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# Soil Mechanics 2018

FINAL EXPERIMENT
TITLE: “Determining the Effect of Eggshell for Enhanced Soil Compressive Strength”
Objective:

This study generally aims to determine the performance of combined eggshell powder and soil
in terms of compressive strength. The specific objectives of the study were:

1. To determine the effect of using eggshell powder to the compressive strength of soil.
2. To determine the mixture (0%, 0.75%, 1.50%, 2.25%, 3%) that would give the
significant increase in the compressive strength of soil.
3. To compare the compressive strength of soil with and without eggshell powder.
4. To determine the mixture that would attain the highest compressive strength.

## Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):

The students shall be able to:

## ❖ Have detailed knowledge about compressive strength of soil

❖ Produce an improved soil sample with increased mechanical properties specifically its
compressive strength

## ❖ Produce a sample product using eggshell as an admixture to soil

❖ Emphasize the potential of eggshell as a raw material in treating and improving the
resistance of soil to compressive stress.

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Discussion:

Structures are usually built on weak and loose layers of soil deposits. In building
structures, soil properties must be taken into account as they can have major effect and impact
on their surroundings. Therefore, for safe design formations, properties of soil needs to be
improved before the start of construction.

Compressive strength of soil forms one of the important soil criteria required in design
considerations. This experiment examines properties of soil, specifically compressive strength,
using eggshell as an admixture to improve the resistance of soil to compressive stress. The
study uses and observes different percentages of (0%, 0.75%, 1.50%, 2.25%, 3%). The standard
test used for this experiment is the ASTM D 2166 – 00 Unconfined Compressive Strength of
Cohesive Soil to test the limit of compressive stress that it could absorb.

Resources/Instruments Required:

This study would be using the experimental procedure. All cylinder molds should be set at a
time. The retrieved soil from Quiling, Batangas will be use as the soil sample. Eggshells are
garner from poultry farms in Manila.

## ● Unconfined Compression Test ● Compactor

Machine ● Bucket
● Sieve Pan No. 10 ● Rubber Hammer
● Sieve Pan No. 200 ● Digital Weighing Scale
● Mortar and Pestle ● 2x4 Cylinder Mold
● Basin ● Tamping Rod
● Trowels

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Procedure:

Extraction of Eggshell:

## 1. Collect chicken eggshell waste.

2. Wash the eggshells until there is no more residue. Remove the egg’s tissue.
3. Dry the eggshells
4. Crush the eggshells and then grind until it becomes refined.
5. Sieve the eggshell to sieve no.200

## Preparation of specimen for testing

1. Prepare the soil, clean it from any obstruction and other organic matter
2. Hammer the soil using rubber hummer to refined big particles.
3. Start the sieving process. Accumulate soil passing to sieve no. 40
4. Get a sample then obtained its water content (Ww).
5. Add required quantity of water Ww to this soil.
6. Mix the soil (330 grams) and add the desired mass percentage of eggshell powder.
8. Place it to the molder
9. Compact it with the hammer 25 blow each layer
10. Place it to the UC Machine

Specimens:

## A total of 15 specimens at dimension of 2 x 4 inches, 3 of these are controlled set-up, were

prepared for the laboratory testing and investigation. The amount of eggshell powder will vary
as 0%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1.0% and 1.25%. The table below shows the amount in grams.

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Soil Eggshell

100 % 0%
( 330 g) (0 g)
100% 0.75%
( 330 g) (2.475 g)
100% 1.50%
( 330 g) (4.95 g)
100% 2.25%
( 330 g) (7.425 g)
100% 3%
( 330 g) (9.9 g)

Procedure for the Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of
Cohesive Soil according to ASTM D 2166 - 00
1. Take the specimen from the seals and cylindrical molds
2. Note the weight and dimensions of the specimens before testing
3. Place the specimen in the loading device so that it is center on the bottom platen.
specimen.
4. Zero the deformation indicator and apply the load to produce an axial strain at a rate of
½ to 2% per min.
5. Record load, deformation, and time values at sufficient values at sufficient intervals to
define shape of the stress-strain curve (usually 10 to 15 points). The rate of failure should
be chosen so that the time to failure does not exceed about 15 mins.
strain is reach.

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Soil Mechanics 2018

## Compressive Strength Formula

The compressive strength of the soil sample mixture specimen is determined using the
Unconfined Compression Test. The compressive strength is the measured maximum
area.

S=P/A
Where:
S = compressive strength
P = maximum load applied to specimen
A = cross-sectional area of specimen

## Moisture Content Determination:

ASTM D - 4959
● Weigh a tin cup including its cover; identify the cover and its lid. Determine the weight
of the tin cup
● Place a representative soil sample of wet soil in the cup. Determine the weight of wet
soil and tin cup
● Place the sample in the oven for at least 3 hours
● When the sample has dried to constant weight, obtain the weight of cup and dry soil
● Compute the water content. The difference between weight of wet soil plus cup and
weight of dry soil plus cup is the weight of water (Ww). Also compute the weight of dry soil
(Ws)
● Determine the water content
● Repeat until three trials are achieved. Determine the average moisture content

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## The Water Content shall be calculated as follows:

Where: w = Water content in %
Ww = Weight of water in kg
Ws = Weight of soil in kg

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Group No.: 3 Section: CE41KA1
Date Performed: August 2018 Date Submitted: October 08, 2018
Group Members: LABAN, DANILYN A. Instructor: ENGR. LORENZO ADRIANO
MIGUEL, KAYLA CAMILLE
ORNEDO, NICKO ANGELO C.
SERRANO, MARYROSE A.
Data Results:

## Determination of Compressive Strength (Table 4)

(%) (m2) (kN) Stress Compressive
(kN/m2) Stress (N/m2)
0 2.027 x 10-3 1 0.7447 367.390

## 2 0.7588 374.346 368.903

3 0.7398 364.973
0.75 2.027 x 10-3 1 0.7647 377.257
2 0.7800 384.805 379.017

3 0.7601 374.988
1.50 2.027 x 10-3 1 0.7914 390.429

## 2 0.7886 389.048 390.923

3 0.7972 393.291
2.25 2.027 x 10-3 1 0.7981 393.735
2 0.7972 393.291 393.965

3 0.8004 394.869
3 2.027 x 10-3 1 0.7660 377.898

3 0.7877 388.604

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Table A shows the data and results according to the experiment conducted in accordance to
the determination of the compressive strength of soil specimen where the average compressive
strength of 0% is 368.983 MPA, 379.017 MPA at 0.75%, 390.923 MPA at 1.5%, 393.965 MPA at
2.25%, and 383.111 MPA at 3%.

## TABLE B Summary of the Compressive Strength Test Result

As shown in Table B, the soil mixture with 2.25% gave the highest compressive
strength. It is also shown that the increasing eggshell powder content from 0% to 2.25% gave
also an increasing compressive strength but in the soil mixture with 3% eggshell powder
content, the compressive strength reduced and it gave the lowest compressive strength.

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B. Statistical Analysis

The statistical analysis of the results are shown considering the eggshell percentage
content of the soil as control variable which is the dependent (X) and the compressive strength
as the independent variable (Y).The proponent use the linear regression and compute for the
correlation of the variables to determine the degree of relationship between the two variables.
The percentage of the eggshell content was used as a control since the strength of the soil
was being determined using the Unconfined Compressive Strength.

Fig C. Graph of the Linear Regression for the eggshell percentage content

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x y x2 y2 xy

0 368.903 0 136089.4 0

## Table 4.1 Linear Regression variables

Table 4.1 shows the important variables to compute for the regression equation of the
data. Upon computation, the regression line has a slope (B) of 578.19 and the y-intercept (A)
of 374.51

r = 0.4731

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Linear Regression:

= 374.51

= 578.19

Regression Equation:

Y=a+bX

Y= 374.51 + 578.19x

The coefficient of correlation which assigns the relationship of the independent variable
(eggshell powder content) and the dependent variable (compressive strength). The value of
the r computed indicates that the relation between the two variables is positive which indicates
that the variables have a direct relation with each other.

## Relationship of the variable can be determined by calculating the value of r (pearson’s

correlation coefficient) which ranges from -1 to +1. A value of -1 means there is a strong
negative correlation and +1 means that there is a strong positive correlation. A 0 means that
there is no correlation (this is also called zero correlation). (Freedman, 2009).

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r value =

## 0 No relationship [zero correlation]

The results show a strong positive relationship of the independent variable (eggshell
powder of and the dependent variable (compressive strength). It means that 47.31% of the
compressive strength changes are due to the percentage content of eggshell powder.

Observations:

The researchers have observed from the data gathered that the soil with 2.25%
eggshell powder gave the highest compressive strength while the soil with 3% admixture
obtained the lowest compressive strength. As the amount of added eggshell powder reached
3% and more, the compressive strength of soil decreased. From the result shown, the
researchers found that there is a strong positive relationship of the independent variable
(eggshell powder of and the dependent variable (compressive strength). It means that 47.31%
of the compressive strength changes are due to the percentage content of eggshell powder.

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Conclusion:

The researchers concluded that the use of pulverized chicken eggshell as an admixture
to soil significantly increases its compressive strength despite adding only small percentages
on the soil sample. The addition of 0.75 %, 1.5 % and 2.25% eggshell powder improved the
compressive strength of the soil. 2.25% has shown the most promising data because of the
great increase that occurred. However, 3% has gone down to 383.111 N/m^2, hereby fails to
improve soil compressibility. Moreover, the researchers concluded that eggshell undoubtedly
helps increase soil compressive strength but there is a limitation due to factors to be
considered.

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## Foreign Literature and Studies

Soil is one of the most crucial materials used in a different construction project
.Clay soil has clay particles which allows the soil to hold water well. When dry, the soil has a
very high strength because it becomes hard. However, clay soil tends to have low strength
performance in wet conditions. This inconsistency of the behavior of clay soil causes problems
when building structure. Many experts used lime as stabilizer to soil. Eggshell, on the other
hand, was used as an additive to concrete. Eggshell powder is actually no different from lime.
The have similar properties, which help, increase soil stabilization. In order to improve the
characteristics of soil, variety of approaches and process were used. This experiment used
quarry dust and eggshell to increase the compressive strength of soil. Different percentage of
eggshell and quarry dust were used. Unconfined compressive strength test machine were
used. The result shows that with the addition of eggshell and quarry dust, compressive
strength of foil increased.

## Birundha.P., Suguna.S., Prabudevan.S., Vignesh Kumar.B, October,2017.Stabilization of Clay Soil

using Eggshell Powder and Quarry Dust. Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.
http://www.sphinxsai.com/2017/ch_vol10_no8/2/(439-445)V10N8CT.pdf

Soil is very important in construction for it is the foundation of every structure. The
foundation receives the magnitude of the load and transfer it to the soil. Soil should have high
capacity of carrying loads because if it has a small capacity and cannot withstand the load
transfer, it may result to failure of construction. This study addressed its concern regarding to
small soil carrying capacity that it should be improve and need to be stabilize for effective
construction use. Based on this study, one material is used for soil stabilization and with the
addition of lime. Chicken eggshell is the most common waste produced and still rarely used
that is why it remains as pollutant in environment. Based on this study, the results of the
research states that composition eggshell broadly consists of water (1.6%) and dry material
(98.4%).

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The total dry ingredients are there, in shell eggs contained mineral elements (95.1%)
and protein (3.3%). Based on the existing mineral composition, then the eggshells are
composed of crystalline CaCO3 (98,43%), MgCO3 (0,84%) and Ca3(PO4)2 (0,75%). The
research as an experimental study results obtained classification of soil with system USCS
(Unified Soil Classification System). It shows the percentage of grains of soil sieve No. 200
amounted to 60, 24% (> 50%), then USCS ground based system can be classified as fine-
grained soil, liquid limit is 31, 92% and plasticity index is 5, 44 so that the soil is classified as
silt organic and clay organic with low plasticity (OL). Unit weight dry value in the addition of
10% waste chicken eggshell has increased a maximum of 1.58 gr/cm3 into 1,630 gr/cm3 at 14
days of aging (increase occurred at 3,164%). Water Content Optimum (opt)in the addition of
10% waste chicken eggshell has decreased a maximum of 22,18% into 20,33% at 21 days of
aging (decrease occurred at 1,85%). The very first method done by the researcher is the
obtaining mechanical stabilization for example, mixing various types of soil with the objective of
producing well-graded soil. The second method of this study is improving soil using chemical
stabilization of the added materials (additive) to the soil to improve soil properties such as
compressive strength, texture, workability and plasticity. Waste eggshell is added to soil in this
study to obtain desired gradation so the engineering properties of soil including compressibility,
permeability, potential for development and sensitivity will improve.

Wong, I. 2016. Study Added of Waste Chicken Eggshell in Soils. Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Universitas Kristen Indonesia Paulus-Civil Engineering. https://www.matecconferences.org/articles

## In this research, the feasibility of eggshell as a potential additive for enhanced

compressive strength was studied. The possibility of eggshell being mixed with soil to improve
its compressive strength was given attention. Using eggshell powder in weight proportions of
0.5% to 5.5% at 0.5% interval, soil samples were stabilized. Variety of tests were performed
out to find out how the behavior of soil will change with the addition of eggshell powder. Using
unconfined compression test machine, the compressive strength of soil with eggshell powder
was determined. Compaction with and immediately was carried out. The result shows that the
compressive strength of soil increases with addition of eggshell powder.

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However, it was determined from the experiment that the allowable weight percentage
of eggshell powder to be added to soil is at 3%. Percentages of eggshell powder more than
3% will only decrease the compressive strength of soil.

Muthu Kumar M., Tamilarasan V.S., May, 2014.(Effect of Eggshell Powder in the Index and Engineering
Properties of Soil),Tuticorin, Tamilnadu, India, http://ijettjournal.org/volume-11/number-7/IJETT-V11P261.pdf

In this research, quarry dust and eggshell with different weight proportions were used as
additive materials to soil to investigate the properties of soil. Properties of soil with and without
eggshell powder and quarry dust was compared to determine the changes the two additive
materials can contribute to soil. Properties tested includes plasticity limits, compressive
strength, shear strength, optimum moisture content, density etc. The results shows that
addition of these two materials to soil improves properties of soil. It was also observed that
combination of quarry dust and eggshell is an effective soil stabilizer.

Anu P.,Anumol V.S., Moideen F., Jiksymol K.J., Alka A.,April 2014. Studies on Improvement of Clayey
Soil Using Eggshell Powder and Quarry Dust. ,Kothamangalam,India,
http://ijera.com/papers/Vol4_issue4/Version%204/I044045563.pdf

In this study, eggshell powder was used to improve the compressive strength of soil.
The soil used was kuttanad clay. The percentages varies from 10%, 15% and 20%. The
mixture was cured for 0, 4 and 7 days. After 7 days, the mixture of 15% eggshell powder
showed significant increase in the properties of soil. However, at 20% the property of soil
decreased. The result shows that the allowable percentage of eggshell powder to be used is
15%. Any percentages exceeding 15% will amount great decrease in soil properties.

Prasad K., Mathachan N., James P.P., Liya T.,June 2016.Effect of Curing on Soil Stabilized with
Eggshell. Kanjirapally, India. http://www.ijste.org/articles/IJSTEV2I12022.pdf

This study shows the effect of adding eggshell powder and lime in improving properties
of soil. The soil sample collected was classified as black cotton soil. This type of soil can be
properties.

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Tests performed on black cotton soil were California bearing ratio, unconfined
compression test and compaction to test the suitability of eggshell powder and lime as
stabilizer to soil. Results of the test performed shows that the mixture of eggshell powder and
lime is more effective in improving properties of soil than adding lime alone.

Kavyashree M.P., Renukaprasad M.S., Maruti R.N.October, 2016.Black Cotton Soil Stabilization Using
Eggshell Powder and Lime. Karnataka, India http://ijsart.com/Content/PDFDocuments/IJSARTV2I105854.pdf

All construction industries are in current research for a suitable and effective use of
waste product that would help in engineering work. Based on this study, the construction
industry researches want to minimize the use of cements and definitely decreases the
construction cost. It is noticeable that the agricultural waste has the great number in the
proportion of the collected solid waste in most of the cities of the world. Eggshells are one of
these agricultural wastes that surround the environment. This study showed that there is an
effective way to convert this waste to wealth, investigating eggshells for beneficial use
becomes a focus on many studies. It is scientifically known that the eggshell is composed of
compounds mainly of calcium. In this study, another research cited that presented eggshell as
being composed of 93.70% calcium carbonate, 4.20% organic matter, 1.30% magnesium
carbonate, and 0.8% calcium phosphate. Calcium trioxocarbonate (IV), [that is calcium
carbonate, (CaCO3)], is the major composition of the eggshell, accounting for 93.70% of the
total composition of the eggshell. Odesina(2008), also presented calcium trioxocarbonate (IV),
as an important constituent of eggshells and seashells. Similarly, calcium trioxocarbonate (IV),
[calcium carbonate, (CaC03)], is the primary raw material in the production of cement.
Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) composed of four main calcium compounds in the forms of
dicalcium silicates, tricalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate, and tetra-calcium aluminoferite. In
this study, the researchers have proved that eggshells and cement have the same primary
composition of calcium compounds. The eggshell ash used in this study was collected from
different locations at around Kaduna North.

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The material gathered was spread out dry for 24 hours before it was burnt. For particle
size analysis, Sieve no. 200 was used because the average grained size of eggshell powder
was 75µm.

## Afolayan J. O. December 2017. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Partial Replacement of

Cement with Eggshell Ash on the Rheological Properties of Concrete. Nigeria. International Journal of
Engineering and Applied Sciences (IJEAS) ISSN: 2394-3661, Volume-4, Issue-12.

## Nowadays, many experts conduct experiments to employ alternative materials, which

could improve engineering properties of materials such as concrete and soil than traditional
materials. This alternative materials are also economical than the traditional materials. In this
study, the soil sample used was clay soil, which is commonly used in construction. Eggshell is
a waste product produced annually all over the world. These wastes are hard to dispose and
adds to environmental problem. In this study, eggshell powder was used as an additive
material to be mixed to soil. The plasticity properties of clay soil were investigated in different
weight percentages. Soil sample with and without eggshell were compared. Attenberg limit
were also performed. Result shows that lower percentages of eggshell powder increased
some properties of soil sample while higher proportions did not give a significant changes.

Arash B., Hamidreza S., Mehdi G., Moustafa Y.D.2012. Laboratory Investigation of the Effect of Eggshell
powder on Plasticity Index in Clay and Expansive Soils. Tehran, Iran, http://www.imedpub.com/articles/laboratory-
investigation-of-the-effect-of-eggshell-powder-on-plasticity-index-in-clay-and-expansive-soils.pdf

This study aims to stablish the geotechnical properties of eggshell powder along with
marble dust stabilized clay as an alternative for traditional lime stabilized clay. The main goal
of this study is to compare the stabilizing potential of eggshell powder and marble dust, which
is easily obtained as a waste material with that of artificially synthesized lime. Lime is produced
by burning of limestone in kilns, which is harmful to the environment. It needs more cost to
burn limestone to obtain the lime that will be used for stabilization. Because of its expensive
price, we use eggshell powder and marble dust as a replacement for industrial lime since it
contains lime content in it. The effect of eggshell powder and marble dust on the index and
engineering properties of clay will be examined individually and in combination.

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The project is intending at determining the optimum percentage of admixture of eggshell
powder and marble dust in clay, which can effectively replace conventional lime. The result will
prove that the Unconfined compressive strength of the soil also enhanced on addition of ESP
when comparison with normal clay.

Elizabeth K Siby and Betsypaul K. 2014. Improvement of Lateritic Clay using Eggshell Powder & Marble
Dust and its comparison with Lime Stabilized Clay. India. http://www.ijser.in/archives/v4i3/IJSER15701.pdf

## This study aimed to determine the geotechnical properties of eggshell stabilized

kuttanad clay resulting from considering its capability as stabilizing factor for kuttanad clay.
Laboratory tests were conducted on eggshell stabilized kuttanad clay as well as lime stabilized
kuttanad clay. Lime stabilized kuttanad clay served as control experiment. The result test
which are the Atterberg limits, Hydrometer test, Free swell test, Unconfined compression test,
Standard proctor test and the California Bearing Ratio give the output that eggshell-stabilized
kuttanad clay at 12% have the similar engineering properties along with Lime-stabilized
kuttanad clay at 4%. From this study, eggshell powder mixed along with kuttanad clay has
been found to possess low binding properties, it can be used to significantly improve the
strength of soil to be used as a sub grade where very high performance is not necessary. It
could serve as a fair substitute for use as stabilizers for sub grade but not for base and sub
base. The capacity as a stabilizer does not match the minimum requirement for use as base
and sub base materials for road construction.

Diana Johns, Naveena Joseph and S Naveen Prasath (2017), Improvement of Subgrade Clayey Soil
using Eggshell, Coimbatore https://www.ijraset.com/fileserve.php?FID=6799

The propose study evaluated the outcome of two solid wastes, Red Mud (RM) along
with Eggshell Ash (ESA), in the improvement of early strength of lime stabilized soil. Quick
strength development is critical in highway projects wherein longer curing periods may lead to
delay in completion of the work. To examine the impact of the two combined waste materials,
they were combined with two lime contents improve for stabilization of an expansive soil and
their unconfined compressive strengths were determined through three curing periods of 0 (2
hours), 3 and 7 days of curing.

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The test samples were arranged in a split mold of 38 mm x 76 mm at a fixed density
and moisture content. The results of the test show that ESA work better than RM in enhancing
the early strength of lime-stabilized soil. Eggshell Ash contributed serous strength benefit at
low lime content and excellent gain at higher lime content whereas RM could create only
marginal strength gain at low lime content however noteworthy strength gain at higher lime
content.

P. Kasinatha Pandian and Jijo James .2016. DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY STRENGTH OF LIME
STABILIZED EXPANSIVE SOIL: EFFECT OF RED MUD AND EGGSHELL ASH, India
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309721682_DEVELOPMENT_OF_EARLY_STRENGTH_OF_LIME_ST
ABILIZED_EXPANSIVE_SOIL_EFFECT_OF_RED_MUD_AND_EGG_SHELL_ASH

## Fine-grained soil, particularly clay, having a high-water content serve to be a

problematic soil, i.e. low strength and a large volume change. The additive used in this study is
eggshell powder (ESP),which is environmentally friendly and low-cost. The addition of ESP
affects the compressive strength of the soil. The additive used in this research is eggshell
powder (ESP), which is environmentally friendly and low-cost. The addition of ESP is very
effective, as a result to the rapid growth of the bread industry in Indonesia. So, the use of ESP
as an additive material can decrease environmental pollution. The Compressive strength serve
to increase until it attains a maximum at 10% of ESP, and it decreases again gradually. The
reference there is a pozzolan reaction between CaO with the soil that makes soil firmer.

(ESP) on the compression strength of finegrained soil. Indonesia.
http://sipil.ft.uns.ac.id/icrmce04/assets/presentation/201_Niken_Silmi_S.pdf

Black cotton soil is widely spread worldwide and is a great cause of damage to
infrastructure and buildings. Due to his natural property of swelling and shrinkage, it absorbs
water and swells in monsoon, whereas it shrinks in summer due to evaporation of water and
as a result of this moistening and drying cycle, a subgrade layer composed of black cotton soil
cracks and settles.

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With this experimental work, it has been designed to stabilize black cotton soil apllying
eggshells, which is produced as a waste material; for improvement of its strength and
swelling/shrinkage characteristics and make it proper use in highways construction as
subgrade material. The change in physical and engineering properties of soil were studied
after mixing of eggshells at several proportion

Bhargav Tewar and Chitra Pandya. 2015. Black cotton soil stabilization using eggshells for use in
soil+yung+eggshell&source

This study determines the possibility of Bagasse Ash (BA) and Eggshell Powder (ESP)
to stabilize soft and expansive soil. The physical properties of clay, BA and ESP have been
studied by conducting Specific gravity, wet sieve analysis, Liquid Limit (wL) and Plastic Limit
(wP) tests. The soil has been classified as Clay of Medium Compressibility (CI). Light
Compaction Test (LCT) has been carried out to determine the Optimum Moisture Content
(OMC) of virgin soil. Then, for determining the strength of virgin and stabilized soil, California
Bearing Ratio (CBR) tests have been performed. Optimum proportion of BA and ESP are to be
replaced to stabilize the soil is determined by changing the percentage from 5% to 25% by
weight of soil and addition of 3% of ESP then CBR tests are performed. The design of flexible
pavement for the CBR value and the estimation of savings in cost are carried out. The results
of the experimental research resulted that soil replaced by 25% BA and addition of 3% of ESP
can effectively be used as a soil stabilizer for subgrade in addition to the CBR value has
increased but also the expansive nature of clay is reduced. This leads to reduction in total cost.

## P.A.Sivasubramani, C.Arya , R.Karunya and N.Mohammed Jalaludeen. 2017. Experimental Study on

Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil Subgrade using Bagasse Ash and Eggshell Powder for the Design of Flexible
Pavement. India http://www.sphinxsai.com/2017/ch_vol10_no8/3/(662-669)V10N8CT.pdf

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According to the given reference, eggshell have the ability to protect all parts from
damage. As the eggshell builds or forms in the uterus of the mother, its calcium content
increase. Given by the available resources, the calcium content of the egg at the first four
hours is at the rate of 2.2% then after another 16 hours, the calcium content increased to 5.6%
per hour. The eggshell has approximately 47% op calcium content form growing up to its full-
grown state. Calcium content is an important content of the soil because calcium helps in
developing soil structure, it is also considered as a bonding agent in the collective group of soil
particles. The study shown that the difference between the specimen without eggshell and
without eggshell has a positive outcome, which means that the eggshell indeed, gives a
positive effect on the asphalt sample.

Erfen Y.M. July 2015. THE APPROPRIATENESS OF EGGSHELL AS FILLER IN HOT MIX ASPHALT,

In this study, laboratory experiments were made by the researchers using main
ingredients of concrete mixing which are the cement, fine aggregates, coarse aggregates and
water. Eggshell ash and RHA were the partial substitutes to cement. Researchers collected
eggshells and RHA from different restaurants near the school. These materials were
introduced to a temperature of about 500 degrees Celsius, and thoroughly ground and sieve
through sieved no.200 (75 μm). After that, tests have been made and the results in this study
is that the eggshell and RHA can be a partial replacement for cement for it also has calcium
compound of cement. The eggshell properties were being compared to cement. As the cement
was being used to be additives in soil, the same goes with the eggshell. This study serves as a
reference for mechanical properties of eggshell.

Nurul, S., Dullah, S.,Ayug, J., et al. 2016. Mechanical Properties of Concrete Using Eggshell Ash and
Rice Husk Ash As Partial Replacement Of Cement. Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Faculty of Engineering,
Universiti Malaysia

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It is proven by the results if the test samples of the resource that the burned eggshell or
eggshell as has a high containment of lime (CaO) but not too high that it could damage the
specimen. It only has the right amount which helps to form silicates and aluminates in calcium.
As it states that the tested eggshells has the right amount of lime content, then this means that
this does not expand and decompose or decay. The specimen was mixed, molded and was
cured and tested for 7, 14, 21, 28 days the sandcrete sample had a higher strength gain than
of the normal sandcrete (without eggshell content) it was concluded and considered that the
eggshell content helped in having this higher strength gain. The researcher of the resource
concluded that eggshell can be considered as an accelerator and that this ESA content when
mixed with concrete mixture or soil mister can be used as plastering masonry and plastering
concrete.

Afolayan J. O, Oriola F.O.P, Moses G. and Sani J.E, August 2017. INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF
EGGSHELL ASH ON THE PROPERTIES OF SANDCRETE BLOCK. Kaduna, Nigeria

## To effectively utilize industrial waste, investigating the suitability of eggshell powder as a

substitute material in improving strength was being continue. The objective of this study is to
prevent the environmental hazardous due to dumping of eggshell water and to properly
managed and improve our environment by decreasing the amount of waste. In this study,
eggshell powder (ESP) is used and meant by the formation cruse the eggshell. It contain a
large number of chemical element namely Ca, Si, K. if the specific gravity of ESP is 2.14, then
these shells were crushed at micron level. The Remaining 5% includes Magnesium,
Aluminum, Phosphorous, Sodium, Potassium, Zinc, Iron, Copper, Ironic acid and Silica acid.
1.3. Physical and chemical analysis: Particle size allocation of OPC, Eggshell powder was
decided. Physical properties such as specific gravity, bulk density, and fineness of OPC (IS
8122-1985), Eggshell powder were calculated. Specific surface area of OPC and ESP were
calculated as per IS 4031 (part 2)-1995 by means of Blain’s air permeability tool. The physical
properties of OPC, ESP are contrasted in Table 1 Chemical examination for oxide composition
of OPC (IS 4032-1985) and Eggshell powder was calculated.

Karthikeyan, ., Suresh, C., Divya, M., Manikandan, S., Nandhakumar, R., December 2015. An
Experimental Investigation of Eggshell Concrete. Department of Civil Engineering, Vel Tech Multi Tech.
https://www.jchps.com/issues/Volume.

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Eggshell contains magnesium carbonate, protein, and calcium. Usually people consider
it as a trash, but actually it has components which helps for the improvements of soil. It was
stated that with the right amount of powdered eggshell mixed with salt, this mixture will give a
component which will help in stabilizing road works. Eggshell contains CaO which helps in
saving resources like money and cement that will be used in the study. Partially replacing
cement with eggshell will not only save resources but it will also increase the strength of the
final result.

Anand P., Pardeep K.Y., August 2017. A REVIEW STUDY OF EGGSHELL POWDER AS A CEMENT
REPLACING MATERIAL IN CONCRETE. Punjab,North India.

A microstructural analysis was made by the researcher of this resource and the result
states that eggshells contains porous irregular shapes. Porous or also known as permeable
substance are commonly defined as the ability to let a liquid or gas to pass through it. This
means that eggshell can be a compatible mixture content of concrete. Little research has been
conducted to prove that eggshell also contain Calcium oxide or lime, a content that can help in
increasing the strength of the soil. Eggshells was grinded before mixing into the mixture for this
will avoid decrease and depletion of the lime content or calcium oxide content of the eggshell it
shall be dried and grinded after two days of being obtained. Eggshells could be widely used in
construction industry with the purpose of lessening waste materials and also for the decrease
in the usage of cement. The mixture was moulded and cured for 7days, 28 days, and 90 days.
It was proven that containment of eggshells has an equal or greater strength acquired than of
the normal concrete mixture specimen. The water absorption of the mixture decreased, it was
identified that the eggshell powder was responsible for this decrease in water content.

LEE R.S. June 2015. WATER ABSORPTION AND STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF LIGHTWEIGHT
FOAMED CONCRETE WITH 2.5 % AND 5.0 % EGGSHELL AS PARTIAL CEMENT REPLACEMENT
MATERIAL. Selangor, Malaysia

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Slump test is a procedure which helps to distinguish the consistency of the mixture. As
tested and proven by the slump test the most reasonable percentage of eggshell content on
the concrete mixture is 15%. The strength of the concrete increases as the containment of
eggshell powder also increases but when the percentage of the eggshell powder reached 20%
it started to decrease the strength of the specimen. It was the concluded that the use of
eggshell in the construction industry will help in waste reduction and also could save a partial
amount of money when eggshell partially replaced the cement.

Tan Y.Y., Doh S.I., Chin S.C. 2016. Effect of Mixing Ingredient on Compressive Strength of ISSA
Concrete Containing Eggshell Powder. Kuantan, Malaysia.

This research was meant to study the effect of Eggshell Powder (ESP) on the stabilizing
potential of lime on an expansive clay soil. Tests were carried out to determine the optimal
amount of lime and the optimal percentage of lime-ESP combination; the optimal amount of
lime was gradually replaced with suitable amount of eggshell powder. The lime stabilized and
lime-ESP stabilized mixtures were subjected to engineering tests. The optimal percentage of
lime-ESP combination was attained at a 4% (ESP) + 3% (lime), which served as a control.
Results of the Maximum Dry Density (MDD), California Bearing Ratio (CBR), unconfined
compression test and Undrained triaxial shear strength test all indicated that lime stabilization
at 7% is better than the combination of 4% (ESP) + 3% (lime).

O.O. Amu, A.B. Fajobi and B.O. Oke, 2005, Effect of Eggshell Powder on the Stabilizing Potential of
Lime on an Expansive Clay Soil, (Journal of Applied Sciences), 5: 1474-1478,

Clayey soils with high content of clay particles are found very fragile and they cannot be
used as foundation layers or as a construction substantial. Eggshell Powder (ESP) and Quarry
Dust (QD) were used to study the effect on the properties of clayey soil. Eggshell primarily
contains calcium, magnesium carbonate and protein and the quantity of lime in eggshell is
almost the same as in limestone on ton for ton basis. When quarry dust is added with
expansive soil it is expected that it will make it more porous, less durable, reduce cohesion etc.

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The main objective of this paper is to determine the improvement in engineering
properties of clayey soil under varying percentage of Eggshell Powder (ESP) and Quarry Dust
(QD). An improvement in the strength properties of soil by addition of ESP and QD will help to
find an application for waste materials to improve the properties of clayey soil and can be used
as a better stabilizing agent.

Geethu Saji1, Nimisha Mathew2, Improvement of Clayey Soil by Using Eggshell Powder and Quarry
Dust, (IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering) PP 46-54, http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-
jmce/papers/ICETEM/Vol.%201%20Issue%202/22-46-54.pdf

Soil is one of the most important materials used in a construction projects. The fact that
soil may provide all the resistance characteristics necessary for a project. Most of the failures
of soil have been attributed to poor strength. Stabilization of soil by adding lime, cement,
bitumen etc. are expensive and therefore require an economic replacement. A huge amount of
eggshell wastes are produced every year in India. In the absence of an effective waste
disposal, the utilization of eggshell for soil improvement will be a wanted development. In this
paper, we studied the suitability of eggshell powder as a possible additive material to improve
the strength of soils. Soil samples were collected and stabilized with eggshell powder in
proportions of 0.5% to 5.5% at 0.5% interval by dry weight. The index and engineering
properties were carried out to access the behavior of soil with the addition of eggshell powder.
The unconfined compressive strength test was carried out with and without delay in
compaction. Addition of eggshell powder to soil sample lead to increase in unconfined
compressive strength. The maximum unconfined compressive strength was attained at 3%
eggshell powder stabilization. The unconfined compressive strength was increased in the
delayed compaction than the without delayed compaction. The use of eggshell powder as an
additive will therefore improve the strength of soils; however, using eggshell powder quantities
in excess of 3% may not yield ample results.

Muthu Kumar M., and Tamilarasan V S, May – 2014, Effect of Eggshell Powder in the Index and
Engineering Properties of Soil, International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), Tamilnadu,
India, http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 319

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This study fully substituted the cement by eggshell powder and red sand. It was stated
that eggshell contains lime that can greatly help in the strength of the concrete mixture. The
researcher tested 3 specimen having 5%, 10%, and 15%, the specimen with dimension
150x150x150 mm were cured for 7, 14, and 28 days and tested. The results shows that the
compressive strength for 10% and 15% decreased and the soil which have 5% of eggshell has
the highest compressive strength. It was stated that the study was successful, and that
eggshell can be used as a replacement in cement by a partial mixture of 5% in the specimen.

Prasanth T., Sasidharan B., Udhayakumar M.R., Yuvasakthi V., Abdul Hameed A., (N.D) Replacement of
http://www.ijiarec.com/sites/default/files/articles/IJIAREC-18-319_1133-1136.pdf

This research paper performed experiment for the stabilization of the soil along the
Ganga bank in the city of Kanpur with the help of eggshell and quarry dust and therefore helps
in eradicating the problem of soil erosion. Eggshell and quarry dust is a waste material that can
be used for stabilization of soil. The eggshell powder and quarry dust are sieved through IS200
sieve and then mix in different proportions of percentages to improve its shear strength.
Experiment result shows that the shear strength has increased in the help of eggshell powder
and quarry dust.

Gaurav Sahu, and Ishant Kumar, May – 2017, STUDIES ON IMPROVEMENT OF SHEAR STRENGTH
OF SANDY SOIL USING EGGSHELL POWDER AND QUARRY DUST, Kanpur, India, International Jornal of
Engineering Research and Technology (IJERT), http://www.ijert.org

The overall strength and performance of a pavement is dependent not only upon its
design but also on the load bearing capacity of the subgrade soil. The quality of a flexible
pavement depends on the strength of its subgrade soil. The main function of the subgrade is to
give adequate support to the pavement and for this the subgrade should possess sufficient
parameters for determining the thickness of pavement. Index properties of soil are observed to
classify the soil. Since CBR is an important criterion in flexible pavement design, the strength
improvement has been found in terms of CBR in the present study.

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The laboratory test results show marked improvement of strength of soil with the
addition of eggshell powder in respect of California Bearing Ratio (CBR) in unsoaked
condition.

H.M. Vijaya, William Paul, and Jaya Vardhan, 2018, IMPROVEMENT OF SUB GRADE PROPERTIES BY
USING EGGSHELL POWDER, India, https://www.ijrs.in

## Due to continuous and fast growth of number of infrastructures in metro cities,

engineers were forced to improve the properties of soil and in this study, researchers used
different kinds of methods to improve the mechanical properties of soil. However, safety
standards and building codes requires the acceptable values for the properties of soil to be
used for design and construction. Soil stabilization was used to improve the strength properties
of soil. Soil stabilization are grouped into two: mechanical stabilization and chemical
stabilization; mechanical stabilization is done through physical process by introducing the
physical nature of native soil particles by either induced vibration, compaction or by
incorporating other physical properties such as barriers and nailing, while chemical
stabilization is done through chemical reactions between stabilizer and soil minerals. In this
study, there are proposals and recommendations to use microorganisms, nutrients, and
biological processes naturally present in subsurface soils to improve the engineering
properties of soil and using microorganisms has shown greater potential in geotechnical
engineering applications in terms of performance and environmental sustainability. Based on
this study, the calcium carbonate binds the soil together. The current laboratory experimental
practice in using microorganism, which is a matter with a very small size unit for increasing soil
strength needs improvement, thus, in this study, the objective is to review the current
experimental methodology in soil strength improvement that uses microorganisms.

Galupino, J., Dungca, J., June 2017. Current Experimental Methodologies in Soil Strength Improvement
using Microorganisms. Metro Manila, Philippines. Civil Engineering Department, Gokongwei College of
Engineering, De La Salle University.

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Foundations and earthworks are solely the first part and parcel of any civil engineering
project. The most important portion of civil engineering cost is spent often on foundation
systems and earthwork compaction. Particularly, on construction sites with poor or marginal
soils, there is a great need for ground improvement in order to withstand with big loads and for
economical foundations. This paper discussed how the ground procedures application will be
fully appreciated through the use of deep understanding of Soil Mechanics Principles. By a
further study, according to this paper, the concept of Optimum Moisture Content generally
does not apply to Clean Granular Soils and therefore the Proctor Standard is inappropriate or
could lead to problems in the Field. Clean sands either have to be compacted very dry or very
wet in order to achieve the maximum density. Based on the author, the microstructure of the
soil needs to be considered in the selection of the right compaction equipment. In this study,
after knowing the characteristics of soil, its response to compaction effort had been studied.
The researcher proved the effective range for compaction equipment under the differences of
soil conditions and recognized quickly that this has something to do with the grain size of soil
(clay to rock). Mechanical ground improvement in order to be fully see its importance and
understood, it requires a strong knowledge about the soil behavior particularly it refers to soil
mechanics.

## Morales, E. MSCE. MECHANICAL GROUND IMPROVEMENT. Quezon City, Philippine Geoanalytics,

Inc. https://www.pgatech.com

Soil samples was collected from different depths and different places and was tested. It
was the observed and discovered that the soil in Luzon was high in or mostly clay except for
the one specimen. It is the bantay soil, which is mostly sandy and the other properties it all
commonly have is that it is acidic or high in acid which means it has low lime content which is
needed for the decrease in acidic content and also raise the pH content of the soil.

Calubaquib M.A.M., Navarrete I.A., and. Sanchez P.B., September 2016, Properties and Nutrient Status
Copy_Jan_2017.pd

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Documentation:

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## Removing of soil to mold

Testing of Specimen

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Recording of data

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References:
Birundha.P., Suguna.S., Prabudevan.S., Vignesh Kumar.B, October,2017.Stabilization of
Clay Soil using Eggshell Powder and Quarry Dust. Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.
http://www.sphinxsai.com/2017/ch_vol10_no8/2/(439-445)V10N8CT.pdf

Wong, I. 2016. Study Added of Waste Chicken Eggshell in Soils. Makassar, South Sulawesi,
Indonesia. Universitas Kristen Indonesia Paulus-Civil Engineering.
https://www.matecconferences.org/articles

Muthu Kumar M., Tamilarasan V.S., May, 2014.(Effect of Eggshell Powder in the Index and
Engineering Properties of Soil),Tuticorin, Tamilnadu, India, http://ijettjournal.org/volume-
11/number-7/IJETT-V11P261.pdf

Anu P.,Anumol V.S., Moideen F., Jiksymol K.J., Alka A.,April 2014. Studies on Improvement of
Clayey Soil Using Eggshell Powder and Quarry Dust. ,Kothamangalam,India,
http://ijera.com/papers/Vol4_issue4/Version%204/I044045563.pdf

Prasad K., Mathachan N., James P.P., Liya T.,June 2016.Effect of Curing on Soil Stabilized
with Eggshell. Kanjirapally, India. http://www.ijste.org/articles/IJSTEV2I12022.pdf

## Kavyashree M.P., Renukaprasad M.S., Maruti R.N.October, 2016.Black Cotton Soil

Stabilization Using Eggshell Powder and Lime. Karnataka, India
http://ijsart.com/Content/PDFDocuments/IJSARTV2I105854.pdf

## Afolayan J. O. December 2017. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Partial Replacement

of Cement with Eggshell Ash on the Rheological Properties of Concrete. Nigeria. International
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences (IJEAS) ISSN: 2394-3661, Volume-4, Issue-12.

Arash B., Hamidreza S., Mehdi G., Moustafa Y.D.2012. Laboratory Investigation of the Effect
of Eggshell powder on Plasticity Index in Clay and Expansive Soils. Tehran, Iran,
http://www.imedpub.com/articles/laboratory-investigation-of-the-effect-of-eggshell-powder-on-
plasticity-index-in-clay-and-expansive-soils.pdf

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Soil Mechanics 2018
Elizabeth K Siby and Betsypaul K. 2014. Improvement of Lateritic Clay using Eggshell Powder
& Marble Dust and its comparison with Lime Stabilized Clay. India.
http://www.ijser.in/archives/v4i3/IJSER15701.pdf

Diana Johns, Naveena Joseph and S Naveen Prasath (2017), Improvement of Subgrade
Clayey Soil using Eggshell, Coimbatore https://www.ijraset.com/fileserve.php?FID=6799

## P. Kasinatha Pandian and Jijo James .2016. DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY STRENGTH OF

LIME STABILIZED EXPANSIVE SOIL: EFFECT OF RED MUD AND EGGSHELL ASH, India
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309721682

eggshell powder (ESP) on the compression strength of finegrained soil. Indonesia.
http://sipil.ft.uns.ac.id/icrmce04/assets/presentation/201_Niken_Silmi_S.pdf

Bhargav Tewar and Chitra Pandya. 2015. Black cotton soil stabilization using eggshells for use
ssive+strength+of+soil+yung+eggshell&source

## Q. A.Sivasubramani, C.Arya , R.Karunya and N.Mohammed Jalaludeen. 2017. Experimental

Study on Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil Subgrade using Bagasse Ash and Eggshell Powder
for the Design of Flexible Pavement. India
http://www.sphinxsai.com/2017/ch_vol10_no8/3/(662-669)V10N8CT.pdf

Erfen Y.M. July 2015. THE APPROPRIATENESS OF EGGSHELL AS FILLER IN HOT MIX
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279515932

eggshell powder (ESP) on the compression strength of finegrained soil. Indonesia.
http://sipil.ft.uns.ac.id/icrmce04/assets/presentation/201_Niken_Silmi_S.pdf

Bhargav Tewar and Chitra Pandya. 2015. Black cotton soil stabilization using eggshells for use

## Technological Institute of the Philippines 34 | P a g e

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ssive+strength+of+soil+yung+eggshell&source

Bhargav Tewar and Chitra Pandya. 2015. Black cotton soil stabilization using eggshells for use
ssive+strength+of+soil+yung+eggshell&source

Erfen Y.M. July 2015. THE APPROPRIATENESS OF EGGSHELL AS FILLER IN HOT MIX
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279515932

Nurul, S. Dullah, S.,Ayug, J., et al. 2016. Mechanical Properties of Concrete Using Eggshell
Ash and Rice Husk Ash As Partial Replacement Of Cement. Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia

Afolayan J. O, Oriola F.O.P, Moses G. and Sani J.E, August 2017. INVESTIGATING THE
EFFECT OF EGGSHELL ASH ON THE PROPERTIES OF SANDCRETE BLOCK. Kaduna,
Nigeria

Karthikeyan, S., Suresh, C., Divya, M., Manikandan, S., Nandhakumar, R., December 2015.
An Experimental Investigation of Eggshell Concrete. Department of Civil Engineering, Vel Tech
Multi Tech. https://www.jchps.com/issues/Volume

Anand P., Pardeep K.Y., August 2017. A REVIEW STUDY OF EGGSHELL POWDER AS A
CEMENT REPLACING MATERIAL IN CONCRETE. Punjab,North India.

## LEE R.S. June 2015. WATER ABSORPTION AND STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF

LIGHTWEIGHT FOAMED CONCRETE WITH 2.5 % AND 5.0 % EGGSHELL AS PARTIAL
CEMENT REPLACEMENT MATERIAL. Selangor, Malaysia

Tan Y.Y., Doh S.I., Chin S.C. 2016. Effect of Mixing Ingredient on Compressive Strength of
ISSA Concrete Containing Eggshell Powder. Kuantan, Malaysia

## Technological Institute of the Philippines 35 | P a g e

Soil Mechanics 2018
O. O. Amu, A.B. Fajobi and B.O. Oke, 2005, Effect of Eggshell Powder on the Stabilizing
Potential of Lime on an Expansive Clay Soil, (Journal of Applied Sciences), 5: 1474-1478,

Geethu Saji1, Nimisha Mathew2, Improvement of Clayey Soil by Using Eggshell Powder and
Quarry Dust, (IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering) PP 46-54,
http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jmce/papers/ICETEM/Vol.%201%20Issue%202/22-46-54.pdf

Muthu Kumar M., and Tamilarasan V S, May – 2014, Effect of Eggshell Powder in the Index
and Engineering Properties of Soil, International Journal of Engineering Trends and
Technology (IJETT), Tamilnadu, India, http://www.ijettjournal.org Page 319

## B. Ahmed, A. Rahman, and J. Das, 12-14 February 2016, EGGSHELL POWDER

UTILIZATION AS CBR MODIFYING AGENT TO IMPROVE THE SUBGRADE SOIL, KUET,
Khulna, Bangladesh, Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Civil Engineering for
Sustainable Development (ICCESD 2016), (ISBN: 978-984-34-0265-3), www.iccesd.com

Gaurav Sahu, and Ishant Kumar, May – 2017, STUDIES ON IMPROVEMENT OF SHEAR
STRENGTH OF SANDY SOIL USING EGGSHELL POWDER AND QUARRY DUST, Kanpur,
India, International Jornal of Engineering Research and Technology (IJERT), http://www.ijert.org

H. M. Vijaya, William Paul, and Jaya Vardhan, 2018, IMPROVEMENT OF SUB GRADE
PROPERTIES BY USING EGGSHELL POWDER, India, https://www.ijrs.in

Galupino, J., Dungca, J., June 2017. Current Experimental Methodologies in Soil Strength
Improvement using Microorganisms. Metro Manila, Philippines. Civil Engineering Department,
Gokongwei College of Engineering, De La Salle University.

## Morales, E. MSCE. MECHANICAL GROUND IMPROVEMENT. Quezon City, Philippine

Geoanalytics, Inc. https://www.pgatech.com

Calubaquib M.A.M., Navarrete I.A., and. Sanchez P.B., September 2016, Properties and Nutrient