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Useful tips for wheat production
1. Moisture should be conserved during monsoon by using deep tillage technology. 2. Resistant improved wheat varieties should be planted. 3. Treat the seed with recommended fungicides to control seed borne diseases. 4. Irrigations at the time of tillering and grain formation are critical. 5. Planting must be finished before Nov. 30 to obtain maximum yield. 6. Nitrogenous and Phosphatic fertilizers should be used in a ratio of 1:1 or 1: 1-1/2 . 7. Potassium fertilizer must be used if wheat is planted after rice or sugarcane and in sandy soils which had continuously been irrigating by tube well water. 8. Weeds must be destroyed by using chemical weedicides. 9. Harvesting should be done few days earlier in case of semi dwarf improved varieties to avoid shattering damages. RECOMMENDED VARIETIES, PLANTING TIME AND SEED RATE FOR DIFFERENT PRODUCTION ZONES. The country has been divided into twelve different production zones. The zoning is mainly based on disease prevalence, yield potential, cropping pattern and climatological factors (zones are shown on the map). It is very important that different varieties should be planted before the dates given in front of each variety. In case planting is delayed, broadcast method of planting with 4-5 kgs more seed rate than normal seed rate is recommended. Certified seed should be used which can be obtained from Punjab Seed Corporation, Sindh Seed Corporation, Agriculture Development Authority in NWFP. Agricultural Department in Balochistan, Agriculture Development Corporation depots and other seed agencies. In other case, use only healthy seed which is obtained from healthy crop. Detail of different zones, diseases, recommended varieties, planting time and seed rate is shown in table-1: Table-1: RECOMMENDED VARIETIES, PLANTING TIME AND SEED RATE
Soil should become well pulverized and planker can be used for this purpose. Rotavator should be used in proper moisture if tractor facility is available. Moisture conservation by using mold board in rainfed areas has been very successful in obtaining good yield. 2-3 ploughings are recommended where chronic weeds are present. . If possible Dab method should be used.LAND PREPARATION Deep ploughing should be used by sub soiler or mould board if sub soil is hard.
Pre-soaking treatment to the seed should be given for 8-12 hours if moisture is limited. be applied not later than 12-18 days after seeding.2 which is affecting fertilizer uptake efficiency of the soils. this can be applied at first rain. If somehow nitrogenous fertilizer was not applied at planting time. In rice growing areas the sub-soil is usually saturated with moisture as moisture retention power of the soil is high.50 gms/kg seed.In case of limited water in plains. Dry sowing should only be done after December. Seed should not be put more deep in this case.0 gms and/or Raxil 2DC at the rate of 1. 15 where water availability is limited. The whole quantity of Nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizers should be used at planting time in rainfed areas. Vitavax 200 or Topson-M at the rate of 2. Field boundaries should be made strong. Planker should not be used if planting is done by "Pora". The first is at tillering stage which starts about a week after emergence. The whole quantity of phosphatic and half of nitrogenous fertilizer should be applied at seeding time while the remaining half of nitrogenous fertilizer be applied with first irrigation. All fertilizer should be applied before planting. Guara has produced good results in irrigated areas whereas Jantar is recommended for saline soils and after rice. Potassium sulphate should also be used at the rate of 12-15 kgs potash/acre (1/2 bag of Potassium sulphate) when wheat is planted after rice and sugarcane. Seed treatment can be done by using Drum with cover or shaking in the plastic bag. It has been found. Water used for this purpose should be free of salts which otherwise can affect seed germination. through experimentation. This helps in the development of plant and increases water absorbing capacity of the soil. FERTILIZER APPLICATION In general both nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizers are of Primary importance to obtain good yields of wheat crop. Arhar can be used for green manuring in barani areas. The best results have been obtained in planting by drill because uniform and proper germination is obtained in this method. Depending on soil conditions. Good results could not be achieved through broad cast. Rat holes should be closed and pruning of trees should be done in the farm to avoid shade effects to the crop. METHOD OF PLANTING Barani Areas: Drill or poring method is recommended for planting in barani areas. Root development become more vigorous. The first irrigation should therefore. GYPSUM is recommended in such affected soils. Dry sowing can also be done if planting is late and irrigation can be applied after planting. The first irrigation in these areas . SEED TREATMENT Seed can be treated with Benlate. Irrigated Areas: Seed should not be placed more than two inches when semidwarf improved varieties are planted. that both N and P must be in a proper balance in the ratio of 1:1 or at the most 1:1-1/2.5 gms/kg seed or Derosal at the rate of 1. 8-10 cart load of well rotten farm yard manure should be used. Therefore it is very important that proper crop rotation and green manure/farm yard manure should be used in our soils. Guara and Jantar are good crops for green manuring. field should be divided into sub-plots. Second method of planting in "Kera" should be used in proper moisture to obtain better results. IRRIGATION Wheat plant has two critical stages for its water requirements. The use of potash also becomes important in sandy weak soil which had been continuously irrigating with tube well water. but if there is no other solution except this one then 4-5 kgs more seed rate is recommended in this method. Crop rotation for barani areas : Wheat-Fodder-Wheat Wheat-Fodder-Millet Crop rotation for plains : Wheat-Cotton-Sugarcane Wheat-Berseem-Cotton. PH value of the most of the soils in Punjab has increased from 8. ORGANIC MATTER AND GREEN MANURING In general our soils are deficient in organic matter and this situation is getting worst day by day. In case phosphatic fertilizer is not applied at the time of planting this can be applied with first irrigation.
Late jointing. 1. One irrigation. Tiller completion. Limited irrigation. Tiller completion. The remaining irrigations depending on rainfall should be well distributed between different growth stages. 2. Depending upon the availability of water following irrigation schedule can be applied. 1. 6. 2. Six Irrigations. 2. 3. 5. The second critical stage is between anthesis and grain formation when irrigation is necessary. 3. 1. Milk stage. Crown root initiation. Booting Stage. Grain formation 6. Milk stage. Five irrigations. 1. Crown root initiation. 3. Flowering stage. Milk stage. Tiller completion. 2. 2. At crown root initiation. Dough stage. Flowering stage. Tillering stage 3. 5. Crown root initiation. 1. 3. Boot stage.should be delayed as long as possible. Milk and dough stages. Crown root initiation. Crown root initiation. three stages are very critical. Generally 4-6 irrigations are applied to the wheat crop. The irrigation requirements in case of semi dwarf improved varieties is at the following growth stages. 4. Four irrigations. Late jointing stage. . Among above mentioned stages. 4. Dough stage. Late jointing. 4. At flowering 5. 1. 4. In many cases it may even be more than a month after emergence.
Grain should be dried properly to bring down moisture at 9-10 percent before storage. Although crop rotation can reduce the population of weeds. Clean parts of field where crop is not lodged should be selected to keep as seed. This method of planting does not affect plant population and wheat yield per acre. 4. a large amount of weed seeds still remains in the fields. 3. Agriculture experts have recommended the following weedicides mentioned in Table-4. HARVESTING/THRESHING AND STORAGE 1. Three irrigation 1.org . Crown root initiation. For better control. If sprayer is not available at proper time then all the powdry weedicides could be applied with sand at proper moisture after first irrigation or mixed with urea and then irrigate. Recommended dose should be applied with 120 liters of water after first irrigation at proper moisture.sdnpk. 6. 7. Use clean bags for storage.isb. 2. 3. Fumigation should be done in the seed stores. WEED CONTROL Weeds can significantly reduce wheat yield. Boot stage. Weeding become more easy if wheat is grown on seed beds 45 cm apart.sdnpk. Resource Person: Dr. Weeds should be removed from the fields within 4-6 weeks of seeding. Boot stage. Crown root initiation. barharrow and weeding should be done. Milk stage. 5. Nafees Sadiq Kisana National Coordinator green123@isb. 2. Harvesting should be done when grain moisture is around 16-17 percent. Seed should be stored in proper clean stores to avoid insect damage. If possible use thresher or combine to be more efficient and avoid losses. The distance between two lines on a seed should be 15 cm. 2.Two irrigations 1. Harvesting and threshing of that field should be done separately to avoid any mixture.org wheat@narc. Other method of weed control is used of chemical weedicides. Harvesting should be done 2-3 days earlier in case of semi dwarf improved varieties.
30 Nov. iv) Planting method Rabi drill or 'Kera' should be practiced to ensure better yields.719 million acres i) Districts Sahiwal. khan. Lodhran. Vehari.30 Nov. Rajanpur.G. Healthy and clean seed of recommended varieties should be used @ 50-60 Kg/ac. D. Recommended for early and normal planting in the irrigated areas.90 Bwp. Muzaffargarh.1 – Nov.15– Dec. Seed should be treated with appropriate systemic fungicide. Kharif fodder/maize-wheat iii) Commercial wheat varieties Time of planting Nov. Central/ mixed zone & Rice zone BRAIN FED Rain-fed Zone A.15 Nov. Bahawalpur.10 – Dec.25Nov.30 Remarks High yielding disease resistant. Bahawalnager and Rahimyar khan ii) Cropping pattern Cotton-wheat.96 M.H. and good tillering capacity.WHEAT PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY IN PUNJAB WHEAT PRODUCING ZONES AIRRIGATED Cotton zone.97 Pasban.01Dec.30 Oct.2000 Chenab-2000 Note: Maximum planting should be completed by 30th November and in no case should be extended beyond mid December.IRRIGATED AREAS I) COTTON ZONE Total wheat area: 6. Khanewal. Layyah. suitable for early to normal planting High yielding slow rusting variety suitable for saline areas Recommended for irrigated areas of south Punjab for late planting Recommended for early and late planting in irrigated areas of Punjab Recommended for late planting in irrigated areas of the Punjab.15 Oct. v) Type of soil (KG) N FERTILIZER APPLICATION PER ACRE Bags DAP P K UREA POTASH .25– Nov. Mung-wheat.2000 Iqbal. Name of Varieties Inqilab-91 Punjab.97 Augab.15 Nov. Sugarcane-wheat.1 – Nov. iv) Seed treatment and seed rate.15Dec. lodging resistant and general purpose variety suitable for rich soils under normal and late planting High yielding variety having durable resistance against rust diseases and suitable for early to normal planting with good performance under sandy soils High yielding variety with better adaptability.15 Nov.
Avena fatua (Wild oats). i) Selective weedicides for broad and narrow leaved weeds should be used.25 for obtaining optimum yields and for late planting by Dec. 2nd 3. 1. Rice – Wheat.Wheat iii) Varieties Inqlab-91.Ist to Nov. Singh. Okara.0 Note:. the following year. Faisalabad.0 1.5:1 or 1:1). ii) Herbicides belonging to the same group or family should not be repeated in the same field.POOR MEDIUM FERTILE 52 42 30 46 34 23 25 25 25 2. Wheat . V) Seed treatment and seed rate following rate 3.50 1. MH-97. T. At boot stage.T.0 1.50 1.Fallow – Wheat & Guar . Sargodha. Khushab and parts of Mianwali and Bhakkar.0 1. Auqab-2000 and Iqbal 2000 iV) Planting time Nov. vi) Weed control Double bar harrow should be practiced.75 1. Pasban-90.25 1. Cotton – Wheat. iii) Irrigations: Three irrigations are necessary at the critical stages after 'rauni' as given below.15. Note:i) Weedicides should be applied after Ist irrigation in good moisture condition when weeds are at 2-3 & wheat crop at 3-4 leaf stages. Kharif fodder/maize – Wheat. Punjab 96. Ist irrigation 2. Chenopodium (Bathu) & Convolvulus (Lehli).All the NPK fertilizer should be applied at the time of sowing in case of late planting in December (NP ratio 1. Cultural: Chemical: ii) Wide spectrum weedicides can be used when both types of weeds are problem. CENTRAL/MIXED CROP ZONE Total wheat area i) Districts: Jhang. Common weeds: Phalaris minor (Dumbi sitti).0 1. " " 20-25 days after sowing. 3rd II). At milk stage of grain development.639 million acres Seed treated with recommended fungicides be used at the . ii) Cropping pattern Sugarcane – Wheat.
III).wheat (Major). iv) Planting time November 10 to 25 for optimum yields. Kharif Fodder/Maize – Wheat.5:1 or 1:1).Wheat iii) Varieties Inqilab-91. Lahore and Kasur ii) Cropping pattern Rice . Auqab 2000. v) Seed treatment and seed rate 3.25 POTASH 1.0 1.75 1. late planting should be completed by December 15. Hafizabad.All the NPK fertilizer should be applied at the time of sowing in case of late planting in December (NP ratio 1.0 1. Viii) Weed control Cultural 'Daab' and double bar harrow. Mash – Wheat.0 Type of soil POOR MEDIUM FERTILE P 46 34 23 K 25 25 25 UREA 1. RICE ZONE Total wheat area i) Districts Gujranwala.132 million acres .50 1.Iqbal 2000 and Durum 97 and Chenab 2000.Kharif fodder .50 1. Punjab 96. Pasban-90.0 Note:. STAGE Crown root initiation Jointing stage Boot stage Pollination stage Dough stage NO OF DAYS AFTER SOWING 20-25 50-58 90-105 110-120 125-135 Same as mentioned earlier for Cotton zone. Sialkot. Chemical ix) Irrigations Four to five at critical stages of wheat plant growth. Vii) Fertilizer application (Kg/ac) (KG) N 52 42 30 Bags DAP 2. Sugarcane – wheat.Normal sowing 50 kg/ac Late sowing Vi) 60 kg/ac Planting method Line sowing with Rabi drill or 'Kera' method should be practiced. Sunflower . Sheikhupura.0 1. Potato – Wheat.
G.20 .20 .20 . viii) Weed control As mentioned in case of cotton zone. ix) Irrigations Three irrigations at the following crop stages are enough depending upon rainfall.15 Oct. Chakwal. Bhakkar.Nov. Muzaffargarh. Seed should be treated with recommended systemic fungicide.15 Oct. seed should be soaked in water for 8-10 hours before sowing. iii) Commercial varieties TIME OF PLANTING Oct.20 . Seed should be treated with recommended systemic fungicides.15 Oct. vi) Planting method Planting with automatic Rabi drill or zero tillage drill is recommended.Groundnut – Wheat.Wheat 1.Healthy and clean seed of recommended varieties should be used @ 50-60 Kg/ac. Jehlum. Attock.Nov.Nov.Nov.Layyah. 2nd irrigation 3rd irrigation at boot stage. Pore or Kera should be practiced. Gujrat.Khan. D.10 REMARKS For all Barani areas For all Barani areas For all Barani areas For all Barani areas For high rainfall & partially irrigated barani areas Wheat . Mianwali and Khushab. . B.770 million acres VARIETIES Chakwal-86 Rawal-87 Kohistan-97 Chakwal-97 Inqilab-91 iv) Seed treatment and seed rate Healthy and clean seed of recommended varieties should be used @ 40-50 Kg/ac. v) Planting methods Planting with Rabi drill. vii) Fertilizer application Depending upon the type of soil and fertility level as given in case of cotton zone. 1st irrigation 35-45 days after Sowing.15 NOV.Fallow – Wheat. Note: In case of low moisture soils.Kharif fodder .RAINFED ZONE Total wheat area i) Districts Rawalpindi. Note: Rainwater should not be allowed to stand in wheat field but be drained out to low lying areas. at dough stage of grain formation. Narowal and Parts of Sialkot. Wheat .01 – DEC. ii) Cropping Pattern Wheat .
Wheat varieties. 9.0 1. Late planting should be completed by 15 December and all fertilizers be applied at planting time. Seed treatment with proper fungicides before planting increases yield by 5-6%. milk and dough stages. sugarcane etc is essential. Weed eradication through Daab. In partially affected saline soils wheat variety Pasban-90 can be successfully grown. Irrigations to wheat at critical stages of crop growth be ensured viz. KEY POINTS FOR OBTAINING GOOD WHEAT CROP. (Maina) Lathyrus spp. 4.75 1. 5. WHEAT RESEARCH INSTITUTE FAISALABAD Dr. 8.5 P 23 23 34 K 25 25 25 UREA 0. 14. Use of phosphatic fertilizers along with nitrogen is very essential both under irrigated and rain fed conditions. 3.0 Note: All the fertilizer should be applied at the time of sowing vii) Weeds: Chenopodium(Bathu). In rice zone the first irrigation should be applied 30-40 days after germination.5:1 be maintained.0 1. Asphodelus tenuifolius (Piazi). 12-18 days after germination. Medicago spp. In Barani areas planting should be done with pore or automatic Rabi drill whereas for irrigated areas automatic Rabi drill should be preferred. Extension service and electronic media should be consulted for improved wheat production. Moisture preservation through deep ploughing followed by Monsoon rains in Barani areas. It should be practiced on vast areas in collaboration with extension services & private herbicide companies. 10. 1. MH 97 and Uqab 2000 should not be sown in northern parts of the Punjab due to their moderately susceptible reaction against stripe rust. at booting. Carthamus oxycantha (Pohli) etc. double bar harrow or spray of weedicides is very important. (Matri). In sick soils and in Barani areas planting of barley and Wadanak wheat should be preferred. All weeds be removed through mechanical means/manual labour and can be used as fodder for live-stock. 11. Pasban 90. Use of pure and healthy seed of recommended varieties with seed rate of 50 kg/acre for normal planting and 60 kg/acre for late planting. 6. 12. The N:P ratio of 1:1 or 1. 7. Planting must be completed by the end of November and for late planting upto 15th of December. Supply of inputs must be ensured before planting season at reasonable prices and without adulteration.50 POTASH 1. 13. Muhammad Aqil Khan Director .0 1. 2. Proper seed bed preparation for crop growth and development.0 1. Application of Potash to the wheat crop on tubewell irrigated soils or sandy type soils or crop sown after rice.vi) Fertilizer application (Kg/Ac) ANNUAL RAINFALL LOW RAINFALL 350 mm MEDIUM RAINFALL 350-500 mm HIGH RAINFALL ABOVE 500mm (KG) N 23 34 46 Bags DAP 1. The Pre-emergence weedicides can be used in barani area in good moisture condition.25 1.
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