EXPEDITIONARY WARFARE TRAINING GROUP, PACIFIC N571 DEPARTMENT 3423 GUADALCANAL ROAD SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA 92155-5099

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS

LESSON PLAN

BEACH AND PORT OPERATIONS MPF 15 MARITIME PREPOSITIONING FORCE (MPF) STAFF PLANNING N20L8QM REVISED 07/01/2008

APPROVED BY _______________________

DATE ______________________

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INTRODUCTION 1. GAIN ATTENTION. (Slide 1) What phase of an MPF Operations did we leave off after our last discussion? A) The AA phase And as we mentioned before the Arrival and Assembly Phase is the most critical of all MPF phases due to the rapid build-up of forces and supplies and ORGANIZATIONS needed for good command and control. In this class we will further discuss how we go about selecting a beach to use for an MPF instream offload as well as the characteristics that are necessary for a pier to conduct a pier-side offload and the two important organizations that control those areas during the offload. The material in this class will be able to help you not only in MPF deployments but also help you understand the basic planning considerations for any pier side offload or instream offload outlined in your AA plan. This information will also assist the student in the practical exercise portion of this course. (Slide 2) OVERVIEW. This lesson will provide the student with information concerning the planning factors affecting beach selection; Beach Operations Group (BOG) task organization and equipment requirements; potential limitations of a port offload; responsibilities of the Port Operations Group (POG); and port operations planning considerations. This information will assist the student in the practical exercise portion of this course. (Slide 3) 3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES (LESSON PURPOSE) This information is designed to provide the student with the information concerning beach and port operations during the arrival and assembly phase of an MPF operation TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVES. 1. With the aid of references and as part of an MPF staff planning group, prepare a beach and port overlay in accordance with MCWP 3-32. (0019.03.15) (3 MIN)

ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVE(S): 1. With the aid of references, identify the planning factors affecting beach area selection in accordance with MCWP 3-32. (0019.03.15a) 2. With the aid of references, explain the Beach Operations Group (BOG) task organization considerations in accordance with MCWP 3-32. (0019.03.15b)

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3. With the aid of references, explain the Beach Operations Group (BOG) equipment requirements in accordance with MCWP 3-32. (0019.03.15c) 4. With the aid of references, explain the planning considerations affecting port operations in accordance with MCWP 3-32. (0019.03.15d) 5. With the aid of references, identify responsibilities of the Port Operations Group (POG) in accordance with the MCWP 3-32. (0019.03.15e) 6. With the aid of references, state the advantage of port operations in accordance with MCWP 3-32. (0019.03.15f) 7. With the aid of references, state the potential limitations of port operations in accordance with MCWP 3-32. (0019.03.15g)

INSTRUCTOR NOTE. Take a minute to read over your TLOs and ELOs. looks up I will know when to begin.

Once everyone

(Slide 4) These are the references associated with the lecture. 1. 2. MCWP 3-32/NWP 3-02.3, Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF) Operations. MCWP 4-11.3, Transportation Operations

4. METHOD/MEDIA. This period of instruction will be given using the informal lecture method aided by a powerpoint presentation. 5. EVALUATION. You will be evaluated during the practical application on training day 4 and 5. 6. SAFETY/CEASE TRAINING (CT) BRIEF. N/A

TRANSITION. Are there any questions about what we will be covering, how we will cover it, or how you will be evaluated? Good, now let’s discuss instream vs. pier side offloads. ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ___ (Slide 5) BODY a.Paragraph Heading. Beach and Port Operations Overview (45 MIN)

When considering to conduct either a pier side or an instream offload the first factor that comes to mind is time. This slide gives us the average amount of time it takes to offload 1 ship. For an instream offload it takes approximately

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5-7 days for all of the contents of the ship to be offload an approx 3-5 days for just rolling stock. For a pier side offload it takes only 3-5 days to offload the entire ship or 18 hours to offload the rolling stock pier side. As you can see a pier side offload is going to take a significantly shorter amount of time to offload. Why does an instream offload take so long? A) Lighterage transit and turn-around time B) Weather, sea state C) A lot of the things that don’t affect a pier side offload.

So, if a beach offload takes so long…..why do we even plan to conduct instream offloads? (leads into next slide) (Slide 6) A beach off-load may be the only means of bringing Maritime Prepositioning Equipment/Supplies (MPE/S) ashore. In addition, beach off-load operations may be conducted simultaneously with port operations to increase the overall rate of discharge when port facilities cannot accommodate the entire MPSRON, or urban congestion reduces throughput efficiency. (Slide 7) So let’s start off discussing Beach Operations (Slide 8) There are several factors that go into how we decide what beach to use for an instream offload. The of which is the Hydrography of the beach to include planning considerations for: Beach length, Beach configuration (helo pad, fuel, water, lanes), Beach interruptions and obstacles, Surf characteristics, Inshore currents, Tidal ranges and times, Nearshore and foreshore, and Beach gradients We will discuss each of these in the next few slides. (Slide 9) The first thing we want to examine at the beach is the beach length. we want to plan to use a beach that is 2-3 miles wide in length. Why do we need a beach this long? A) Lots of MPE/S coming off these ships B) Room for 4 boat/driving lanes (track vehicles, wheel vehicles, containers, and bulk liquids) Typically

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C) Helo Pad for the extraction of POWs or Casualties What is a driving lane and how many driving lanes do you want to have ideally? A Driving lane is a lane that the lighterage stays in to offload equipment and supplies. Typically before an offload the LARC drives these lanes to ensure they are adequate for lighterage operations. 4 driving lanes is preferable. track vehicles, wheel vehicles, containers, and bulk liquids Why do we want to separate vehicles from containers? A) Have different needs. Container driving lane needs to have RTCH ready to offload it. Wheeled vehicles may need momat. What do you notice about the position of the fuel line? A) Way off to the side so that it is out of the way of the other boat lanes. ABLTS system floats so need to be careful the line doesn’t get run over. (Slide 10) Here is an example of one beach that is broken up into 4 segments (red beach 1, 2, 3, and 4) (Slide 11) Another thing that we want to look at when deciding what beach to use for an instream offload is making sure that it is clear of interruptions and obstacles (both on the shore and in the water). Can anyone give me an example of some of these obstacles? A) Old pilings B) Sunken ships C) Sand Bars D) Reefs (Slide 12) Here is a graphic that shows just how deceiving a beach may look at high tide then it does from low tide. At high tide the surf covers lines of hedgehogs, log posts, mines and Belgian Gates. On the shore there are shingles, a seawall, concertina wire and cliffs. Graphic: Omaha Beach was the code name for one of the principal landing points of the Allied invasion of German-occupied France in the Normandy landings on June 6, 1944, during World War II. (Slide 13)

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Now let’s discuss Surf Characteristics and how they affect our landing craft. (Slide 14) Plunging breaker. One on which a long portion of the wave crest peaks up and then crashes violently into the preceding trough. (Slide 15) Spilling breaker. One with isolated patches of white water appearing along the crest before the wave rolls over. Spilling Breaker - most common, associated with a moderate beach gradient (1 : 15 to 1 : 30 -- flat or gentle) . Spilling breakers are waves that break slowly as they approach the shore. The wave energy is gradually released over time and the beach. This type of surf is best for landing craft. (Slide 16) Surging breaker. A breaker which peaks up, instead of spilling or plunging, and surges upon the beach. (Slide 17) Inshore Currents, Tide and Beach Gradient. Why do we care about Inshore Currents? (Slide 18) A (Listen for student answers) (Slide 19) A) Underwater currents can cause Landing Craft Casualties like Hanging up on the beach or worse, broaching. Sea Story: When the 15th MEU did the initial landing of the LCU in Sri Lanka in support of the Tsunami Relief effort in December 2004 the currents were so bad that every time one piece of HE rolled off the Landing Craft the back end of the craft would start to fish tale in the water and the craft master would have to stop the offload to back up the craft and re-stab the beach. Those currents significantly extended the timeline the Marines predicted to offload their ship. (Slide 20) How Can the Tide Affect where and when we plan to conduct an instream offload? A) It affects the Beach Gradient B) Surf Zone Width

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C) Beach Depth D) Breakers

Pictures: Depicts High and Low tide. The tides in Nova Scotia's Bay of Fundy are the highest in the world . The rise and fall is 20, 30, often 40 feet in some places. A view of the tides at Halls Harbour on Nova Scotia's Bay of Fundy. This is a time lapse of the tidal rise and fall over a period of six and a half hours. During the next six hours of ebb the fishermen unload their boats on the dock. That's a high tide every 12 and 1/2 hours! There are two high tides every 25 hours (Slide 21) Nearshore and foreshore gradients. Nearshore is that area between the five fathom curve and the mean lower low water line (surf zone). Foreshore is the part of the shore or beach lying between the extreme low water and the upper limit of the normal wave action. So why is the Beach Gradient important and who is it important for? A) BMU are the personnel who do the beach gradient surveys. B) Important because limits how close our landing craft can get to the dry shore during an instream offload (Slide 22) Ideally, the beach gradient we look for is about a 1:45 or a Gentle Gradient. This also caused the ideal Spilling Breakers (Slide 23) Lighterage beaching and dry landing of vehicles reduces maintenance downtime (Slide 24) MPS anchorage close to shore to minimize lighterage travel and bulk liquid pumping distances. (max distance of hose reel for ABLTS is 2 miles) Lighterage beaching and dry landing of vehicles reduces maintenance downtime. (Slide 25) The zone of the shore or beach lying between the foreshore and the coastline and acted upon by the waves only during severe storms, especially when combined with exceptionally high tides. Formally called the back of the beach. Backshore slope and soil trafficability. The zone of the shore or beach lying between the foreshore and the coastline and acted upon by the waves only during severe storms, especially when combined with exceptionally high tides. Formally called the back of the beach.

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(2) Sufficient space for beach area facilities. (3) Access to road network. Does anyone know what Soil Trafficability means? A) Sometimes the sand is so loose that wheeled vehicles have a hard time rolling off the lighterage and up onto the beach. Often times in situations like that we need to roll out a certain type of material called “MOMAT” or “Temp Train” so that the vehicles can get a grip and move through the beach. Picture: (Slide 26) Here is a picture of MOMAT. This type of material is often used during instream offloads in places like IwaKuni where the soil/sand is very loose. (Slide 27) Meteorology (How do these things affect an instream offload?) Affects of monsoon rainfall, blowing snow, ice, fog, etc. Available daylight. Sea State How can Sea State affect our operations? (go to next slide) (Slide 28) The legacy lighterage system is limited by a sea state of 2 because its freeboard is only 2 feet. INLS- Freeboard 6ft. (Slide 29) This picture depicts ideal conditions for an instream offload. assemble an RRDF you need a sea state of 1. How often do you think this exists? (Slide 30) Why is sea state 3 such a big deal? A) Because it exists up to 50% of the time in many areas of the world depicted by the 6 white circles on the map. What do you notice about the locations of those 6 circles? A) They are all areas of interest to the US (Slide 31) In fact to Red Beach, Camp Pendleton, Ca

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Are there any questions on how we select a beach? Lets move on to discussing the organization that coordinates the offload on the beach, the Beach Operation Group (BOG). (Slide 32) Beach Operations Group (BOG) Task Organization Considerations a. The size and composition of the BOG are situation dependent. It is organized to carry out around-the-clock beach throughput operations. The nucleus organization for the BOG is the Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) Combat Service Support Element (CSSE). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Provides beach area C2 Organizes beach Offload lighterage Traffic control Coordinates bulk liquid transfer

BOG from high water mark linland (backshore slope) BPT high water mark seaward (nearshore and foreshore)

(Slide 33) BPT works for OCU Works closely with BOG Coordinates causeway and boat landing sites and transfer of bulk liquid with LFSP (Slide 34) Here are some of the tasks/Responsibilities of the BOG: (1)Vehicle and container sorting (2) Loading and transport of MPE/S (3)Recovery of empty containers Why is recovering empty containers so important so important? (4)Follow-on resupply operations (Slide 35)

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The LFSP and more specifically the BOG has to be self-sustaining and able to communicate the offload percentages back to the AAOG and LFSP commander. Good communications is essential here. Here are a list of Provision of internal services: Communications Data processing Medical Organic supply Maintenance Engineer Traffic circulation Local security Surf reports (Slide 36) Beach markers. Communications Mobile Matting (MOMAT) Earth-moving equipment Rough Terrain Container Handler (RTCH) 25-ton Crane Amphibious Assault Fuel System (AAFS) Water purification and distribution systems Light sets and generators Habitability sets (deck load on MPS) come off first Automated Information System (AIS) hardware and administrative supplies. (Slide 37) Beach support area organization is similar to the general offloading period of an amphibious operation. BOG functional areas

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(1) Command, Control, and Communications (C3) (2) (3) (4) (Slide 38) Beach support area organization is similar to the general offloading period of an amphibious operation. Overflow areas are where rolling stock or containers held until they can be moved to the Unit Assembly Areas (UAAs) b. Lighterage and vehicle landing points c. d. Nearshore boat lanes Ammunition and bulk fluid dumps Maintenance and organic supply Messing and billeting Medical

e. MPE/S overflow areas f. (Slide 39) There are obvious benefits to conducting a pier side offload to include time, which we discussed in the beginning of the class. However, there are some downsides to doing port operations as well. We will discuss all of these. (Slide 40) Port Planning Considerations a. Physical characteristics and layout of the port. (1) Road capacities (2) Traffic congestion ( A lot of these ports are located in Urban areas that are heavily congested) (3) Availability of real estate for overflow areas and support areas (Slide 41) Finding a port that can accommodate the simultaneous offload of an entire MPSRON unlikely. b. Number of ships to be simultaneously off-loaded c. Equipment available d. Host nation support available Traffic lanes

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e. Combat service support requirements as determined by POG personnel strength and equipment density (Slide 42) Ideally want to transfer MPE/S directly to AAOE. Realistically won’t have equipment and personnel to do this so….need overflow staging areas. Ammo and fuel should not staged in overflow areas. f. Transfer of MPE/S directly from the ship to their final destinatio g. Fuel and ammunition transfer (should not be held in overflow areas) (Slide 43) This picture is of an ammunition transfer site located in Jubayl, Saudi Arabia. Does this look like a smart place to hold all this ammo? (Slide 44) This is a graphic that shows where an Iraqi scud missile landed (the dot with 2 rings around it) Read passage below:

You may remember the very close call we had at El Jubayl, an important Saudi offloading and staging port within the range of Iraqi Scuds. A Scud missile landed just off the pier, narrowly missing an amphibious assault ship, the USS Tarawa, along with two tankers carrying aviation fuel, a cargo ship, a Polish hospital ship and a U.S. Army barge. The pier itself was crammed with ammunition and fuel trucks. -Address By Lt Gen Ronald T. Kadish, USAF Director, Ballistic Missile Defense Organization At the Military Appreciation Banquet Hosted by the Greater Fairbanks Chamber of Commerce, Alaska Friday, March 2, 2001 Can you imagine if that scud missile had hit the pier? about it today like we do Kobar towers, Beruit, 9/11 (Slide 45) If the HN port authority is not functioning, the CMPF or SDDC will assume this responsibility. If it is functioning then the CMPF will designate an Navy Port Authority Liaison officer to coordinate between the MPSRON and the HN. (Slide 46) Coordinates MPSRON and POG requirements with the HN. We’d still be talking

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Port liaison officer will obtain port characteristics and coordinate required services. Arrange for host nation support requirement 1 Environmental data, navigational aids, and harbor information 2 Berths and anchorage 3 Tugboats and pilot services 4 Fire fighting services

5 Pier-side services 6 Harbor security (Slide 47) Arrange for host nation support requirement 1 Environmental data, navigational aids, and harbor information 2 Berths and anchorage 3 Tugboats and pilot services 4 Fire fighting services

5 Pier-side services 6 Harbor security (Slide 48) Port Operations Group (POG) (1) Task organized around a nucleus from the CSSE. (2) Responsible for the preparation of the port prior to arrival of the Maritime Prepositioning Ships (MPS) and the throughput of the MPE/S as they are off-loaded. (3) Operates under the overall direction of the Landing Force Support Party (LFSP) and in coordination with the ship debarkation officer. (Slide 49) This is a wire diagram that depicts the command structure of the Pierside Offload operations. (Slide 50) May continue to provide terminal operations after AA Phase for Follow On Sustainment (FOS).

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(4)Organized for around-the-clock operations (5)May be retained after arrival and assembly in order to off-load resupply shipping and retrograde damaged equipment. (Slide 51) (7)Major Tasks (a)Establishes overflow areas for MPE/S. (b)Clears piers and overflow areas of MPE/S. (c)Establishes a port operations command post and communications with the LFSP, Off-load Control unit (OCU), and ship debarkation officer. (d) Coordinates with the port authority liaison officer for use of material handling equipment, operations and longshoreman support and dunnage. (Slide 52) Operates material handling and lighting equipment. Assists Navy cargo handling detachments in ship off-load as directed. Transports MPE/S to overflow areas as necessary. Provides directions to MAGTF drivers detailed to move vehicles to unit assembly areas. (Slide 53) 1. Provides local security when assisted by MAGTF augmentation. 2. Provides support for the POG including billeting, messing, and administration. (Slide 54) Let’s recap the Pros and cons of port operations (Slide 55) Advantages of Port Operations a. Increased throughput and assembly. b. c. Reduced personnel requirements. Reduced potential for loss or damage of MPE/S.

d. Less susceptible to the effects of sea state and weather. (Slide 56) Local laws and union contracts can increase complexity of port operations.

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Depending on US relations with HN, may not get all pier space you want……$$$$ paying customers. (Slide 57) In some instances we may be required to use Labor unions that work at the ports to help stimulate the local economy. Most ports are in urban areas with greater prevalence of crime so security may be an issue. Often times it is very difficult to find a port that can accommodate an entire squadron of ships (5 or 6 ships doctrinally) into one port. (Slide 58) In the back of this section in the Student Guide, Attachment A, there are a list of common graphics that you will use during the Practical Exercise portion of this course. Let’s review a few of them. Flag on a pole= Command post (organization written inside) (Slide 59) Symbols for different classes of supply (Slide 60) Symbols for water and parking (Slide 61) Symbols for traffic control point and Hospital or aid station (Slide 62) Symbols for maintenance site and helicopter landing site (Slide 63) Example of a beach overlay. What do you notice” A) MSR, ASR B) Traffic control points at intersections C) staging areas (What is the difference between the Container staging area and the COT LOT?_ A) SUMMARY COT lot is like an outdoor warehouse managed by Supply Marines (1 MIN)

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Summary. This information sheet provided the student with an introduction to beach and port operations. Ultimately you want to strive for maximum throughput using port or combination of beach and port operations. There are various factors affecting selection of each. The BOG and POG must coordinate with Navy counterparts (BPT). Close coordination with Host Nation necessary If there are no questions, then let’s take a 10 minute break. REFERENCES: 1. 2. MCWP 3-32/NWP 3-02.3, Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF) Operations. Joint Pub 4-01.8, Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Reception,

Staging, Onward Movement, and Integration. ATTACHMENTS: A. B. Notional Survey, Liaison and Reconnaissance Party. Host Nation Support Logistic Liaison Checklist.

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