1 views

Uploaded by Laxmikanth Reddy

gives the clear information of awp

gives the clear information of awp

© All Rights Reserved

- Microwave antenna
- Lecture 01
- Professional Broadcast Antennas
- Microwave Project
- Design Your Own 5_8 Wave Vertical Antenna
- Antennas Tutorial
- VHF Band III TV Antennas
- 2 Transistors Transmitter
- Slc
- 7th Sem Consolidated Course Info
- Article Pa0rdt Mini Whip English
- Kathrein 742 237
- Antennas - Introduction
- Anetenna and Propagation Unit 5 Slot Antenna
- Micrwave Questions
- The Adcock HF RDF Antenna
- Antenna Principle and Model selection-47.pdf
- Fundamentals of Radiation
- MW Network Design HU Lec.4
- Door Darsan Doc

You are on page 1of 14

(JNTU CODE : A50418) Programme : UG

Year: III Updated on :

Semester: I No. of pages :

Distribution List :

2) Sign :

3) Design : Asst. Prof

4) Date :

Verified by : 1) Name : * For Q.C Only.

2) Sign : 1) Name :

3) Design : 2) Sign :

4) Date : 3) Design :

4) Date :

Approved by : (HOD ) 1) Name :

2) Sign :

3) Date :

Syllabus:

UNIT – I

ANTENNA FUNDAMENTALS: Introduction, Radiation Mechanism – single wire, 2

wire, dipoles,Current Distribution on a thin wire antenna. Antenna Parameters] -

Radiation Patterns, Patterns in Principal Planes, Main Lobe and Side Lobes, Beam

widths, Beam Area, Radiation Intensity, Beam Efficiency, Directivity,

Gain and Resolution, Antenna Apertures, Aperture Efficiency, Effective Height. Related

Problems.

Thin Linear Wire Antennas: Retarded Potentials, Radiation from Small Electric

Dipole, Quarterwave Monopole and Halfwave Dipole – Current Distributions, Evaluation

of Field Components, Power Radiated, Radiation Resistance, Beam widths, Directivity,

Effective Area and Effective Height. Natural current distributions, fields and patterns of

Thin Linear Center-fed Antennas of different lengths, Radiation Resistance at a point

which is not current maximum.Antenna Theorems – Applicability and Proofs for

equivalence of directional characteristics.

Loop Antennas: Small Loops - Field Components, Comparison of far fields of small

loop and short dipole, Concept of short magnetic dipole, D and Rr relations for small

loops.

UNIT – II

VHF, UHF AND MICROWAVE ANTENNAS - I: Arrays with Parasitic Elements, Yagi -

Uda Arrays,Folded Dipoles & their characteristics. : Helical Antennas – Significance,

Geometry, basic properties; Design considerations for monofilar helical antennas in

Axial Mode and Normal Modes (Qualitative Treatment). HornAntennas – Types,

Optimum Horns, Design Characteristics of Pyramidal Horns; Illustrative Problems.

UNIT – III

VHF, UHF AND MICROWAVE ANTENNAS – II: micro strip antennas - introduction,

Features, advantages andlimitations, Rectangular Patch antennas – Geometry and

Parameters, characteristics of Micro strip antennas. Impact of different parameters on

characteristics,. Reflector Antennas: Flat Sheet and Corner Reflectors. Paraboloidal

Reflectors– Geometry, characteristics, types of feeds, F/D Ratio, Spill Over, Back

Lobes, Aperture Blocking, Off-set Feeds,Cassegrain Feeds].

Lens Antennas – introduction, Geometry of Non metallic Dielectric Lenses, Features,

Dielectric Lenses and

Zoning, Applications.

UNIT – IV

ANTENNA ARRAYS: Point Sources – Definition, patterns, arrays of 2 isotropic

sources - different cases, Broadside, Endfire Arrays, EFA with Increased Directivity,

Derivation of their characteristics and comparison, BSAs with Non uniform amplitude

distributions – General considerations and Binomial arrays, illustrative problems.

Antenna Measurements: introduction, concepts – reciprocity, Near and far fields,

coordinates system, sources of errors. Patterns to be measured, pattern measurement

arrangement, directivity measurement, Gain measurements ( by comparison, absolute

5|Page

and 3-antenna methods).

UNIT – V

WAVE PROPAGATION - I: Concepts of Propagation – frequency ranges and types of

propagations. Ground Wave Propagation–Characteristics, Parameters, Wave Tilt, Flat

and Spherical Earth Considerations. Sky Wave Propagation– Formation of Ionospheric

Layers and their Characteristics, Mechanism of Reflection and Refraction, Critical

Frequency, MUF & Skip Distance – Calculations for flat and spherical earth cases,

Optimum Frequency, LHF, Virtual Height, Ionospheric Abnormalities, Ionospheric

Absorption.

WAVE PROPAGATION – II: Fundamental Equation for Free-Space Propagation,

Basic Transmission Loss Calculations. Space Wave Propagation – Mechanism, LOS and Radio

Horizon. Tropospheric Wave Propagation – Radius of Curvature of path, Effective Earth’s

Radius, Effect of Earth’s Curvature, Field Strength Calculations, Mcurves and Duct Propagation,

Tropospheric Scattering.

TEXT BOOKS:

1. Antennas and wave propagation – J. D. Kraus and R. J. Marhefka and Ahmad S.Khan,

TMH, New Delhi,4th Ed.,(Special Indian Edition) 2010.

2. Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems – E.C. Jordan and K.G. Balmain, PHI,

2nd ed., 2000.

REFERENCES BOOKS:

1. Antenna Theory - C.A. Balanis, John Wiley & Sons, 3rd Ed., 2005.

2. Antennas and Wave Propagation – K.D. Prasad, Satya Prakashan, Tech India

Publications, New Delhi, 2001.

3. Transmission and Propagation – E.V.D. Glazier and H.R.L. Lamont, The Services Text

Book of Radio, vol. 5,

Standard Publishers Distributors, Delhi.

4. Electronic and Radio Engineering – F.E. Terman, McGraw-Hill, 4th edition, 1955.

5. Antennas – John D. Kraus, McGraw-Hill(International Edition), SECOND EDITION,

1988.

1. Programme Educational Objectives & Programme Outcomes

Programme Educational Objective [Major]

This course has the basics of antenna and types and concept of wireless

communication through the various Media. The main objectives of antennas and

wave propagation are:

1. To understand the basic terminology and concept of antennas.

2. To attain knowledge on the basic parameters those are considered in the antenna

design process and the analysis while designing that

3. To analyze electric and magnetic field emission from various basic antennas

mathematical formulation of the analysis.

4. To have knowledge on antenna operation and types as well as their usage in real

time field.

5. To be aware of the wave spectrum and respective band based antenna usage and

also to know the propagation of the waves at different frequencies through layers in

the existing layered free space environment structure.

Programme Educational Objectives [PEOs]

The educational objectives of UG program in Electronics and Communication Engineering are:

P1: PREPARATION

To provide sound foundation in mathematical, scientific and engineering fundamentals necessary

to analyze, formulate and solve engineering problems.

P2: CORE COMPETANCE

To provide thorough knowledge in Electronics and Communication Engineering subjects

including theoretical knowledge and practical training for preparing physical models pertaining

to Electronic Circuits and design, Digital Signal processing, Microprocessor / Microcontroller

internal architecture and its programming, Wireless and wired Communication, Networking,

Microwave Engineering, VLSI etc…

P3: DESIGN COMPETANCE

To provide relevant engineering experience in designing and conducting experiments as well as

analyzing the significance of the experimental data.

P4: SOFT SKILL

To provide training in soft skills via English language, communication, verbal, logical,

analytical, comprehension, team building, inter personal relationship, group discussion etc for

placement.

P5: CAREER DEVELOPMENT

To inculcate the habit of lifelong learning for career development through successful completion

of advanced degrees, professional development courses, industrial training etc.

The outcomes of departments are that the students after successful completion of the course will

acquire:

• An ability to apply knowledge in mathematics, science and engineering subjects.

• An ability to identify, formulate and solve engineering problems.

• An ability to design and conduct experiments to interpret data and analyze the results.

• • An ability to design system components or processes to satisfy the needs of the society within

realistic constraints such as economical, social, political, ethical, health, safety and

manufacturing.

• An ability to function on multi-disciplinary teams.

• An ability to understand professional and ethical responsibilities.

• An ability to communicate effectively.

• An ability to gain knowledge to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global,

environmental and societal context.

• To gain knowledge on contemporary issues.

• An ability to use techniques, skills and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering

practice.

7. Course Description:

antenna concepts, and practical antenna design for various applications. The

course will explain the theory of different types of antennas used in

communication systems. The course covers the basics of the antenna parameters,

retarded potential, radiated power, radiation resistance, gain and directivity of

thin linear wire antennas, VHF, UHF and microwave antennas like Yagi - Uda,

Helical antenna, reflector antenna, micro strip antenna, and lens antenna,

antenna arrays broadside and endfire, antenna measurements to measure the

antenna parameters, wireless communication maintained through ground, space

and sky.

8. Course Objectives:

This course has the basics of antenna and types and concept of wireless

communication through the various Media. The main objectives of antennas and

wave propagation are:

1. To understand the basic terminology and concept of antennas.

2. To attain knowledge on the basic parameters those are considered in the antenna

design process and the analysis while designing that

3. To analyze electric and magnetic field emission from various basic antennas

mathematical formulation of the analysis.

4. To have knowledge on antenna operation and types as well as their usage in real

time field.

5. To be aware of the wave spectrum and respective band based antenna usage and

also to know the propagation of the waves at different frequencies through layers in

the existing layered free space environment structure.

9. Course Outcomes :

At the end of the course the students are able to

1. Get Awareness of the parameter consideration viz. antenna efficiency, beam

efficiency, radiation resistance etc. in the design of an antenna.

2. Analyze the designed antenna and field evaluation under various conditions and

formulate the electric as well as the magnetic fields equations set for far field and near

field conditions.

3. Understand array system of different antenna and field analysis under application of

different currents to the individual antenna elements.

4. Understand and design issues, operation of fundamental antennas like Yagi-Uda, Horn

antennas and Helical structure and also their operation methodology in practice.

5. Describe the structure and properties of rectangular patch antenna and analyze the

parameters effect on its performance.

6.Design a parabolic structure and analyze different feed methods.

7. Design a lens structure and also the bench setup for antenna parameters

measurement of testing for their effectiveness.

After completing this course the student must demonstrate the knowledge and ability to:

1. Capability to use their knowledge in the design of communication system using techniques like signal

processing and technologies

2. Capability to analyse a given system and/or design for its specification based performance and to

devise any design changes for performance improvement, if need be.

3. Capability to work within the constraints as obtained in a workplace and/or within a team, with an

objective to further the goals of the employer establishment or self owned one.

11. The Importance of Antennas and Wave Propagation

12. Prerequisites

error control, communication protocols, security, network topologies, routing, switching,

internetworking, emerging high speed networks.

o NAME OF THE TOPIC classes text book METHOD

1 T1 Chalk &

introduction - basic antenna parameters 4 Duster

2 T1 Chalk &

Fields from oscillating dipole,field zones 1

Duster

3 Antenna theorems and retarded potentials- T1 &T2 Chalk &

Helmholtz's theorems 2 Duster

4 Radiation from small electric dipole,radiation T2 Chalk &

resistance, directivity and gain 3 Duster

5 Effective area and effective height, current T2 Chalk &

distribution 2 Duster

6 T2 Chalk &

loop antenna introduction- small loop antenna

2 Duster

7 T2 Chalk &

comparison of small loop with short dipole 1 Duster

8 T1 &T2 Chalk &

Problems 1 Duster

VHF and UHF antennas 1

Si.N T1 &T2 Chalk &

o Arrays with parasitic elements and yagi uda arry 2 Duster

1 T1 &T2 Chalk &

folded dipole and it's characteristic

1 Duster

2 T1 &T2 Chalk &

Helical antenna- Helical geometry 2 Duster

3 practical design considerations of helical antenna T1 &T2 Chalk &

2

in normal and axial mode Duster

4 Horn antenna- fermets principle and T1 &T2 Chalk &

types.optimum horns and design considerations 3 Duster

UNIT – III

VHF AND UHF ANTENNAS

advantages Duster

2 rectangular patch antennas geometry and 2 T2 Chalk &

parameters on characteristic Duster

3 microstrip antennas and impact of different 1 T1 & T2 Chalk &

parameters on characteristic Duster

4 1 T1 & T2 Chalk &

reflectors- flar sheet and corner reflectors

Duster

5 paraboloid reflectors- geometry, patterns 2 T2 Chalk &

charactristics and feed methods Duster

6 1 T2 Chalk &

reflectors types features and problems

Duster

7 2 T1 & T2 Chalk &

lens antennas

Duster

UNIT -IV

ANTENNA ARRAYS

antennas 2 Duster

2 T1 & T2 Chalk &

principle of pattern multiplication 1 Duster

3 uniform linear array- Broad side and end fire T1 & T2

array, EFA with increased directivity, derivation of Chalk &

their characteristics and comparison 4 Duster

4 BSA with non uniform current T1 & T2

distribution,general considerations and binomial Chalk &

arrays 3 Duster

5 T1 & T2 Chalk &

Antenna measurements

Duster

6 Introduction- concepts, near and far fields, T1 & T2 Chalk &

reciprocity 2 Duster

7 co ordinate systems, patterns to be measured, T1 & T2 Chalk &

sources of errors 1 Duster

8 T2 Chalk &

pattern measurement arrangement,directivity Duster

measurement and gain measurement 1

UNIT - V

WAVE PROPAGATION

1

classification Duster

2 Different modes of propagations, ray /mode T1 Chalk &

propagations 1 Duster

3 plane earth reflections, space and surface waves, T1 Chalk &

4 wave tilt, curved earh reflections 2 Duster

5 sky wave propagation- field strength variations T1 Chalk &

with distance and height 1 Duster

6 effect of earth curvature, absorption , super T1 Chalk &

refraction 1 Duster

7 M curves and duct propagation, scattering T1 Chalk &

phenomena, tropospheric propagation 2 Duster

8 sky wave propagation- introduction,structure of T1

ionosphere, reflection and refraction of sky 2 Chalk &

waves by ionosphere Duster

9 ray path, critical frequency, MUF, LUF ,OF, virtual T1 Chalk &

2

height and skip distance Duster

10 relation between MUF and skip distance, multi T1 Chalk &

1

hop propagation Duster

67

BASIC ANTENNA ANALYSIS

VARIOUS VHF AND UHF ANTENNAS

ANTENNA ARRAYS AND THEIR ADVANTAGES

HOW TO MEASURE VARIOUS PARAMETERS

WHAT IS PROPAGATION AND VARIOUS PROPAGATIONS

1. Define the following parameters w.r.t antenna:

i. Radiation resistance.

ii. Beam area.

iii. Radiation intensity.

iv. Directivity.

v. Gain.

vi. Isotropic radiator.

vii. Directive gain.

viii. Hertzian dipole.

ix. Power gain.

x. Efficiency.

xi. Power density.

xii. Steradians & radians.

2. With the help of neat diagrams explain the principle of radiation in antennas.

3. Write a note on radiation pattern and radiation lobes.

4. Draw the radiation pattern of: (i) Directional antenna. (ii) Isotropic antenna.

5. Explain different types of aperture.

6. Define aperture of an antenna and find its relation with directivity.

7. Explain effective height of an antenna.

8. Derive an expression for power radiated by an isotropic antenna.

9. Derive the relation between directivity and beam solid angle.

10. Derive the relationship between radiation resistance and efficiency.

11. Derive an expression for field intensity at a distant point.

12. Write short notes on: (a) Fields of an oscillating dipole (b) Antenna field zones.

13. Show that an isotropic radiator radiating 1 KW power gives a field of 173mv/m at a distance of 1

Km.

14. Find the directivity of an antenna having radiation resistance of 72 Ω and loss resistance of 12

Ω and a gain of 20.

15. What is the maximum effective aperture of a microwave antenna which has a directivity of

900?

16. A radio station radiates a total power of 10KW and a gain of 30. Find the field intensity at a

distance of 100Km from the antenna. Assume free space propagation.

17. Calculate the length of half wave dipole antenna meant to have wavelength at 60MHz.

18. Calculate the gain of an antenna with a circular aperture of diameter 3m at a frequency of 5

GHz.

19. An antenna radiates a total power of 100W in the direction of maximum radiation, the field

strength at a distance of 10Km was found to be 12mV/m. What is the gain of the antenna? Assume

free space propagation. If η=90% find directivity.

20. An antenna has a radiation resistance of 72Ω loss resistance of 8ƒ Ω power gain of 12dB.

Determine the antenna efficiency and directivity.

21. An antenna has a loss resistance of 10 Ω power gain of 20 and directivity gain of 22.

Calculate the radiation resistance.

22. Calculate the effective length of a λ/2 antenna gives Rr=73 Ω effective aperture 0.13

m2.

23. An antenna radiates power equally in all directions. The total power delivered to the

radiator is 100 KW. Calculate the power density at distance of (i) 100m (ii) 1000m.

24. Derive the electric and magnetic field components of Hertzian dipole. (APRIL / MAY 2011)

25. Explain the following terms with respect to antenna, (APRIL / MAY 2011)

i). Polarization ii). Effective aperture iii). Directivity iv). Antenna temperature v). Radiation pattern

26. What are Hertzian dipoles? Derive the electric and magnetic field quantities of Infinitesimal

dipole and radiation pattern. (NOV. / DEC. 2011)

27. Explain the following terms with respect to antenna, (NOV. / DEC. 2011)

i). Polarization ii). Beam solid angle iii). Gain iv). Bandwidth v). Radiation pattern

35. Solve the wave equation for uniform plane waves in an infinitely extending conducting

medium. (MAY / JUNE 2012)

36. Write short notes on: (MAY / JUNE 2012)

i). Radiation pattern ii). Polarization iii). Antenna temperature.

37. Find the distance from a radiating element with 60Hz current such that radi-

ation and induction fields are equal.

38. Show that the radiation resistance of a small loop is equal to 320π 4(A/λ/2)

ohms where A is loop area.

UNIT III

APERTURE ANTENNAS

1. What is Horn Antenna? Sketch the various types of Horn Antenna and explain its operation.

2. Describe the principle of operation and applications of parabolic reflectors and derive its

necessary equations.

3. Explain Slot antenna and derive its field expressions.

4. Explain the methods of feeding Slot Antenna?

5. Explain the different types of Lens antenna and derive their equations.

6. Describe Flat sheet and corner reflectors and derive their field equations.

7. Explain the following theorem in detail i. Uniqueness theorem ii. Field equivalence principle iii.

Method of images iv. Huygenes principle v. Babinets principle vi. Duality principle

8. Explain the structure and operation of Slot antenna. Also derive the expression of its input

impedance.

9. Explain the working operation of parabolic reflector antenna in detail.

10. Explain the working operation of lens antenna. Also explain its types.

11. Explain the operation of hyperbolic reflectors and derive its equation.

12. Explain the radiation mechanism of microwave Horn antenna with diagram. (NOV. / DEC. 2011)

13.Explain the special features of parabolic reflector antenna and discuss on different types of feed

used with neat diagram. (NOV. / DEC. 2011)

14.Explain the radiation mechanism of slot antenna with diagram. (APRIL / MAY 2011)

15.Explain the special features of reflector antenna and discuss on different types of feed used with

neat diagram. (APRIL / MAY 2011)

16. With field equivalence principle explain radiation mechanism (MAY / JUNE 2012)

17. Describe the working of slot antenna. What is the terminal impedance of slot antenna (MAY /

JUNE 2012) 18. What is reflector antenna? With necessary diagrams, explain parabolic reflector

antenna and its different types of feeding systems. (MAY / JUNE 2012)

19. How is aperture blockage in reflector antennas avoided? (MAY / JUNE 2012)

UNIT II

WIRE ANTENNAS AND ANTENNA ARRAYS

1. Write a note on antenna arrays. Mention the factors on which the resultant pattern of array

depends.

2. Differentiate between BSA and EFA. .

3. Derive an expression for electric field intensity of array of n isotropic sources of equal amplitude

and spacing and having a phase difference of 90 .

4. Explain the principle of pattern multiplication.

5. Obtain the electric field intensity of non isotropic but similar point sources.

6. Obtain the radiation pattern of 4 sources forming a uniform BSA with a spacing of λ/2.

7. 4 sources have equal magnitude & are spaced λ/2 apart. Maximum field is to be in line with

sources. Plot the field pattern of the array

8. Find BWFN for uniform EFA & extended EFA. Given (i) n=4 (ii) d= λ/2.

9. The principle lobe width of uniform 10 elements of BSA was observed to be 30o at a frequency of

30MHz. Estimate the distance between the individual elements of the array.

10. A uniform linear array consists of 16 isotropic sources with a spacing of λ/4 & phase difference

φ = - 90o. Calculate HPBW & effective aperture.

11. The main lobe width of 8 elements of BSA was observed to be 45o at a frequency of 20MHz.

Estimate the distance. N=8.

12. An EFA is composed of elements with the axis at right angles to the line of the array is required

to have a power gain of 20. Calculate the array length and width of the major lobe between the

nulls.

13. Calculate exact & approximate BWFN for BSA given n=4 & d= λ/2.

14. A BSA operating at 200cm wavelength consists of 4 dipoles spaced λ/2 apart & having Rr=73Ω.

Each element carries radio frequency in same phase & of magnitude 0.5 A. Calculate (i) radiated

power. (ii) HPBW. 15. Complete the field pattern & find BWFN & HPBW for a linear uniform array of

6 isotropic sources spaced λ/2 apart. The power is applied with equal amplitude and in phase.

16. An array of 4 isotropic antennas is placed along a straight line. Distance between the elements

is λ/2. The peak is to be obtained in the direction from the axis of the array. What should be the

phase difference between the adjacent elements? Compute the pattern and find BWFN & HPBW.

17. Starting from the concepts of magnetic vector and electric scalar potentials derive the

expressions for field components of short dipole.

18. Derive the expression for radiation resistance of Hertzian dipole.

19. Derive the expression for electric & magnetic fields of linear antenna.

20. Find the radiation resistance of Hertzian dipole whose wavelength is λ/8.

21. A thin dipole is λ/15 long. If its loss resistance is 1.5 Ω, find its efficiency.

22. A short dipole antenna was observed to have Rr=2Ω at 1MHz. Calculate its length.

23. Calculate the efficiency of an antenna operated at 500 KHz and having a resistance 12 Ω and

effective height=30m.

24. Derive electric and magnetic fields of a loop antenna.

25. Derive an expression for radiation resistance of a loop antenna.

26. a)Obtain the Maxima, Minima and half power directions of radiated field of 2 identical isotropic

point sources spaced ‘d’ apart and i) Fed with current of equal magnitude and same phase ii) fed

with current of equal magnitude and opposite phase.

27. b) Find the direction of pattern maxima, pattern minima for an array of n sources with equal

amplitude and spacing in broadside case. ii) Explain array of non uniform excitation with neat

diagrams.

28. a)i)Explain the principle of pattern multiplication with neat diagrams. ii) Design a 4 element,

broadside array of isotropic elements spaced λ/2 apart that has an array factor with all the side

lobes 25 dB below the main lobe

29. Derive the field quantities and radiation resistance of a half wavelength dipole. (NOV. / DEC.

2011),

30. An antenna array consists of two identical isotropic radiators spaced by a distance of d=λ/4

meters and fed with currents of equal magnitude but with a phase difference β. Evaluate the

resultant radiation for β=0o and thereby identify the direction of maximum radiation. ( NOV. / DEC.

2011), (APRIL / MAY 2011)

31. A short dipole antenna of length L is positioned at the origin and is aligned along the Z-axis. It

carries a current, varying sinusoidal with time and its amplitude. Calculate the total field at distant

point P and its impedance. (MAY / JUNE 2012)

32. Derive the expression for field pattern of end-fire array of n sources of equal amplitude and

spacing

(MAY / JUNE 2012)

UNIT V

RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION

1. Write short notes on:

i. Surface wave tilting.

ii. Space wave propagation.

iii. Ionosphere propagation.

iv. Structure of ionosphere.

v. Sky wave propagation.

vi. Duct propagation.

2. Obtain an expression for space wave field component taking into account a direct wave field

component and a reflected wave from the earth surface.

3. Derive an expression for refractive index of ionosphere.

4. Explain the following and derive the relevant expressions:

i. Critical frequency.

ii. Maximum usable frequency.

iii. Virtual height.

iv. Skip distance.

5. Briefly explain characteristics of different ionized layers in ionospheric propagation.

6. Calculate the critical frequency for a medium at which the wave reflects if the maximum electron

density is 1.24 X 10 6 electrons/cm3.

7. Which propagation will aid the following frequencies and why. (a) 120KHz. (b) 10MHz. (c) 300

MHz. (d) 30GHz.

8. Estimate the surface wave tilt in degrees over an earth of 12mm conductivity and relative

permittivity 20 at a wave length of 300m.

9. A transmitter radiates 100Wof power at a frequency of 50MHz, so that space wave propagation

takes place. The transmitting antenna has a gain of 5 and its height is 50m. The receiving antenna

height is 2m. It is estimated that field strength of 100 V/m is required to give a satisfactory result.

Calculate the distance between transmitter and receiver.

10. Explain the electrical properties of Ionosphere.

11. Explain the effect of earth’s magnetic field.

12. Explain Faraday rotation and whistlers. Also explain wave propagation in complex environment.

13. Explain the mechanism of ionosphere propagation. (APRIL / MAY 2011)

14. How does the earth affect ground wave propagation? (APRIL / MAY 2011)

15. Explain the terms

i). Optimum working frequency.

ii). Duct propagation.

iii). Virtual height

iv). Skip distance

16. Discuss the effects of Earth’s magnetic field on ionosphere radio wave propagation(APRIL /

MAY 2011)

17. Explain the important features of ground wave propagation. ( NOV. / DEC. 2011).

18. Describe the structure of the atmosphere and specify the factors affecting the radio wave

propagation. (MAY / JUNE 2012)

19.Explain in detail about effect of earth’s magnetic field on radio wave propagation.

Attached in hard copy.

1. Antennas and wave propagation – J. D. Kraus and R. J. Marhefka and Ahmad S.Khan,

2. Antennas and Wave Propagation – K.D. Prasad, Satya Prakashan, Tech India

1. Antenna Theory - C.A. Balanis, John Wiley & Sons, 3rd Ed., 2005..

2. Transmission and Propagation – E.V.D. Glazier and H.R.L. Lamont, The Services Text

3. Electronic and Radio Engineering – F.E. Terman, McGraw-Hill, 4th edition, 1955.

1988.

http://www.tcpipguide.com/free/index.htm

- Microwave antennaUploaded byVianca CamilLe Incognito-Castillo Panganiban
- Lecture 01Uploaded byMohaira Ahmad
- Professional Broadcast AntennasUploaded bypuljke
- Microwave ProjectUploaded byShouryPriyanshu
- Design Your Own 5_8 Wave Vertical AntennaUploaded byhardman3107
- Antennas TutorialUploaded byS Senthil Rajan
- VHF Band III TV AntennasUploaded byJairo Martinez
- 2 Transistors TransmitterUploaded bytying2005
- SlcUploaded byjeffounet35
- 7th Sem Consolidated Course InfoUploaded bysharukhsshaikh
- Article Pa0rdt Mini Whip EnglishUploaded bypweiss
- Kathrein 742 237Uploaded byghee148
- Antennas - IntroductionUploaded bybrar0798
- Anetenna and Propagation Unit 5 Slot AntennaUploaded byashutosh
- Micrwave QuestionsUploaded byreddygj
- The Adcock HF RDF AntennaUploaded byElgen Escolta Equipado
- Antenna Principle and Model selection-47.pdfUploaded byWdfty Uytyu
- Fundamentals of RadiationUploaded byrameshdurairaj
- MW Network Design HU Lec.4Uploaded byMustafa Kamal
- Door Darsan DocUploaded bysrinath_piriya
- AntennasUploaded bycadeyare2
- Lecture IIIUploaded byEmilio Escalante
- Wireless CharacteristicsUploaded byZe Lostinhereyes
- IJSROFF2013178 Performance Characteristics of Rect Patch AntennaUploaded byRavikumaar Rayala
- AntennasUploaded byAnonymous P2ZN8X
- 262_1_Midterm2013Uploaded bySrinivas Prasad
- Presentation 3. Antenna ParametersUploaded byAmit Singh
- DoubleUploaded bybeefong7680
- MOBI MB3BHQMF-65-1718DE-INUploaded byDmitry059
- Antenna SynthesisUploaded byJossy Vega

- edsc 442c ngss dup goals objectives and assessmentsUploaded byapi-437045542
- PhysicsUploaded byRoua
- 04.14102507Uploaded bySandip Maity
- Antenna MeasurementsUploaded byMujeeb Abdullah
- NEW COMPACT DESIGN OF RECTANGULAR SLOTTED HEXAGONAL MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNAUploaded byAnonymous vQrJlEN
- IES LM-80-08Uploaded byelobrador
- Microphtonics PptUploaded byimdass
- Andor Learning CCD Spatial ResolutionUploaded byImash Shanelka
- Beyond Dinitrophenol Interaction With Tryptophan-Based CompoundsUploaded byZaharia Marius
- D10936~Uploaded byechamonge
- Berkeley Electromagnetics BooksUploaded byalenagroup
- Colour AssessmentUploaded byZeeshan Ellahi
- Achnafian R.Z. Essay 2 - Living Near High Voltage Power LinesUploaded byAchnafian Rafif Zufaryansyah
- X-ray_Diffraction_Analysis_Principle_Ins.pptUploaded byPrem Kumar
- 936487Uploaded byPrashant Sharma
- Record 180 km Hybrid Diversity IP Microwave LinkUploaded byAviat Networks
- 12th Std. Vanavil - 6 in 1 Physics all rays-watermark.pdfUploaded byAbdul Basith
- Biomedical Imaging TechniquesUploaded byShibli Shadik
- 460 Bai Tap Dien HoaUploaded byvanhiepk52a
- As : Jual Automatic Level NIKON NIKON AC-2S - 087809762415Uploaded byasepsurvey
- Difracción y polarización de microondasUploaded byLuis Pujay Mateo
- STM SFP Interface DetailsUploaded bygautamckumar
- How to Street Lights BusinessUploaded bySandeep Nishikant Gupte
- Rr412310 Spectroscopic Analysis of BiomoleculesUploaded bySrinivasa Rao G
- Link Budgets C165Uploaded byMuhammad Akhtar Shah
- Characterisitcs of LightUploaded byEngr Wahab Marwat
- Synthetic Schlieren MethodUploaded byAbinashSahoo
- Spectrometry IntroductionUploaded byJonalyn Cataga
- ofcV unitUploaded byvinod3457
- Basic Principles of Flat PanelUploaded byShaheel Hawseea