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Concrete Society

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nottinghamtrent

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29/03/2012

Nottingham Trent University

This is an uncontrolled copy. Ensure use of the most current version of this document

by searching the Construction Information Service at http://uk.ihs.com

Licensed copy: nottinghamtrent, Nottingham Trent University, 29/03/2012, Uncontrolled Copy, © Concrete Soc

(November 2010)

Eurocode 2

This document provides guidance on the design of holding down bolts for attaching

steel or precast concrete stanchions to reinforced or un-reinforced concrete

(1)

foundations, using Eurocode 2 . Concrete Advice sheet 5 covers the design of

(3)

holding down bolts to BS 8110-1 . Design approaches are given for resisting the uplift

on the bolts and for the allowable bearing pressure underneath the stanchion base

plate. This document only covers bolts in tension or compression and does not cover

bolts in shear. A method for the design of dowels in shear is included in Concrete

(4).

Society Technical Report No 34 Proprietary fixings are not included in this

document. The manufacture’s technical literature should be consulted for the load

capacity of proprietary fixings.

1 Uplift bolts in tension the cone is to be taken as the full depth of

the bolt for post-fixed bolts and to the top

There are two possible ways of checking of the bolt anchor plate for cast-in bolts.

bolts in uplift. The first is applicable to The uplift loads used in these calculations

single bolts and pairs of bolts, which are is to be the relevant factored design

effectively fully bonded over their full actions not the characteristic actions.

embedded length and have small or no

anchor plates. The second method is Cone shear stress = Design uplift load ÷

applicable if the bolts are not effectively Surface area of cone or cones

bonded over the embedded length but rely

on an individual anchor plate for

Note: Section 4 includes a method for

embedment, or when a group of bolts is

calculating the surface area of non-

fastened to a relatively large stiff anchor

intersecting cones and tabulated

plate embedded in the concrete.

values for the combined areas of pairs

of intersecting cones for different

Method 1 – Effectively fully bonded depths and spacings of pairs of bolts.

bolts

The actual shear stress on the area of the

Check shear stress cones should be compared to the

The following procedure can be used to allowable shear stress obtained from

check the depth and number of bolts in Equation 6.47 in Eurocode 2. In

tension, for fully bonded cast in bolts and unreinforced or nominally reinforced

post-drilled and fully grouted bolts. This sections the ρ1 term is zero so the

method assumes the tension in the bolts is allowable shear stress becomes

resisted by shear stress on the surface (vmin + k1σcp).

area of 90° cones of concrete within the

Licensed copy: nottinghamtrent, Nottingham Trent University, 29/03/2012, Uncontrolled Copy, © Concrete Soc

In most foundations the horizontal stresses will be hole for bond calculations purposes.

low, thus the allowable shear stress becomes equal to

vmin. In all cases if bond stress exceeds the allowable

bond stress it will be necessary to deepen and/or

If the cone shear stress exceeds the allowable shear increase the number of bolts.

stress then the bolts will need to be deeper and/or

more bolts provided. Method 2 - Anchor plate pull out

Check bond stress: Cast-in bolts This method assumes that the anchor plate

If the shear stress is less than the relevant allowable embedded in the concrete tries to pull out of the

shear stress the bond anchorage of the individual concrete by a punching shear failure. The anchor

bolts should be checked. The method for calculating plate effectively becomes the loaded area for

the anchorage bond stress around a reinforcement punching shear design, which is undertaken in

bar in Section 8.4 of Eurocode 2 should be used. accordance with Section 6.4 in Eurocode 2, with the

However Eurocode 2 only covers the anchorage of section depth h shown in Figure 6.12 being taken as

ribbed bars; the anchorage of plain bars is not the depth of embedment to the top of the anchor

covered. If the embedded section of the bolt is plate. The anchor plate must be stiff enough so that

threaded full length or consists of a length of ribbed the uplift forces in the bolt(s) produce an even

reinforcement, the allowable bond strengths in distribution of compressive stress on the top face of

Eurocode 2 are appropriate. If the embedded length the plate. The majority of stanchion holding down

of the bolt is a non-ribbed plain bar then the bolts will fall into this category, because in practice

calculations in Eurocode 2 are theoretically not the grouting up of the bolt cones around the bolts

applicable. Engineering judgement will be needed if cannot be assumed to be fully effective in

the embedded bolts are of plain round bars. There are transferring shear from the bolt into the surrounding

two possible alternatives. The method in Eurocode 2 concrete.

could be used, but with the bond strengths reduced to

55%. (This 55% relationship is based upon Table 3.26 Design procedure

in BS 8110-1). Alternatively the bond calculations for Check the shear stress around the perimeter of the

plain bars in BS 8110-1 could be used. anchor plate. If the shear stress exceeds the

allowable value it will be necessary to increase the

If the actual bond stress exceeds the allowable bond size of the anchor plate. The plate may require

stress the bolts will need to be deeper and/or more stiffening if increased in size.

bolts provided.

Then check the shear stress on the first critical

Check bond stress: Post-grouted bolts perimeter. If the shear stress exceeds the allowable

In the cases where bolts are grouted into drilled holes value there are a number of options available:

it may be prudent to check two anchorage bonds:

• Lengthen the bolts, thus setting the anchor plate

On the grout/bolt interface: The calculation will be as deeper into the concrete.

for cast-in bolts, except that a value of allowable bond • Increase the size of the anchor plate. The plate

stress will need to be determined for the grout may require stiffening if increased in size.

material, based upon the grout characteristic strength • Increase the amount of top reinforcement to

or the manufacturers’ technical information. increase the allowable shear stress.

• Provide punching shear reinforcement. This

On the grout/drilled hole interface: The calculation will would be regarded as a last resort due to the

be similar to that for cast-in bolts except that the practical difficulties and cost of installing shear

effective diameter will be the hole diameter and the links in foundations. In this instance the shear

allowable bond stress will be the lesser of that for the would have to be checked on the next punching

foundation concrete or the grout. An assessment of shear perimeter, and if necessary subsequent

the bond characteristics of the perimeter of the drilled shear perimeters.

hole will need to be made. This will depend on the

roughness of the inside of the hole. For a ‘rough’ hole Overall design

(e.g. produced by percussive drilling) the bond stress

appropriate for deformed bars could be assumed. For The bolts themselves should also be checked for

a ‘smooth’ hole (e.g. produced by diamond drilling) direct tension stresses. Also the foundations should

the bond stress values appropriate to plain bars be designed to resist the uplift.

should be used. If there is any doubt about the

potential roughness of the hole assume a ‘smooth’

Licensed copy: nottinghamtrent, Nottingham Trent University, 29/03/2012, Uncontrolled Copy, © Concrete Soc

2 Base plate sizing – Compression distribution of stress below the base plate, i.e. that

the base plate is stiff. If the stress is not uniform, i.e.

The following procedures will give the absolute a flexible base plate, different procedures will be

minimum stanchion base plate size and applies to pin needed to size the base plate.

jointed bases only. This procedure assumes the base

plate has adequate stiffness to give a uniform Proprietary grouts: In practice proprietary grouts are

distribution of compressive stress. For stanchion likely to be used. The compressive strength given in

bases required to resist overturning moments refer to the manufacturer’s literature should be used for

the relevant codes of practice and design guides for design. If no cylinder strength is quoted in the

the design of the base plate size. literature the appropriate cylinder strength can be

obtained from the cube to cylinder strength

Use factored design loads not characteristic loads. relationships indicated in Table 3.1 of Eurocode 2.

Base plate area = Maximum design compressive Fine concrete: Designed concrete with a small

load ÷ Allowable ultimate bearing stress aggregate to suit the intended thickness of the infill.

Two cases should be considered and the maximum The other materials defined in Table 1 are as follows

area used. (the proportions and strengths are taken from

Reference 5);

Infill material to concrete foundation interface

Use the design method in Section 6.7 of Eurocode 2. • Grout: Mixture of cement (usually Portland

The dimension h in Figure 6.29 will normally be the cement) to water in proportion of about 2:1 by

depth of the foundation. The fcd value in Equation 6.63 weight.

will be that for the foundation concrete. For axially • Sanded grout: Mixture of cement, sand and

loaded symmetrical bases Ac1 in Figure 6.29 may be water in approximately equal proportions by

the plan area of the base. weight.

• Mortar: Mixture of cement, sand and water in

Base plate to grout/infill material interface

proportions of about 1:3:0.4 by weight.

Use the design method in Section 6.7 of Eurocode 2,

taking the ratio Ac1/Ac0 in Equation 6.63 as 1.0. The fcd

value in Equation 6.63 will be that for the grout/infill

material. Table 1 lists typical values for the 3 Surface area of cones around embedded

characteristic strength of grout/infill materials. bolts

Table 1: Typical values for grout/infill material Single bolts

characteristic cube strengths The surface area (AS) of a 90° cone around a single

bolt of embedded depth D is:

Material Characteristic Characteristic

2

cube strength cylinder strength AS = 4.443 × D

2

(N/mm²) (N/mm )

Cement 12 – 15 10 -12 Note: This equation cannot be used if bolts are

grout closer together than 2D or closer to the edge of a

Sanded 15 – 20 12 - 16 foundation than 1.5D.

grout

Mortar 20 – 25 16 - 20 Pairs of bolts

D = embedded depth of the bolts

Fine Use 28 day Use 28 day X = horizontal distance between the bolt

concrete cube strength cylinder strength centres

Proprietary Refer to manufactures literature AD = combined surface area of the two 90°

grouts cones around the bolts.

2

Notes If X is greater than 2D, AD = 8.886 D

The design bearing stresses can be used as the If X is less than 2D the cones overlap. The values for

maximum values for the design of base plates that are AD are listed in Table 2, which is based on

subject to an overturning movement or non-uniform information in Reference 5).

stress distribution.

Licensed copy: nottinghamtrent, Nottingham Trent University, 29/03/2012, Uncontrolled Copy, © Concrete Soc

X (mm)

D 100 150 200 300 450 600 750 1000

(mm) EFFECTIVE CONICAL AREA OF TWO CONES

3 2

( ×10 mm )

100 71.5 82.5 88.9 88.9 88.9 88.9 88.9 88.9

150 141.6 160.8 178.0 199.9 199.9 199.9 199.9 199.9

200 233.7 260.5 28.59 329.8 355.4 355.4 355.4 355.4

300 484.3 525.8 566.4 643.4 742.0 799.7 799.7 799.7

450 1027 1090 1152 1274 1448 1602 1728 1799

600 1769 1853 1937 2103 2345 2574 2784 3072

750 2711 2817 2922 3131 3439 3737 4021 4451

1000 4726 4867 5008 5288 5705 6114 6513 7149

REFERENCES

1. BS EN 1992-1-1: 2004 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures – Part 1-1: General rules and rules

for buildings

2. Holding down bolts, suggested design procedures using BS 8110-1, Concrete Advice Sheet 5,

Concrete Society 2009

3. BS 8110-1: 1997 Structural use of concrete, Part 1: Code of practice for design and construction,

4. Concrete industrial ground floors – A guide to design and construction, Concrete Society Technical

Report No. 34, Third Edition, 2003

5. Holding down systems for steel stanchions, Concrete Society, Cement and Concrete Association and

CONSTRADO, 1980

Impartial advice can be sought from The Concrete Society. Members are Contacts

entitled to substantial discounts on services and products including site

visits and investigations, dependent on status. For publications and The Concrete Society 01276 607140

information, The Concrete Society Bookshop holds a wide range of books Bookshop 07004 607777

and pamphlets along with an extensive library stock. We provide many

services such as literature searches and notification of new references to www.concrete.org.uk www.concretebookshop.com

our extensive catalogue.

CONCRETE Advice Sheets are produced and published by The Concrete Society. The information and advice

contained in the Advice Sheets is based on the experience and knowledge of the Concrete Society’s Technical

Staff. Although The Society does its best to ensure that any advice, recommendation or information it gives is

accurate, no liability or responsibility of any kind (including liability for negligence), howsoever and from whatsoever

cause arising, is accepted in this respect by The Concrete Society, its servants or agents. Readers should also note

that all Concrete Society publications are subject to revision from time to time and should therefore ensure that they

are in possession of the latest version.

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