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(JNTU CODE : A50418) Programme : UG

Branch: ECE Version No :

Year: III Updated on :
Semester: I No. of pages :

Classification status (Restricted )

Distribution List :

Prepared by : 1) Name : C. LAXMIKANTH REDDY

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3) Design : Asst. Prof
4) Date :
Verified by : 1) Name : * For Q.C Only.
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Approved by : (HOD ) 1) Name :
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ANTENNA FUNDAMENTALS: Introduction, Radiation Mechanism – single wire, 2
wire, dipoles,Current Distribution on a thin wire antenna. Antenna Parameters] -
Radiation Patterns, Patterns in Principal Planes, Main Lobe and Side Lobes, Beam
widths, Beam Area, Radiation Intensity, Beam Efficiency, Directivity,
Gain and Resolution, Antenna Apertures, Aperture Efficiency, Effective Height. Related
Thin Linear Wire Antennas: Retarded Potentials, Radiation from Small Electric
Dipole, Quarterwave Monopole and Halfwave Dipole – Current Distributions, Evaluation
of Field Components, Power Radiated, Radiation Resistance, Beam widths, Directivity,
Effective Area and Effective Height. Natural current distributions, fields and patterns of
Thin Linear Center-fed Antennas of different lengths, Radiation Resistance at a point
which is not current maximum.Antenna Theorems – Applicability and Proofs for
equivalence of directional characteristics.
Loop Antennas: Small Loops - Field Components, Comparison of far fields of small
loop and short dipole, Concept of short magnetic dipole, D and Rr relations for small
VHF, UHF AND MICROWAVE ANTENNAS - I: Arrays with Parasitic Elements, Yagi -
Uda Arrays,Folded Dipoles & their characteristics. : Helical Antennas – Significance,
Geometry, basic properties; Design considerations for monofilar helical antennas in
Axial Mode and Normal Modes (Qualitative Treatment). HornAntennas – Types,
Optimum Horns, Design Characteristics of Pyramidal Horns; Illustrative Problems.
VHF, UHF AND MICROWAVE ANTENNAS – II: micro strip antennas - introduction,
Features, advantages andlimitations, Rectangular Patch antennas – Geometry and
Parameters, characteristics of Micro strip antennas. Impact of different parameters on
characteristics,. Reflector Antennas: Flat Sheet and Corner Reflectors. Paraboloidal
Reflectors– Geometry, characteristics, types of feeds, F/D Ratio, Spill Over, Back
Lobes, Aperture Blocking, Off-set Feeds,Cassegrain Feeds].
Lens Antennas – introduction, Geometry of Non metallic Dielectric Lenses, Features,
Dielectric Lenses and
Zoning, Applications.
ANTENNA ARRAYS: Point Sources – Definition, patterns, arrays of 2 isotropic
sources - different cases, Broadside, Endfire Arrays, EFA with Increased Directivity,
Derivation of their characteristics and comparison, BSAs with Non uniform amplitude
distributions – General considerations and Binomial arrays, illustrative problems.
Antenna Measurements: introduction, concepts – reciprocity, Near and far fields,
coordinates system, sources of errors. Patterns to be measured, pattern measurement
arrangement, directivity measurement, Gain measurements ( by comparison, absolute
and 3-antenna methods).
WAVE PROPAGATION - I: Concepts of Propagation – frequency ranges and types of
propagations. Ground Wave Propagation–Characteristics, Parameters, Wave Tilt, Flat
and Spherical Earth Considerations. Sky Wave Propagation– Formation of Ionospheric
Layers and their Characteristics, Mechanism of Reflection and Refraction, Critical
Frequency, MUF & Skip Distance – Calculations for flat and spherical earth cases,
Optimum Frequency, LHF, Virtual Height, Ionospheric Abnormalities, Ionospheric
WAVE PROPAGATION – II: Fundamental Equation for Free-Space Propagation,
Basic Transmission Loss Calculations. Space Wave Propagation – Mechanism, LOS and Radio
Horizon. Tropospheric Wave Propagation – Radius of Curvature of path, Effective Earth’s
Radius, Effect of Earth’s Curvature, Field Strength Calculations, Mcurves and Duct Propagation,
Tropospheric Scattering.

List of Text Books / References / Websites / Journals / Others

1. Antennas and wave propagation – J. D. Kraus and R. J. Marhefka and Ahmad S.Khan,
TMH, New Delhi,4th Ed.,(Special Indian Edition) 2010.
2. Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems – E.C. Jordan and K.G. Balmain, PHI,
2nd ed., 2000.
1. Antenna Theory - C.A. Balanis, John Wiley & Sons, 3rd Ed., 2005.
2. Antennas and Wave Propagation – K.D. Prasad, Satya Prakashan, Tech India
Publications, New Delhi, 2001.
3. Transmission and Propagation – E.V.D. Glazier and H.R.L. Lamont, The Services Text
Book of Radio, vol. 5,
Standard Publishers Distributors, Delhi.
4. Electronic and Radio Engineering – F.E. Terman, McGraw-Hill, 4th edition, 1955.
5. Antennas – John D. Kraus, McGraw-Hill(International Edition), SECOND EDITION,
1. Programme Educational Objectives & Programme Outcomes
Programme Educational Objective [Major]
This course has the basics of antenna and types and concept of wireless
communication through the various Media. The main objectives of antennas and
wave propagation are:
1. To understand the basic terminology and concept of antennas.
2. To attain knowledge on the basic parameters those are considered in the antenna
design process and the analysis while designing that
3. To analyze electric and magnetic field emission from various basic antennas
mathematical formulation of the analysis.
4. To have knowledge on antenna operation and types as well as their usage in real
time field.
5. To be aware of the wave spectrum and respective band based antenna usage and
also to know the propagation of the waves at different frequencies through layers in
the existing layered free space environment structure.
Programme Educational Objectives [PEOs]
The educational objectives of UG program in Electronics and Communication Engineering are:
To provide sound foundation in mathematical, scientific and engineering fundamentals necessary
to analyze, formulate and solve engineering problems.
To provide thorough knowledge in Electronics and Communication Engineering subjects
including theoretical knowledge and practical training for preparing physical models pertaining
to Electronic Circuits and design, Digital Signal processing, Microprocessor / Microcontroller
internal architecture and its programming, Wireless and wired Communication, Networking,
Microwave Engineering, VLSI etc…
To provide relevant engineering experience in designing and conducting experiments as well as
analyzing the significance of the experimental data.
To provide training in soft skills via English language, communication, verbal, logical,
analytical, comprehension, team building, inter personal relationship, group discussion etc for
To inculcate the habit of lifelong learning for career development through successful completion
of advanced degrees, professional development courses, industrial training etc.

2. Programme Outcomes (POs)

The outcomes of departments are that the students after successful completion of the course will
• An ability to apply knowledge in mathematics, science and engineering subjects.
• An ability to identify, formulate and solve engineering problems.
• An ability to design and conduct experiments to interpret data and analyze the results.
• • An ability to design system components or processes to satisfy the needs of the society within
realistic constraints such as economical, social, political, ethical, health, safety and
• An ability to function on multi-disciplinary teams.
• An ability to understand professional and ethical responsibilities.
• An ability to communicate effectively.
• An ability to gain knowledge to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global,
environmental and societal context.
• To gain knowledge on contemporary issues.
• An ability to use techniques, skills and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering
7. Course Description:

The objective of this course is to provide an in-depth understanding of

antenna concepts, and practical antenna design for various applications. The
course will explain the theory of different types of antennas used in
communication systems. The course covers the basics of the antenna parameters,
retarded potential, radiated power, radiation resistance, gain and directivity of
thin linear wire antennas, VHF, UHF and microwave antennas like Yagi - Uda,
Helical antenna, reflector antenna, micro strip antenna, and lens antenna,
antenna arrays broadside and endfire, antenna measurements to measure the
antenna parameters, wireless communication maintained through ground, space
and sky.

8. Course Objectives:

This course has the basics of antenna and types and concept of wireless
communication through the various Media. The main objectives of antennas and
wave propagation are:
1. To understand the basic terminology and concept of antennas.
2. To attain knowledge on the basic parameters those are considered in the antenna
design process and the analysis while designing that
3. To analyze electric and magnetic field emission from various basic antennas
mathematical formulation of the analysis.
4. To have knowledge on antenna operation and types as well as their usage in real
time field.
5. To be aware of the wave spectrum and respective band based antenna usage and
also to know the propagation of the waves at different frequencies through layers in
the existing layered free space environment structure.

9. Course Outcomes :
At the end of the course the students are able to
1. Get Awareness of the parameter consideration viz. antenna efficiency, beam
efficiency, radiation resistance etc. in the design of an antenna.
2. Analyze the designed antenna and field evaluation under various conditions and
formulate the electric as well as the magnetic fields equations set for far field and near
field conditions.
3. Understand array system of different antenna and field analysis under application of
different currents to the individual antenna elements.
4. Understand and design issues, operation of fundamental antennas like Yagi-Uda, Horn
antennas and Helical structure and also their operation methodology in practice.
5. Describe the structure and properties of rectangular patch antenna and analyze the
parameters effect on its performance.
6.Design a parabolic structure and analyze different feed methods.
7. Design a lens structure and also the bench setup for antenna parameters
measurement of testing for their effectiveness.

10. Program Learning Outcomes:

After completing this course the student must demonstrate the knowledge and ability to:
1. Capability to use their knowledge in the design of communication system using techniques like signal
processing and technologies
2. Capability to analyse a given system and/or design for its specification based performance and to
devise any design changes for performance improvement, if need be.
3. Capability to work within the constraints as obtained in a workplace and/or within a team, with an
objective to further the goals of the employer establishment or self owned one.
11. The Importance of Antennas and Wave Propagation

12. Prerequisites

Communications and Networking, Data transmission, basic signaling, data encoding,

error control, communication protocols, security, network topologies, routing, switching,
internetworking, emerging high speed networks.


Si.N No of Suggested TEACHING

o NAME OF THE TOPIC classes text book METHOD
1 T1 Chalk &
introduction - basic antenna parameters 4 Duster
2 T1 Chalk &
Fields from oscillating dipole,field zones 1
3 Antenna theorems and retarded potentials- T1 &T2 Chalk &
Helmholtz's theorems 2 Duster
4 Radiation from small electric dipole,radiation T2 Chalk &
resistance, directivity and gain 3 Duster
5 Effective area and effective height, current T2 Chalk &
distribution 2 Duster
6 T2 Chalk &
loop antenna introduction- small loop antenna
2 Duster
7 T2 Chalk &
comparison of small loop with short dipole 1 Duster
8 T1 &T2 Chalk &
Problems 1 Duster
VHF and UHF antennas 1
Si.N T1 &T2 Chalk &
o Arrays with parasitic elements and yagi uda arry 2 Duster
1 T1 &T2 Chalk &
folded dipole and it's characteristic
1 Duster
2 T1 &T2 Chalk &
Helical antenna- Helical geometry 2 Duster
3 practical design considerations of helical antenna T1 &T2 Chalk &
in normal and axial mode Duster
4 Horn antenna- fermets principle and T1 &T2 Chalk &
types.optimum horns and design considerations 3 Duster

1 Microstrip antennas introduction, types 1 T1 Chalk &

advantages Duster
2 rectangular patch antennas geometry and 2 T2 Chalk &
parameters on characteristic Duster
3 microstrip antennas and impact of different 1 T1 & T2 Chalk &
parameters on characteristic Duster
4 1 T1 & T2 Chalk &
reflectors- flar sheet and corner reflectors
5 paraboloid reflectors- geometry, patterns 2 T2 Chalk &
charactristics and feed methods Duster
6 1 T2 Chalk &
reflectors types features and problems
7 2 T1 & T2 Chalk &
lens antennas


1 Definition, point sources arrys of 2 isotropic T1 & T2 Chalk &

antennas 2 Duster
2 T1 & T2 Chalk &
principle of pattern multiplication 1 Duster
3 uniform linear array- Broad side and end fire T1 & T2
array, EFA with increased directivity, derivation of Chalk &
their characteristics and comparison 4 Duster
4 BSA with non uniform current T1 & T2
distribution,general considerations and binomial Chalk &
arrays 3 Duster
5 T1 & T2 Chalk &
Antenna measurements
6 Introduction- concepts, near and far fields, T1 & T2 Chalk &
reciprocity 2 Duster
7 co ordinate systems, patterns to be measured, T1 & T2 Chalk &
sources of errors 1 Duster
8 T2 Chalk &
pattern measurement arrangement,directivity Duster
measurement and gain measurement 1


1 introduction - definition, categorisation, general T1 Chalk &

classification Duster
2 Different modes of propagations, ray /mode T1 Chalk &
propagations 1 Duster
3 plane earth reflections, space and surface waves, T1 Chalk &
4 wave tilt, curved earh reflections 2 Duster
5 sky wave propagation- field strength variations T1 Chalk &
with distance and height 1 Duster
6 effect of earth curvature, absorption , super T1 Chalk &
refraction 1 Duster
7 M curves and duct propagation, scattering T1 Chalk &
phenomena, tropospheric propagation 2 Duster
8 sky wave propagation- introduction,structure of T1
ionosphere, reflection and refraction of sky 2 Chalk &
waves by ionosphere Duster
9 ray path, critical frequency, MUF, LUF ,OF, virtual T1 Chalk &
height and skip distance Duster
10 relation between MUF and skip distance, multi T1 Chalk &
hop propagation Duster

14. Major Topics Covered :



15. Detailed Notes

Attached in pdf format

16. Assignment Questions

1. Define the following parameters w.r.t antenna:

1. Define the following parameters w.r.t antenna:
i. Radiation resistance.
ii. Beam area.
iii. Radiation intensity.
iv. Directivity.
v. Gain.
vi. Isotropic radiator.
vii. Directive gain.
viii. Hertzian dipole.
ix. Power gain.
x. Efficiency.
xi. Power density.
xii. Steradians & radians.

2. With the help of neat diagrams explain the principle of radiation in antennas.
3. Write a note on radiation pattern and radiation lobes.
4. Draw the radiation pattern of: (i) Directional antenna. (ii) Isotropic antenna.
5. Explain different types of aperture.
6. Define aperture of an antenna and find its relation with directivity.
7. Explain effective height of an antenna.
8. Derive an expression for power radiated by an isotropic antenna.
9. Derive the relation between directivity and beam solid angle.
10. Derive the relationship between radiation resistance and efficiency.
11. Derive an expression for field intensity at a distant point.
12. Write short notes on: (a) Fields of an oscillating dipole (b) Antenna field zones.
13. Show that an isotropic radiator radiating 1 KW power gives a field of 173mv/m at a distance of 1
14. Find the directivity of an antenna having radiation resistance of 72 Ω and loss resistance of 12
Ω and a gain of 20.
15. What is the maximum effective aperture of a microwave antenna which has a directivity of
16. A radio station radiates a total power of 10KW and a gain of 30. Find the field intensity at a
distance of 100Km from the antenna. Assume free space propagation.
17. Calculate the length of half wave dipole antenna meant to have wavelength at 60MHz.
18. Calculate the gain of an antenna with a circular aperture of diameter 3m at a frequency of 5
19. An antenna radiates a total power of 100W in the direction of maximum radiation, the field
strength at a distance of 10Km was found to be 12mV/m. What is the gain of the antenna? Assume
free space propagation. If η=90% find directivity.
20. An antenna has a radiation resistance of 72Ω loss resistance of 8ƒ Ω power gain of 12dB.
Determine the antenna efficiency and directivity.
21. An antenna has a loss resistance of 10 Ω power gain of 20 and directivity gain of 22.
Calculate the radiation resistance.
22. Calculate the effective length of a λ/2 antenna gives Rr=73 Ω effective aperture 0.13
23. An antenna radiates power equally in all directions. The total power delivered to the
radiator is 100 KW. Calculate the power density at distance of (i) 100m (ii) 1000m.
24. Derive the electric and magnetic field components of Hertzian dipole. (APRIL / MAY 2011)
25. Explain the following terms with respect to antenna, (APRIL / MAY 2011)
i). Polarization ii). Effective aperture iii). Directivity iv). Antenna temperature v). Radiation pattern
26. What are Hertzian dipoles? Derive the electric and magnetic field quantities of Infinitesimal
dipole and radiation pattern. (NOV. / DEC. 2011)
27. Explain the following terms with respect to antenna, (NOV. / DEC. 2011)
i). Polarization ii). Beam solid angle iii). Gain iv). Bandwidth v). Radiation pattern
35. Solve the wave equation for uniform plane waves in an infinitely extending conducting
medium. (MAY / JUNE 2012)
36. Write short notes on: (MAY / JUNE 2012)
i). Radiation pattern ii). Polarization iii). Antenna temperature.
37. Find the distance from a radiating element with 60Hz current such that radi-
ation and induction fields are equal.
38. Show that the radiation resistance of a small loop is equal to 320π 4(A/λ/2)
ohms where A is loop area.
1. What is Horn Antenna? Sketch the various types of Horn Antenna and explain its operation.
2. Describe the principle of operation and applications of parabolic reflectors and derive its
necessary equations.
3. Explain Slot antenna and derive its field expressions.
4. Explain the methods of feeding Slot Antenna?
5. Explain the different types of Lens antenna and derive their equations.
6. Describe Flat sheet and corner reflectors and derive their field equations.
7. Explain the following theorem in detail i. Uniqueness theorem ii. Field equivalence principle iii.
Method of images iv. Huygenes principle v. Babinets principle vi. Duality principle
8. Explain the structure and operation of Slot antenna. Also derive the expression of its input
9. Explain the working operation of parabolic reflector antenna in detail.
10. Explain the working operation of lens antenna. Also explain its types.
11. Explain the operation of hyperbolic reflectors and derive its equation.
12. Explain the radiation mechanism of microwave Horn antenna with diagram. (NOV. / DEC. 2011)
13.Explain the special features of parabolic reflector antenna and discuss on different types of feed
used with neat diagram. (NOV. / DEC. 2011)
14.Explain the radiation mechanism of slot antenna with diagram. (APRIL / MAY 2011)
15.Explain the special features of reflector antenna and discuss on different types of feed used with
neat diagram. (APRIL / MAY 2011)
16. With field equivalence principle explain radiation mechanism (MAY / JUNE 2012)
17. Describe the working of slot antenna. What is the terminal impedance of slot antenna (MAY /
JUNE 2012) 18. What is reflector antenna? With necessary diagrams, explain parabolic reflector
antenna and its different types of feeding systems. (MAY / JUNE 2012)
19. How is aperture blockage in reflector antennas avoided? (MAY / JUNE 2012)

1. Write a note on antenna arrays. Mention the factors on which the resultant pattern of array
2. Differentiate between BSA and EFA. .
3. Derive an expression for electric field intensity of array of n isotropic sources of equal amplitude
and spacing and having a phase difference of 90 .
4. Explain the principle of pattern multiplication.
5. Obtain the electric field intensity of non isotropic but similar point sources.
6. Obtain the radiation pattern of 4 sources forming a uniform BSA with a spacing of λ/2.
7. 4 sources have equal magnitude & are spaced λ/2 apart. Maximum field is to be in line with
sources. Plot the field pattern of the array
8. Find BWFN for uniform EFA & extended EFA. Given (i) n=4 (ii) d= λ/2.
9. The principle lobe width of uniform 10 elements of BSA was observed to be 30o at a frequency of
30MHz. Estimate the distance between the individual elements of the array.
10. A uniform linear array consists of 16 isotropic sources with a spacing of λ/4 & phase difference
φ = - 90o. Calculate HPBW & effective aperture.
11. The main lobe width of 8 elements of BSA was observed to be 45o at a frequency of 20MHz.
Estimate the distance. N=8.
12. An EFA is composed of elements with the axis at right angles to the line of the array is required
to have a power gain of 20. Calculate the array length and width of the major lobe between the
13. Calculate exact & approximate BWFN for BSA given n=4 & d= λ/2.
14. A BSA operating at 200cm wavelength consists of 4 dipoles spaced λ/2 apart & having Rr=73Ω.
Each element carries radio frequency in same phase & of magnitude 0.5 A. Calculate (i) radiated
power. (ii) HPBW. 15. Complete the field pattern & find BWFN & HPBW for a linear uniform array of
6 isotropic sources spaced λ/2 apart. The power is applied with equal amplitude and in phase.
16. An array of 4 isotropic antennas is placed along a straight line. Distance between the elements
is λ/2. The peak is to be obtained in the direction from the axis of the array. What should be the
phase difference between the adjacent elements? Compute the pattern and find BWFN & HPBW.
17. Starting from the concepts of magnetic vector and electric scalar potentials derive the
expressions for field components of short dipole.
18. Derive the expression for radiation resistance of Hertzian dipole.
19. Derive the expression for electric & magnetic fields of linear antenna.
20. Find the radiation resistance of Hertzian dipole whose wavelength is λ/8.
21. A thin dipole is λ/15 long. If its loss resistance is 1.5 Ω, find its efficiency.
22. A short dipole antenna was observed to have Rr=2Ω at 1MHz. Calculate its length.
23. Calculate the efficiency of an antenna operated at 500 KHz and having a resistance 12 Ω and
effective height=30m.
24. Derive electric and magnetic fields of a loop antenna.
25. Derive an expression for radiation resistance of a loop antenna.
26. a)Obtain the Maxima, Minima and half power directions of radiated field of 2 identical isotropic
point sources spaced ‘d’ apart and i) Fed with current of equal magnitude and same phase ii) fed
with current of equal magnitude and opposite phase.
27. b) Find the direction of pattern maxima, pattern minima for an array of n sources with equal
amplitude and spacing in broadside case. ii) Explain array of non uniform excitation with neat
28. a)i)Explain the principle of pattern multiplication with neat diagrams. ii) Design a 4 element,
broadside array of isotropic elements spaced λ/2 apart that has an array factor with all the side
lobes 25 dB below the main lobe
29. Derive the field quantities and radiation resistance of a half wavelength dipole. (NOV. / DEC.
30. An antenna array consists of two identical isotropic radiators spaced by a distance of d=λ/4
meters and fed with currents of equal magnitude but with a phase difference β. Evaluate the
resultant radiation for β=0o and thereby identify the direction of maximum radiation. ( NOV. / DEC.
2011), (APRIL / MAY 2011)
31. A short dipole antenna of length L is positioned at the origin and is aligned along the Z-axis. It
carries a current, varying sinusoidal with time and its amplitude. Calculate the total field at distant
point P and its impedance. (MAY / JUNE 2012)
32. Derive the expression for field pattern of end-fire array of n sources of equal amplitude and
(MAY / JUNE 2012)
1. Write short notes on:
i. Surface wave tilting.
ii. Space wave propagation.
iii. Ionosphere propagation.
iv. Structure of ionosphere.
v. Sky wave propagation.
vi. Duct propagation.
2. Obtain an expression for space wave field component taking into account a direct wave field
component and a reflected wave from the earth surface.
3. Derive an expression for refractive index of ionosphere.
4. Explain the following and derive the relevant expressions:
i. Critical frequency.
ii. Maximum usable frequency.
iii. Virtual height.
iv. Skip distance.
5. Briefly explain characteristics of different ionized layers in ionospheric propagation.
6. Calculate the critical frequency for a medium at which the wave reflects if the maximum electron
density is 1.24 X 10 6 electrons/cm3.
7. Which propagation will aid the following frequencies and why. (a) 120KHz. (b) 10MHz. (c) 300
MHz. (d) 30GHz.
8. Estimate the surface wave tilt in degrees over an earth of 12mm conductivity and relative
permittivity 20 at a wave length of 300m.
9. A transmitter radiates 100Wof power at a frequency of 50MHz, so that space wave propagation
takes place. The transmitting antenna has a gain of 5 and its height is 50m. The receiving antenna
height is 2m. It is estimated that field strength of 100 V/m is required to give a satisfactory result.
Calculate the distance between transmitter and receiver.
10. Explain the electrical properties of Ionosphere.
11. Explain the effect of earth’s magnetic field.
12. Explain Faraday rotation and whistlers. Also explain wave propagation in complex environment.
13. Explain the mechanism of ionosphere propagation. (APRIL / MAY 2011)
14. How does the earth affect ground wave propagation? (APRIL / MAY 2011)
15. Explain the terms
i). Optimum working frequency.
ii). Duct propagation.
iii). Virtual height
iv). Skip distance
16. Discuss the effects of Earth’s magnetic field on ionosphere radio wave propagation(APRIL /
MAY 2011)
17. Explain the important features of ground wave propagation. ( NOV. / DEC. 2011).
18. Describe the structure of the atmosphere and specify the factors affecting the radio wave
propagation. (MAY / JUNE 2012)
19.Explain in detail about effect of earth’s magnetic field on radio wave propagation.


Attached in hard copy.

18. Unit wise PPT

Attached in hard copy.

19. Teaching Resources:

1. Antennas and wave propagation – J. D. Kraus and R. J. Marhefka and Ahmad S.Khan,

TMH, New Delhi,4th Ed.,(Special Indian Edition)

2. Antennas and Wave Propagation – K.D. Prasad, Satya Prakashan, Tech India

Publications, New Delhi, 2001


1. Antenna Theory - C.A. Balanis, John Wiley & Sons, 3rd Ed., 2005..

2. Transmission and Propagation – E.V.D. Glazier and H.R.L. Lamont, The Services Text

Book of Radio, vol. 5,Standard Publishers Distributors, Delhi.

3. Electronic and Radio Engineering – F.E. Terman, McGraw-Hill, 4th edition, 1955.

4. Antennas – John D. Kraus, McGraw-Hill(International Edition), SECOND EDITION,


21. Website Address:

1. The TCP/IP Guide, by Charles M. Kozierok, Free online Resource,