middle level management might not be relevant to the top level of
management. Use of jargons should be minimized because it might lead to misunderstanding and misinterpretations. The
message should be modified according to the needs and requirements of the targeted audience.
Multiple channels of communication: For effective communication multiple channels should be used as it increases the
chances of clarity of message. The message is reinforced by using different channels and there are less chances of deformation
of message. Multiple Channels of communication
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Make effective use of grapevine: The employees and managers should not always discourage grapevine. They should make
effective use of grapevine. The managers can use grapevine to deliver formal messages and for identification of issues which
are significant for the employees. The managers can get to know the problems faced by the employees and can work upon

Seven seas of communication

After planning steps in communicating the message have been complete we have to consider specific writing principles to
help us choose right words syntax and sentences for our letter report memorandums etc.
1. Correctness 2.Conciseness 3.Clarity 4.Completeness 5.Concreteness 6.Consideration
7. Courtesy
1. Correctness:-To be correct in communication the following principles should be borne in mind.
1. Use the correct level of language
2. Include only facts words and figures
3. Maintain acceptable writing mechanics
4. Apply the following qualities5.
There should be proper grammar punctuation spelling and paragraphing
2 Conciseness: - Business executives are dead-busy. They don't have time to go through unnecessarily lengthy messages.
The writer is also a loser if he writes wordy messages because it involves more time and money to type and read. Conciseness
makes the message more understandable and comprehensible
1. Eliminate wordy Expressions.
2. Include only relevant material.
3. Avoided unnecessary Repetition.
3Clarity:- Clarity demands that the business message should be correct concise complete concrete and with consideration
1. Use the right level of language
2. Proper punctuation make the writing clear
3. Check Accuracy of fact figure & Words
4 Completeness: - The message should be complete to bring desirable results. It should include everything the reader
needs for the reaction you desire. You must know what information our reader wants or needs you should be able to know
the reader's background viewpoint needs attitudes and emotions.
1. Provide all necessary information.
2. Answer all questions asked.
3. Give something Extra, when Desirable.
5Concreteness:- The business writing should be specific definite unambiguous and vivid rather than vague and general
the following guidelines lead to concreteness.
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1. Use specific facts and figures

2. Put action in your verb
3Choose vivid image building words.
6. Consideration: - Consideration refers to you attitude sympathy the human touch and understanding of human nature.
Consideration means the message with the receiver in mind. You should try to visualize our readers their desires problems
emotions circumstances and possible reaction to your request.
1. Focus on you instead I & We
2. Show reader benefit or interest in reader3.Emphasize
7. Courtesy: - Courtesy is more important and advantageous in business writing than it is in face to face communication
or conversation. Courteous message strengthen present relations and make new friends. It is a goodwill building.
1. Answer your mail prompt
2. be sincerely tactful thoughtful and appreciative
3. Use expressions that show respect
Seven C, s of communication
1 Completeness: complete in meaning - which answer what, why, who, where, whose detail
2 Conciseness: the short formless words ground ideabriefto the pointavailing detail
3 Concreteness: hard materialssolidaffirmedsolid ideafactsreality
4 Correctness: no lies
5 Consideration: to think about the audience to consider the audience /receiver
6 Courtesy: politenessmild behaviorethically good consider to etiquetteshow respectboundariesshow limits
7 Clarity: clearthe medium used the tone, the language, the grammar, confidence etc.

Forms of communication:
1 listening 2 speaking 3 reading 4 writing
1 listening: have divide in
I hearing: ability physiological to perceive the sound by the physical organ by ear
II listening: skill technical capability by mind/brainneed focus mind is active towards that sound

Types of listening
1 Pseudo Listening: have listening but say liesto act like listening not attentive towards the sound
2 active/comprehensive listening: understanding attentiveup to the mark fully understand the meaning all
3 appreciative listening: advanced active / comprehensive listening
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4 empathetic listening: seeking the result finding some remedyfinding some conclusion
5 critical listening: scholarly listening advanced listening there are all chances of interruption + disturbance
in active listening

Types of listening
Appreciative listening: In appreciative listening, we seek certain information which will appreciate, for example
that which helps meet our needs and goals. We use appreciative listening when we are listening to good music,
poetry or maybe even the stirring words of a great leader.
Sympathetic listening: In sympathetic listening we care about the other person and show this concern in the way
we pay close attention and express our sorrow for their ills and happiness at their joys.
Empathetic listening: When we listen empathetically, we go beyond sympathy to seek a truer understand how
others are feeling. This requires excellent discrimination and close attention to the nuances of emotional signals.
When we are being truly empathetic, we actually feel what they are feeling.
Comprehension listening: The next step beyond discriminating between different sound and sights is to make
sense of them. To comprehend the meaning requires first having a lexicon of words at our fingertips and also all
rules of grammar and syntax by which we can understand what others are saying.
Evaluative listening: In evaluative listening, or critical listening, we make judgments about what the other person
is saying. We seek to assess the truth of what is being said. We also judge what they say against our values,
assessing them as good or bad, worthy or unworthy.
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Direction of communication
1 interpersonally communication: which have face to face or 1 to 1 in which sender and receiver both are
2 intrapersonal communication: single body communication in which mind and emotion are present

Communication Flow in the Organization

In an effective organization, communication flows in various directions: downward, upward, & crosswise.
Traditionally, downward communication was emphasized, but there is ample evidence that problems will
develop if communication flows only downward. In fact, one could argue that effective communication has to
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start with the subordinate, & this means primarily upward communication. Communication also flows
horizontally &diagonally. The different kinds of information flows are diagramed in figure.
1 Vertical Communication
Communication that flows up and down the organization, usually along formal reporting lines.
Takes place between managers and subordinates and may involve several levels of the organization.
Downward Communication: Downward communication flows from people at higher levels to those at lower
levels in the organizational hierarchy. This kind of communication exists especially in organizations with an
authoritarian atmosphere. Downward communication include instructions, speeches, loudspeakers, examples of
written downward communication are letters, handbooks, policy statement.
Upward Communication: Upward communication travels from subordinates to superiors & continues up the
organization hierarchy. Unfortunately, this flow is often hindered by managers in the communication chain, who
filter the messages & do not transmit all the information, especially unfavorable news, to their bosses. Upward
communication is primarily nondirective & is usually found in participative & democratic organizational
environments. Effective upward communication requires an environment in which subordinates feel free to

2 Crosswise Communication: (diagonally) crosswise communication includes the horizontal flow of

information, among people on the same or similar organizational levels, & the diagonal flow, among persons at
different levels who have no direct reporting relationships with one another. The enterprise environment
provides many occasions for oral communication. They range from informal meetings of the company bowling
team & lunch hours employees spend together to more formal conferences & committee & board meetings. This
kind of communication also occurs when members of different departments form task teams or project group’s
.In addition written forms of communication keep people informed about the enterprise. These written forms
include the company newspapers or magazine & bulletin board notices. Modern enterprise use many kinds of
oral & written crosswise communication patterns to supplement the vertical flow of information.

3 Horizontal Communication: Communication that flows laterally within the organization; involves persons at
the same level of the organization.

Facilitates coordination among independent units.

Useful in joint problem solving.

Plays a major role in communications among members of work teams drawn from different departments.