By: Roslin Wilson

What is now Pakistan was in prehistoric times the Indus Valley civilization (c. 2500–1700 B.C.). A series of invaders—Aryans, Persians, Greeks, Arabs, Turks, and others—controlled the region for the next several thousand years. Islam, the principal religion, was introduced in 711. In 1526, the land became part of the Mogul Empire, which ruled most of the Indian subcontinent from the 16th to the mid-18th century. By 1857, the British became the dominant power in the region. With Hindus holding most of the economic, social, and political advantages, the Muslim minority's dissatisfaction grew, leading to the formation of the nationalist Muslim League in 1906 by Mohammed Ali Jinnah (1876–1949). The league supported Britain in the Second World War while the Hindu nationalist leaders, Nehru and Gandhi, refused. In return for the league's support of Britain, Jinnah expected British backing for Muslim autonomy. Britain agreed to the formation of Pakistan as a separate dominion within the Commonwealth in Aug. 1947, a bitter disappointment to India's dream of a unified subcontinent. Jinnah became governor-general. The partition of Pakistan and India along religious lines resulted in the largest migration in human history, with 17 million people fleeing across the

borders in both directions to escape the accompanying sectarian violence. Pakistan is located northwest of India. Pakistan is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran. It’s capital is Islamabad. It is the sixth most populous country in the world. Most of the land in Pakistan is desert, but there are some highlands. It is 297,640 miles large; which is about the size of Texas. The main religion is Muslim. 97% of the people are Muslim. It is an independent country because of it’s religion. It has snow-topped mountains, fertile plains, and high plateaus. The deserts there are sandy. The east is mostly made up of plains. Rainfall in Pakistan is about 10 inches a year. Many Pakistanians earn their living by farming. They use irrigation to grow wheat, cotton, and corn. Pakistanians speak Punjabi and Urdu. English is spoke in government and business. About 72% of the people live in rural villages. They make their homes from clay or sun-dried mud. However, there are some cities. In cities, the people work in factories. The major cities are Islambad, Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta, Rawalpindi, Hyderabad, Faisalabad, and Multan. Some of the natural resources Pakistan has are zinc, lead, coal, and natural gas. Approximately five million people live in Pakistan. There is a darker side of Pakistan, though. The United States currently has military troops station in Pakistan due to terroism. It is also believed that terroist Osama Bin Laden is in Pakistan’s Mountains. Close

ties with Afghanistan's Taliban government thrust Pakistan into a difficult position following the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks. Under U.S. pressure, Pakistan broke with its neighbor to become the United States' chief ally in the region. In return, President Bush ended sanctions (instituted after Pakistan's testing of nuclear weapons in 1998), rescheduled its debt, and helped to bolster the legitimacy of the rule of Pervez Musharraf, who appointed himself president in 2001.