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HISTORYAND What is STI?

BACKGROUND
STD stands for sexually transmitted disease (sexually
transmitted infection, or STI, is also used.) People
Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are as old as
contract STDs through sexual contact with an infected
mankind and epidemics are mentioned already in the Old
person. Some STDs have other, nonsexual means of
Testament. However, the perception of the conditions has
transmission. Risk of contracting STDs can be reduced
changed over the centuries. In ancient times they were taken
by avoiding sexual contact or by consistent use of
for an individual punishment for a blasphemic conduct of life
condoms during sexual activity or by practicing safer
or as a consequence of low sanitation and hygiene. In the
forms of sexual intimacy. In some cases, people can
medieval ages, the relation to sexual activities was
further reduce their risk for contracting a sexually
recognized, but the diversity of clinical symptoms was seen
transmitted disease by being vaccinated
as variations of one disease, depending on the stage of the
disease and the general health condition of the diseased
person. In the late 15th and 16th century a presumably "new An STI is spread during sexual activity. It is spread
plague" had been imported to Europe and was rapidly during vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Some STIs (HIV and
spread by soldiers. Misinterpretations of wrong experiments hepatitis B are also spread by contact with infected
on the suspected identity of syphilis and gonorrhoea led to blood. STIs are not normally spread by digital sex
nosologic misconceptions in the 17th and early 19th century. (fingering); however, unclean hands or uncut nails can
The late 19th and beginning of 20st century due to the many cause genital problems.
achievements in microbiology and chemistry finally took the
frightening threat from the STDs, which have terrorized
millions of "normal" and "famous" people of all social classes
over centuries and has been linked to many scandals.
Moreover, the perception of STDs has turned from a
"personal stroke of fate" into a collectively important issue of
public health.
Causes, signs and
have an infection that can be passed on to their sexual
partners. This is why check-ups are so important.

Symptoms Types of STI


A sexually transmitted infection (STI) is an
infection you can get by having sex. Some STIs (such as There are three basic types of Sexually
gonorrhea and chlamydia) infect your sexual and Transmitted Infection;
reproductive organs. Others (such as HIV, hepatitis B,
and syphilis) cause general body infections. STIs used to
be called VDs, or venereal diseases.

Sores or blisters on the genitals on or around the


Bacterial
anus, or mouth Irregular growths (warts) in genital area
Vaginal or penile discharge (may be unusual-smelling or  Vaginitis
discoloured) Genital itching Pain with urination or having It is an infection in the vagina. The vagina has a
a bowel movement Pain with intercourse Vaginal special discharge that keeps it healthy. This
bleeding or spotting after sexual intercourse Lower discharge varies in amount and consistency during
abdominal pain or swelling of glands in groin area and the normal menstrual cycle.
rash.
 Gonorrhea
There are many different STIs and there are many It is a very common sexually transmitted infection
signs that mean you may have contracted one, but (STI). It is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a
sometimes, there are no signs at all. When STIs do bacterium that can grow and multiply easily in the
produce symptoms, they usually develop on the genital warm, moist areas of the reproduction tract.
area. Your sexual contacts may also experience  Syphilis
symptoms. Generally, the symptoms of STIs can include: It is a sexually transmitted infection caused by
genital area pain in the scrotum or testicles lumps and bacterium Treponema Pallidum
bumps on the genitals. Many people who have an STI do
not develop any symptoms and may not be aware they
Viral
you're pregnant and have an STI, prompt treatment can
prevent or reduce the risk of infection of your baby.
Treatment usually consists of one of the following,
depending on the infection: Antibiotics. Antibiotics, often
 Genital Herpes in a single dose, can cure many sexually transmitted
It is a sexually transmitte infection caused by the bacterial and parasitic infections, including gonorrhea,
herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 but the syphilis, chlamydia and trichomoniasis. Typically, you'll
most genital herpes is caused by the type 2 be treated for gonorrhea and chlamydia at the same time
herpes. because the two infections often appear together. Once
you start antibiotic treatment, it's crucial to follow through.
 Human Papillomavirus or Genital Warts If you don't think you'll be able to take medication as
This is caused by Human papillomavirus, this virus prescribed, tell your doctor. A shorter, simpler treatment
is the name of a group of viruses that includes regimen may be available. In addition, it's important to
more than 100 types. abstain from sex until you've completed treatment and
any sores have healed. Antiviral drugs. You'll have fewer
 HIV and AIDS herpes recurrences if you take daily suppressive therapy
with a prescription antiviral drug. Antiviral drugs lessen
the risk of infection, but it's still possible to give your

Parasitic partner herpes. Antiviral drugs can keep HIV infection in


check for many years. But the virus persists and can still
be transmitted, though the risk is lower. The sooner you
start treatment, the more effective it is. Once you start
 Pubic lice treatment — if you take your medications exactly as
directed — it's possible to lower your virus count to nearly
undetectable levels.

Treatment and prevention


STIs caused by bacteria are generally easier to treat.
Viral infections can be managed but not always cured. If