Things you have to know about

The Different Types of


Collated By: RENANTE G. SANTOS JR. LOUIE MARCELO JULIAN VILLOCINO Section : Schedule : Time : E7 Tuesday 5:00pm- 7:00pm

Physical fitness is to the human body what fine tuning is to an engine. It enables us to perform up to our potential. Fitness can be described as a condition that helps us look, feel and do our best. More specifically, it is: "The ability to perform daily tasks vigorously and alertly, with energy left over for enjoying leisure-time activities and meeting emergency demands. It is the ability to endure, to bear up, to withstand stress, to carry on in circumstances where an unfit person could not continue, and is a major basis for good health and well-being."

Physical fitness involves the performance of the heart and lungs, and the muscles of the body. And, since what we do with our bodies also affects what we can do with our minds, fitness influences to some degree qualities such as mental alertness and emotional stability.

As you undertake your fitness program, it's important to remember that fitness is an individual quality that varies from person to person. It is influenced by age, sex, heredity, personal habits, exercise and eating practices. You can't do anything about the first three factors. However, it is within your power to change and improve the others where needed.

We are surrounding by media that constantly projects and image of ideal weight. The principals of the 5 components of physical fitness should be turned towards fat loss for good health rather than the obsession over total weight. Fat control can be efficiently done with a commitment to regular structured exercise that will develop the 5 components of physical fitness. The health related physical skills each contribute to a healthy quality of life. Optimal fitness is reflected in the a persons ability to cope well with daily life as actively fit individuals will develop a resistance to hypokinetic diseases such as obesity, heart failure and diabetes which are physical conditions associated to inactivity and idle lifestyles. Optimal physical fitness is a combination of lifestyle, nutrition, habits, but it cannot be reached without an appropriate level of physical activity.


Physical activity has a relaxation effect and can improve sleep as well as reduce mental stress and raze energy levels. Depending on the selection and variety of physical activity and sports, it can provide daily

variety, fun, develop the sense of competitiveness as well as open up to a new social environment. your own hands. Actually tackling physical activity will give a sense of achievement and self satisfaction of taking person health into Will develop short term satisfaction and motivation to achieve longer term health goals. As well, the first results of an exercise plan and aerobic or stretching routine can be felt very early on.

Lower the Risk of Heart Disease and heart attack. regulated by nutrient and food intake. reduce the risk of clogged arteries. Significantly decrease

the risk of high blood pressure. though high blood pressure also is Low level s of bad cholesterol and Will raise the levels of endorphin in Decreases Risk of certain Improve your Will reduce the risks of joint

the body that promotes a healthy sex life. types of cancers such as colon cancer. pains and arthritis.

Reduce decalcification of the bones.

metabolism and strengthen the immune system

For many, exercise is a disturbance in the daily schedule. Many people now ask "What is the minimum amount of exercise I can get away with and still be fit?" This will depend on a number of factors: 1. What are your fitness goals, do you want to be fit, muscular or healthy? 2. What is you nutrition like, fast food on the go or freshly made reasonable portions? 3. What kind of life do you lead? Are you a pc office sit down person, or are you a mail man walking miles and miles a day

4. What do you do on your off time? hike, tours, museums or do you sit in front of the television like a big couch potato? “Establish your resting metabolic by including factors such as do you smoke, drink caffeinated beverages, etc.”

Increasing your metabolic rate beyond resting state is vital. Getting your metabolism to be 20 to 30% above your resting state is considered physical fitness and cardio exercise, 30 to 65% above is sports and strength training level. You start exercising when you start sweating is a good indication of metabolic rate increase. At these levels of fitness exercise you are in effect protecting yourself from risks of heart and coronary disease and improving your mental health while burning fat and building your muscle mass. Together with your balanced diet or sports nutrition will help achieve these health benefits but doesn't require the same intensity of training as becoming fit. You can simply build physical activity into your daily routine, replacing mechanical means of locomotion and transport with the human power such as walking an extra tube subway station to the subway and using the stairs rather than escalator or elevator. Simple changes in daily habits will bring fitness into play easily.


The desire to be fit would normally require a planned and structured fitness training programme. This is when you are looking for muscle toning muscle building, faster weight loss and cardiac resistance and endurance. These programs are available at a gym, through courses and programs done with professional trainers, by joining sports clubs and taking on sports activities on a regular and structured basis.

The key success fitness success criteria is reaching the right level of sports fitness intensity in the exercise plan you have established. In order to be very fit, develop a toned or even muscular body you will need to workout at a medium or high intensity level. If you are seeking balanced health rather than pure physical fitness, intensive fitness programs are not required as apposed leading an active life style.

are often used in our school systems, health clubs and fitness centers to gauge how good a shape we are truly in. The 5 components that make up total fitness are:

 Cardiovascular Endurance  Muscular Strength  Muscular endurance  Flexibility  Body Composition

Total fitness can be defined by how well the body performs in each one of the components of physical fitness as a whole. It is not enough to be able to bench press your body weight. You also need to determine how well you can handle running a mile etc.

How often, how long and how hard you exercise, and what kinds of exercises you do should be determined by what you are trying to accomplish. Your goals, your present fitness level, age, health, skills, interest and convenience are among the factors you should consider. For example, an athlete training for high-level competition would follow a different program than a person whose goals are good health and the ability to meet work and recreational needs.

Your exercise program should include something from each of the four basic fitness components described previously. Each workout should begin with a warmup and end with a cool down. As a general rule, space

your workouts throughout the week and avoid consecutive days of hard exercise.

Here are the amounts of activity necessary for the average, healthy person to maintain a minimum level of overall fitness. Included are some of the popular exercises for each category.



5-10 minutes of exercises such as walking,

slow jogging, knee lifts, arm circles or trunk rotations. Low intensity movements that stimulate movements to be used in the activity can also be included in the warm- up. COOL DOWN : a minimum of 5-10 minutes of slow walking,

low-level exercise, combined with stretching.

THE COMPONENTS Cardiovascular endurance / Cardiorespiratory
Is the ability of the heart and lungs to work together to provide the needed oxygen and fuel to the body during sustained workloads and to do moderately strenuous activity over a period of time. It reflects how well your heart and lungs work together to supply oxygen to your body during exertion and exercise. Also called aerobic fitness.

Of the five components of physical fitness, Cardiorespiratory endurance is the corner stone to complete health and the fitness gateway to improving your other fitness levels. Cardiorespiratory endurance is defined as the ability of the heart to get oxygen rich blood to the required working muscles. It is the physical ability to maintain a steady pace of exercise without reaching an high level of fatigue and tiredness. The composition of cardiovascular endurance also includes the capacity that the body and heart have of removing CO2 from the muscles and expel via the lungs.

The typical example of the physical activity and sports that relate to cardio and vascular endurance are jogging, swimming, cycling, walking and aerobics. On a daily practical level cardio endurance is the capacity to physically tackle the physical tasks of our daily lives.


: at least three 20-minute bouts of continuous aerobic (activity requiring oxygen) rhythmic exercise each week. Popular aerobic conditioning activities include brisk walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, rope-jumping, rowing, crosscountry skiing, and some continuous action games like racquetball and handball.

As much as Cardiorespiratory endurance is illustrated by the ability to repeat a mind level physical effort for an extensive period of time, muscular strength is measured by the maximum amount of strength, or weight that a muscle or muscle group can lift and exert in a single effort. Of the 5 components of physical fitness, Muscular strength is directly related to the amount and type of exercise and workouts that the body undergoes. Weight training or strength training are the only methods of increasing muscle mass. Muscle mass contributes raw strength to the

body which has significant other benefits and ties to fitness and weigh loss.

A greater amount of muscle mass, even at rest consumes a great amount of calories. By increasing your muscle mass you in effect increase your bodies capacity to burn calories and reduce of lower your body fat ratio. It is for this reason that other than allowing your to be more physically resistant in your daily lives, muscle is essential to weight loss and should be a part of your routine when dieting. Another benefit of physical muscular strength is that strength exercise puts effort on your tendons and bones, when done properly it will maintain your bone structure and avoid decalcification. It is for this reason that space shuttle astronauts endure a vigorous exercise program when in space.

The push up test is most often used to test muscular strength. The ability to exert maximum force, such as lifting the heaviest weight you can budge, one time. It is possible to have muscular strength in one area, say your arms, while lacking strength in another area such as your legs.


a minimum of two 20-minute sessions per week that include exercises for all the major muscle groups. Lifting weights is the most effective way to increase strength.

is the ability of the muscles to perform continuous without fatiguing. Examples would be cycling, step machines and elliptical machines. The sit

up test is most often used to test muscular endurance. The ability to hold a
particular position for a sustained period of time or repeat a movement many times. This could be the capability required to hold a two-pound weight above your head for five minutes or the effort required to lift that weight 20 consecutive times.

Of the 5 components of physical fitness, muscular endurance is often confused with muscular strength and as they are related, they a most different in the benefits they provide. Muscular endurance is defined as the ability to main and repeat and moderate level of muscular effort such as shovelling snow. In this particular case your shoulder and arms muscles might tire and aches well before your Cardiorespiratory endurance reaches its limits. Muscular strength can be considered as a smaller ratio of your maximum muscular strength. In order to develop the max range of your muscle capabilities you need to increase the muscle strength as well. Lets take the example that you are able to lift a max of 50kg with you right arm and lift 25kg 15 times. Developing cardio endurance together with weigh training will increase the overall weight you can lift 15 times as well as help increase the number of reps at the 25kg level.


: at least three 30-minute sessions each week that include exercises such as calisthenics, pushups, sit-ups, pull-ups, and weight training for all the major muscle groups.


is the ability of each joint to move through the available range of motion for a specific joint. Examples would be stretching individual muscles or the ability to perform certain functional movements such as the lunge. The sit and reach test is most often used to test flexibility.

Flexibility is a part of the major components of physical fitness with more importance then is sometimes believed. Not all people have the same flexibility requirements depending on whether you are an athlete or not and the various sporting disciplines that are practiced. But everyone needs a degree of flexibility to be able to cope with daily lives and activities. So, flexibility in its purest form is defined as the ability to move your body joints and articulations through their full range of motion.

Stretching is thus associated with flexibility allowing the range of motion to be maintained or increased via physical activity including stretching. Every individual has varying bone structures and articulations that allow for a different range of flexibility. But maintaining or increasing flexibility is essential to protecting your joints and keeping them healthy as well as allowing to strengthen your back to avoid back pain and reduce the appearance and effects of arthritis as well as reduce muscle-tendon injuries. Without regular stretching tendons and joints can become tight and hard and impair flexibility levels of your body parts.


: 10-12 minutes of daily stretching exercises performed slowly without a bouncing motion. This can be included after a warm-up or during a cool down.

is the amount of fat mass compared to lean muscle mass, bone and organs. This can be measured using underwater weighing, Skinfold readings, and bioelectrical impedance. Underwater weighing is considered the “gold standard” for body fat measurement, however because of the size and expense of the equipment needed very few places are set up to do this kind of measurement. The proportion of fat in your body compared to
your bone and muscle. It does not refer to your weight in pounds or your "figure-type."

The last of the 5 components of physical activity is body composition. Understanding your body composition and how it relates to your overall fitness level is essential. though more of a consequence of the previously mentioned components of physical activity.

The body composition looks at the ratio of fat in the body compared to the overall levels of lean body mass. When the body fat mass ratio is high you are considered over weight or even obese. This high fat content ration is a sign of a higher propensity to develop coronary heart disease, diabetes, joint and back pains, arthritis and higher risk of tendon-muscular accidents and injuries due to inactivity. There is a direct link in the speed of adding pounds of fat to the lack of physical exercise and reducing the fat ration both by diet changes, nutrition quality and regular physical exercise are key.

The keys to selecting the right kinds of exercises for developing and maintaining each of the basic components of fitness are found in these principles: SPECIFICITY - pick the right kind of activities to affect each

component. Strength training results in specific strength changes. Also, train for the specific activity you're interested in. For example, optimal swimming performance is best achieved when the muscles involved in swimming are trained for the movements required. It does not necessarily follow that a good runner is a good swimmer.


- work hard enough, at levels that are vigorous and long

enough to overload your body above its resting level, to bring about improvement.


- you can't hoard physical fitness. At least three

balanced workouts a week are necessary to maintain a desirable level of fitness.

PROGRESSION - increase the intensity, frequency and/or duration of activity over periods of time in order to improve.

Some activities can be used to fulfill more than one of your basic exercise requirements. For example, in addition to increasing cardiorespiratory endurance, running builds muscular endurance in the legs, and swimming develops the arm, shoulder and chest muscles. If you select the proper activities, it is possible to fit parts of your muscular endurance workout into your cardiorespiratory workout and save time.


Heart rate is widely accepted as a good method for measuring intensity during running, swimming, cycling and other aerobic activities. Exercise that doesn't raise your heart rate to a certain level and keep it there for 20 minutes won't contribute significantly to cardiovascular fitness. The heart rate you should maintain is called your Target Heart Rate. There are several ways of arriving at this figure. One of the simplest is: Maximum Heart Rate (220 - age) X 70%. Thus, the target heart rate for a 40 year-old would be 126. Some methods for figuring the target rate take individual differences into consideration. Here is one of them. 1. 2. Subtract age from 220 to find Maximum Heart Rate. Subtract resting heart rate (see below) from maximum heart rate to determine Heart Rate Reserve. 3. 4. Take 70% of heart rate reserve to determine Heart Rate Raise. Add heart rate raise to resting heart rate to find Target Rate.

Resting heart rate should be determined by taking your pulse after sitting quietly for five minutes. When checking heart rate during a workout, take your pulse within five seconds after interrupting exercise because it starts to go down once you stop moving. Count pulse for 10 seconds and multiply by six to get the per-minute rate.

Why the need for physical fitness testing?
As stated earlier the 5 components of physical fitness represent how fit and healthy the body is as a whole. When you have the battery of tests performed you will receive information on the specific areas you made need to work in. A very specific goal oriented fitness program can be developed from the test battery. If body composition is of (higher fat compared to muscle mass) there are many health related diseases and illnesses you have a higher chance of contracting. It is important to combine healthy eating habits with your exercise program. If you scored low on the cardiovascular test you would have a higher chance of being at risk for heart related illnesses and would not do well with activities that require longer times to complete. You would participate in things such as long bike rides, swimming and jogging for extended periods of time to correct this component. The next three tests can have results that are isolated to specific joints and muscles of the body or affect the body as a whole. If you score low on the flexibility tests, you have a greater chance of decreased performance in daily living activities/sports and a higher risk of injury. You may also experience low back pain. It would be important to included flexibility training into your workout everyday. If you scored low on the muscular endurance test you fatigue early into the exercise or activities of daily living. Many exercises that require high reps and low weight would be implemented into your training program.

If you scored low on the muscle strength test you do not have enough strength to perform well in sports, resistance training and activities of daily living. Your fitness program would have a progressive strength training component added that would allow you to become stronger with little chance of injury over time. Fitness testing has its limitations – while it gives you a good idea of where your body is, it does not paint the entire picture. As stated earlier some of the above tests are only testing specific body parts. Other important factors such as balance and agility are not tested. It also requires the ability to perform the tests. It would be dangerous for someone who is in poor condition and does not exercise to participate in fitness testing. Before deciding to undergo fitness testing, make sure you know why they are being done and determine that it is safe for you to participate.

Exercise can be categorized under three major types viz. flexibility, aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Here is a brief about the different types of exercise. It is an obvious fact that regular physical exercise, along with a balanced diet are the key factors to control weight and stay healthy. Exercise stimulates the immune system and protects from certain chronic diseases like diabetes and heart problems. There is no doubt that a sedentary lifestyle without exercise is an invitation to several diseases and disorders. Any type of obesity is due to an unhealthy lifestyle, including an inactive schedule. Nowadays, a major concern is childhood obesity, of which the most effective remedy is physical activity.

Different Types of Exercise
People exercise for many positive reasons, maybe for building muscles, strengthening the cardiovascular system or simply as a leisure activity. Whatever may be the reason, exercise is always good for health, if it is performed under safe conditions. It is recommended that everyone should exercise at least 30 minutes daily for good health. Following are the different types of exercise, based on their effect on the human body system.

Flexibility exercise is performed to enhance the movements of muscles and joints. Stretching and bending are the common ways of flexibility training. This exercise type helps in preventing muscle stiffness and joint pain (to some extent). Along with a warm-up session, stretching exercise should be performed before and after the exercise schedule. This will help to reduce muscle soreness and/or injuries, and in the proper recovery of the muscles after the exercise.

Aerobic exercise, also known as cardiovascular exercise, strengthens the muscles and promotes the cardiovascular endurance (by targeting a specific heart rate). As the name suggests, aerobic exercise aims at improving the oxygen intake by the body cells. It involves movement of the muscle groups from a moderate to intense level exercise, for an extended period (at least 20 minutes). There are many aerobic exercise such as running, jogging, cycling, swimming, dancing and playing sports. Aerobic exercise is also the best way to lose weight. For an effective aerobic exercise session, a moderate intensity exercise should be preceded by a warm-up period and end by a cooling down period.

Anaerobic exercise or weight-lifting exercise is performed mostly to build muscles and enhance their size, strength and endurance. Hence, in anaerobic exercise, muscular activities like functional training, weight training and sprinting are performed, followed by a cooling session. Some of the common activities of anaerobic exercise are sit-ups, pull-ups and push-ups, squats and rowing. Though, anaerobic exercise is performed for a lesser duration, it can be a good supplement to aerobic work-outs. There is no specific time and place for exercise, and it is never too late to start exercising. In case, you feel reluctant to exercise outdoors and/or in gyms, you can always opt for specific exercise equipments and workout at home. Studies have found that exercise not only improves physical health, but also helps in treating depression and mental illnesses.

However, it is to be noted that too much exercise, without a proper diet may be harmful to health. In such a case, the body cells start utilizing proteins as their energy source. There are also increased chances of circulatory problems like stroke. It is advisable that pregnant women and people who have medical complications should consult and seek advice from their concerned physician, before following a particular exercise program. This will help in recognizing and preventing any possible health risks.

As part of the 5 key components of physical fitness, cardio training for endurance and resistance is essential for a healthy daily life. Cardio workouts help protect against coronary art diseases, heart attack and increases physical endurance. You can workout your heart at the gym

using cardio equipment such as cross trainers, rowers and cycling machines or use the great outdoors as your cardio gym.

Among many of the ideal cardio workouts swimming is often one of the best exercises for toning cardio resistance and endurance as well as back pain resolution. Swimming protects the joints unlike many other sports and fitness activities. As well swimming in one of the cardio endurance fitness activities that works simultaneously the most muscle groups.


Walking and jogging are two cost affective activities that many men and women could start and yet do not. You do not require a gym membership or expensive fitness equipment. It is important to separate walking and jogging. For walking try using the stairs during the day at work, walk to shops instead of using public transportation or the car. Keep it at the top of your mind and next time use the stairs instead of the escalator. Jogging does require a bit of care and preparation. Stretching is essential and an excellent pair of shoes. If you do have certain predispositions to back or joint pain, soft jogging and in good shoes can actually strengthen your joins. Get advice from your doctor or physician if you have any doubts.

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