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UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS

EXPEDITIONARY WARFARE TRAINING GROUP, PACIFIC


N571 DEPARTMENT
3423 GUADALCANAL ROAD
SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA 92155-5099

LESSON PLAN

MPF PLANNING PROCESS OVERVIEW

MPF 08

MARITIME PREPOSITIONING FORCE (MPF) STAFF PLANNING

N30L8QLM

REVISED 07/01/2008

APPROVED BY _______________________ DATE ______________________


MPF 08

(Slide 1)

INTRODUCTION (3 MIN)

1. GAIN ATTENTION. There are several reasons why proper planning is essential.
First, planning can be essential to the ability to seize the initiative in a
military operation. In order to seize the initiative, we must be able to
anticipate events and act purposefully and effectively. We must be proactive.
This normally requires planning. Proper planning puts us in the position to be
ready to act when necessary or advantageous and not merely to react to
developments. Second, planning is essential to reduce the unavoidable time lag
between decision and action, especially at higher levels. While some actions can
be implemented immediately, others require forethought and preparation. If we
wait until an event materializes to begin to prepare for it, we may not be able
to react quickly enough.

(Slide 2)

2. OVERVIEW. Good morning/afternoon my name is ___________. The purpose of this


period of instruction is to provide you with an overview of MPF planning.

(Slide 3)

I will do this by covering the two planning methodologies, the initiating


directive, and other planning considerations related to MPF operations.

3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES (LESSON PURPOSE)

a. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVES.

(1) With the aid of references, explain MPF planning considerations.

b. ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES.

(1) With the aid of references, explain the differences between


contingency and crisis action planning.

(2) With the aid of references, list the six phases of the crisis action
planning process.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE. Take a minute to read over your TLOs and ELOs. Once everyone
looks up I will know when to begin.

4. METHOD/MEDIA. This lesson will be taught using the informal lecture


method with the aid of a power point presentation.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE. Explain Instructional Forms to the students.

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5. EVALUATION. You will be evaluated on this material during the practical


application brief on Training Day 5, at ____ in Bldg ____ Rm. ____.

6. SAFETY/CEASE TRAINING (CT) BRIEF. There is no safety or cease training brief


associated with this lesson.

TRANSITION. Are there any questions about what will be covered, how it will be
covered, and how you will be evaluated? Good, now let’s beginning by discussing
planning methodologies.
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BODY (45 MIN)

(SLIDE 4)

1. PLANNING METHODOLIGIES. (25 Min)

MPF operations are essentially naval in character, yet depend on support from
the Joint Deployment Community (JDC), most notably, the Air Mobility Command
(AMC), the Air Force component of the United States Transportation Command. Due
to limited deployment assets, time constraints and the fact that most MPF
operations will cross unified command boundaries, MPF planning efforts use the
Joint Operational Planning and Execution System (JOPES), which facilitates both
deliberate or contingency planning and crisis action or time sensitive planning.

(SLIDE 5)

The planning phase of an MPF operation begins with the receipt of an alert or
warning order and is characterized by either deliberate/contingency planning or
CAP. Let’s discuss these two related yet distinct planning methods.

(SLIDE 6)
a. DELIBERATE/CONTINGENCY PLANNING.

(1). Deliberate or contingency planning is used when time permits the total
participation of the commanders and staffs of the Joint Planning and Execution
Community (JPEC). This type of planning is conducted in anticipation of future,
hypothetical, military operations in response to a contingency. A contingency is
a situation that likely would involve military forces in response to natural and
man-made disasters, terrorists, subversives, military operations by foreign
powers, or other situations as directed by the President or Secretary of
Defense.

(a). Deliberate/contingency planners rely heavily on assumptions


regarding the circumstances that will exist when the plan is executed.

(SLIDE 7)

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This method of planning can take months or possibly the entire two- year
planning cycle to develop a large plan and requires coordination among the
supported unified commander, supporting commanders, various agencies and the
Services, and reviews by the Joint Staff, and conferences of JPEC members.

(SLIDE 8)

The resultant product is the combatant commander's estimate of how to deploy and
employ forces for an abstract military operation in his area of responsibility
(AOR), and serves as the basis for real-world execution planning.

(2) Categories. There are two categories of contingency plans. The first
being an operation plan (OPLAN) that identifies planning assumptions and the
specific forces, functional support, deployment sequence, and resources required
to execute joint operations of any magnitude. It provides estimates for troop
and equipment movement into the operational area and can be used as a basis for
rapid development of an OPORD. It is very detailed.

(a). The second is an operation plan in concept format (CONPLAN).


It’s an abbreviated format that would require considerable expansion or
alteration to convert it into an OPLAN and, generally, detailed support
requirements are not calculated and TPFDD may or may not be prepared.

(SLIDE 9)

Supporting and Subordinate Commands will create plans to support the combatant
commander’s plan.

(SLIDE 10)

Once created and approved, OPLANs serve as the basis for crisis action planning.

(SLIDE 11)

b. CRISIS ACTION PLANNING (CAP)

(1). While deliberate/contingency planning is conducted in anticipation


of future events, Crisis Action Planning is based on circumstances that exist at
the time planning occurs. The situation or crisis is fast-breaking and requires
accelerated decision making because the time allotted for a U.S. response is
short. CAP is a Joint Operation Planning and Execution System (JOPES) process
and makes time-sensitive development of joint operation plans and operation
orders for the deployment, employment, and sustainment of assigned and allocated
forces and resources possible. In as little as a few days a feasible course of
action (COA) can be developed and approved, and resources identified to ready
forces, schedule transportation, and prepare equipment and supplies for movement
and employment by military forces.

(SLIDE 12)

(2) Phases. Crisis Action Planning (CAP) has six phases. Phase I is
Situation Development. Phase II is Crisis Assessment. Phase III is COA
development. Phase IV is COA selection. Phase V is Execution Planning. Phase VI
is Execution.

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(SLIDE 13)

(3) Orders. The CAP process results in the issuance of the Warning,
Alert, Deployment, and Execution Orders to the regional unified commander whose
area of responsibility (AOR) contains the crisis. The Warning and Final
Execution Orders are issued through the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
(CJCS) and occur in phases II and VI respectively. It is after the CJCS warning
order (authorized by the President or SecDef) that the supported unified
commander or subordinate commanders will make some basic decisions in regards to
MPF involvement.

(SLIDE 14)

c. 8 BASIC DECISIONS.

(1) The basic decisions that must be made so planning can continue are
the MAGTF’s mission, the command relationships, concept of operations (CONOPS)
ashore, concept of Arrival and Assembly operations, concept of deployment,
special considerations and control measures, and force protection.

INSTRUCTOR NOTE. Ask Probing Question: Which decision is the most important?
Answer: The MAGTF’s mission ashore. It serves as the basis for all further
planning of the MPF operation.

(SLIDE 15)

(2) Mission. The mission will delineate the general area of operations, the
required tasks of the MAGTF, time period of the deployment, required time period
for operational capability, time constraints, and estimated duration of tactical
operations.

(SLIDE 16)

(3) Command Relationships. Establishing supported and supporting command


relationships will minimize disruption of MPF operations during the transition
from planning through deployment and execution phases.

(SLIDE 17)

(4) Concept of MAGTF Operations Ashore. The CONOPS ashore are derived from the
MAGTF’s mission and will cover topics such as what the objectives will be; what
the scheme of maneuver will look like; the warfighting priorities; and the
general fire support plan.

(SLIDE 18)

(5) Concept of Arrival and Assembly Operations. This concept covers what the
basic sequence for arrival and assembly will be; what are the offload sites, and
any C2 procedures.

(SLIDE 19)

Developed by MAGTF CO in coordination with the CNSE and COMPSRON the AAA plan
lays out the basic sequence for arrival and assembly, selection of offload and

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arrival sites; command and control procedures; and offload/throughput priority


of MPE/S

(SLIDE 20)

(6) Concept of Deployment. After the basic plan for operations, and arrival and
assembly, a deployment plan is created. It will cover marshalling, air movement,
sea movement, flight ferry (FF), and any SLRP and OPP considerations.

(SLIDE 21)

(7) Control Measures. Control measures will aid in preventing delays and
disruption in the arrival and assembly of deploying forces. The MAGTF commander
normally determines these measures once basic decisions are made to establish
the Arrive and Assembly Area (AAA). He will prioritize the use of airfields,
port and beach facilities, and transportation networks.

(SLIDE 22)

(8) Special Considerations. Special considerations will be issues such as


assigning Areas of Operations (AO) ashore and designating coordinating
authorities, main and alternate supply routes (MSR/ASR), and even intermediate
staging areas. Establishing responsibilities for the emergency defense of the
MPF during movement and within the AAA and ROE also need to be planned for.

(SLIDE 23)

(9) Force Protection. Force protection responsibilities vary according to the


phase of the operation. They are passed down from the establishing authority to
the MPF MAGTF/CMPF as applicable and often shared by the host nation (HN) in the
AAA. Some of the initial planning considerations will be security for ships en
route to and in the AAA, personnel and aircraft at en route support bases, and
arrival airfield.

(SLIDE 24)

TRANSITION: We have just covered the two planning methodologies and the decision
the supported combatant needs to made so MPF planning can begin. Are there any
questions? Question: Which planning method is used for current and unanticipated
events. Answer: Crisis Action Planning. Now that everyone has a good
understanding of the planning process, let’s talk about the Initiating Directive.

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(SLIDE 25)

2. INITIATING DIRECTIVE. (10 Min)

a. The MPF Initiating Directive is an order for commanders to plan for and
prepare to conduct an MPF operation. It commences the MPF’s crisis action
planning period and can be issued by the unified commander, the sub-unified

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commander, the service component commander, or the Commander of the Joint Task
Force (CJTF) delegated overall responsibility of the operation.

(SLIDE 26)

INSTRUCTOR NOTE. Have students turn to the page in the practical application
that shows an example of an Initiating Directive. Page ______

(SLIDE 27)

b. The initiating directive should provide the purpose for the operation and
give a general summary of the situation. It will also state the overall mission.
A force list and task organization will be included. Tasks to be performed by
the various units and C2 relationship will be outlined.

(SLIDE 28)

It will also provide information on the area of operation, such as the location
AAA and any host nation support that’ll be provided and the duration of the that
support.

(SLIDES 29 & 30)

Coordinating instructions and special instructions in the initiating directive


will list any key movement dates (i.e. SLRP and OPP deployment dates, C-day, and
MPSRON arrival date), and any Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical (NBC)
defense/employment instructions.

c. During a crisis situation the directive is often not issued, so


commanders involved in the operation will have to act on information contained
in the warning, alert, and execution orders.

(SLIDE 31)

d. What happens next after the Initiating directive or warning order is issued?
Some of the tasks that take place are the Naval COA’s are refined; units review
and update their force lists to ensure they have the requisite number of
personnel and skill sets to carry out the mission; SLRP and OPP personnel are
identified and deploy as soon as possible; selective reserves for the NSE and
MPSRON are mobilized; and the MPSRON is repositioned closer to the objective
area.

(SLIDE 32)

TRANSITION: We have just covered the Initiating Directive. Are there any
questions? Question: Name two of the persons who can issue the Initiating
Directive. Answer: unified commander, the sub-unified commander, the service
component commander, or the Commander of the Joint Task Force (CJTF) delegated
overall responsibility of the operation. Now that everyone has a good
understanding of the planning process, let’s talk about some of the other
planning considerations.

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(SLIDE 33)

3. OTHER PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS. (10 Min)

(SLIDE 34)

a. Planning for the Deployment of the ACE. The ACE is comprised of a


combination of Fixed-Wing (FW) and Rotary-Wing (RW) type aircraft that support
both MPF force modules.

(1) Actions and decisions made during this phase are critical to force
list development, flight ferry scheduling, En route Support Bases (ESBs),
Forward Operating Bases (FOBs), and determination of Arrival Assembly Area
(AAA). Major tasks to be accomplished are:

(a) Mission Analysis.- Planners need to determine the specified and


implied tasks, and determine which aircraft are needed to carry out assigned
mission.

(b) Force List Development. – Based on mission, planners will need to


determine if the units (i.e. VMFA, VMAQ, HMM, MACS, etc.) they want to deploy
are available. Once decisions have been made on which unit to deploy, planners
need to publish a force list with planning assumptions to affected units.

(c) Identify Aerial Port of Embarkation (APOE) for Helicopter Breakdown.


– All helicopters need to be transported using strategic airlift. Some will
helicopters need to be significantly broken down prior to being loaded on a C-5
or C-17. The CH-53D/E is one such aircraft. The rotors, transmission, external
antennae, wing stubs, and probe must be removed. The landing gear wheels must
be removed and replaced with smaller ones in order to fit inside the C-5/C-17
aircraft. The CH-46E breakdown is moderate. Rotor blades must be removed prior
to loading. The AH-1W/UH-1N requires only minor breakdown loading aboard C-5s.

(SLIDE 35)

Here is the break down for loading helicopters onto a C-5.

(SLIDE 36)

(d) Identify FW/RW and Radar/C2 Systems Employment Sites. It is highly


recommended that FW and RW operations are separated when employing the MPF MEB
force module. The number of aircraft usually precludes their joint operations at
all but the largest airfields. Radars and certain C2 systems require a lot of
real estate and high ground to prevent terrain masking.

(e) T-AVB Employment. The USS Wright and USS Curtis are strategic assets
that provide an Intermediate Maintenance Activity (IMA) capability after O+30.
They must be requested and approval rest with the President. The T-AVB is not
preloaded with equipment and supplies, so leaders must plan for the loading and
transit time when deciding to employ it. Planners also must determine whether
or not the T-AVB will be used in the operational mode or as an administrative

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load-out. (352 vans for operational, 684 for administrative). As a side note,
a Fly-in Support Package (FISP) will be brought into the theater to cover the
first 30 days of maintenance/supply support. Plan one C-17 equivalent per T/M/S
aircraft deploying.

(f) USAF Tanker Training. If deploying aircrew is not current in their


tanking certification, they must get current prior to beginning transoceanic
flight movement.

(g) Flight Ferry Planning. The USAF schedules all flight ferry movement
and is responsible for coordinating the type of tanking platform, the number of
USMC aircraft in each movement cell, en route support bases, divert fields and
procedures, search and rescue.

(SLIDE 37)

b. Deployment to Employment. On termination of a MPF operation, the MAGTF


operates as the Marine component (MARFOR), or is subsumed into the existing
MARFOR or land forces component within a joint command, as part of a
multinational force or as a task force of the fleet. In order to ensure a
smooth transition from deployment to employment, detailed planning is required
to integrate the MAGTF into the area of operations.

(1) Those plans should clearly outline command relationships; address any
interoperability issues; delineate local security responsibilities; and
allocation of staff planning efforts between arrival and assembly, deployment
activities and activities in preparation for subsequent employment.

(SLIDE 38)

(2) Once MAGTF operations begin, there must be a plan for the disposition of
various MPF elements. For instance, is will there still a requirement to keep
all of the NSE units in theater after the completion of the off-load? What about
the equipment that was offloaded but is not being utilized for MAGTF operations?
These are the types of issues that must be addressed and planned for.

(3) In the case of the NSE, personnel used for the off-load should remain in
place if a backload and redeployment are imminent. For anticipated long-term
MAGTF employment in the vicinity of the AAA, the NSE or designated elements may
remain as lead elements for semi-permanent or long-term naval support. This
means that the port and/or beach may remain open for resupply, reinforcing
operations and for follow-on shipping. NSE will perform these tasks until the
operation is terminated or until relieved by Army terminal units.

(SLIDE 39)

TRANSITION: Are there any questions about some of the other MPF planning
considerations. Question: Why is it important to plan for the integration of the
MAGTF into the area? Answer: Planning will create a smooth transition from
deployment to employment.

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(SLIDE 40)

4. SUMMARY (2 MIN)

a. During this period of instruction we covered both deliberate and crisis


action planning, the Initiating Directive, and other planning considerations
related to MPF operations. Through deliberate and crisis action planning, MPF
commanders receive their guidance and basis for planning either in the form of
the Initiating Directive or the Warning, Alert, and Execute Orders. With this
information, I am confident that you will be able to complete the practical
application on training day ____. At this time, those students with the
Instructional Rating Forms please fill them out and turn them in at the back of
the classroom. You may now take a 10-minute break.

REFERENCES

1. MCWP 3-32/NTTP 3-02.3, Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF) Operations

2. JP 5-0, Joint Operation Planning

3. MCWP 5-1, Marine Corps Planning Process; and NDP 5-01/NWP 11, Navy Planning

ATTACHMENTS

1. None

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