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Fundamental Rules on

Thesis Citations
Atty. Dan Kevin Mandocdoc
Lecturer, Ateneo Law School
Associate, Gulapa Law Office
April 25, 2016
Presentation Overview

 Introduction
 Rules on Footnoting
 Citation
Forms
 General Rules of Usage

 Bibliography
Introduction
The Cases of Students A and B

Student A Student B

 Male, with decent grades  Female, honors student


 Was aiming for best thesis
 Chose a simple thesis topic
 “I just want to get this over  Part of the Student Council
and done with.”
 Effect of plagiarism
 Delayed for one year
 Effect of plagiarism:
 Failing grade for a 6-unit
 Delayed for one year
class
 Failing grade for a 6-unit  Re-defense
class
 Graduated with no award
 Re-defense despite a QPI >85
Why cite?

 Avoid plagiarizing another’s work


 Aid
the future researcher find one’s
sources
 Provide evidence for one’s argument
How long does it take to cite?

 Not an overnight thing


 Tip:
 Complete the citation details while writing
the body
Which sources should one cite?

 Primary authorities
 Secondary authorities
 Books
 Journal articles
 Theses
 News clips
 Reliable websites
How to cite?

 Footnotes
 ALJ Legal Citation Guide
 The Bluebook

 Full citations v. subsequent citations


 Requires precision
Basics – Footnotes

 Philippine Constitution:
PHIL. CONST. art. ___, § ___, ¶ ___.
Note:
Always cite the Constitution in full.

1. PHIL. CONST. art. II, § 3.


2. PHIL. CONST. art. II, § 3.
Basics – Footnotes

 Codes/Statutes:

Full Title [Short Title], Statute Number,


subdivisions, (year).

3. An Act to Ordain and Institute the Civil


Code of the Philippines [CIVIL CODE],
Republic Act No. 386, art. 21 (1950).
Basics – Footnotes

 Subsequent citations:
Short Title, subdivisions.

4. PHIL. CONST. art. I.


5. CIVIL CODE, art. 3.
6. Id. art. 207.
Basics – Footnotes

Supreme Court Decisions:


Case Title, volume number
SCRA/SCAD/Phil. first page, cited
page (year).

7. Quan v. Mandocdoc, 436 SCRA 30, 41


(2008).
Basics – Footnotes

 Subsequent citations:
First Party, volume number
SCRA/SCAD/Phil. at cited page.

8. PHIL. CONST. art. I.


9. Quan, 436 SCRA at 54.
10. Id.
11. Id. at 52.
Basics – Footnotes

 Separate opinions
Cite like an ordinary case (J. Surname of
Justice, separate/concurring/dissenting
opinion).

12. Philippines v. Mandocdoc, 416 SCRA


20, 31 (2007) (J. Arriola, dissenting
opinion).
13. Id. at 59 (J. Sta. Maria, concurring opinion).
Basics – Footnotes

 Books with Single Author


AUTHOR, TITLE cited page (year of
publication or edition number year of
publication).

14. FLORENZ D. REGALADO, CRIMINAL LAW


CONSPECTUS 45 (4th ed. 2009).
15. Id. at 342.
Basics – Footnotes

 Books with Multiple Authors


AUTHOR 1 & AUTHOR 2 OR AUTHOR 1, ET
AL., TITLE cited page (year of publication
or edition number year of publication).

16. JOSE C. VITUG & ARNESTO D. ACOSTA, TAX


LAW AND JURISPRUDENCE 89 (3d ed. 2006).
Basics – Footnotes

 Subsequent Citations
SURNAME OF AUTHOR(S), supra note
footnote, at page being cited.

17. REGALADO, supra note 14, at 13.


18. VITUG & ACOSTA, supra note 16, at 432.
Basics – Footnotes

 Consecutively Paginated Journals


Author, Title of the Article, volume number
JOURNAL first page, cited page (year).

19. Ryan Jeremiah D. Quan, Revisiting the


Element of Exploitation in the Definition
of Trafficking in Persons in Republic Act
No. 9208, 57 ATENEO L.J. 402, 405 (2012).
20. Id. at 408.
Basics – Footnotes

 Unpublished Theses
Author, Title of the Article, at page number (date)
(description, institution that awarded the degree)
(source).

21. Jose P. Tejada, A Critique of the Jurisprudence


on the Matter of Supreme Court’s Administrative
Supervision, at 11 (2002) (unpublished J.D.
thesis, Ateneo de Manila University) (on file with
the Professional Schools Library, Ateneo de
Manila University).
Basics – Footnotes

 Websites

Author, Title of the Article, available at


URL (last accessed date).

22. United Nations Office of the High


Commissioner for Human Rights, What
are human rights?, available at http://www.ohc
ch.or/en/issues/Pages/WhatareHumanRig
hts. aspx (last accessed June 26, 2016).
Basics – Footnotes

 News Articles Online


Author (if available), Headline, NEWSPAPER, date
of publication, available at URL (last accessed
date).

23. Maila Ager, Tupas on disclosure of


evidence: What’s wrong?, PHIL. DAILY
INQ., Jan. 4, 2012, available at http://
newsinfo.inquirer.net/122301/tupas-on-
disclosure-of-evidence-what’s-wrong (last
accessed June 26, 2012).
Basics – Footnotes

 Subsequent Citations

24. Quan, supra note 19, at 430.


25. Tejada, surpa note 21, at 35.
26. Ager, supra note 23.
Short Citation Forms – Rules

Id. Supra.
Constitution ✗ ✗
Laws, Cases ✓ ✗
Treaties ✓ ✓
Secondary Sources ✓ ✓
Basics – Footnotes

 Other uses of footnotes: Explanations

Has the Philippines successfully transitioned


from its Marcosian26 past?

26. The Proponent uses the term “Marcosian”


to refer to the massive violations of civil
and political rights and the economic
plunder committed by those in public
office during the time of Marcos.
General Rules of Usage
Double Citations

 Source being cited is citing another source


 Formula:
 X (citing Y).
 X = source being cited by the student
 Y = source being cited by X
Paraphrasing v. Quotations v.
Block Quotes
 Quotations – 49 words or less
 In line with text
 Inside quotation marks
 Placement of footnote reference
 After punctuation/quotation mark
 “ ________.”2
 “________”?3
Paraphrasing v. Quotations v.
Block Quotes
 Block Quotes – 50 words and above
 Single-spaced, indented on both sides,
justified
 No more double quotation marks
 Quotations within block quotes – single
 Placement of the footnote reference
 Last sentence of the last paragraph
Alterations and Omissions

 Brackets
 Alterations or substitution
 Unchanged significant mistakes in the
original
 Omitted letters or punctuations

 Ellipsis
 Omissions in the middle of the quotation
 He said that “[t]he rules … provide[.]”
Emphasis

 Emphasis supplied
 Emphasis omitted
 Emphasis maintained?
Bibliography
Basics – Bibliography

 The Bibliography is the summary of the


sources you used during your research
 Itmust be organized based on these:
 Grouping
 Clustering
 Sequencing
Basics – Bibliography

 Note: Panelists check the Bibliography.


 Tip:
Start early, fix the Bibliography as
early as this semester so you can focus
on the substantive part of the thesis.
Basics – Bibliography

 Grouping
 First
Part: Primary Authorities
 Second Part: Secondary Authorities

 Clustering
 Organize sources of the same class
together
 Example: All books must be listed
together.
Basics – Bibliography

 Grouping + Clustering

I. Primary Authorities
A. Constitution
B. Statutes
C. Cases
II. Secondary Authorities
A. Books
B. Journals
C. Internet Sources
Basics – Bibliography

 Sequencing
 For primary sources:

 Constitution – based on year of effectivity

 Statutes – based on class (BP, PD, RA)

 Then, based on year of effectivity

 If same year, based on BP/PD/RA number.

 Format: ALJ Bluebook (same with footnotes)

 Cases – based on level of court (SC, CA, RTC)

 Then, alphabetically

 Format: ALJ BLuebook

 Treaties, UN Documents, etc. – follow rule on statutes.


Basics – Bibliography

 Sequencing

I. Primary Authorities
A. Constitution
1987 PHIL. CONST.
1973 PHIL. CONST.
B. Statutes
Batas Pambasa
Presidential Decrees
Republic Acts
C. Jurisprudence
Supreme Court
Court of Appeals
Basics – Bibliography

 Sequencing
 Forsecondary sources: Turabian
 Surname first
 Alphabetical
Thank you.