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ENGLISH REVIEW: Journal of English Education p-ISSN 2301-7554, e-ISSN 2541-3643

Volume 6, Issue 1, December 2017


Audi Yundayani
English Education Department,Sekolah Tinggi Keguruan Ilmu Pendidikan Kusuma Negara, Jakarta,

Language Education, Postgraduate of Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia

Zainal Rafli
Language Education, Postgraduate of Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia

APA Citation: Yundayani, A., Emzir, & Rafli, Z. (2017). Need analysis: The writing skill instructional
material context for academic purposes. English Review: Journal of English
Education, 6(1), 59-70. DOI: 10.25134/erjee.v6i1.771.

Received: 26-08-2017 Accepted: 24-10-2017 Published: 01-12-2017

Abstract: The required instructional material should be designed based on students’ needs. This
study is intended toidentify 1) material design and organization,2)language content, and 3) method
and techniqueof the writing skill instructional material context for academic purposes which
appropriate with students’characteristics and their situationrelated to the need of writing skills for
academic purposes at non-English education study programs of STKIP Kusuma Negara Jakarta. The
descriptive survey was used in identifying its’ material context through questionnaire, semi-structured
interview and non-participant observation. The respondents were non-English education study
programs students duringthe fifth semester in academicyear of 2016-2017.The result showed that 1) It
is required to have clear and easily understandable writing instructional material for academic
purposes; 2) The required language content is related to a)rhetorical-functional (descriptive, narrative,
classifying and identifying); b) academic genres, in the forms of essay and report; c)writing process;
d) summarizing; e) paraphrasing; 3) The method and techniques which are applied to instructional
material must empower thestudents to practice a lot through communicative and applicative activities.
Based on the findings, it can be concluded that need analysis should be the starting point in designing
the instructional material, due to it is a process to determine students’ needs according to their wants,
lacks, and necessities.
Keywords: need analysis, writing for academic purposes, instructional material context

Need analysis required as the main driving Need analysis is the cornerstone of ESP
factor to design the whole component of that leads to a very focused course (Dudley-
teaching and learning process, including the Evans & St. John, 1998). It can be seen as a
instructional material. The area of need process to assess students’ communicative
analysis covers present situation analysis, needs in order to achieve specific learning
target situation analysis, and learning context objective. The aim of need analysis is to
analysis. Learning context analysis involves collect the information concerning students in
some consideration to the teachersconcerning order to define the target situation and
with the methods, the materials, the facilities environment of studying ESP (Otilia, 2015).
and the connection of the course As the instrument to establish how and what
implementation with the students’ background the learning process will be held, need analysis
and learning goals. covers many aspects of teaching and learning
Audi Yundayani, Emzir, & Zainal Rafli
Need analysis: The writing skill instructional material context for academic purposes

process including students’ background, language and the rhetoric of the genre
students’ current language (Dudley-Evans & St John, 1998).
proficiency,students’ purpose in learning EAP required to complete academic
English, etc. demands, one of them is writing for academic
The first step in designing language purposes. It occupies some approaches
course is the need analysis implementation applied: 1) product approach; 2) process
that covers: 1) the target situation analysis approach; and 3) summarising, paraphrasing
which informs the objective and product- and synthesizing. Product approach provides a
oriented needs, also the skills and language model and various exercises. It is divided into
required for the context in which students will 1) rhetorical-functional covers language
use the English; 2) the learning situation functions; the main ones are description
which provides information about subjective (including processes and sequencing),
needs; 3) the means analysis which provides narrative, instruction, explanation, definition,
information about the educational contexts exemplification, classification, comparison
(Benavent & Sánchez-Reyes, 2015). This and contrast, cause and effect, expressing,
statement emphasises Hyland’s view generalisation and specificity, discussion and
concerning with a framework for need analysis argumentation (problem and solution),
which is divided into 1) present situation drawing conclusions; 2) academic genres
analysis that concerns with students’ current include essays, reports, case studies, projects,
condition or backgrounds, including the literature reviews, exam answers, research
objective data (age, previous learning papers/articles, dissertations, and theses.
experience, etc) and subjective data (students’ Jordan stresses that academic discourse genres
weaknesses, strengths, etc); and 2) target and the range and nature of academic writing
situation analysis that focuses on students’ tasks aimed at supporting students to socialize
roles, skills and knowledge (Hyland, 2006). A into the academic context. Process approach
portray of the learning goals will be formed by emphasizes in composing processes in writing
the result of need analysis and it will require through the recursive cycle. It means that the
teacher’s belief, value, and philosophies of students will plan, draft, and edit but then it
teaching. By the end, they will develop the will be required re-plan, re-draft, and re-edit.
whole component of learning and teaching Summarising, paraphrasing and synthesizing
process properly. are important aspects of academic
Barnard and Zemach in Tomlinson said writingrequired in the field of academic
that one of English teaching areas is English purposes. They relate to academic reading by
for Specific Purposes (ESP) that can be seen providing meaningful insights of how students
as the selection of teaching content and present their reading result from the source
approach according to perceived needs of the text to writing (Jordan, 1997).
students (Tomlinson, 2003). ESP is focused on The concept of writing approaches is
English teaching and learning process related clearly in the term of product approach,
to the particular job or study-related cause. process approach, including summarising,
English for Academic Purposes (EAP), as a paraphrasing and synthesizing. It can be
branch of ESP, provides students with proper concluded that writing for academic purposes
English skills that are required in a tertiary- is often seen as the process of thinking,
level study or college level, including the way constructing and revising, including
of presenting, researching, and publishing in developing the concept. In doing it, students
academic field. The key element in all must realize that they will need several efforts,
communication including in writing for from drafting, correcting, and amendingthe
academic purposes is knowing and text continuously until the writing product is
understanding about the genre. It involves the proper.
understanding of the expectations of the In the area of English Academic Purposes,
discourse community that reads the text and of the students’ competence in writing for
the conventions related with structure, the academic purposes required in the college
ENGLISH REVIEW: Journal of English Education p-ISSN 2301-7554, e-ISSN 2541-3643
Volume 6, Issue 1, December 2017

level learning process. It is seen not just as a students on grammar, vocabulary,

standardized system of communication but pronunciation, etc. The instructional material
also as an essential tool for students in must give the information about language
constructing new knowledge. It also can be component; 4) a source of stimulation and
seen as a means to know students’ ideas for classroom language activities. Not
competency, students’ personal interest, and only as the knowledge source, the instructional
academic performance. Moreover, writing can material must stimulate the students by
be seen as the result of thinking, concept providing suitable information and presenting
development, and revision. It requires special some learning activities to strengthen students’
skills to explore writers’ ideas to be presented comprehension of language use; 5) a syllabus
and to be understood. (where they reflect learning objectives which
Writing for academic purposes is different have already been determined). It can be the
from writing skill at high school level. It often reference how to carry out the English
causes students get difficulties in practicing it. learning process; 6) a resource for self-
Some studies showed the inadequacy of directed learning or self-access work. The
writing skill for academic purposes in instructional material should be a source for
university level, including the expectations of students to be able to study independently, so
applying it. Most of the problems appear due it is important to ensure that the information
to students’ failure to understand the and the instruction presented is quite clear; 7)
difference of learning goal between high a support for less experienced teachers who
school and university which initiate students have yet to gain in confidence. Not only for
into the scope of writing skill for academic students, the instructional material also can be
purposes (Ivanic & Lea, 2006; Lilis & Scott, as a support for teachers and lecturers to know
2007). Concerning that statement, many what and how should be taught
factors of learning components must be (Cunningsworth, 1995, p. 6).
applied based on the students’ requirement in In the area of ESP, Dudley-Evans and St.
achieving the expected goal related to writing John (1998) suggest that the materials have
for academic purposes. some functions: 1) as a source of language.
The material can be anything that used to Due to English as a foreign language that
assist English learning process. It can be the studied, it requires a means that can be as a
instructional, experiential, or exploratory as source in learning English; 2) as a learning
long as it can inform the students about the support. The instructional material should help
language use, provide the experience of the the learning process by giving the information,
language in use, stimulate language use and guidance in order to enhance students
support the students to discover the language comprehension; 3) for motivation and
based on their needs (Tomlinson, 2003). In stimulation. The instructional material should
deciding the suitable material, teachers’ motivate and stimulate the students through its
creativity and understanding to the students’ content and context. Good material can
needs are the most important aspect. The encourage students to learn through: 1) its
chosen material used to ease students’ interesting texts; 2) enjoyable activities which
understanding of the learning content and engage the students’ thinking capacities; 3)
context. Cunningsworth states that in the opportunities for students to use their existing
scope of English language teaching, the knowledge and skills; and 4) content which
instructional material should have multiple both students and lecturers can cope this
roles: 1) a resource for presentation materials (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987, p. 107).
(spoken and written). It can give the Instructional material context involves
information concerning the presented consideration of some criteria: 1) aims and
materials; 2) a source of activities for student approach. It relates to a degree of
practice and communicative interaction. It correspondence to the students’ needs; 2)
should guide the students to practice the bibliographic features. It shows the quality and
language using; 3) a reference source for availability of the package; 3) design. It shows
Audi Yundayani, Emzir, & Zainal Rafli
Need analysis: The writing skill instructional material context for academic purposes

the attractiveness of the layout, visual appeal, skill instructional materials for the academic
readability and instructions clarity; 4) purposes have not been designed and
organization. This relates to sequencing and developed based on students’ needs. Need
progression of suitable exercises, units, and analysis have not been implemented. It causes
proficiency level; 5) content. It shows a degree students having low performance in writing
of authenticity, relevance, and appropriacy of skill for academic purposes. Most of them
the text genres; 6) methodology. It will extend didn’t have any motivation to be involved and
to which tasks, exercises, and methods which to be active in class since they did not
are appropriate to students’ proficiencies and understand the essence of presented materials.
goals; 7) usability. This relates to flexibility, The writing skills of the students are
completeness, and feasibility of the materials; alarmingly weak and substandard. The
and 8) overall. It relates to the general quality majority problem is due toincompetence in
of the text and its suitability for the purpose syntax, coherence,idea expansion, content
(Hyland, 2003, p. 98). The context of the selection, topic sentence, rhetorical
instructional material can be a consideration in conventions, mechanics, organization, lack of
determining the suitability between its role, vocabulary, inappropriate use of vocabulary
orientation, and students’ needs. (Fareed, Ashraf, & Bilal,2016). That condition
The instructional material of writing skills can be solved through the suitable
for academic purposes should be tailored instructional material use as one of the
based on students’ needs and learning learning sources.
objectives. In selecting the instructional This current studyexplores students’
material of writing skills for academic perceptions and examine their opinions
purposes, there are some requirements that concerning with required writing skills
should be considered; 1) the topic should instructional material’ context for academic
make the students interested, culturally purposes. It will bring the basicinformation as
acceptable, and in line with the learning further inquiry and suitable solution in
objectives; 2) the expected type of writing; 3) developing instructional material, especially in
methods of generating ideas, whether through writing skills for academic purposes.
brainstorming, freewriting, listing, mapping,
outlining which are appropriate for the METHOD
students; 4) instruction for writing that will The study aims to determine students’ need
help the students to organize various types of related to writing skill instructional materials’
writing, such as letters, description, narration, context for academic purposes. This
exposition, arguments and what students need descriptive research involved the fifth-
to be practiced; 5) opportunities to collaborate semester students of non-English education
in writing; 6) opportunities to revise which study programs at STKIP Kusuma Negara
encourage students to do the various stages in Jakarta. 100 non-English education study
writing process; 7) instruction in editing and programs students participated in demanding
proofreading. What students learn concerning their perception concerning the writing skill
with finding and editing their errors in writing instructional materials’ context for academic
(Richards & Renandya, 2003, pp. 311-312). purposes. The purposive sampling method was
Instructional material plays a very special role used to determine the respondents.The data
in constructing students’ knowledge and were collected throughnon-participant
understanding by providing much access to observation, questionnaire survey, and semi-
specialized knowledge and skills. It can be a structured interviews.
source to help the students to construct the The researcher observed the students in
mental representation, including writing skill the English class to know the real condition of
for academic purposes. English learning process, including the
Based on the observation at non-English students’ performance and the use of previous
education study programs of STKIP Kusuma writing skill instructional material for
Negara Jakarta, it was found that the writing academic purposes. The questionnaire used to
ENGLISH REVIEW: Journal of English Education p-ISSN 2301-7554, e-ISSN 2541-3643
Volume 6, Issue 1, December 2017

know students’ perceptionrelated to writing This step can be seen as a process to identify
skill instructional materials’ context for the needs of instructional materials related to
academic purposes. The data obtained from writing skill for academic purposes in
the questionnaire were analyzed then accordance with the studentscharacteristics,
summarize in the table form. In addition, the background, and their environmental
semi-structured interview was applied to get setting.The indicators of instructional material
deeper information from students’ conceptions context analysiscovered, (1) Design and
of instructional material context. The organization; (2) Language content; and (3)
interviews with the students were done after Method and techniques applied in instructional
questionnaire. The interviews were applied to material.
find the problem more openly by asking for
opinions and ideas from respondents. Design and organization
The data were analyzed quantitatively and Students’ comprehension of the material will
qualitatively. It is quantitative in terms be determined by the instructional design and
ofdisplayingquestionnaire’s result. Meanwhile, organization. Students should feel ease in
it is quantitative in dealing with the collected using the instructional material, in other
data reduction, data display, and conclusion. words, the instructional material must be
Qualitative data analysis is an interpretive presented according to the students’
process, researcher reflect on their personal requirement. The structure, function, skill
viewpoints and how they shape their presented based on its’ complexity, needs,
interpretations of the data (Clark & Creswell, objectives, difficulties, and usability are the
2015, p. 364). important aspectsof designing and organizing
the instructional materials.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The design and organization of writing
Need analysis of learning material context is a skill materials for academic purposes should
process to find students’ expectations and be easy to be understood by the students. It
needs by identifying the effective way of should give clear guidance and progressive
instructional material context to be presented. reinforcement, so the students will have self-
The series of learning needs to be prepared confidence to study the given instructional
and adapted should be based on the material personally. Students’ perceptions
characteristics of studentswhichwere based on their needs should be the basis to
summarized and arranged to achieve the design and organize the instructional material.
objectives of certainlyexpected competencies.

Table1. Students’ perceptions of design and organization applied in instructional material

No Indicators Percentage of Demand
Design and organization
1 Instructional materials composition of writing for academic 87 % Needed
purposes based on the structure, function, topic and skills
aspects in accordance with the needs of students.
2 Instructional materials composition of writing for academic 80 % Needed
purposes based on the order of complexity, needs,
objectives, difficulties, functions and usability.
3 The display of instructional materials to writing for 87 % Needed
academic purposes should be clear and easy to understand.
4 Instructional materials of writing for academic purposes 80 % Needed
should provide various exercises and tasks.
5 Many template of English writing for academic purposes is 87 % Needed
6 Evaluation of instructional materials of writing for academic 86 % Needed
purposes should be done periodically.
7 Clear guidance of instructional materials of writing for 85 % Needed
academic purposes is required, so students can learn
Audi Yundayani, Emzir, & Zainal Rafli
Need analysis: The writing skill instructional material context for academic purposes


The table shows that the whole instructional material should provide many
components of the instructional templates of English writing for academic
materials’design and organization should be purposes.In writing, many given templates in
organized according to the structure, function, instructional material required toportray
topic and skill aspects required by the students students’ attention to its important features,
based on the order of complexity, needs, then they are required to produce a similar or
objectives, difficulties, functions, and uses. parallel text.
The questionnaire result was strengthened by Instructional materials evaluation of
the interview results. The interview results writing for academic purposes should be done
showed that the students also need periodically.It is required by the students in
instructional materials thatprovide English order to measure the suitability of the
language writing models for academic instructional material with the students’ needs.
purposes that can be used as examples, as well The things that must be evaluated cover many
as various exercises and assignments to thingssuch as, the instructional material
support the students’ mastery in writing skill capability to motivate the students, the impact
for academic purposes. Clear guidance in of the instructional materials, the practicality
instructional materials of writing for academic and clarity of the instructional material, etc.
purposes is also required by students as a The description above shows us how
guidence for autonomous learning, including instructional material should be designed and
the need for the instructional materials organized based on the students’ perception.
evaluation. Design and organization of the instructional
It is important to confirm that the material can be seen as the important
instructional material design and organization performance to attract students’ attention in
of writing for academic purposes should be using the instructional material. By providing
systematic and student-friendly. The clear guidance, good composition, and proper
composition of the instructional material display, the instructional material of writing
should be in line with students’ needs. The for academic purposes should be as a source to
way in designing and organizing the increase students’ knowledge and skills in
instructional material gives impact to students’ order to achieve the learning goals.
understanding and motivation in learning. As a
learning aid, it is important to make sure that Language content
the designed instructional material can support Language content in writing skill instructional
teaching and learning process. All of the units material for academic purposes concerns with
and exercises should be well linked in terms of what is being taught. It should be compared
theme, situation, function, and topic of writing with what the students’ need to learn and
for academic purposes development, including expect to learn based on their lack, want and
the order of complexity, needs, objectives, necessities in the area of writing for academic
difficulties, and usability of the instructional purposes. Students should realize the relevant
material. and benefit of instructional material content.
As a productive skill, writing must be The students will be motivated in learning
practiced a lot. Students should be motivated when the content of the instructional material
to rehearse through the instructional material. related to their interests and their need to
To achieve the ability in writing for academic perform in the academic field. Teachers
purposes, students require clear, easy and should notice the impact of given instructional
various exercises and taskswhich can make material, especially the language content. It is
them develop their performance. Exercises and important to assign the language content that
tasks are ways to explore students’ learning will develop students’ curiosity, interest, and
experiences and their achievement in writing attention in learning. So by the end, the
skills. To enhance the learning goal, the students’ competency will increase.
ENGLISH REVIEW: Journal of English Education p-ISSN 2301-7554, e-ISSN 2541-3643
Volume 6, Issue 1, December 2017

In the area of writing for academic creative process, including summarising and
purposes, the content of instructional material paraphrasing. All of the content in the
can be the product appoach in term of instructional material should be in line with
rhetorical-functional and academic genres, the the academic field.
process approach that will view writing as a

Table 2. Students’ perceptions of language content assigned in instructional material

No Indicators Percentage of needs Demand
Language content
1 The integration of instructional materials of writing for 81 % Needed
academic purposes with other language skills in accordance
with the learning objectives.
2 Writing process materials in terms of: 1) exploring ideas; 2) 86 % Needed
prewriting; 3) organizing; 3) writing first draft; 4) revising;
5) producing the final copy; 6) editing; 7) proofreading.
3 Academic genres materials 83 % Needed
1) Essays 82 % Needed
2) Reports 80 % Needed
3) Case studies 50 % Not yet needed
4) Projects 63 % Not yet needed
5) Literature reviews 42 % Not yet needed
6) Exam answers 46 % Not yet needed
7) Research papers/articles 46 % Not yet needed
8) Skripsi/Theses 44 % Not yet needed
4 Rhetorical-functional materials 81 % Needed
1) Description 82 % Needed
2) Narration 83 % Needed
3) Instruction 58 % Not yet needed
4) Explanation 65 % Not yet needed
5) Definition 82 % Needed
6) Exemplification 46 % Not yet needed
7) Classification 82 % Needed
8) Comparison and contrast 59 % Not yet needed
9) Cause and effect 59 % Not yet needed
10) Expressing: purpose, means, prediction, expectancy, 40 % Not yet needed
reservation, result
11) Generalisation and specificity 40 % Not yet needed
12) Discussion and argumentation (problem and solution) 57 % Not yet needed
13) Drawing conclusions 48 % Not yet needed
5 Materials related to applying quotation, footnotes and 68 % Not yet needed
6 Materials related to finding and analysing data 63 % Not yet needed

The previous topics are the essence this short time according to the learning goal
derived from the entire teaching materials in the academic field.
related to writing skills for academic purposes. The students need instructional materials
Meanwhile, through the questionnaire and of writing for academic purposes that are
interviews, the researchers also seek the integrated with other language skills.Writing
information concerning with the most required for academic purposes requires input that can
language content that should be assigned tothe be from much varieties of the reading text
instructional material. The result of students since it can give the positive impact for
perceptions shows the most required language students in constructing and composing the
content that must be covered in the written information. Writing is the process of
instructional material by minimum 80%, the constructing any information and knowledge,
percentage of the students’ needs. Less than including concept development. By integrating
80% means students have not needed them in writing skills with other language skills in the
Audi Yundayani, Emzir, & Zainal Rafli
Need analysis: The writing skill instructional material context for academic purposes

instructional material, it can give summary and paraphrasing. In the area of

comprehensive stimulus to develop students’ academic purposes, ability in making
ability in writing. The combination of summary and paraphrasing are the important
receptive and productive skills in the aspects. Students should comprehend the
instructional material provide rich and varied given information and re-write it by using
input and stimulus in order to facilitate their own words, style and also structure. The
students’ proficiency in writing foracademic most important aspect of summary and
purposes. paraphrasing is the content or the message that
Students require writing skills for should be delivered. It is amust for the writer
academic purposes that include writing skills and the reader having the same perception and
with a product and process approach. For understanding concerning the written
writing skills with a product approach, information presented.
itshould be focused on the academic genrethat By the end, the language content should
includes essay writing and reports, while for deliver the material in order to develop
rhetorical-functional, itshould be focused on students’ writing ability and applicative in the
descriptive, narrative, definition and field of the academic context. It should be
classification skills. For writing skills with a related to students’ study skills in which one
process approach, the given material related to of them covers writing for academic purposes
the stages of the writing process from as the productive skill. Integrated language
exploring ideas, prewriting, organizing, skills should strengthen the instructional
writing the first draft, revising the draft, material in order to stimulate students due to
producing the final copy, editing, and students’ proficiency in writing for academic
proofreading. purposes. The product and process approach in
Product approach in writing concerns with writing are required by the students to be
the products. Many provided models draw found in the instructional material of writing
attention to its important and required features for academic purposes which covers; 1) some
as the template. Students practice through the rhetorical-functional in the form of
provided template that describes how and what descriptive, narrative, explanation and
the students could write.The required genre definition, 2) academic genre in the form of
based on students’ perceptions shows the essay and report, 3) writing process, 4)
students’ purposes in writing. They have summary, and 5) paraphrasing.
certain goals and informationto be conveyed
based on the learning requirement. On the Method and technique
other hand, process approach in writing as the Method and technique applied in the
mental process emphasizes on the process of instructional material should give the
composing which should be utilized by the opportunities for the students to practice a lot.
students. It focuses on students-centredness by It has to deliver the students toachieve
allowing them to express personally started communicative and applicative ability in
from planning, drafting, rethinking, revising, writing for academic purposes. Implemented
etc. Through the process approach, students method and technique in the instructional
learn how to build writing strategies by material should expose the students to practice
following some phases to produce a clear, their writing skill in the authentic and real use.
comprehensive and understandable text. The applied method and technique can be seen
The result of the interview informed that as the stimulus to expose the students’ writing
students also require the ability to write ability for academic purposes.

Table 3. Students’ perceptions of method and technique implemented in instructional material

No Indicators Percentage of Demand
Methods and techniques
1 Question and answer 87 % Needed
2 Matching activity 81 % Needed
ENGLISH REVIEW: Journal of English Education p-ISSN 2301-7554, e-ISSN 2541-3643
Volume 6, Issue 1, December 2017

3 Communicating strategies 82 % Needed

4 Pictures and picture stories 86 % Needed
5 Puzzles and problems 78 % Not yet needed
6 Discussions and decisions 86 % Needed
7 Jigsaw 67 % Not yet needed
8 Information gap 65 % Not yet needed
9 Problem-solving 87 % Needed
10 Decision making 85 % Needed
11 Opinion exchange 87 % Needed
12 Taking notes 76 % Not yet needed
13 Concept mapping 86 % Needed
14 Inferencing 86 % Needed
15 Discriminating 82 % Needed
16 Diagramming 71 % Not yet needed
17 Co-operating 87 % Needed
18 Using context 73 % Not yet needed
19 Summarising 81 % Needed
20 Personalizing 84 % Needed
21 Self-evaluating 86 % Needed
22 Reflecting 80 % Needed
23 Brainstorming 84 % Needed
24 Mapping it out 84 % Needed
25 Reorganizing the information 82 % Needed
26 Completing documents 73 % Not yet needed
27 Previewing 80 % Needed

80 % as the result of students’ perception learning as a dynamic process for creating

means that the presented method and meaning in practicing language skill including
technique required by the students to be writing for academic purposes. Due to the
applied in the instructional material of writing students’ expectation, the applied method and
for academic purposes. Less than 80 % means technique should be a process of habit
that the presented method and technique have formation through many activities, both in
not been needed by the students. exercises and tasks. By the end, the students
Related to the students’ perception are not only to know what the writing for
concerning with methods and techniques that academic purposes is but also to know how to
should be implemented in instructional write for academic purposes. The various
material, it was found that methods and techniques applied in the instructional material
techniques of presenting writing instructional were seen as a tool for communication rather
materialsfor academic purposes required by than as a set of theoretical term.
students werefocused on assigning tasks or Students require the opportunities to
direct practice. In addition, students tended to enhance their personal experience related to
require techniques that will make them interact writing skill for academic purposes through
with other students. Various techniques such the provided techniques applied in
as question and answer, discussions and instructional material. Various and attractive
decisions, problem-solving, decision making, techniques were seen as a way to link the
opinion exchange, concept mapping, language learning process and language
summarizing, using knowledge to learn use.As a learning source, the instructional
something (inference), self-evaluating and material should give positive impact for the
brainstormingwere needed by students. students in writing skill mastery for academic
The finding shows that language learning purposes. By the provided methods and
is accepted more than a set of grammatical techniques in instructional material, students
rules that should be understoodor many realize that being mastery in writing skill for
vocabularies that should be memorized by the academic purposes requires active learning,
students. They see the process of language many practices, emotional experiences,
Audi Yundayani, Emzir, & Zainal Rafli
Need analysis: The writing skill instructional material context for academic purposes

thinking process and communicative proofreading.The finding in line with the

competence. multiple roles of instructional material in the
Applied methods and techniques in scope of English language teaching. As the
instructional material required by the students source and reference, the instructional material
can be seen as a part of communicative should give the information about the writing
exercise principle; the process of learning by skills required by the students. In addition, it
doing. The required techniques focus on should stimulate and motivate the students. To
student-centered and the teacher’s role should obtain those, it is important to design the
be the instructor, organizer, advisor, designer content of instructional material based on the
including the manager in the learning process. students’ needs.
The required methods and techniques should Students’ perception shows that the
be authenticity and also problem-solving. By methods and techniques applied in the
the end, the students’ need and their learning instructional material should give students the
goal in writing for academic purposes will be opportunities to practice a lot, in other words,
fulfilled easily due to the design of the it should be communicative and applicative
instructional material based on the result of based on student-centered learning approach.
need analysis as the basis. As the source of activities for students
Based on the results of the questionnaire practice, the applied techniques should present
and observations conducted by the researchers, some learning activities to strengthen students’
there are some important findings related to comprehension in writing for academic
students’ perceptions concerning with purposes. Students prefer to use various
instructional materials context of writing skill techniques through communicative interaction.
for academic purposes. Re-examining the This finding in line with the material roles in
literature provided in deciding the suitable which the instructional material should guide
material, teachers’ understanding of the the students to practice the language use and to
students’ needs are the most important aspects. be a source of stimulation and ideas for
Related to that, instructional materials’ design classroom language activities. By the end,
and organization should be organized methods and techniques applied in the
according to the structure, function, topic and instructional material of writing skill for
skills aspects required by students based on academic purposes should be various,
the order of complexity, needs, objectives, attractive, applicative and focus on
difficulties, functions, and uses. communicative interaction based on students’
The important thing concerning with the need so that it will give the positive impact in
language content, students have perceptions enhancing students’ motivation, performance,
that the content of instructional materials of and competency in writing skill for academic
writing for academic purposes should be purposes.
integrated with other language skills. They
need writing materials for academic purposes CONCLUSION
presented through product and process In conclusion, writing proficiency for
approach, including summarising and academic purposes should be mastered by
paraphrasing. The product approach should be undergraduate students. It is important to
focused on the academic genresthat provide any learning components to enhance
includeessay writing and reports, while for students’ mastery in writing for academic
rhetorical-functional;itshould be focused on purposes. One of them is instructional
descriptive, narrative, definition and materials as the learningsource. The context of
classification skills. For writing skills with a instructional materialsshould be developed
process approach, the material given should be based on the need analysis focused on student-
related to the stages of the writing process centered approach. The findingsinform the
from exploring ideas, prewriting, organizing, teachers or the curriculum designers to
writing the first draft, revising the draft, identify students’ perspective by promoting
producing the final copy, editing, and their critical awareness in relationto
ENGLISH REVIEW: Journal of English Education p-ISSN 2301-7554, e-ISSN 2541-3643
Volume 6, Issue 1, December 2017

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suggestions.Journal ofEducation and Social
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Audi Yundayani, Emzir, & Zainal Rafli
Need analysis: The writing skill instructional material context for academic purposes

Caleb Gattegno

The Silent Way is a language-teaching method created by Caleb Gattegno that makes extensive use of
silence as a teaching method. Gattegno introduced the method in 1963, in his book Teaching Foreign
Languages in Schools: The Silent Way. Gattegno was critical of mainstream language education at the
time, and he based the method on his general theories of education rather than on existing language
pedagogy. The method emphasizes learner autonomy and active student participation. Silence is used as a
tool to achieve this goal; the teacher uses a mixture of silence and gestures to focus students' attention, to
elicit responses from them, and to encourage them to correct their own errors. Pronunciation is seen as
fundamental to the method, with a great deal of time spent on it each lesson. The Silent Way uses a
structural syllabus and concentrates on teaching a small number of functional and versatile words.
Translation and rote repetition are avoided, and the language is usually practiced in meaningful contexts.
Evaluation is carried out by observation, and the teacher may never set a formal test.

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