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MODULE NAME: Fundamental of Engineering Business Management

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"Recommend practical strategies to create innovative co-creation between higher

education institutions and industries."


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“Fundamental of Engineering Business Management” Page 1

"Recommend practical strategies to create innovative co-creation between higher

education institutions and industries."

Table of Contents

1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 2
2 Innovative Co-creation theories ........................................................................................... 3
2.1 Thinking skill concepts required these days ........................................................................ 3
2.2 Describing meaning of knowledge management................................................................. 3
2.3 Strategy to promote creation and conversion of knowledge ............................................... 4
3 Apply theory of knowledge management to create innovative co-creation society ............. 6
3.1 Obvious connection among university, industry and government ....................................... 6
3.2 Typical conflict regarding co-cration between industry and education ................................ 7
3.3 Role of the academia and industry to emphasize on societies changed............................. 7
3.3.1 How highter education institutions deal with the market during the disruptive change of
technology era ..................................................................................................................... 7
3.3.2 Typical conflict regarding co-cration between industry and educationd .............................. 8
3.4 Attitude of recent graduates and younger generation toward innovation ............................ 8
4 Conclusion ......................................................................................................................... 10
5 Reference .......................................................................................................................... 11


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1 Introduction
In this post module assignment, I would like to focus on how organizations from higher education
institution and industrial sector have a strong impact on interdisciplinary collaboration to generate
innovative ideas.
Owing to the fact that countless advanced technologies has, recently, been emerged in various
kinds of application so as to satisfy the unlimited scales of customer demand, more and more
people have to comprehend both function of product and business model mechanism. For example,
they might be able to understand at least how sample equipment such as television, light and air
conditioners operate and they should make an appropriate judgement for purchasing new products
based on critical thinking and evaluate information from many sources. Some people might argue
that the practice of making a potential decision seems to be taken place at the school. However,
the tertiary education should play a crucial part in the development of students practically in term
of providing creative learning environment, as university’s life would probable the last chance for
students to practice thinking skills, without competitive benefits like the firms. Moreover, looking for
the application in the business world, making new innovative product may require something
beyond just individual knowledge. This means that soft skills such as team building and trustworthy
are also crucial key to succeed. So, that is a reason that can describe meaning of innovate co-
creation. On the other hand, in order to embarking on establishing innovative ecosystem both
university and community, a huge amount of investment are basically required and the industry and
government are likely to subsidy this. Therefore, the model of challenging collaboration is appeared.
Meanwhile, the company and society might obtain advantages from new product development and
modern technology which come from an effort of education oriented such as professors and higher
ranked students. So, we can see that all of these sectors have an intense relationship that people
should not ignore.
This report will firstly introduce the obvious philosophy associated with meaning different
approaches of thinking, knowledge creation and its management, providing conceptual framework
about co-creation between universities and industries from various cases, following by the
application of these theory to make strong partnership toward the organization and stakeholders.
In addition, after describing role and responsibility of each sector with tangible reasons, this
assignment will examine an advantageous impact on building a right person for societies.


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2 Innovative Co-creation theories

2.1 Thinking Skill concepts required in these days

Each particular job might require different professional competence. So, it is undeniable that one
ability that is very useful is critical thinking. Moore and Parker (2008) note that critical thinking is an
effective method to determine and make a judgement with rational reasons. As there is a high
competition in business, employers need to find employees who are eligible enough to drive
business sustainably. According to Wooley and Carolyn (2002, cited in DEST, 2010, P.3), the
characteristic that new graduate should have is employability skills which are related to make an
effective collaboration among people from different sections as a network connection, effectively
self-manageable ability, recognition of technology and capability of alternative decision making to
deal with problems facing in the real world. Despite this significant characteristic, Edmond (2017)
suggest that due to the various advantageous changes of ecosystem, a good learner should be
likely to challenge the way of thinking creatively could be a part of problem solving.
According to Thomas (2006, cite in Bound and Falchikov, 2011), in the reality, people usually
discover uncertain circumstance. Moore and Parker (2008) note that critical thinking is an effective
method to determine and make everyday decision with judicious reasoning. It is useful for human
being in order to trickle various problems. It’s generally require derivative synthesis of ideas beyond
just merely true or false, with alternative countermeasures to complex problems. It’s also sometimes
take a period of time and need benchmarking with other point of view so as to generate much
practical solution as well as evaluating and reflecting thinker’s understanding. Critical thinking is a
technical approach to reveal problem so as to make good decision (Samantha, 2016). Then, he
suggest that one cycle of critical thinking process require 5 essential steps namely; Question
formulation, information collection from various sources, applying information toward question,
awareness on long term effect of thinker’s action and receiving feedback from anthers. As the
technology developed rapidly results in the change in culture and society, people have to
experience a range of information especially topic regarding technological innovation almost every
Thomas (2008, cite in Yong and Aoun, 2011) point out that critical thinking can be described as
generic skills which lead to prevent working below standards. Meanwhile, Thomas (2011) suggests
that critical thinking should be encouraged for tertiary students to practice since freshmen year
because students might have a chance for developing this fundamental knowledge for further
studies and choosing for future career. For example, Australian Learning and Teaching Council
(ALTC) includes 4 ordinary assignments to develop mindset of students, concerning key developing
factors following these bullets.
- “Analysis and Evaluation” article from various sources focusing on their quality
- Collaboration among a group of students to discuss an argument
- “Feedback Assessment Technique”
- Self-evaluation about decision that they identify by providing an assessment matrix
Note that, “Feedback Assessment Technique (IFAT)” is the improved method to test a group of
students rather than just giving the multiple-choice answer sheet exercises and correcting those by
instructors. Winkle (2009, cited in Carmichael, 2017) argues that, comparing to individual learning,
learning as a team would promote more student’s competence. According to Thomas (2011), with
providing extra attracted a piece of paper on each choice, students may answer to a question by
pulling off that sticky paper. If their answer is correct, the symbol “*” will appear. However, if it is
wrong, students may be allowed to select an answer again until they find the right answer. As a
result of this practice, while they are studying at universities, their ability to think in logical way will
Although critical thinking is the method regarding evaluating and analyzing understanding in the
logical way, (Shaw, 2017) creative thing is not only generating ideas related to decorating colorful
objects, but also construct innovative ideas which are invented more alternative measures to figure
out the recurring problem. Engineers and architectures, for instance, usually have a crucial role in
creative innovation like renovating system of a factory so as to enhance the efficiency of production.
It is also known as “thinking outside the box, or lateral thinking” (Doyle, 2017). It requires enormous
effort to practice starting from thinker’s assumption. People who are considered to be creative might
keen on confronting challenging job.

2.2 Describing meaning of knowledge management

Due to our ecosystem changing significantly in the digital age society, it is undeniable to say that
knowledge management is immensely necessary. Noraka and Konna (1998) Knowledge
Management is crucial for human being. Therefore, this should be brought to the concern for
development of university and industry collaboration. According to Allyne (2011), there are various
sources for people to consume countless information every time such as smart phones, 24 hours


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digital TV, and social networks. The author claims that average amount of information sharing to
the global society is accounted for approximately “174 newspapers per day”, which is by far 200
times greater than that over 20 years ago. So, it seems to be that there is an opportunity for
information overload. According to Alexander and Childe (1997, cited in Beckman, 2012, p.2)
knowledge is “reasoning about information of data to actively enable performance, problem solving,
decision making, learning and teaching”. To tackle the issue, knowledge management should be
encouraged to practice. (Nonaka and Konno, 1998) They emphasize that creation stems from
combination of knowledge. Nonaka maintains that Human knowledge can be categorized clearly
into 2 dimensions which are tacit and explicit knowledge (cited in Polanyi 1966). The short summary
table from Wells (2001, cite in Smith, n.d.) displays that explicit knowledge which is sometimes
known as codified knowledge is likely to theory discipline oriented such as studying for mathematics
and science formula at school or even a clearly understandable advice from teachers. The author
describes the meaning as “Know-What” Meanwhile, tacit knowledge is the knowledge accumulated
from individual experiences as well as cognitive thinking skills from the universal. For example,
graduates who have excellent GPA could illustrate their hardworking but it does not show any
senses about their leadership and emotional intelligent. This is due to that skills require an
accumulation of a repeatable time of practice as on the job training.
Nonaka and Konno (1998) points out that people from different regions would highlight on markedly
different kinds of knowledge. They claim that individuals who live in western countries would focus
on explicit knowledge which seem s to be more organized and systematically transfer among
different audiences. However, tacit knowledge would be more critically emphasized on Japanese

2.3 Strategy to promote creation and conversion of knowledge

According to Nonaka and Konno (1998), Japanese theory of knowledge management named ‘Ba’
is considered as the effective principle of creating new knowledge. In fact, this word means “place”,
when translating to English. To provide more details, place in this case does not mean existing
locations like working space but it involves information sharing unlimited knowledge from various
sources such as exchanging experiences and opinions though face-to-face or cyber device. They
also claim that two kinds of knowledge mentioned in (1.2) could bring about starting point of new
knowledgeable discovery. In order to generate this, SECI model stands for “Socialization,
Externalization, Combination and Interaction”. It is introduced in order to merge and transfer
knowledge as “spiralling process”.
Firstly, (Nonaka and Konno, 1998) Socialization is the beginning of this spiral cycle and it is
radically essential of knowledge creation process. According to “pure experience” conceptual
philosophy by Nishida, the concept taking consider to human’s experience concerning with the five
senses. (c) “Pure existence” is different meaning of tacit knowledge. It consumes time and
corrective actions from a number of variable sources to uniform one own understanding. Nonaka
and Konno (1998) depict the example about information shared in the individual job such as
communication between customers and the market. They also noticed that the wide spread of
exchanging ideas leads to efficient socialization practice.
Secondly, the next knowledge interpretation (Externalization) is comprehended as process of
converting tacit knowledge to common understanding. To provide a good example, Sale engineers
might really need to specialize in this kind of knowledge because they have to negotiate with both
manufacturers and customers which they have clearly different audiences. They would typically
have immense practice on how to create more friendly identification of their product specification
from the technical meaning so as to help customer’s understanding about their functions.
Thirdly, after transferring various information related to the real world experience, Nonaka and
Konno (1998) note that it is important to use ‘Combination’ method in order to integrate the effective
approach. At this stage, it can be referred as changing knowledge form explicit type to become
more systematically. For instance, colleagues who work at strategic planning department at one
firm do engagement surveying on their particular product, with comparing between the data
obtained from both external and internal aspects. Therefore, a company will receive a wide range
of suggestion idea and then are able to combine advised approaches to enhance their better quality
of products and services. In addition, combination also involves in discussion and agreement
among group members in the internal meeting. Another example of method is collecting document
system of the company. This would be practical way of starting knowledge sharing inside
Lastly, (Nonaka and Konno, 1998) Internalization is the strategy to develop employee’s
competency. It is associated with the transition from explicit and to tacit knowledge. To illustrate
this, training program is essential for the company. It could be expressed in form of short time of
lecture studies and follow by on the job training, with experienced mentors. Nonaka and Konno
(1998) call this stage of knowledge creation as “Exercising Ba”. For example, PTT public company
limited, Thailand has recently launched a campaign on people development by establishing on


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Leadership and learning institute. The objective of this project is to expand PTT people competency
to peers and promote learning environment, since people is the most valuable resource of the
company to create the sustainability growth of their business. They are not only focusing on hiring
specialists outside the company, but also encourage internal staffs to exchange their innovative
ideas, currently successfully outstanding method to deal with complex problems and cultivate
passionate culture as company value “Spirit” to the younger generation. After employees engage
in each program provided by this institution plus their personal work and life experiences, they might
enhance not only critical and creative thinking ability, but also collaboration among people from
different job functions.


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3 Apply theory of knowledge management to create innovative co-creation

3.1 Obvious connection among university, industry and government

Many researchers point out that in order to strengthen organic innovation culture to the society, it
is crucial that higher education institutions have to play an important part in this cultivation as the
centre of interaction among universities, industries and governments. According to Howard (2016),
it is inevitable that universities is such an important resource because they could probable bring
about a number of innovative knowledge creation. He also states that university and academic
oriented centre might normally be focused as they are places where generated “human resources”.
Alwerfalli and Jawad (2015) despite the great collaborative relationship, the academic should
significantly emphasize on the quality of graduates in order that the next generation would satisfy
the need of the global firms. The authors also claim that in spite of knowledge acquired from their
institutions, ‘graduates need to have skills associated with social and industrial need such as
leadership. To answer this issue, student’s internship, co-op students and ordinary seminar from
an entrepreneur ought to be examined though the academic instructors in order to put them into
the study’s program. However, Nguyen (2017) states that, according to Wall Street Journal,
although universities include student’s internship program in the curriculum as the compulsory
credit, graduates need to have skills related to the professional job such as critical thinking and
some technical knowledges. That’s the reason why American universities foster improving student’s
quality by adding Co-Op opportunities. As a consequence, students could learn and practice ability
to cope with lives in the working environment. In addition, Junger (2013) gives the interesting
example that if universities are located have companies as a neighbour and partner, both of these
clusters normally obtain a number of benefits. This is owing to the fact that short distance results
in a greater possibility to promote collaborative activities such as seminar from industrial specialist.
Meanwhile, According to Alwerfalli and Jawad (2015, P.3), “The Chrysler-Faculty-Summer
Internship Program”, for example, is a venture program between various engineering specialists
from Lawrence Technological University and manufacturing company named Chrysler Corporation.
Between 1995 and 2008, the university took part in the project regarding optimization of resources
and production system by using general engineering knowledge based such as “Lean
In the 4.0 industry evolution era, it should be noted that federal governments should devote their
attention on the innovative co-creation model. First and foremost, since some regions suffer a
problem of inequivalent standard of education such as underdeveloped and developing countries.
The fundamental measure to this common issue is for the government to give quota of tertiary
education opportunities to people who live in rural area. After these people accomplishing their
education, they are likely to work as conduction research for the social community, while they might
be specially invited to share knowledge in prestigious organization as the hiring consultant.
Despite the encouragement from the public organization, this development model should be
implemented in the private sectors as a parallel approach to renovate sustainable ecosystem. Some
parties, for example, Siam Cement Group (SCG) foundation provide this valuable opportunities to
discover education perspective who have determination to study and work in science oriented field.
For people who have good GPA plus few years work experience, they will get a scholarship offer
of Master’s degree or Doctoral degree at prestigious universities. After that, those people have to
repayment for the scholarship. So, it is a signal that they have a sustainable career, even though
this rule is very strict. By this campaign, the organization will receive a range of benefits such as
strong repetition from society and empowering capable human resources from broaden horizon on
knowledge acquired from the academia, while the community will be developed disruptively in term
of innovation.
Secondly, active learning style should be promoted so that students may develop own horizon
framework of thinking skills. Due the digitalization age, there are many knowledgeable sources and
facilities beyond an instructor to educate learners such as library, internet and an advice from
experienced person. Kanok-Nukulchai (2017) suggests that, instead of students spending for long
period of time at the classroom, they should have an opportunity to study independently so as to
deeply enhance critical thinking and analysing knowledge beyond just the theory. For example,
when professors give post module assignment about recommendation to optimize operation cost
on manufacturing system. This means that the role of the institution would be changed from rule
and enforcement to more flexibility studies and innovative sense might be generated from each
Some people might argue that there is an enormous difference in culture regarding education job
in each particular region. In western countries, it is normally taken stereotype that teachers and
professors are regarded as one of the highest hierarchy of professional career. On the other hand,
the some parts of Asian nations seems to be clearly contrary. Take Thailand, for example, the
average entrance examination’s score of students who choose to study at the faculty of education


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is lower than that of applied science related such as engineering and medicine. What’s more, the
issue that is typically face is insufficient number of faculty members for teach students and conduct
further research. Generally, some engineering graduate would prefer to have a certain career rather
than those professions. According to Kanok-Nukulchai (2017), governments should attempt to
promote better salary and career admiration to teachers as the mother of nation creation in Thai
social value. With regard to the traditionally main part of educational creation mechanism, the
federal government should find an approach to inspire the younger generation to become a
researcher or professor.

3.2 Typical conflict regarding co-creation between industry and education

Although many people view that creating closed relationship among universities, industries and
government leads to social development in long term, the creative collaboration sometimes have
not always be succeeded without their difficulties. The most common reason is that there are some
fairly obvious outcome’s objectives between these sectors especially the academic and industry
(ASEE, 2013). For the academic, they normally consider merely how well they can create a new
theory though repeating hypothesizes and follow its amplification, spreading to people worldwide.
So, it is a beneficial aspect that customers, for example, are able to understand some scientific
background of the ordinary product such as knowing roughly what main mechanism of electric cars
is, since this topic is socially disruptive for people in the digital age.
On the other hand, the writer point out that the business world seems to be more serious and
complicated than that of education. In the business view, in order to remain competitive in the
business environment, customer’s engagement will be normally focused rather than anything else.
The industry will attempt to continually discover new model of innovative products in order to satisfy
customer’s need and make an effort on commercial response. This means that the organization will
be able to make satisfied profit for themselves, shareholders and stakeholders. Therefore, they
would possibly call research institutions for particularly R&D purpose. Moreover, the authors
maintains that, due to disruptive competition in the business market share, the company actually
need to keep product’s information confidentially. If the industry contact with too many researchers
during the prototype process, there is a great probability of the information leak to the social by
verbal conversation. This will probably lead to the copied version of product without patent.
Villasenor (2012) points out that basic knowledge associated with “trade secret” should be
implemented at a university graduate course in spite of technical oriented subjects such as
mathematics and science. According to his conducted survey from 60 UCLA students, over four-
fifth of them do not know definition of “intellectual property” The author recommends a fundamental
way to raise student’s awareness on “IP” since they conquer to the program. He suggests a great
way to encourage students is providing short academic session about “assess intellectual property”
through student’s intranet system.
Turing to another effect of information leak to the public, the business competitor will gain a
competitive advantage such as developing greater products to attract customer’s demand.
Meanwhile the recent launching product of previous company might be ignored by customers. Many
companies may figure out this pressing issue by making a contractual agreement with their
consultants. However, this method is like solving problems from the consequences which
sometimes is too late. Another business competitor may gain benefits from knowing the information
in advance so that they can change the business strategy to dominate the previous model.
Lastly, Jones and Clulow (2012) mentions that researchers from universities might have a difficulty
to access business case studies from unremarkably private companies or careers in the country
side. People in developing countries, for instance, significantly face a problem regarding
communication like electronic network and social infrastructure, whereas researches who normally
stay in the comfortable area to commute, may suffer the problem of correspondence as well. The
authors claim about another concerns that some specialists might find that those small companies
are not challenging enough to applying their own analysed theories to solve problems. Even though
creating innovative solutions to deal with general issue is good, it requires a lot of investment to
process and has a major risk to invest such as hiring consultants and buying technologies.

3.3 Role of the academia and industry to emphasize on societies changed

3.3.1 How higher education intuitions deal with the market during the disruptive change of
technology era
Although internship and industry based learning programs, which are conducted by the
collaboration with universities, are naturally known by a range of people as an effective approach
to prepare upcoming graduates to become familiar with working atmosphere, there is more
campaign that significantly sheds light on sharing individually tacit knowledge so as to synergy
ideas for developing better visions on radical innovation, depending on each individual interest. The
reason that many universities initiate own innovation hubs or incubators to encourage students and


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other determination to discover the technological change. This platform is usually introduced by the
higher educational institution such as ‘Chula Engineering innovation hub’ but it also sometimes
receive an external subsidy from federal government, industry’s alliances and other networks. Note
that, industry affiliates would take place the innovation creation project CSR activities so as to
diffuse a good image to the society. The campaign’s contactor might invite not only theoretical
experts like professors or researchers but also the top management or a passionately successful
people in business to draw an inspiration on thinking of radical innovation. Anyway, this kind of
innovative platforms are announced widely though the public especially on the social media such
as Facebook and Twitter. These innovative creation campaign is established by the long term vision
of higher education institutions. They aim to prompt the younger generation to criticize existing
problems in the community in order that they are able to discover an appropriate solution, regarding
creation by combining advanced technology, for developing the sustainable growth of society.
The result of innovative co-creation could be taken place in different forms. Even though it can be
widely seen that many well-known enterprises such as PTT, SCG and Toyota invest a huge amount
of capital on research and development for radical innovation such as alternative energy related
areas by giving reason about environmental concerns, some people might believe that those are
all commercial purpose like constructing cost reduction model to maximize organizational profit
outcome. As a result, people particularly the youth may think that why not we start running own
business in order that the entrepreneur do jobs and receive rewards and recognitions, without
charge from the organization. That’s’ one reason why “star-up” business is booming in these days.
“U Drink I Drive Service” is a case in point. This practical framework is a consistency valuable
creation which is invented by master’s degree students from Chulalongkorn University. Recent
newspaper’s article (Karnjanatawe, 2016) reveals that, this project was started from projects at the
university. Since there is an increasing number of traffic accidents, they would like to reduce this
trend so as to help Thailand as better society. According to information given in this article, the co-
founders of this application claim that this surprising number are mainly stemmed from people
drinking alcohol at night parties, accounting for over 40% of road accidents. Another their final
project’s questionnaire reveals that most people who engage in night party generally do not need
to park their vehicles at home and travel to the night club by public transport or taxi. Based on the
observation and statistical data, the thinking frame of determination to reduce the number of car
accidents as well as the need of establishing own business. This model is worked when a night life
person need to come back home safety without alcohol check from the police and risk of accident.
Then, the application will send a personal driver to a customer. They select driving competence
people who will be coached again by the organization to ensure that this service providing is
professionally reliable. This model is competitive benefits for the founders especially both social
recognition and increasing value of own business.

3.3.2 Role of professors toward the education demand

Some experts agree that university should play a dominant role on increasing disruption of
technologies trend by devoting consultative action to people in the society. Junger (2013) argues
that the way professor responses to learners have recently been shifted. In the past, professors
naturally emphasize on how well they can transfer tacit knowledge, which is generally based on
their researches, to receivers as codified knowledge. However, the author also states that
professors, these days, might have determination to share knowledge anywhere, despite only
making an effort on their classes. As technological advancement era, they might pretend to educate
students with more active method like consultants or advisors. For example, in one particular class,
after finishing the discipline, professors will give an opportunity for students to foster critical and
creative thinking in order that they would pay attention on thinking beyond theoretical concept. It
might be inform of a project which need an information gathering from industry so as to see the real
situation which passionate students need to solve. Post module assignment of Master’s degree
program or dissertation are a clear example to this people development model.

3.4 Attitude of recent graduates and younger generation toward innovation

It is undeniable that there are a considerable difference in mind set between the elderly and younger
people. This is due to the fact that the world, nowadays, is changing significantly from the traditional
way of lifestyle to be more complex because of disruptive innovation. People in the past might be
familiar with face to face interaction, when they have to announce for something. Moreover, the
age people generally be humble and listen to the empirical reason from an experience person,
without aggressive feedback. On the contrary, the digital age people are brought up from the
considerable disruption of infrastructures such as mobile phone, wireless internet connection, which
results in the wider gap of thinking frame between the youth and the elderly. This common issue
occurs because the innovative framework is not existed and fed into the older people especially
“Baby Boomers” group since they were young. Note that, according to Wikipedia site, “Baby
boomers” is a group of people who were born around the World War period, amounting to


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approximately 60 years from now. “Baby Boomers” people are normally not to adapt to the creative
change in society. (Badowska et al., 2015). However, Gould (2016) advices practical measures to
develop innovation attitudes and new cognitive thinking for the elder generation. She claims that
people should shed light on the integration of interdisciplinary skills which composed of pursuing to
learn new things, good attitude toward the social change and working as effective partnership.
In term of career prospective, there is also solid difference between each age group. When
students, nowadays, graduate from the university, they are normally expected to have a challenging
career and live in well-being environment. However, in the real world, there is an enormous diversity
of ecosystem which consists of a broad range of people. As a result, with active actions from the
young and an experience from the elder, the way of potential collaboration should be in emphasize.


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4 Conclusion
In conclusion, working as a partnership between the academia and industry can be expressed into
a wide range of activities. It is widely seen though the media and social network that both of these
have a strong venture especially in developing prototype of unique product and internship and
sightseeing to company’s exhibition. However, all clusters should concentrate on how far they can
produce the young generation for the future so as that these people can drive the national economic
growth and pay a contribution to the community. Note that, sustainably have several definitions. It
is widely argued among public discussion to indicate quality of ecosystem in one particular area.
Kuhlman and Farrington (2010) explain that the word sustainability stems from “natural resources”
which is full of organisms and plants and this should be preserved for long-term. Meanwhile, another
meaning is related to human being and economics so as to survive in the globalization era.
Therefore, it should not be forgiven that governmental organizations should be the leader of co-
creation campaign with the immense collaboration between education and business sectors. By
investing an amount of money to the public department, the organization will bring this budget to
stimulate scholar to discover new things as innovation. In addition, the government should shed
light on developing tertiary students since university is the best opportunity to encourage people to
broaden their horizon on both academic and practical sides. Providing a long time co-op program
or sponsoring scholarship for study oversea to students is a good signal to initiate development of
the society.
From my point of view, when taking education’s purpose in consideration, I feel that the university
just focuses on teaching in lecture class as a routine without student’s interaction and then the
academic institution sends students to internship or industry based learning, before graduation, as
following the university rule or student’s academic plan, regardless restricted assessment from the
university. As a consequence of this, when these student obtain a degree, they have to start
learning employability skills again. So, it might be a good idea for professors to provide a selective
subjects for students so that the students have a choice to learn the principle that they are
willingness to apply to their future careers. Moreover, as Kanok-Nukulchai (2017) mentions, lecture
class should be reduce, whereas independent learning should be promoted from initiating creative
learning community inside the campus. To develop more friendly education environment,
governments and industries should take part in supporting the university as long-term investment
rather than just seeing the unexpected trend of the next generation of employees.


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5 Reference

1) Alexander, A.T and Childe, S.J., 2011, A Framework for the Transfer of Knowledge between
Universities and Industry. International Conference on Advances in Production Management
Systems (APMS), AICT-384 pp.534-548
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