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Umesh Prasad Ojha
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Solid waste as defined is inclusive,

encompassing, the heterogeneous mass
of urban community as well as
homogeneous accumulation of
agricultural, industrial wasted &
household waste.

For landfill design waste characteristics

and its physical properties important.
As it is clear that waste is a
consequence of life, advancement of
technology, evolution of solid waste

Waste cannot be treated by single

parameter. It should be managed with
difficult multiple activities that is
Integrated Solid Waste Management.

1.1 Municipal Waste :

Municipal Waste also called Municipal
refuse comprises food waste rubbish,
ashes and residues, demolition and
construction, special waste that is
street sweeping, roadside litter, catch
basin debris & dead animals and
treatment plant waste i.e., semi -semi
solid waste from water and industrial
waste treatments.

1.2 Industrial Waste :

Industrial waste are typically from

industries, that include rubbish, ashes
demolition construction, special and
hazardous waste.

1.3 Hazardous Waste :

Waste that poses a substantial danger

immediately over a period of time to
human plant or animal life is defined as
Hazardous Waste. Hazardous waste are
generated in limited amount throughout
the most industrial activities.

They are non-degradable and persistent

in nature, they can be lethal.

They have following safety related

properties :
 Corrosively
 Exploisivity
 Flammarion
 Ignitability
 Reactivity

Health related properties :

 Infectivity
 Irritant (Allergic response)
 Toxicity
 Radio activity


General sources of Municipal waste

Activities or Location Type of solid

that waste generate waste
Residential Single & multiple Food waste,
family rubbish,
ashes, special
Commercial Restaurant, Office Food waste,
building, Hotel, rubbish,
Institution ashes, special

Open aveus Street, alley, park, special waste,
vacant, plot, highway rubbish
Treatment water, waste order & Treatment,
sites industrial treatment plant waste
compressed of
Physical Properties Of Waste :

Moisture Content

The moisture content of solid waste is

expressed as mass of moisture per unit
mass of wet or dry material.

In equation form, wet-mass moisture

content is expressed
Moisture content(%) = 100

a = initial mass of sample as delivered.

b = mass of sample after drying

Estimate moisture content of solid waste


Component Percent by mass

Food Waste 15
Paper 45

Cardboard 10

Plastic 10

Garden 10

Wood 5

Tin Cans 5

Setting Computation Table

Component Percent Moisture Dry

by mass content mass
% (kg)
Food Waste 15 70 4.5
Paper 45 6 42.3
Cardboard 10 5 9.5
Plastics 10 2 9.8
Garden 10 60 4.0
Wood 5 20 4.0
Can(Tin) 5 3 4.9
Total 79.0

Based on 100kg of Sample Waste

Moisture content using equation

= 100 = 21.0%


Determine density

Component Percent Typical Vol

by mass density m3
Food 15 290 0.52
Paper 45 85 5.29
Cardboard 10 50 2.00
Plastics 10 65 1.54
Garden 10 105 0.95
Wood 5 240 0.21
Tin Can 5 90 0.56
Total 11.07

Based on 1000kg of sample

1000 𝑘𝑔
Density = = 90.33kg/m3
11.07 𝑚3

Compressibility and settlement

General :

There are several principle of

settlement that can be applied for solid

Unit weight γ, of a deposit usually

increases with depth.

Overburden pressure σ at a given depth z is

σ0 = ∫0 𝑦. 𝑑𝑧

If there is 0 more than one layer

overburden pressure is

γ0 = ∑ yn zn

Where n is the number of layers.

If groundwater is present,

pore water pressure or neutral pressure

𝑢0 i s

𝑢0 = 𝛾𝑤 ℎ𝑤

𝛾𝑤 i s u n i t w e i g h t o f w a t e r .

Total stress minus pore pressure is
called effective stress

σ′ = σ - u
Pore pressure may also develop when
an external load is applied to a soil or
refuse mass.

Settlement Components :

Total settlement is assumed three


𝑆𝑡 = 𝑆𝑖 + 𝑆𝑐 + 𝑆𝑠

𝑆𝑖 = i n i t i a l s e t t l e m e n t

𝑆𝑐 = settlement clue to primary


𝑆𝑠 = settlement due to secondary


𝑆𝑠 = T o t a l s e t t l e m e n t

Student may refer any standard soil

mechanics book for reference.

1.7 Settlement based on mv & D

For small load increment

S c = m v . H .   ′

𝐻. ′
S c = ∑ 𝐷

Where, H is thickness of compressible layer.

Example :

The thickness of a waste pile is 10m &

its unit weight is 14 kN/m3. A 4m thick
fill with average unit weight of
15kN/m 3 is placed over the entire area.

Compute the consolidation settlement

due to fill.
Modulus of waste of soil

Stress level (KPa) 50-100 100-150

Secant constrained modulus D(Mpa) 2.5 30

Solution :
10 𝑋 30
S = = 0.12m
2.5 𝑋 103
Fill height = = 2m.

Effective stress at mid height after

placement of 2-m fill :

γ'c = 70+30 = 100 kpa

Additional stress from the remaining
2m fill.

∆σ = 2x15 = 30 kpa

Additional settlement
10 𝑋 30
S = = 0.01m
30 𝑋 1000

Total settlement is 0.12+0.01 = 0.13m

Settlement Of Municipal Landfill

Settlement of landfill is due to the


1. Reduction in void space and

of loose material.
2. Movement of smaller particles into
3. Volume changes from biological
decomposition and chemical
4. Dissolution from percolating water
and teachate.
5. Settlement of soft compression soil
underlying the landfill.

Landfill primary compression :

Landfill settlement from self-weight

Landfill settlement under self weight

will occur during construction of a

For a landfill of unit weight γ and

height H, stress increment ∆σ is the
average vertical effective stress at mid -
height or .

With increasing age and height a

landfill rate of settlement from self
weight decreases.

Since the refuse is not always

saturated, each part of settlement is
denoted as primary compression, not
consolidation : consolidation implies
full saturation and dissipation of excess
pore pressure.

Sowers (1973) stated that this

settlement occurs less than a month.

Landfill secondary compression :

Settlement of landfill continues after

the primary compression. Long term
settlement occurs to be a linear log -

time scale and can be deter mined by
secondary compression.
𝑆𝑠 = 𝐶 ′ α H l o g 𝑡𝑝

Where t is the time at which settlement

due to secondary compression is
required ( t > 𝑡𝑝 ) a n d 𝑡𝑝 i s t i m e for
completion of primary consolidation.

Average value of C'α is 0.2 its upper &

lower limit is 0.32 and 0.13

If the condition of biological

decomposition and chemical reaction are
favorable, rate of secondary compression
will be high.

To estimate settlement contribution of

landfill from biodegradation, stulgiset
al (1995) determined the total volatile
solid (TVS) as a percentage of dry
weight of total solids for a landfill and
the amount of lignin in TVS.

The proportion of biodegradable matter

was obtained by subtracting the relative
amount of lignin that is non-
biodegradable from the TVS.

In general,

𝑆𝑑−𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ℎ1 𝐶11
Where 𝑆𝑑−𝑚𝑎𝑥 is upper bound on
decomposition settlement from time t1
t o t h e e n d o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n , ℎ1 i s t h e
t h i c k n e s s o f r e f u s e a t t i m e 𝑡1 a n d 𝐶11 i s
the fraction by dry weights of (TVS -
lignin) at time t1.

If decay relationship for gas is the same

as for the decay of bio -degradable
material then

C 1 2 /C 1 1 = 𝑒 −𝜉(𝑡2−𝑡1)

Where, 𝝽 is the decay constant


𝑆𝑑𝑡 = 𝑆𝑑−𝑚𝑎𝑥 ( 1 - e - 𝝽 )
W h e r e 𝑆𝑑𝑡 i s d e c o m p o s i t i o n s e t t l e m e n t
at time t after the date and refuse is

Example :
A landfill 50 ft thick was found to
contain 19% by dry weight TVS and 14%
lignin. Assuming a 10% cover by
volume and decay constant of 0.06 yr -1

Determine the decomposition settlement

after 10 years.

Solution :

𝑆𝑑−𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ( 1 - 0 . 1 ) ( 5 0 ) ( 0 . 0 5 )
= 2.25 feet

𝑆𝑑−10 𝑦𝑟𝑠 = 2.25 (1-exp- 0.06x10) = 1.015 feet

Example :

A residential area consisting of 1500

houses has average of four resident per
house. For estimating of quantity of
solid waste generated, following
observation were made at disposal site
for a period of one week.

Type No. Volume(m3) Specific

of of weight
vehicle Trips (kg/m3)
I 10 15 300
II 8 2 150
III 25 0.5 100

Determine unit rate of solid generation

using the number of trips volume and
specific weight total weight of solid
waste generated during one week may
be calculated as :

Type Numb Specif Total

of er of Volu ic wt weig
vehicl Trips me m3 kg/m3 ht
e (kg)
I 10 15 300 45000
II 8 2 150 2400
III 25 0.50 100 1250
Total kg/week 46,50

Unit generation rate

Total quantity of waste
No of houses X Resident per house X days
= =
1500 X 4 X 7

Specific weight of various component

of MSW

Waste Specific Weight

Component Range tons/ m3 Typical tons/ m3

Food waste 0.2-0.4 0.29
Paper 0.05-0.1 0.09
Cardboard 0.04-0.06 0.05
Plastic 0.05-0.07 0.06
Textile 0.05-0.07 0.06
Rubber 0.1-0.15 0.13
Leather 0.1-0.2 0.16
Yard waste 0.05-0.15 0.10
Wood 0.15-0.3 0.23
Glass 0.1-0.2 0.15
Tin Cans 0.1-0.2 0.15
Silt/ Ash /Dirt 0.6-1.5 1.20

Moisture content of various component

of MSW

Waste Moisture Content

Component Range % Typical %
Food Waste 50-80 60
Paper & Cardboard 4-10 6
Plastic 1-4 2
Textile 5-15 10
Rubber 1-4 2
Leather 5-10 8
Yard Waste 30-80 60
Glass 1-3 2
Metals 1-3 2
Silt/Ash/Dirt 10-30 15

Typical Chemical Composition Of

Percentage by weight
Constituent Range Typical

Carbon 50-60 50

Hydrogen 6-8 6.5

Oxygen 30-40 32

Nitrogen 2-4 2.5

Sulfur 0.3-0.4 0.3

Ash 5-10 5

Estimate the moisture content, density

and energy content of a solid waste
sample has the following component
use suitable data.

Component Percent by mass

Food waste 14

Paper 40

Cardboard 9

Plastic 9

Yard waste 12

Wood 5

Tin Cans 6

Solution :

i)Moisture Content
Using typical data on moisture content
of municipal solid waste dry mass
corresponding to 100 kg of sample may
be calculated.

Component Percent Moisture Dry

by Content mass(kg)
mass %
Food waste 14 70 4.2
Paper 40 6 37.6
Cardboard 9 5 8.55
Plastic 9 2 8.92
Yard waste 12 60 4.80
Wood 5 20 4.0
Tin cans 6 3 5.82
Total 73.89
Moisture Content = 100 =

ii) Density

Using the typical data of MSW, the
volume corresponding to 1000kg of
sample may be calculated as

Component Percent Typical Volume

by mass density kg/m 3 (m3)
Food waste 14 290 0.483
Paper 40 85 4.706
Cardboard 9 50 1.8
Plastics 9 65 1.385
Component Percent Typical Volume
by mass density kg/m 3 (m3)
Yard waste 2 105 1.143
Wood 5 240 0.208
Tin can 6 90 0.667
Total 10.392
Density = 100 =

iii) Energy Content

Using the typical data on energy

content of MSW, total energy
corresponding to 100kg of sample may
be calculated as below

Percent Energy Total

Component by content Energy
mass kJ/kg kg

Food waste 14 4,650 65100
Paper 40 16,750 6,70,000
Cardboard 9 16,300 1,46,700
Plastics 9 32,600 2,93,400
Yard waste 12 6,500 78,000
Wood 5 18,600 93,000
Tin can 6 700 4,200
Total 13,50,400

Unit Energy content (as – dis carded)

Energy Content = ( ) = 13504

Unit Energy content (on dry basis)

= 13504 ( ) = 18,276 kJ/k

Assume ash content as 4%

Unit Energy Content (On ash free dry

= 13504 ( 100−4−26.11) = 1 9 3 2 2 k J / k g

Example :

Derive an approximate molecular

formula for the organic portion of a
solid waste sample with the following

Component Percent by mass
Food waste 15
Paper 45
Cardboard 5
Plastics 5
Yard Waste 10
Wood 5

Using the chemical composition

obtained determine the energy content
of this solid waste.

Solution :

Using the typical data of moisture

content and ultimate analysis of
combustible components, chemical.

Mass (kg)
Component Moist Dry L H O N S Ash
Mass(kg) Mass
Food waste 15 4.5 2.16 0.288 1.692 0.117 0.018 0.225
Paper 45 42.3 18.4 2.538 18.612 0.127 0.084 2.538
Cardboard 5 4.75 2.090 0.280 2.118 0.014 0.009 0.237
Plastics 5 4.90 2.94 0.352 1.117 - - 0.490
Yard waste 10 4.0 1.912 0.24 1.52 0.136 0.012 0.180
Wood 5 4.0 1.98 0.24 1.708 0.008 0.004 0.060
Total - 85 64.45 29.482 3.938 26.767 0.402 0.127 3.73

Moisture Content = 85-64.45 = 20.55 kg

From moisture content, hydrogen & oxygen fraction is estimated
Hydrogen = (20.55) = 2.283 kg
Oxygen = (20.55) = 18.266 kg

Component Mass(kg) Percent by
Carbon 29.482 34.684
Hydrogen 3.938+2.283=6.221 7.318
Oxygen 26.767+18.266=45.033 52.98
Nitrogen 0.402 0.472
Sulfur 0.127 0.149
Ash 3.73 4.388

Above mass composition of chemical mass be

converted to the molar composition as

Component Mass kg/mole Moles Mole

(kg) ratios(S=1)
Carbon 29.482 12.01 2.455 619.66
Hydrogen 6.221 1.01 6.159 1554.88
Oxygen 45.033 16.00 2.815 710.495
Nitrogen 0.402 14.01 0.029 7.219
Sulfur 0.127 32.06 0.004 1

Therefore, Approximate molecular formula for

organic proportion of solid waste may be
written as C620 H1555 O710 N75
The energy content is obtained from modified
by long formula as follows

Energy Content= 3 3 7 C + 1 4 2 0 ( H −O
8) + 93 S +
23N kJ/kg

= 337(34.684) + 1420 (7.318 - ) + 93 (0.149)
+ 23 (0.472)

= 12700.83 kJ/kg

Above formula is with sulfur, some may be

converted without sulfur as :

Component Moles Mole ratio(N=1)

Carbon 2.455 85.82
Hydrogen 6.159 215.36
Oxygen 2.815 98.40
Nitrogen 0.029 1.00
Sulfur 0.004 = 0

Approximate chemical formula of waste without

sulfur is derived as

C86 H215 O98 N

Engineering System For Solid Waste Management

FunctionalElement :

Activities involved with the management of

solid waste from point of generation to final
disposal are :

1) Waste generation

2) On-site handling storage, processing

3) Collection

4) Transfer and Transport

5) Processing and Recovery

6) Disposal




Transfer Processing
and and
Transport Recover


Inter relationship of functional element

Considering different functional element it is

possible to identify the fundamental aspect and

relationship in each element and to develop
where possible.


The quantity and generation is important

unfortunately reliable data are unavailable
municipality are using rough data to estimate
quantities of waste although estimation has
limitation some are given below.

Load Count Analysis :

In this method quantity and composition of

solid waste are determined by recording
estimated volume and general compositi on of
each waste delivered to landfill or transfer
station during specified period of time. Total
mass and mass distribution by composition is
determined using average density data.

Mass Volume analysis :

This is similar to above method with added

feature that the mass of each load is recorded.
Unless density of each waste category is
determined separately, mass distribution
composition must be derived using average
density value.

Factor Affecting Generation o f Waste

Factor that influence municipal waste

1) Geographical Location

2) Season of the year

3) Collection frequency

4) Use of kitchen waste grinders

5) Characteristics of Populace

6) Extent of Salvaging and Recycling

7) Public attitude

8) Legislation

On-site Handling, storage and processing

The handling, storage & processing of solid

waste at source before they are collected is the
second of six functional element in solid waste
management system.


On-site handling refers to the activities

associated with the handling of solid waste
until they are placed in containers used for
their storage before collection. Depending on
the type of collection service handling may also
be required to move loaded con tainers to

collection point and to return empty containers
to the point where they are stored between


Domestic waste accumulated at several location

in and around low and medium rise residential
dwellings are placed in l arger storage
containers to await removal by waste -collection
agency. Where curb collection is used the
resident is also responsible for placing the
loaded larger storage container(s) at the curb
and for returning the empty container(s) to
their storage location next to or in the


In most office, industrial building and

commercial waste accumulate in office or work
location usually are collected in relatively large
containers mounted on rollers. Once filled these
containers are removed by means of service
elevator. If there is one an emptied into (1)
large storage containers (2) compactors used in
conjunction with storage containers (3)
stationary compactors that can compress the
material into bales or into specially designed

containers (4) or other processing equipment
such as incinerators.


Factor Considered in on site storage

1) Type of container to be used

2) Container location

3) Public Health and aesthetics

4) Collection method to be used

Containers :

Type and capacities of container depend upon

1) Characteristics of solid waste collected

2) Collection frequency

3) Space available for placement of containers

Container Location :

In residential areas, container for solid waste

usually are placed by side or hear the house. In
older areas containers are placed in alleys. In
high rise apartment storage container are
located in basement or ground floor areas.

The location of containers at existing

commercial and industrial facilities depends on
both the location of available and service access
conditions. Containers are not owned by
commercial or Industrial activity location and
type of containers to be used for on-site storage
must be worked out jointly between Industry
and public or private collection agency.


On-site processing method are used to recover

usable material for solid waste to reduce
volume or alter the physical form most common
on-site processing operation include manual
sorting, compaction and incineration.


Collection of solid waste dep ends on various

following functional element :

1) Types of collection services

2) Types of collection system

3) Analysis of collection system

4) General methodology involving in setting

up collection routes.


Various type of collection services are as

follows :

1) Municipal Collection Services

Although there are various services most

common are curb, alley & backyard collection
curb collection is popular due to less cost. In
future use of large containers which can be
emptied mechanically with an articulated
container pick up mechanism will be most
common method for collection of municipal

Commercial-Industrial Collection Services:

Collection services provided at residential

commercial & Industrial typically is centered
around the use of large movable & stationary

Compactors are of the type that can be used to

compress material directly into large container
or to form bales that are then placed in large

Types Of Collection System

Based on mode of operation collection system

are classified into two categories:

1) Hauled container system

2) Stationary Container System

Hauled-Container System (HCS)

Collection system in which the containers used

for the storage of waste are hauled to
processing, transfer, or disposal site emptied,
and returned to either their original location or
other location as defined hauled container

There are two main types of containers

1) Tilt-frame container

2) Trash Trailer

System that use Tilt-frame loaded vehicle and

large containers, often called drop boxes are
ideally suited for collection of all type of solid
waste and rubbish from location. Open top
containers are used routinely at warehouse &
construction site. Large containers used with
stationary compactors are common at
commercial and industrial services and at
transfer station.

Because of large volume that can be hauled use

of tilt frame hauled container system has
become popular, especially among private
collectors servicing industrial accounts.

Application of trash trailer is similar to that of
tilt-frame container system. Trash-trailer are
better for collection of especially heavy
rubbish, such as sand timber and metal scrap
and often used for collection of demolition
waste at construction site.


Collection system in which containers used for

storage of waste remain at the point of waste
generation except when moved for collection
are defined stationary-container system. Labor
requirement for mechanically loaded
stationary-container system are essentially the
same for hauled-system.

There are two main types of container system:

1) Those in self loading compactor are used.

2) Those in manually loaded vehicle are used.

Application of manual transfer and loading

method is in the collection of residential waste
and litter. Manual method are used for
collection of industrial waste where pick up
points are in accessible to the collection


By separating the collection activities into unit

operation it is possible to develop design data
and relationship that can be used to establish
vehicle and labor requirement for various
collection system.

Hauled-container system :

Time required per trip, which also correspond

to the time required per container is equal to
the sum of pick-up, at-site and haul times and
given by following equation.

Thcs = (Phcs+S+a+bx)


Thcs = time per trip for hauled -container

system, h/trip

Phcs = pick up time per trip for hauled

container system, h/trip

s = at site time per trip, h/trip

a = empirical haul constant, h/trip

b = empirical haul constant, h/km

x = round-trip haul distance, km/trip

Pick up time per trip Phcs is equal to

Phcs = Pc+uc+dbc—(A)

Phcs = Pick up time per trip, h/trip

Pc = time required to pick up loaded container,


uc = time required to unload empty container,


dbc = average time spent driving between

container locations, h/trip(determined locally)

Definition of terms for the activities

Term Definition
Pickup(P) Hauled- Time spent picking up
container system, Phcs the loaded it contents
have been emptied
Stationary container Time spent spent loading
system Pscs the prior to loading the
contents of last container
Haul(h) Haul-container Time required to reach
system hscs location where the empty
disposal site is not
Stationary-container Time required to reach
system, hscs have been emptied or the
collection disposal site
until the truck on the
next collection route.
At site(s) Time spent at disposal
site, the time spent

Term Definition
oH-route(w) All time spent on
activities that are
operation. Necessary off-
route time included
day,2) Time lost due to
unavoidable congestion
and 3)

Unnecessary off-route time includes time spent

for launch on taking unauthorized coffee break

Involved in the collection of solid waste

Container, time required to redeposit the

container after and the time spent driving to
the next container.

Collection vehicle, beginning the stopping of

the vehicle content of the firs t container and
ending when the to be emptied have been

Disposal site till the truck arrives at the

container is to be redeposited. Time spent at
the disposal site after the last container on the
route has which is filled, plus the time after
leaving the arrives at the location of the first
container to be emptied time spent at disposal
site is not included. Including the time spent

waiting to unload as well as on productive from
the point of view of the overall collection.

Time spent checking in and out in morning and

end of the time spent on equipment repair and

In the excess of stated launch period and time

spent on to friends etc.

Typical values for haul constant coefficient a&b

Speed limit a b
h/trip h/km (h/mile)

88 (55) 0.016 0.011 (0.018)

72 (45) 0.022 0.014 (0.022)

56 (35) 0.034 0.018 (0.040)

40 (25) 0.050 0.025 (0.040)

The number of trip that can be made per vehicle

per day with a hauled-container system,
including a factor to account for off-routes
activities is determined.

𝑁𝑑 = [ ( 1 - W ) H - ( t 1 + t 2 ) ] / ( 𝑃ℎ𝑐𝑠 + s + a + 𝑏𝑥 )

𝑁𝑑 = N o . o f t r i p / d a y

W = off-route factor expressed as a fraction

H = length of work day h/d

t1= time from garage to first container

location h

t2= time from last container l ocation to garage


In deriving above equation it is assumed that

off-route activities can occur at any time.

Data that can be used in solution of equation

and for various type of hauled container system
are given in table. The off – route factor in
equation above varies 0.10 to 0.25, a factor 0.15
is representative for most operation.

Typical data for computing equipment and

labor requirements for hauled-and-stationary-

Collection system

Compaction Pick up Empty At

ratio loaded content site
Vehicle Loadig containe of times
method r and loaded h/trip
deposit containe
empty r
containe h/contai
r n/trip ner
* +

Hauled-container system

Tilt Mechan 2.0-4.0 +0.4 0.127

frame ical
Tilt Manual 2.0-4.0 +0.4 0.133

Stationary-container system

Compac Mechan 2.0-4.0 0.10

tor ical 0.050
Compac Manual 2.0-4.0 0.10

*Pc+uc in above equation A


Example :

Analyzing a hauled-container collection system

solid waste from Biratnagar is to be collected in
large containers (drop boxes) some of which
will be used in conjunction with stationary
compactors. Based on traffic studies at similar
places it is estimated that average time to drive
from the garage to the first container ( t1) and
average time required to drive between
containers is 6 min and one way distance to
disposal site is 25km (speed limit) 88km/h.
Determine number of containers that can be
emptied per day based on an 8-h work day.

Solution :

1) Determine pick up time per trip

𝑃ℎ𝑐𝑠 = 𝑃𝑐 + 𝑈𝑐 + 𝑑𝑏𝑐

𝑃𝑐 + 𝑈𝑐 = 0 . 4 h / t r i p

𝑑𝑏𝑐 = 0 . 1 h / t r i p ( g i v e n )
𝑃ℎ𝑐𝑠 = ( 0 . 4 + 0 . 1 ) h / t r i p = 0 . 5 h / t r i p

2) Determine the time per trip using

𝑇ℎ𝑐𝑠 = ( P h c s + S + a + b x )
𝑃ℎ𝑐𝑠 = 0 . 5 h / t r i p

s = 0.133
a = 0.016
b = 0.011
𝑇ℎ𝑐𝑠 = [ 0 . 5 + 0 . 1 3 3 + 0 . 0 1 6 + 0 . 0 1 1 ( 5 0 ) ] h / t r i p
𝑇ℎ𝑐𝑠 = 1 . 2 0 h / t r i p

3) Determine number of trips that can be

made per day
𝑁𝑑 = [ ( 1 - W ) H - ( t 1 + t 2 ) ] / ( 𝑃ℎ𝑐𝑠 + s + a + 𝑏𝑥 )

W = 0.15 assumed

H = 8

t1 = 0.25h (given)
t2 = 0.33h (given)
𝑁𝑑 = [ ( 1 - 0 . 1 5 ) 8 - ( 0 . 2 5 + 0 . 3 3 ) ] / 1 . 2 h / t r i p
= (6.8-0.58)/1.20 = 5.18 trip/d

𝑁𝑑 a c t u a l = 5 t r i p s / d

4) Determine actual length of workday

5 trip = (1-0.15) H – 0.58/1.2

H = [(5x1.2)+0.58]/0.85

= 7.74h essenti ally 8h

Comment :

If it is assumed that no off-route activities

occur during times t1 and t2 then theoretically
5.26 trips/day could be made. Again only 5
trips/d would be made in an actual operation. If
however number of trips per day that could be
made were 5.8 for example it may be cost -
effective to pay the driver for overtime and
make 6 trips/d.

Stationary-container system :

For system using mechanically self -loading

compactors, time per trips

𝑇𝑠𝑐𝑠 = ( 𝑃𝑠𝑐𝑠 + s + a + 𝑏𝑥 )
𝑇𝑠𝑐𝑠 = T i m e p e r t r i p f o r s t a t i o n a r y - c o n t a i n e r

𝑃𝑠𝑐𝑠 = P i c k u p t i m e p e r t r i p f o r s t a t i o n a r y
container system

Pick up time for stationary container system

𝑃𝑠𝑐𝑠 = 𝐶 + 𝑢𝑐 + ( 𝑛𝑝 - 1 ) ( 𝑑𝑏𝑐 )

𝑃𝑠𝑐𝑠 = P i c k u p t i m e p e r t r i p f o r s t a t i o n a r y
container system h/trip

𝐶𝑡 = n u m b e r o f c o n t a i n e r e m p t i e d p e r t r i p ,
container/ trip

𝑢𝑐 = a v e r a g e u n l o a d i n g t i m e p e r c o n t a i n e r f o r
stationary-container system, h/container.

𝑛𝑝 = n u m b e r o f c o n t a i n e r p i c k u p l o c a t i o n p e r
location per trip

𝑑𝑏𝑐 = a v e r a g e t i m e s p e n t d r i v i n g b e t w e e n
container locations, h/location (determined

The term 𝑛𝑝 - 1 a c c o u n t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e
number of times the collec tion vehicle will have
to be drven between container locations is
equal to the number of containers less.

The number of containers that can be emptied

per collection trip is related directly to the
volume of collection vehicle and compaction
ratio that can be achieved.

This number is given by :

C t = 𝑉𝒓/ 𝐶𝑓

Ct = number of container emptied per trip

container per trip

V = Volume of collection vehicle m 3/trip

r = compaction ratio

c = container volume m 3/container

f = weighted container utilization factor

Number of trip required per day is given by

𝑁𝑑 = v d / v r


𝑁𝑑 = N u m b e r o f c o l l e c t i o n t r i p r e q u i r e d p e r
day, trips/d

Vd = daily waste generation rate m3/d where

an integer number of trips are to be made each

day, the proper combination of trips per day
and size of vehicle can be determined using
following equation

H = [(t1+t2) + Nd (Pscs+s+a+bx)]/ (1-W)

Example :

Analyzing a stationary-container collection

system Solid waste from a commercial area are
to be collected using a stationary-container
collection system having 4m3 containers.
Determine the appropriate truck capacity for
the following conditions.

a) Container size = 4m3

b) Container utilization factor = 0.75

c) Average number of containers at each

location = 2

d) Collection-vehicle compaction ratio = 2.5

e) Container unloading time = 0.1h/container

f) Average drive time between container

location = 0.1h

g) One way haul distance = 30km

h) Speed limit = 88km/h (55mi/h)

i) Time from garage to first container

location = 0.33h

j) Time from last container location to garage

= 0.25h

k) Nu m ber o f tr i p s to di s po s al si t e p er d a y = 2

l) Length of workday = 8h

Solution :

1. Using equation

H = ( ( t 1 + t 2 ) + 𝑁𝑑 ( T s c s ) ) / ( 1 - W )


Tscs = time per trip

Use H = 8h

t1 = 0.33 (given)

t2 = 0.25 (given)

𝑁𝑑 = 2 . 0 ( g i v e n )

W = 0.15 (assumed)

Tscs = [(1-0.15) 8-(0.33+0.25)]/2 = 3.1h

2. Determine pick up time per trip

Tscs = (Pscs+s+a+bx)


Tscs = 3.1hr

S = 0.1h/trip

a = 0.016

b = 0.011

x = 60 km

Pscs = Tscs – (s+a+bx)

= 3.1 – (0.1+0.016+0.011(60)) = 2.32h/trip

3. Determine number of Container can be

emptied per trip

P s c s = 𝑐𝑡 𝑢𝑐 + ( 𝑛𝑝 - 1 ) d b c


Pscs = 2.32h/trip

𝑢𝑐 = 0 . 1 h / c o n t a i n e r
𝑛𝑝 = c t / 2 ( 2 c o n t a i n e r / l o c a t i o n )
dbc = 0.1h

𝑐𝑡 0 . 1 + ( 0 . 5 𝑐𝑡 - 1 ) 0 . 1 = 2 . 3 2
0.15 ct = 2.42

ct = 16.13 Use 16

4. Using equation

Determine required capacity of collection truck

𝑐𝑡 = V r / 𝑐𝑓
U s e 𝑐𝑡 = 1 6

r = 2.5(given)

c = 4m3 (given)

f = 0.75 (given)
16 (4𝑚3 ) 0.74
v = = 19.2 m3

Use 20m3 or largest standard size.


Once the equipment and labor requirement is

determined, collection route must be laid out.
Layout process is an trial -error process. Some
of the factors that should be taken in

1) Existing company policies & regulation

related to such items as the point of
collection & frequency of collection must be

2) Waste generated at traffic congested


3) Sources at extremely waste generated


4) Scattered pick up point where small
quantities of solid waste are generated.


Layout of collection routes is four step process.

First prepare location map data should be
collected for pick-up point.

Location number of containers collection

frequency and if a stationary container system
with self-loading compactors is used, estimated
quantity of waste to be collected at each pick
up location second prepare a data summary
estimate quantity of waste to be collect ed at
each pick up location, from pick up location
each day the collection operation is to be

Where a stationary-container system is used

number of location that will be survi ved during
each pick up cycle must also be determined.

Third layout preliminary collection route,

starting from dispatch station or when the
collection vehicle are parked. A route should be
laid out that connects all the pick up location
to be serviced during each collection day. The
route should be laid out so that last location is
nearest to disposal site. Fourth develop
balanced route after preliminary route have

been laid out haul distance should be

Next, determine labor requirement per day and

check available work times per day.

It may be necessary to readjust collection route

to balance work load and distance travelled.
After the balanced route have been established
these should be drawn on master plan.

Example :

Layout collection route

Layout collection route for residential area as

shown in figure. Assume following data

1. General

a) Occupant per resident = 3.5

b) Solid waste generation rate =


c) Collection frequency

d) Types of Collection Service

e) Collection crew size = one person

f) Collection vehicle capacity = 20m 3

g) Compacted density of solid waste in

collection vehicle = 325kg/m3

2. Route Constraints

a) No U Turn in Street

b) Collection from each side of street wit stand-

up right hand-drive collection vehicle.

Solution :

1. Determine total number of residences from

which waste are to be collected.

Residences = 10(16)+4(36)+1(28) = 332

2. Determine compacted volume of waste to be
collected per week.

Vol/Wk = (332 residences x 3.5

person/residences x 1.6kg/person.d x

= 40m3/wk

Determine number of Trip/wk

40m3 /wk
Trip/wk = = 2
20m3 /trip

3. Determine average number of residence from

which waste are to be collected
Residence/Trip = = 166

4. Layout Collection route by trial and error


Comment :

It should be noted that there is no single

correct solution to this problem. It just work
some solution are better than others when they
are implemented. It is only with experience that
an initiative sense can be developed about
layout of collection routes.

Schedule :

A master schedule for each collection route

should be prepared for use by engineering

If the number of customer that a single truck

can service during day is known number of
collection vehicle needed for community can be
estimated by
N =


N = number of collection vehicle needed.

S = Total number of customer serviced.

F = Collection frequency no. of collection per


X = number of customers a single truck can

service per day

W = number of work days per week

Example :

Calculate number of collection vehicle a

community would need if it has a total of 5000
services (customers) that are to be collected
once per week.

A single truck can service 300 customers in a
single day and have time to take the full loads
to the landfill. The town wants to collect on
Monday, Tuesday, Thursday & Friday leavi ng
Wednesday for special project and maintenance.
SF 5000x1
N = = = 4.2 Trucks
XW 300x4
The community will need 5 trucks.

Example of collection route



Example 1



Example 2


Functional element of transfer and transport

refers to means, facilities and appurtenances
used to effect transfer of waste from relatively
small vehicle to larger vehicle and to transp ort
them over extended distances to either
processing centre on disposal sites.

Transfer & transport operation become necessity

when haul distance to available disposal site or
processing centre increases to the point direct
hauling is no longer economically feasible.

Important factors that must be consider of

transfer station include :

1. Type of transfer operation to be used

2. Capacity requirement

3. Equipment and accessory requirement

4. Environmental requirement

Depending upon discharge it includes

1. Direct discharge

2. Storage discharge

3. Combined direct and stor age discharge.

Direct Discharge

In direct discharge transfer station, waste from

collection vehicle usually emptied directly into
the vehicle to be used to transport them to a
place of final position. To accomplish this
transfer station usually are constructed at two-
level arrangement. The unloading dock or
platform from which waste from collection
vehicle are discharge into discharged trailers is
elevated or the transport trailor are located
depressed ramp. Direct-discharge transfer
stations employi ng stationary compactors are

Storage Discharge

In storage discharge transfer station, waste are

emptied into storage pit or into platform from
which they are unloaded into transport vehicles
by various type of auxiliary equipment.


Whenever possible transfer station should be


1) As near as possible as weighted centre of

individual solid waste production area to be

2) Within easy access of major arferial
highway route.

3) Minimum public & environmental objection.

4) Construction & operational will be



Solid waste is heterogeneous in nature and in

composition and varies with place and time.
Even sample obtained from same place of
sampling point on same day but at different
time may show different characteristics. Due to
this reason the method sample collected and the
number of sample collected is critical. In
planning of sample survey, stage is reached at
which some decision must be made about the
rice of sample. This decision is extremely
important as unduly large number of samples
result in waste of resources while less number
of samples diminish the accuracy and utility of

A method of determining number of samples by

statistical technique has been suggested by
Dennish E.Carruth and Albert J. Klee*

The data on physical analysis of solid waste is

presented in percentage. Since the percentage
of one constituent differs greatly from others
the data follows a multinational distribution.
So the data is subjected to a normalizing
transformation by using arc sin function.

Y = 2 a r c s i n √𝐗

Where X is the original percentage value of a

component expressed as a decimal.

Y is transformation value of X

To determine the number of samples required

for composition analysis formula is used.

n = (ZS/s) 2


n = number of samples

Z = Standard normal deviate for confidence

level desired

S = estimated standard deviation

(transformed basis)

s = sensitivity (transformed basis)

= 2 a r c S i n √X - 2 a r c S i n √𝑋 ± ∆

The value of is set according to desir ed level of

precision. In this case value of acceptable
precision are obtained from the range.


Paper content ranges between 2.91-6.43%.

Average percentage of paper content is 4.036.

Therefore, X = P.04036 (Y=0.4045)

There will be two values i.e is 0.02126 and


Choice of sign for X ± ∆ is positive if X is less

than 0.5.

Therefore corresponding values for X ± ∆ are

0.0516 and 0.0643 and transformed value.

Y = 0.4582 and 0.5126

Solution :


𝑠1 = | 2 a r c s i n √0.04036

= | 2 a r c s i n √0.0516

= | 0.4045 – 0.4582 |

= 0.0537

and 𝑠2 = | 2 a r c s i n √0.04036

= | 2 a r c s i n √0.0643

= |0.4045 - 0.|

= 0.1081

Substituting value of S1in equation n = (ZS/

𝑠1 ) 2

We get, n = 6

Z = 196,z + 0.684

Similarly substituting value of S2 in

e q u a t i o n n = ( Z S / 𝑠2 ) 2

We get,


∴ Sample required for paper is in range of 2 -6.

Similarly number of sample required for othe r

constituent is calculated and tabulated.

An advantage of this method is tha t number of

samples can also be determined for any
important chemical parameter.

For example carbon to Nitrogen ratio is

important for determining suitability for

Number of sample required can be calculated

from value of C/N ratio. Normally C/N ratio of
Municipal solid waste is 21.13 – 30.94 and
typical average value of C/N ratio is 25.66.

Desired precision can be obtained from upper

and lower values of range and the average.

Critical Statistics Obtained From Typical Data

X Y V (no. of
Paper 0.04036 0.4045 0.0742 2-6
Rubber, Leather 0.0596 0.1545 0.0298 13-35
& synthetic
Glass 0.00558 0.1495 0.0285 9-10
Metals 0.00506 0.1424 0.0277 13-20
Total 0.4221 1.4144 0.1766 1-36
Inert 0.4793 1.4979 0.0731 2-3

X = means of n observation expressed as


Y = Transformation value of X

V = Standard deviation

Data for C/N ratio is transformed as follows.

C/N X Y S NO. of Average

Samples Value

25.66 0.2566 1.0570 0.1137 1 0.0980

Number of sample can be calculated separately

for Nitrogen and carbon.

Number of sample required in case of nitrogen
is about 380 and that for carbon is one.

Similarly number of sample can be calculated

for phosphorus potassium & other chemical
parameters. It is evident from statistical results
obtained from the method mentioned above and
number of sample to be taken does not exceed
thirty-five in any case. Though large number of
sample increase precision, required number of
sample for increased precision increase at a
very large disproportionate rate making it very
uneconomic and analysis a hard task.

The basic aim should be to obtain a sample size

which is a compromise between economy and

Analysis of solid waste composition statisti cal

technique to determine sample size.

US Department of Health
Education & Welfare
Bureau of Solid waste Management 1969

Example :

Determine heat energy available in the exhaust

gases generated from the combustion of 15
tons/day of a MSW with energy content of
11000kJ/kg and following chemical composition.

Assume the incinerator residue contains 5%

c a r b o n . T e m p e r a t u r e o f e n t e r i n g a i r i s 2 5 ℃.

Element C H O N S Moisture Inert
Percent by 28 5 22 4 1 20 20

Solution :

Carbon in residue can be calculated as

Inerts = 150 x = 30 tons/day
Total residue = = 31.57/day
Carbon in residue = 31.57 – 30

= 1.579 tons/day
= 5 - = 2.25%

Percentage of net available hydrogen

Hydrogen in bound water.

= 22/8 = 2.75%

= 22 + 2.75 = 24.75

Amount of water produced from combustion of

18 kg of H2 O
= (0.0225 X 150)
2 kg of H

= 30.375 tons/day

Gross heat energy available

= 150 x 1000 x 1000 = 1.65 x 10 kJ/d

Loss of heat energy can be determined

S.N. Item Loss (x 107 kJ/d)

Due to unburned 0.01579x1.5x105x32789

Due to inherent 0.2x1.5x`105x2420
= 7.26

Due to moisture 0.2475x1.5x105x2420
in bound water
= 8.98

Due to moisture 0.2025x1.5x105x2420
from oxidation
= 7.35

Radiation Loss 1.5x105x0.005 =

Heat available in 0.2104x1.5x105x1.047 kJ/kg
k x (698k-298k) = 1.321

Total Loss = 0.32677x109 kJ/d

Net Heat energy available exhaust gases

= 1.65x109 – 0.32677x109

= 1.323x109 kJ/d

Example :

Determine the amount of air required for

complete combustion of 1000kg of a waste
having chemical composition as C 60 H95 O40

Solution :

Molecular weight of organic component of

waste is

=(60x12) + (95x1) + (40x16)+ (1x14) = 1469

Percentage distribution of C, H, O and N is the

waste is below

Chemical Component Percent by weight

C (60x12) / 1469x100 = 49.01
H (95x1) / 1469x100 = 6.47
O ((40x16) / 1469) x 100 = 43.57
N ((1x14) / 1469) x100 = 0.95

Net available hydrogen not bound as water

= 6.47 – = 1.024%

Oxygen required for oxidation of carbon in 1000

kg of waste can be determined by using
following equation

C + O 2 CO2

(12) (32) (44)

O2 required = (1000 x ) = 1306.93 kg

Oxygen required for oxidizing hydrogen is 1000

kg of waste can be determined by using
following equation

2 H2+O2 2H2O

(4) (32) (36)

Total O2 required = 1306.93+81.92

= 1388.85kg

Assuming that air contains 23.25% of oxygen.

If density of air is 1.2928kg/m3

then volume of air required

= = 44058 m3/1000 kg of waste.


Site Selection :
For site selection three major issues are
essential, environmental, economic and
political. Political factor is heavily impacted by
public attitude. For sitting study to achieve
public acceptance citizen group should
participate in identifying sitting criteria and
their relative importance. Ultimate goal is to
select the site that will provide greatest
environmental protection. The outcome of
sitting study depends on relative importance
given to different criteria. Once a site is
accepted construction of landfill should begin
immediately, waiting often makes the site
unacceptable due to various socio economic and
regulatory reasons.


A General flow diagram may be considered in

assessing the suitability of site. Some of the
factors listed are applicable to regional
selection process some to site specific or loca l
condition and to some to both

Define Project and its needs

Major Environmental factors

Identify Candidate Site

Collect and Analyze Environmental , Economical

And Social Economic Data

Evaluate and Compare candidate

Site to a small number

Screen Candidate Site to a small


Collect and assess Site – Specific

Engineering and Environmental Data
Recommended one or more sites
for final selection

Final selection of Site

Fig : Sitting Process


Fault Zone

Land Use

Surface Water


Fig : Overlays for Site Sceening

Factor to consider in site Assessment

Economic Socio economic Environmental


[Access to Archeological Aesthetic

highways and and historical Impact
available highway site, cultural Agricultural
capacity.] pattern. preservation

Area with
Impartibility with Dedicated land
high ground
existing solid economy and
water table.
waste management communication
system. resources.

Use of police fired Emergency Climate and

road maintenance. resource Land atmospheric
use and zoning. conditions.

Development Noise Impact

Distance from
operation and proximity to
water supply
maintenance cost school and
well fault
distance to waste residence.

Economic effect on Public safety and Flood Plain &

community. health sensitive wet lands.
Economic Socio economic Environmental

Effect on properly
wilderness &
value highly
scenic areas
agricultural areas
land development.

Numerical Procedure

Numerical ranking of site can also be used to

aid in site selection. Such ranking can be based
on significance.

Ranking score C is computed as

C = ∑𝑛𝑖=1.W 2 S i
Where W is weight, S is suitability rating, i is
the criterion number & n is number of criterion
weight are assigned to various criteria and sub
criteria. For example, weight of 5 may be
assigned to most important criteria and weight
of 1 may be assigned to criteria considered
least important. A site that is considered good
with respect to specific criterion could be given
a suitability rating of 3 mod erate a rating of 2
and fair of

Other option may be good, moderate, fair or

somewhat subjective and so must have a logical

For example a subsoil permeability of less than
10-7cm/s is considered good since this value is
specified for a soil liner by many regulatory
agencies. site s with a high Cation Exchange
Capacity (CEC) also can be considered good. A
CEC greater than 25mg / 100 gram (milli
equivalent per 100 grams) could have a rating
of 3 and CEC less than 15 at a rating of 1.

Soils with PH greater than 6.5 are positively

effective in removal of metal cations.

Thus subsoil with a PH great er than 6.5 are

considered good for sitting whereas those
values between 5 & 6.5 are moderate and those
less than 5 are fair. Site where groundwater
quality is poor are considered good site.

Definition of significance of sitting criteria

Criteria Sub criteria Definition Significance

Soils Permeability Soil property Subsoil

that governs permeability
the rate at impact,
which water release of
moves through pollutants,
it. to ground

Criteria Sub criteria Definition Significance

is preferable
for sitting.

PH Indication of Characterizes
acidity and tendency of
alkalinity soil sorption
(PH=7=neutral of heavy
) metals
Greater PH is
for siting.

Caption Capacity of Indicates the

exchange soil to ability of soil
capacity exchange to attenuate
(CEC) cations as a some
sum for contaminants
exchangeable particularly
cations. heavy metals
Higher CEC is
preferable for
Surface soil
Surface Soil with low
are preferable
for sitting.

Criteria Sub criteria Definition Significance

Geology Bed rock Carbonate

and rock are
outcropping susceptible
to solution
rock are
to pollution
Sites with

Continuity Related to Control the

and mass open potential for
permeabili ty discontinuitie migration of
s solution contaminants.

Faults Mapped plane Impact the

or zone of stability of a
rock fracture facility and
along with potential
displacement release of
has occurred. pollutants.

Criteria Sub criteria Definition Significance

Seismic Related to Impact the

Impact peak rock stability of a
acceleration facility and
expected at potential
the site release of

Ground Aquifer/well Relates to Sites with

water yield geological high aquifer
formation or capabilities
group of may be off
formation that limit for
is capable of some
yielding facilities.
quantities of
ground water
to wells or

Ground Well head Related to Capture zone

Water penetration capture zone may be off-
zone of a pumped limit for
well landfill.

Aquifer use Use of aquifer Impact the

could be a water supply,
actually Aquifer with

Criteria Sub criteria Definition Significance

within a low actual or

specified potential use
distance from are
facility preferable for
potential or sitting
sole source purposes.
(sole or Sole source
principal aquifer are
supply of considered
drinking very
water to a significant
large even if yield
percentage of are low.
a populated

Ground The natural Area with poor

water quality of natural
quality ground water ground water
as measured quality
against represent more
drinking suitable
water locations, all
standard. else being

Ground Movement of Sites where
water flow ground water direction of
system with ground water
Criteria Sub Definition Significance
regard to flow is away
direction & from use, or
velocity where flow is
upward or
where water is
deep are
preferable all
else being

Seasonal Maximum Unsaturated

high level to which zone act as a
ground the barrier (no
water groundwater direct mixing)
expected to between base of
rise facility and
ground water.
Most regulation
specify a
minimum of
1.5m (5ft)

Monito Refers to Sites are
ring RCRA easier to
aspect requirement monitor (e.g.
for ground presence of
water layer of sand
monitoring and gravel)
Criteria Sub Definition Significance
or have a
body (e.g., a
lake) are
all else being

Monitor Refers to RCRA

ing requirement for
aspect ground water Sites are
monitoring easier to
monitor (e.g.
presence of
layer of sand
and gravel)
or have a
body (e.g., a
lake) are

all else being

Cover Cover Refers to earth

material material(available Sites with an
Criteria Sub Definition Significance
on-site) used for
daily water cover abundance of
workable and
all else being

Slope Deviation of the Impact

land surface from release of
the horizontal contaminants
measured as the , site
average development
& operation.
Site with
gentle slope

Surface Proximities to
and stream/lakes
ground Refer to overload Impact
water proximity & opportunity
hydrolo protected use of of run off
gy nearest and
lake/stream contaminants
pollutant /
Criteria Sub Definition Significance
lake stream.

Proximity Land inundated by Impact of

to aquifer flood of specified ground water

Proximity Frequency(usually Impact

to flood 100yr) transfer of
prone hazardous
areas waste.

Topogra Slope Migration of soil Potential of

phy exodabia particle by surface soil erosion
ty water or natural impact
phenomenon facility
& operation.

Run & Runoff relates to Sites with
Run off rainwater leakage little need
or leachate that for
drain overland control of
away from facility. run
Run on refers to on from
drainage overland upland and
into any part of the slow runoff
facility. are
Criteria Sub Definition Significance
Run on is
controlled by
berm stream
control is
impacted by
velocity of
the site.

Soil with pH greater than 6.5 are good for

sitting between 5 & 6.5 are moderate value less
than 5 are fair.

Sites with ground water quality is poor 11 is
good for site.

Total dissolved solids (TDS) > greater than

10,000 mg/l is poor.

TDS less than 500 mg/l is fair.

Example :

Partial sub surface data at two possible landfill

site are given. Determine which one is the site
is more suitable for locating landfill.

Solution :

To compare two site we should assign weight to

various criteria and assumed criteria are listed.

Summaries of site are summarized and site A

has higher score & is chosen. Although it is a
general methodology it is important that for
actual sitting most of criteria must be
evaluated using both weighting and suitability

Although an Engineer may have technical know

how to select appropriate weight and
suitability numbers he or she must yield to the
fact that public must have a greater say in

selecting these numbers if sitting process is to
come to fruition.

i) Site data

Site Aquifer Type Depth Water Slope

hydraulic of of table %
conductivity soil soil(m) depth(m
A 10-5 silty 12 10 5
B 10-3 silty 3 2 2

ii) Criteria and assigned weights

Criteria/Sub criteria Weights

Acquifer hydraulic conductivity 4
Type of soil 3
Depth of soil 2
Water table depth 5
Slope 1
Annual recharge 4

Suitability Numbers

Criteria Description Suitability

/Sub criteria rating
Acquifer hydraulic L e s s t h a n 10−8 10
conductivity(m/s) 10−8 t o 10−7 8
−6 −5
10 t o 10 6

10−4 t o 10−3 3
Greater than 1
Type of soil Low plasticity 10
Silty clay 9
Sand clay 7
Glacial Till 5
Silty Sand 3
Sand & gravel 1
Annual recharge(mm) Greater than 30 10
Depth of soil(m) 26 to 30 9
21 to 25 8
16 to 20 6
11 to 15 5
Criteria Description Suitability
/Sub criteria rating
6 to 10 3
2 to 5 2
1 or less 1

Slope(%) 0 to 1 10
1 to 2 9
2 to 4 7
4 to 6 5
6 to 12 3
12 to 15 2
Greater than 15 1
Annual Recharge 0 to 50 10
50 to 100 8
101 to 200 6
201 to 400 4

401 to 600 2
Greater than 1


(1) (2) (3) (4)

Criteria/ Weight Suitability Ranking
Sub Criteria from number (Co12xCo13)
table(i) from(ii)
Aquifer 4 8 32
Type of soil 3 3 9
(1) (2) (3) (4)
Criteria/ Weight Suitability Ranking
Sub Criteria from number (Co12xCo13)
table(i) from(ii)
Depth of soil 2 5 10
Water table 5 3 15
Slope 1 5 1
Annual 4 10 40
Total = 111


(1) (2) (3) (4)

Criteria/Sub Weight Suitability Ranking
Criteria from (i) number (ii) (Co12xCo13)
Acquifer 4 6 24
Type of soil 3 9 27
Depth of soil 2 2 4
Water table 5 2 10
Slope 1 7 7
Annual 4 4 16
Total = 88

Site A is more suitable than B

Design concept of natural attenuation (NA )
type landfill consist of allowing the leach ate to
percolate through the landfill base with
expectation that the leach ate will be attenuated
(purified) by the unsaturated soil zone beneath
the landfill and by the ground water aquifer.

In the past NA type landfill were used for

disposal of all types of waste. It is through the
soil in the unsaturated zone is capable of
completely attenuating the leach ate. The
concept of attenuation by soil has changed

presently non hazardous waste are dumping on

the site.

Two types of filling method are used in
operating an NA type landfill.

1) Area method

2) Trench method

In the area method entire area is excavated to

the sub base grade and filled up from one end.

Area method require less land disposing same

volume of waste compared to Trench method

Slope Landfill :

Slope landfill are provided in hilly areas. Solid

waste are disposed off on local foothills after
providing suitable liner and leach ate collection
system. Stability of slope is important factor in
design of these landfill. In general a waste
slope of 3 to 5 degree is admissible depending
upon the characteristics of waste.


A cross section of Landfill is shown in figure.

Cell :

Volume of waste deposited in a landfill site

during one operational period forms of cell.
Operational period is one day. Size of cell
depends upon daily volume of waste. The cell
system is convenient as the wastes deposited
in the landfill each day needs to be covered
same day.

Daily Cover :

Waste material is provided with a daily cover

with usually a 15 to 30cm thick layer of soil.
Other material such as yard waste & compost
can also be used as cover material.

Cover material prevents surface run off from

entering into waste so as to reduce leachate.


Lift is height of cell usually lift are provided in

landfill. Height of landfill is 2 to 4 m
depending upon cell volume.

Bench :

A bench is provided above ground landfill

when the height of waste deposited is more
than 10 to 20 m. It is provided after each lift or
after every alternative lift. It increases t he
stability of landfill slope. Bench also facilitates
surfaces drainage.

Leachate Collection System :

Leach ate is produced when surface water

infiltrates into a landfill. Water squeezed out
from the waste during compaction and
consolidation also mixes with leach ate. It
carries numerous contaminants. Leach ate
should be carefully collected through suitabl y
designed leach ate collection system. It should

be treated before release in ground or in
sewerage system.


A liner is a impermeable material (that is clay,

geo membrane) provided at base and side of
landfill to prevent infiltration of leach ate into
groundwater protection of groundwater should
be ensured by provision of impermeable layer
or by constructing barrier walls.


A number of gases are generated during

biological degradation of waste in landfill. Gas
may migrate to adjacent areas and has potential
of causing fire hazards & creating odor
problems. Landfill gas should be collected for
energy recovery. This is viable for economic &
environmental considerations. These are
collected through pipes & well provided in


Final cover is provided after the landfill site is

filled to its full capacity.

A well designed final cover includes a gas

collection layer, a impermeable liner, surface
water drainage layer and a layer of topsoil for
horticulture. Final cover also helps maintain
the aesthetic of area.

Example :

A colony of having population of 65,000

generates solid waste at the rate of
2kg/capita/per day. Compacted specific weight
of solid waste in landfill is 650kg/m 3 and
average depth of compacted solid waste is
landfill is 5m. Determine the required landfill


Total solid waste generated from colony

= 65,000x2

= 130,000 kg/d

Volume of solid waste

= = 200m2/d
Area required = 200/5 = 40m2/d

Area required annually

= 40x365

= 14,600m2/year

= 1.46 ha/year

Example :

A community generates solid waste at a rate of

75 tons/day. The solid waste has to be disposed
off in landfill cell of 5m width and 3m lift
having a slope of 3:1 in its working face.
Thickness of daily soil cover is 150 mm.
Determine ratio of volume of waste to cover
soil. Assume average specific weight of waste i)
350 kg/m3 ii) 500 kg/m3 and iii) 600kg/m3

Solution :

(a) Volume of waste to be placed

(i) For waste with sp. wt of 350kg/m3

𝑉𝑆𝑊1 = = 214.28kg/m3
(ii) For waste with sp. wt of 500kg/m 3

(iii) waste sp. wt of 600kg/m3

(b) Cross Sectional area of cell = 3x5 = 15m 2

Length of cell per day,

𝐿1 = = 14.28 m

𝐿2 = = 10 m

Surface area of top cell, face and side of cell

can be calculated as Top surface area ,
𝐿3 = =8.33 m

𝐴𝑇1 = 𝐿1 x 𝑊 = 1 4 . 2 8 x 5 = 7 1 . 4 m 2

𝐴𝑇2 = 𝐿2 x 𝑊 = 1 0 x 5 = 5 0 m 2

𝐴𝑇3 = 𝐿3 x 𝑊 = 8 . 3 3 x 5 = 4 1 . 6 6 m 2

For surface area,

𝐴𝐹1 = 𝐿1 x 9 . 4 8 6 = 1 4 . 2 8 x 9 . 4 8 6 = 1 3 5 . 4 6 m 2

𝐴𝐹2 = 𝐿2 x 9 . 4 8 6 = 1 0 x 9 . 4 8 6 = 9 8 . 8 6 m 2

𝐴𝐹3 = 𝐿3 x 9 . 4 8 6 = 8 . 3 3 x 9 . 4 8 6 = 7 9 . 0 5 m 2

Side surface area,

𝐴𝑆1 = 𝐴𝑆2 = 𝐴𝑆3 = 5 x 9 . 4 8 6 = 4 7 . 4 3 m 2

Volume of daily soil cover,

𝑽𝑺𝑳 = c o v e r t h i c k n e s s x ( 𝑨𝑻 + 𝑨𝑭 + 𝑨𝑺)

Cover thickness = 150 mm = 0.15 m

𝑉𝑆𝐿1 = 0 . 1 5 x ( 7 1 . 4 + 1 3 5 . 4 6 + 4 7 . 4 3 ) = 3 8 . 1 4 3 m 2

𝑉𝑆𝐿2 = 0 . 1 5 x ( 5 0 + 9 4 . 8 6 + 4 7 . 4 3 ) = 2 8 . 8 4 3 m 2

𝑉𝑆𝐿3 = 0 . 1 5 x ( 4 1 . 6 6 + 7 9 . 0 5 + 4 7 . 4 3 ) = 2 5 . 2 2 1 m 2
Ratio of volume of waste to the volume of cover
s o i l 𝑉𝑆𝑊 /𝑉𝑆𝐿 a r e

𝑉𝑆𝑊1 /𝑉𝑆𝐿1 = 2 1 4 . 2 8 / 3 8 . 1 4 3 = 5 . 6 1 7

𝑉𝑆𝑊2 /𝑉𝑆𝐿2 = 1 5 0 / 2 8 . 8 4 3 = 5 . 2

𝑉𝑆𝑊3 /𝑉𝑆𝐿3 = 1 2 5 / 2 5 . 2 2 1 = 4 . 9 5 6


1. Current waste generation per year

= W (Tons per year)

2. Estimate rate of increase (decrease) of

waste generation per year = X (percent)

3. Proposed Life of Landfill (in years)

= n years

4. Waste generation after n years

= (1+x)n Tons per year

5. Total waste generation in years (T) in tons.

𝟏 𝐱
T = 𝟐
( W + W ( 1 + 𝟏𝟎𝟎) n ) n T o n s

6 . T o t a l v o l u m e o f w a s t e i n y e a r s ( 𝑉𝑊 ) o n t h e
assumption 0.85l t/m3 density of waste.

𝑉𝑊 = 𝑇/0.85 ( m 3 )

7. T o t a l v o l u m e o f d a i l y c o v e r i n n y e a r s ( 𝑉𝑑𝑐 )
(on the basis of 15 m soil cover on top and side
for lift height of 1.5 to 2m)

𝑉𝑑𝑐 = 0.1 𝑉𝑊 (𝑐𝒖. 𝑚)

8. Total volume required for component of
liner system and of cover system on the
assumption of 1.5m thick liner system
(including leach ate collection layer) and 1.0m
thick cover system (including gas collection
𝑉𝐶 = 𝐾 𝑉𝑊 (𝑐𝒖. 𝑚)
K = 0.25 for 10m high landfill 0.125 for 20m
high landfill and 0.08 for 30m high landfill.

9. Volume likely to become available within 10

years due to settlement/ biodegradation of

𝑉𝑆 = m 𝑉𝑊
(If m=0.10 for biodegradable waste, m will be
less than 0.05 for incinerated liner waste. )

10. Estimate of Landfill Capacity

𝐶𝑖 = 𝑉𝑤 + 𝑉𝑑 + 𝑉𝑐 − 𝑉𝑠 (𝜇. 𝑚)
11. Shape of Landfill

Area, Type, Trench Type

Slope Type, Valley Type


12. Estimate of Landfill height

( a ) R e s t r i c t e d a r e a a v a i l a b l e = 𝐴𝑖 ( m 2 )

Area required for infrastructural

facilities = 0.15A2

A r e a a v a i l a b l e f o r l a n d f i l l i n g = 0 . 8 5 𝐴𝑖

Average landfill height above base level

𝐻𝑖 = 𝐶𝑖 / 0 . 9 𝐴𝑖 ( m )
(b) No limitation area
Possible maximum Height = H2

(Typically 10 to 20m, rarely above 30m)

Area required for landfill separation

𝐴𝑖 = 𝐶𝑖 / 𝐻𝑖
Total area required

𝐴 = 1 . 1 5 𝐴𝑖

Example :


Location : Kathmandu

Waste generation : 1000 tons per day

Design Life : Active period 16 years1

Closure post closure : 25years

Topography : Flat ground

Sub soil : Sandy, SILT up to 20m below ground

surface underlain by bed rock

Water Table : 10m below ground surface

Average Total Precipitation = 750mm per year


a) Waste Generation = 1000 tons/day

b) Estimated waste generation in 16 years

= 1700 tons per day

c) Total waste generation in 16 years

= 0.5 (1000+1700) x 365 x 16 = 7 x 106 tons

d) Total waste volume (assumed density 0.85

t o n s / 𝑚3 )

= ( 7 x 1 0 6 ) / 0 . 8 5 = 8 . 2 5 x 1 0 6 𝑚3

e) Volume of daily cover

= 0 . 1 x 8 . 2 5 x 1 0 6 = 0 . 8 2 5 x 1 0 6 𝑚3

Volume of Liner & cover system

= 0.12 x 8.25 x 106

= 1 0 3 x 1 0 6 𝐴𝑖

= 0 . 8 2 5 x 1 0 6 𝑚3

f) Estimate of Landfill volume

𝐶𝑖 = ( 8 . 2 5 + 0 . 8 2 5 + 1 . 0 3 - 0 . 8 2 5 ) x 1 0 6
Likely shape of Landfill

Rectangular in plan

(Length : Width) = 2:1

Possible Landfill Height = 20m

Area required

= (9.28x106)/20

= 4.15 x 105 m2

= 41.5 Hectares

Approximate plan dimension

= 450m x 900m


i) 4:1 side slope for above ground

ii) 2:1 side slope for below ground

iii) Material balance for daily cover

iv) Extra space for land filling


a) Active life of landfill = 16years

b) Duration of one phase = One year

c) Number of phases = 16

d) Volume of one phases = landfill capacity/16

e) Plan area of phase

= (Volume of one phase) landfill height

= 240 x 120m

f) Number of daily cell = 365

g) Plan area of one cell on basis of (2.0m lift

of each cell)/2.0

= 22 x 42m approx

h) Workshop/ Garage : 30m x 20m building


1. Site fencing all round the landfill

2. Weight bridge : Two weight bridge of 50T


3. Administrative office : 30m x10m building

Site office :3m x 5m

Access Road :5m wide

Link Road : 3m wide

4. Workshop / Garage : 30m x 20m building

Other Facilities
a) Surface water drain
b) Leachate Collection Pipe

c) Leachate Holding Tank : 20m x 10m x 3m

d) Leachate Treatment Facility 40m x 20m (In


e) Gas flaming facility 20m x 10m (Tentative)

f) Surface water sedimentation Tank

40m x 10m x 1.5m


Important design consideration in design and

operation of landfill include

1) Land requirement

2) Type of waste

3) Evaluation of seepage potential

4) Design of drainage and seepage control


5) Development of general operation plan

6) Design of solid waste filling plan

7) Determination of equipment requirement

Important factors that must be considered in

design and operation of landfill

Factor Remarks
Design Access Pave all weather access roads to
landfill site; temporary roads to

Cell Design will vary depending on terrain,

& construction landfilling method, whether gas is to
be recovered.

cover material maximize use of on-site material;

approximately 1m3 of cover material
w i l l b e r e q u i r e d f o r e v e r y 4 t o 6 𝑚3 o f
solid waste; mix with sealants to
control surface infiltration. In some
design intermediate cover is not used .

Drainage Install drainage ditches to divert

surface water runoff maintain 1 to 2
percent grade & finished till to
prevent ponding.

Equipment Vary with size of landfill .

Water on site; if non portable outlet
Fire Prevention must be marked clearly proper cell
separation prevents continuous burn
through if combustion occurs.

Factor Remarks
Ground water Divert any underground Spring; if

protection required install sealants for leaching
control; install well for gas and
ground water monitoring.

Land area Area should be large enough to hold

all waste for minimum of 1yr but
preferably 5 to 10 yr.

Land filling Selection of method will vary with

method terrain and cover.

Litter control Use movable fences at unloading areas;

crew should pick up litter at least once
per month or as required.

Operational With or without the co disposal of

plan treatment plant sludge and recovery of

Spread & Spread and compact waste in 0.6m (2ft

compaction layers).

Operation Telephone for emergencies


Day & hour of Usual practice is 5 to 6 days/wk 8 to 10

operation h/day
Factor Remarks
Employee Rest room and drinking water should

facilities be provided

Equipment A covered shred should be provided

maintenances for field maintenance of equipment .

Operational Tonnage, Transactions and billing if a

records disposal fee is charged.

salvage No scavenging; salvage should occur

away from the unloading area; no
salvage storage on-site

scales Essential for record keeping.

Landfill operation plan :

The layout of the site and development of a

workable operating schedule are main feature
of landfill operation plan. In planning layout of
a landfill site, the location of the following
must be determined

1) Access road

2) Equipment shelters

3) Storage site

4) Top soil stock pills

5) Landfill area

6) Planting

Solid Waste Filling Plan :

Solid waste filling plan depend on

characteristics of site such as amount of
available material, topography and local
hydrology & geology. For future plan it will be
necessary to prepare detailed for layout of
individual solid cell. In the basis of
characteristics of site or method of operation
(e.g. gas recovery) may be necessary to
incorporate special nature of control of
movement of gases leach ate from landfill.

Example :

Determines capacity of disposal site

Determine the capacity of the soli d waste

disposal site shown in (a) (b) (c). Also
determine cover of material that must be cut
from the sides & real slope of disposal site to
meet specified cover requirements. Prepare
sketch showing the final cut limits of disposal

Assume following condition applicable.

a) Total lift height is 3.0m

b) From face of completed landfill will have a

slope of 2 to 1 will be co -incident with front
face of existing site.

c) Ratio of solid waste to cover material is 5

to 1.

d) Vertical excavation is possible without bank


Solution :

Determine the capacity of disposal site and

amount of cover material required. Because the
site will be excavated to obtain necessary cover
material, capacity of site is equal to the volume
of the site because cover material will have to
be excavated from the sides of the site, it will
be useful to compute volume of each lift
separately. Necessary computation are

Estimation of capacity of Landfill

A r e a 𝑚2 Capacity Cover
Lift At Average between material
Number Elevation contour between contour 𝑚3
Interval Interval
1 0 5550* 6015 18045 3609
2 3 6480 6945 20835 4167
3 6 7410 7875 23625 4725
4 9 8340 8805 26415 5283
5 12 9270 9135 29205 5841
6 15 10200
Total = 118125 23625

T o t a l c a p a c i t y 𝑚3

T o t a l c o v e r 𝑚3

Referring to figure area at elevation

Zero is computed as 5550m2

= (200m-15m) x 30m

1 8 , 0 4 5 m 3 = 6 0 1 5 𝑚2 x 3 m ( l i f t h e i g h t )

3 6 0 9 m 3 = 1 8 0 4 5 𝑚3 x ( 1 / 5 ) , r a t i o o f c o v e r m a t e r i a l
to solid waste

Determine limits of excavation that will be

needed to obtain the required cover material
(assuming triangular wedge of material will be
excavated all around disposal site)

a) Determine relationship that can be used to

determine volume
Vol = 2 (Volume of truncated excavated wedge
section) + 𝐿 (area of continuous triangular

V o l = 2 [ 1 / 3 ( 2 𝑥 𝑋 𝑥) ] + 𝐿 ( 1 / 2 𝑥 2 )

Where, 𝐿 = length of wedge measured along a

line drawn on a horizontal plane of distance
2/3𝑥 from bottom perimeter of disposal site.

𝐿 = 2(155m) + 30m + 4 (2/3x) = 340 + 2.67 𝑥


V o l = 1 . 3 3 𝑥3 + ( 3 4 0 + 2 . 6 7 ) ( 1 / 2 x 2 )

= 1 7 0 𝑥2 + 2 . 6 7 𝑥3

Equate above expression to require cover
volume and solve for 𝑥 by trial & error.

Try 𝑥 = 10m

23,625 = 170(10)2 + 2.67(103)

23,625 ≠ 19,670 unacceptable

Try 𝑥 = 11.0m

23,625 ≈ 24,123 ok.

Prepare a sketch showing final cut limit of

disposal site. A section through completed
landfill is shown in figure.

With respect to environmental aspect of
sanitary landfilling has different phase in life

1. Planning phase :

Typically involving and geotechnical site

investigation as basis for actual design.

2. Construction phase :

Typically involving earth work, road and

facility construction.

3. Operation Phase :

This is a filling phase and has high intensity of

traffic operation and environmental

4. Completed Phase :

Termination of actual filling to the day where

environmental installation do not need to be
operated anymore because emission have
decreased to a level where they do not need to
be treated, but may discharge into

5. Final storage Phase :

Now the emission are at accepted level.

Potential Environmental Emissions :

Potential environmental emissions from

sanitary landfills are summarized in fig. shown

Incidental events such as flooding, fires,

landslide and earthquake which could result in
severe environmental impacts must be included
in environmental impact assessment.

Role of Land filling in solid waste management :

New strategy of solid waste management is to

ensure minimal environmental impact saving
raw materials by promoting resource recovery
& reducing amount of refuse to be disposed.
General scheme of solid waste management is
shown in below figure.

First step of ISWM is Avoidance

This concept involves clean technology &

Interval Recycling in order to minimize waste

Second step of Iswm is materials recovery.

A stream ( 𝑤0 ) of waste containing many

valuable materials (pulrescible organics, glass,
aluminum, paper, plastic) and hazardous
fraction (batteries, old medicines, pesticides) is
involved in this step.

After recovering all possible material a waste

stream (w1) which contains organic and
inorganic substances of a quality and
proportion which depend from the efficiency
and strategy of previous stage.

In each case waste stream (w1) appears to be

suitable to enter an energy recovery stage
subsequent to all efforts to avoid MSW
production and to recover materials and energy
there will be always a residu e which is non-

Clean Techn0ology
Internal recycling
Administrative action

Intelligent Production Technology
Separate Collection
Recycling Plants


RDF Production
Anaerobic Digestion

Dry Land filling
Waste fixation
Waste Capsulation
Natural Processes
Proper Engineering


First Step is ISWM is Avoidance

avoidable, non recoverable, non recycl able,
non-burnable which should be disposed to land.

In each case waste stream (w1) appears to be

suitable to enter an energy recovery stage
subsequent to all efforts to avoid MSW
production and to recover materials and energy
there will be always a residue which is non -
avoidable, non recoverable, non recycl able,
non-burnable which should be disposed to land.

At this stage residual waste stream (w 2) must

be disposed with minimal environmental

Sanitary land fill remain an integral part of

existing as well as new strategies for solid
waste disposal.

Step 1

Sanitary Landfill and

Step Step 2
Simple Recycling System

Integrated Solid Waste Step 3


As in above figure higher level of waste
management is reached in third step when is
WM is applied.


Different type of liner material used in

construction of landfill are

1. Clayey Soil
2. Synthetic Membrane
3. Amended Soil

Purpose of liner is to restrict the fluid

migration from environment (soil, groundwater,

Fluid could be leachate, a waste in lined pond

or gas in landfill.

Soil liner are usually made of natural in

organic clay or clayey soil to achieve low in
situ hydraulic conductivity.

A Geomembrane, if in fact, is virtually

impermeable to liquids; however gases and
vapors of liquids can permeate a geomembrane
on a molecular level by chemical diffusion

(haxo.1990). A Geomembrane consist of one or
more sheets.

A geomembrane clay liner (GCL) typically thin

(4 to 6mm) clay (typically Bentonite) layer
contained by two ( upper and lower) geotextile
or bonded adhesive or a geomembrane vertical
cut off wall are rarely used as a part of liner
structure for a new landfill . However in old
landfill vertical cutoff wall can be used to
restrict leachate wall is constructed either by
using Bentonite, plastic concrete, grouted sheet

Modern design use composite liners. A

composite liner shown in figure is a
geomembrane placed directly above and in
intimate and uniform contact with a soil liner
or geosynthetic liner. A composite liner of
minimum thickness of 2 ft(61cm)of a compacted
soil liner having a hydraulic conductivity of
m o r e 10−7 c m / s e c .

Minimum thickness of the geomembrane is

usually 30 mils (0.03 in), if the geomembrane is
high density polyethylene (HDFE), minimum
must be 60 mils (0.06 in)

Leachate collection and removal syste m is

designed to limit leachate build up less than 1
ft ( 30cm above liner).

1. Leachate collection and removal system
2. Geomembrane
3. Soil Liner
4. Filter
5. Leachate collection

Detection and removal system

Subtitle C regulation require 3ft (91 cm) Soil


Leakage detection system under subtitle C
regulation can be constructed of sand with
hydraulic conductivity of 0.01 cm/s or more &
12 in (30.5 cm) or more thickness of synthetic
drainage layer ( geonet or geocomposite) with a
t r a n s m i s s i v i t y o f 3 x 10−5 𝑚2 / s o r m o r e .

A minimum of 1% is stipulated.

Sometimes double liner system are required. A

generally 2 feet thick of soil is required.

A leachate collection system over lines the

upper component of the liner system. System
usually consist of material with hydraulic
conductivity. (0.01-1.0 cm)/s with perforated
pipe of collection of waste fluid. Material like
coarse sand gravel are preferable, because of
lower clogging.

Potential by sedimentation from landfill

leachate and biological growth.

A leak detection system separates the upper

and lower composite in a double composite

T r a n s m i s s i v i t y o f n o l e s s t h a n 5 x 10−4 𝑚2 / s i s
usually specified. Transmissivity is the product
of thickness and hydraulic conductivity.


In a liner construction, foundation layer over

which a liner component is supported is
generally termed sub grade.

In the case of the bottom layer of the liner

structure area receiving the liner is excavated
or filled to meet design grades. In a composite
liner, the clay component on which the
geomembrane is founded also is termed as Sub

As a part of Sub surface investigation natural

undisturbed soil receiving landfill must be
proven to be stable enough to support landfill,
with adequate factor of safet y, against
foundation failure and tolerable settlement
under the load imposed by facility.

For seasonal water table should be at least 5ft

(1.5m) below the base of liner material.

Groundwater should not be a problem, under

some situation (thick stone layer and piping)
has been used to suppress the water table.

In a heavy rainfall, Surface runoff greatly

affects the sub grade preparation for landfill
cell. Site should always be graded to effect
rapid surface drainage.


Material selection:

Primary factor controlling performance of

compacted soil liners are hydraulic
conductivity, Strength & potential of shrinkage
with moisture content as an index.

Guidelines for selection of Liner materials.

Likelihood of Plasticity Index

volume change
with change in PI in PI in Shrinkage
moisture avoid humid Limit
region region

Little 0 - 15 0 - 30 12 or more

Little to moderate 15 - 30 30 - 50 10 – 12

Moderate to sever 30 or 50 or 10 & less

more more


Function and type:

Vertical barrier walls are usually used to

improve existing waste disposal facilities that
have no modern liner and or leachate collection

Figure shows a section of landfill with a
leachate mound resting on somewhat pervious
stratum which is turn overlies a low
permeability material.

A vertical wall of low permeability is installed

around the wall, so that leachate will not spill

Most common type of wall used is Soil -

Bentonite (SB) wall.

Example :

Consider a wall 30 feet (9.15m) deep water level

outboard is 15 ft (4.6m) below top of wall and
20 ft( 6.1m) in board.

Estimate the flow across the wall if the

h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y o f t h e w a l l i s 10 cm/s
and wall is 2000m 3ft wide.
Solution :

A t l e v e l a ( 𝐻1 - 𝐻0 )= 0 , q = 0

A n d a t l e v e l b ( 𝐻1 - 𝐻0 )= - 5 f t

q=-(5/3)Kw. The average flow per unit length
through length a to b is –(5/6)kw.


For the flow from level b to c.

( 𝐻1 - 𝐻0 )= 5 , q = - ( 5 / 3 ) k w

Thus for total flow we have

From a to b:

Q = - ( 5 / 6 ) ( 10−9 m / s ) ( 1 . 5 )

2 0 0 0 = - 2 . 5 x 10−6 𝑚3 / s

From b to c:

Q = - ( 5 / 3 ) ( 10−9 m / s ) ( 3 . 0 5 ) ( 2 0 0 0 )

= - 1 0 x 10−6 𝑚3 / s

T o t a l f l o w = - 1 2 . 5 x 10−6 𝑚3 / s

While assessing the thickness of clay liners, it
is usually necessary to restrict the transit time
to no less than 30 or 50 years. Contaminant in
leachate can penetrate an exit the liner by
advection of seepage of fluid the liner under a
hydraulic gradient or by chemical diffusion or
both. Following equation can be used for
calculating transit time.

t = { ( 𝜃𝑠 - 𝜃𝑖 ) / 𝑘𝑢 } = { d - [ 𝑦𝑚𝑎𝑥 - ℎ𝑠 ] I n ( 𝑦𝑚𝑎𝑥 - ℎ𝑠 + 𝑑) / ( 𝑦𝑚𝑎𝑥 - ℎ𝑠 ) }

This formula requires estimating the suction
and unsaturated permeability of liner which
may be determined experimentally.

Example :

Consider a liner 90cm thick with a saturated

h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y o f 10−7 c m / s & e f f e c t i v e
porosity of 0.3. The specified maximum fluid
head above the liner is 30cm.

a. Determine the transit time assuming a 5 cm

b. Determine the transit time when the
u n s a t u r a t e d c o n d u c t i v i t y i s 10 c m / s

The initial volumetric moisture conte nt is 30%

porosity is 0.45 and the suction is 38cm.

a. t = 0 . 3 x 9 0 x 9 0 / ( 10−7 ( 3 0 + 9 0 + 5 )

= 1 . 9 4 4 x 108 s

=6.2 yr.
b. ℎ𝑠 = −38𝑐𝑚

t = ( 0 . 4 5 - 0 . 3 ) x 108 { 9 0 - ( 3 0 + 3 8 ) l n ( 3 0 + 3 8 + 9 0 ) / ( 3 0 + 3 8 ) }

= 2 . 7 8 x 108 𝑠

=8.8 yr.

Example :

A leak detection system consist of a sand layer

having a hydraulic conductivity of 0.1 cm/s. A
defect hole is expected on the average of one
per acre. Propose an action leakage rate using a
safety factor of 2.0

Solution :


K=0.001 m/s

Using equation,

Q = k ℎ2

For h<D

Q = 0 . 0 0 1 ( 0.3)2

= 0 . 0 0 0 0 9 𝑚3 / a c r e / s

= 0 . 0 0 0 0 9 ( 3.28 𝑓𝑡/𝑚)3 x ( 7.48 𝑔𝑎𝑙/𝑓𝑡)3 𝑥(86400𝑠/𝑑𝑎𝑦)

= 2052 gal/acre/day

ALR=Q/2=1026 gal/acre/day.

Example :

A g e o n e t h a s a t r a n s m i s s i v i t y ( 𝑘𝐷 ) o f 3 x 10−5 𝑚2 /
𝑠. A s s u m i n g a n a l l o w a b l e h e a d b u i l d u p o f 3 0 c m ,
determine ALR if the design thickness is 6 cm
and one leak per acre is expected.

Solution :

Q = 3 x 10−5 ( 0 . 6 - 0 . 0 6 )

= 1 . 6 2 x 10−5 𝑚3 / s

= 369 gal/acre/day

Sources of flow in a leak detection collection &

removal system (LDCRS)

A=Top line leakage

B=Construction water

C=Consolidation water

D=Infiltration water

Q=LDCRS flow


Lining system are used for two purpose in

landfills: as cover to minimize leachate
generation and surface water contamination by
providing a barrier from precipitation and
other percolating waters, and a contaminant
liners to contain leachate and minimize the
downward migration into underlying

There are two lining system base lining system
and cover lining system as shown in fig above

EPA minimum guidance for hazardous waste

landfill cover system.

USEPA recommendation for hazardous landfill

 Minimum 20 mil geomembrane layer

 Drainage layer of 1 feet with hydraulic

c o n d u c t i v i t y o f 1 x 10−2 𝑐𝑚/𝑠

 A soil or geosynthetic layer to prevent soil.

 A minimum 2 foot thick vegetated soil layer

at a slope of 3 to 5 percent.
USEPA subtitle D cover system

requirements for non harardous waste

landfill consist of minimum 18 in thick

infiltration soil layer with permeabili ty of

1 x 10−5 c m / s O v e r l a i n b y a m i n i m u m 6 i n c h

thick vegetated soil.

USEPA minimum requirement for non

hazardous solid waste landfill final cover.

Leakage through soil liners using Darcy’s Law

q=kiA=k 𝐴

q=flow rate

k=Coefficient of permeability

i=hydraulic gradient
= = head loss per unit length

A=Cross- Sectional area through which flow


Example :

C a l c u l a t e t h e l e a k a g e r a t e t h r o u g h a 1 m2 6 0 - c m
thick soil Liner with a coefficient of
p e r m e a b i l i t y o f 1 x 10 cm/s if 30cm liquid exists
above the liner.

Solution :


q = KiA

K = 1 x 10−7 c m / s = 1 x 10−9 m / s

i = =1.5

A = 1 m2

q = 1 x 10−9 m / s x 1 . 5 x 1 m2

= 1 . 5 x 10−9 m3 / s

Example :

Calculate the leakage rate through a 1 m2

composite liner (60-mil) HDPE over a 60cm
thick clay liner with a hydraulic conductivity of
( 1 x 10−7 c m / s ) i f 3 0 c m o f l i q u i d h e a d e x i s t o v e r
the liner. Perform calculation for sizing lining
system and LCRS components and (b) operating

Assuming good construction practice and

excellent contact using empirical conditions.

Solution :

Q = 0 . 7 a0.1 K s 0.88 hw

Ks = H y d r a u l i c conductivity 1 hole per acre

(4000m )

Q = 0 . 7 a0.1 K s 0.88 hw

Ks = H y d r a u l i c conductivity of clay liner

= 1 x 10 m/s

hw = L i q u i d d e p t h o n g e o m e m b r a n e

= 0.3m

a = area of hole in geomembrane

for sizing lining system LCRS Components.

a = 1 cm2 = 0 . 0 0 0 1 m2

Q = 0 . 7 (0.0001)0.1 (1x10−9 )0.88 (0.3) m3 /s p e r a c r e

0.7(0.0001)0.1 (1x10−9 ) (0.3)
= m3 /s p e r m2

= 2 . 5 x 10−13 m3 /s p e r m2

For operating condition

a = 3 . 1 mm2 = 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 m2

Q = 0 . 7 (3.1x10−6 )0.1 (1x10−9 )0.88 (0.3) m3 /s p e r a c r e

= 1 . 8 x 10−13 m3 /s p e r m2


Long term performance of liner important.

Permeability is of great importance. Synthetic
l i n e r s h a v e v e r y l o w p e r m e a b i l i t i e s o f 1 x 10−12 t o
10−14 m / s .

Permeability of clay vary and according to

unified soil classification system vary from
−7 −11
10 to 10 m/s.

Permeability will impact breakthrough &

leachate rate of clay liner.

Breakthrough time can be determined by

d2 h
t = 𝑘(𝑑+ℎ)


t=breakthrough time in years.

d=liner thickness in meters.

h=hydraulic heads in meters

k=permeability in m/year

n=effective porosity 0.2 to 0.3 is assumed

Clay permeability less than 10−9 m/s are

commonly considered.



Design of every element of landfill is important

of these leachate collection system is also a
very important. A failure of leachate collection
is essential for design purposes. Kmet et al.
(1988) and Bass (1985) discussed several cases
of failure. The pipe may fail clogging, cr ushing
or faulty design.


Pipe may clog due to build up of fines, growth

of biological organism. Build up of fines can
result from sedimentation from leachate or
migration of fines. To minimize possibility of
soil build up, it is good to use geo textile, or
filter fabric in the trench.

Crushing of pipe:

Crushing of pipe may occur if strength of pipe

chosen for the landfill is insufficient. Plastic
pipe are consider flexible.

Faulty Design:

A leachate collection pipe may also fail because

of faulty design. In general leachate flow rate is
v e r y l o w ( - 0 . 5 t o - 1 . 0 cm3 / min) ; h o w e v e r i n s o m e
landfill is significantly higher for an accidental
run-on due to failure of diversion structure.

Design of Leachate Trench and Pipe:

4cm washed stone


Collection Pipe

Fig:Leachate Collection Trench Detail

Leachate pipes are generally installed in
trenches that are filled with gravel. The
trenches are lined with geotextile to minimize
entry of fines.

From the lines into the trench and eventually

into leachate collection pipe.

Soil Filter:

Soil filter criteria for design are as follows:


D15 of the filter

< 4 to 5
D85 of the overlying soil


D15 of the filter

> 4 to 5
D85 of the overlying soil

Example :

Design circular sump for leachate collection

system for the following cases;

Vc = 1 . 2 5 𝑓𝑡 3 / m i n , c y c l i n g t i m e

( 2 t ) = 1 2 m i n , Df = 2 f t a n d

hd = 1 6 f t . A s s u m e a p u m p e f f i c i e n t o f 8 0 %
Solution :

Given relation,

Storage capacity or sump size

Ss = Vc t

Vc = r a t e o f l e a c h a t e c o l l e c t i o n p e r m i n u t e

t = one-half the cycling time

Pumping rate is given by

Vc t + Vc t
𝑃1 = = 2 Vc v o l u m e / m i n u t e

Ss = Ar x Df

F r o m t h e k n o w n d i f f e r e n c e i n h e a d hd b e t w e e n
suction and delivery the pumps break

γ1 hd 𝑃1

In which

γ1 = L e a c h a t e d e n s i t y

E = Pump efficiency

Sump Storage Capacity

= 1 . 2 5 x 6 = 7 . 5 𝑓𝑡 3

For a sump of diameter d

𝜋𝑑 2
= x 2 =7.5
D = 2.1 ft

Use a 2 –ft diameter sump

Pumping rate = 2 x 0.035

= 0 . 0 7 𝑚3 /𝑚𝑖𝑛
62.4 x 1.1 x16 x 2.5
BHP = = 6.24
550 𝑥 0.8

Leachate Holding Tank:

Leachate tank should have enough volume to
hold a leachate for a period of time (usually 1 -3
days) during a peak leakage.


Routing of storm water on and around the

landfill is essential to reduce leachate

Design of storm water ditch use principle of

open channel flow. There may be several
ditches running over and around a landfill.
Ditches over landfill should have low sl ope,
maximum of slope 10%.

Following formula known as Manning formula

is used to design channel section.

1.486 2⁄ 1⁄
V = γh 3 S 2
V = mean velocity of water

γh = m e a n h y d r a u l i c r a d i u s


Design a drainage swale to carry a flow of

3 3
5 . 8 𝑓𝑡 ( 0 . 1 5 𝑚 /sec) f r o m a l a n d f i l l .

For all drainage design, a trial and error
method is used to find dimension. For most

cases a slope of base is assumed and kept
constant throughout the trial and error process.

A triangular cross-section with 3:1 side slope

and 1% base slope is assumed for example.


Using the Manning formula, find the dimension

of section capable of allowing the design flow
(use Initial ht value).

1 . R e c o m m e n d e d v a l u e s o f nγ a n d V f o r D e s i g n
of Drainage Swale in Landfill.

Variable Values
nγ Initial 0.02 – 0.03
Long term 0.1 – 0.14

Maximum Permissible Initial 3 – 5

Vn + Ps Long term Clay 4 -5
Sand Loam 1.5 -2.5

2. Check whether the velocity is within the

permissible value. Long term design consist
of verifying whether the channel is large
enough to route 1.5 times the design flow in
the long term.


Sedimentation basin may need to be constructed

before allowing the surface water to enter a
natural flowage. Purpose of sedimentation
basin is to reduce the total dissolved solids
(TDS) from the surface water.

Sediment collect at the base of basin should be

cleaned periodically and disposal in the

Using Stock’s law,

g (ρs − ρw )
Vs = d2
18 μ

In which,

Vs = s e t t l i n g v e l o c i t y o f a p a r t i c l e

g = gravitational constant

ρs = density of a particle
ρw = d e n s i t y o f w a t e r

μ = absolute viscosity of water.

Absolute surface area of a basin (A) capable of

settling all particle s with settling velocity of V
is given by,
A =

Q =surface loading of overflow rate

S e d i m e n t a t i o n B a s i n s u r f a c e a r e a f o r 1 𝐦𝟑 / s e c f l o w .

Particle Size (mm) A r e a ( 𝐦𝟐 )

0 . 1 ( 1 0 0 μm) 125
0 . 0 6 ( 6 0 μm) 263
0 . 0 4 ( 4 0 μm) 476
0 . 0 1 ( 1 0 μm) 6 . 7 x 103
0 . 0 0 1 ( 1 μm) 6 . 7 x 105

Example :

Design a sedimentation basin for removing

p a r t i c l e s 4 0 μm a n d a b o v e f o r a l a n d f i l l i n w h i c h
t h e e x p e c t e d p e a k f l o w i s 1 . 5 m3 / s e c ( 5 4 ft 3 / s e c )

From above table,

Required base area of basin

= 1 . 5 x 4 7 9 = 7 1 4 m2

Assuming width to be A and length to width

ratio 2:1

2 A2 = 7 1 4

A = 18.9m.

Used basin size 38 x19 x 1.5m.

Anchor Trench Design

A trench is dug on the berm and the membrane

is inserted into the trench for Anchoring.
Dimension of the trench needs to be calculated
so pullout does not occur.

Synthetic membrane design variable.

M a x i m u m a l l o w a b l e p u l l ( Fp ) a t a p o i n t A .

Fp = σy t l


σy = Y i e l d s t r e s s o f s y n t h e t i c m e m b r a n e

t = thickness of synthetic membrane

Total force resisting

F R = Ys h b t a n δ + W L A t a n δ


Ys = u n i t w e i g h t o f s o i l

b = trench width

h = trench depth

δ = friction angle

Total force resisting when soil cover is


Frc = Ys ( h + h′ ) t a n δ + ( W + Ys ) L A t a n δ

W i s n e g l i g i b l e c o m p a r e t o Ys a s a f e t y f a c t o r
( 1 . 2 – 1 . 5 ) m a y b e u s e d t o c a l c u l a t e d Frc .

Example :

Design an anchor trench for 40 mil HDPE liner

( σy t = 1 4 4 0 k g / m ) c o v e r s o i l i s 6 0 c m t h i c k a n d
h a s a u n i t w e i g h t o f 1 . 7 g / cm3 . A s s u m e a r u n o n
length of 1m and trench width of 1.2m. Used FS
= 1.3 and δ = 18°.

Frc = 1 . 7 x 103 ( h + 0.6) x 1 . 2 t a n 1 8 ° + 1 . 7 x 103 x 0 . 6 x t a n 1 8

h is obtained by both eqn Fp = σy t l a n d Frc ,

h = 0.57m

Use a 60cm deep trench


Leachate collection is used to remove

accumulation of leachate in landfills. It is
provided at the bottom of the landfills but
above the linear system. Bottom of the landfill
is provided at a slope of 1 to 5 percent in both
longitudinal and transverse direction.

Leachate collection channel are provided with a

network of perforated pipe surrounded with
inverted filter of gravel and sand.

Sump wells are also provided to pump the


Leachate collection pipe are perforated to allow
leachate collection and removal. The size and
spacing should be designed for adequate flow.


A Collection pipe is usually 6 in (15cm) in

diameter, although some designer prefer an 8
in (20 cm) diameter as minimum.

The hydraulic of pipe is evaluated using

Manning’s Formula,

1.486 𝐴 𝑅 2/3 𝑆 1/2

Q =


Q is flow rate,

A is cross sectional area

R is hydraulic mean radius

Assuming a circular plastic pipe (h=0.01)

running full

𝑄 0.5
D = 0.237 ( )

Where D is the required pipe diameter.

Example :

If the drain has a slope to a uniform 0.05%

slope to a common header sloping at 0.1%,
determine the design flow rate and minimum
size for the drain and the common header. Area
covered by drainage system is 300mX800m.


Flow rate and minimum size of drain are


e = 4 0 c m / y r = 1 . 2 7 x 10−6 𝑐𝑚/𝑠

Q = 1 0 0 m x 3 0 0 m x 1 . 2 7 x 10−8 𝑚/𝑠

= 3 . 8 1 x 10−4 𝑚3 /𝑠

D = 0.237( )0.375

=0.051m = 5.1 cm

Use a minimum of 15cm

Flow rate and minimum size for the header are

calculated as

Q = 8 0 0 m x 3 0 0 m x 1 . 2 7 x 10−8 𝑚/𝑠

= 3 . 0 5 x 10−3 𝑚3 /𝑠

D = 0.237 ( )

=0.098 = 9.8cm

Use a minimum of 15 cm.


Geotextile also called geotextile fabric are

made from synthetic polymers (resins) . The
selection of geotextile is based on permittivity
and filter requirements.

Permittivity is defined as

Ψ = 𝐾𝑛 /𝑡

Ψ is permittivity

𝐾𝑛 is hydraulic conductivity normal to the

plane of fabric t is thickness of fabric.

If the leachate head above the fabric is h and

t h e i n f l o w r a t e p e r u n i t a r e a i s 𝑄𝑑, t h e n r e q u i r e d
permittivity is

Ψ = 𝐾𝑛 /𝑡= 𝑄𝑑 /ℎ

Example :

Leachate generation is 20 in/year and maximum

allowable head buildup is 12 in. Calculate the
required permittivity b. If the flow rate in the
l a b o r a t o r y i s 6 0 0 𝑚𝑚3 / s a t a h e a d o f 5 0 m m a n d
area normal to flow 4185 𝑚𝑚2 . Calculate

Solution :

a . 𝑄𝑑 = 0 . 0 0 4 5 6 f t / d a y
Ψ required =0.00456/1
= 0 . 0 0 4 5 6 day −1
= 5 . 3 x 10−8 S −1

b. Ψ geotextile
= 600 / (50x4185)
= 2 . 9 x 10−3 S −1


Landfill gas is a mixture of various gases

generated due to biochemical oxidation of
organic matter which contain eg. Co2 , which
causes depletion of ozone layer. Environmental
consequence of landfill gas migration can be
substantial may range from nuisance to damage
human health.


Composition of landfill gas are methane carbon

dioxide, ammonia, carbon mono oxide
hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide.

Methane in presence of excess of 5 percent can

be explosive.

Composition of Landfill Gas

Co mp one nt P e rce nta ge

Carbon dioxide
Hydrogen Sulfide
Carbon Monoxide
Trace Compound 0.5

Gas production in landfill is sensitive to many

Variable and accurate prediction is difficult.

Under favorable condition methane generation

i s 0 . 2 𝑓𝑡 3 / l b / y r . I f t h e r e f u s e i s s a t u r a t e d a n d
the moisture content is 0.2 on a dry weight
b a s i s , m e t h a n e p r o d u c t i o n w o u l d b e 0 . 1 1 𝑓𝑡 3 / l b
of dry refuse per year (7.11/kg/yr). Considering

an average landfill life of 30 years, the
production per kilogram of dry weight would
be 213/kg, which is consistent with analytical

In Non-arid region

𝐶𝐻4 (𝑚3 /𝑚𝑖𝑛) = 7 . 6 6 W - - - - - - ( a )

In Arid region

𝐶𝐻4 (𝑚3 /𝑚𝑖𝑛) = 5 . 8 7 W

In both equation W is welled waste in 106

megagram. The landfill from which data were
used were about 30 years old.

Example :

Estimate the gas production in 𝑓𝑡 3 / l b / y r of

refuse in an old landfill where average rainfall
is over 25 in/yr.

From equation, as

𝐶𝐻4 = 7 . 6 6 x 10−9 𝑚3 / m i n / k g

= 7 . 6 6 ( 0 . 5 2 5 x 106 m i n / y r )

(3.28 𝑓𝑡/𝑚)3 x 10−9 / ( 2 . 2 0 4 l b / k g ) = 0 . 0 6 5 𝑓𝑡 3 / y r / l b .


Landfill gas control is usually done either by

passive or active venting system. A passive
system is that which has no mechanical system
pump, tank etc.

An active system (forced venting) employs

mechanical means to induce a sink (Vacuum or
suction) to where the gas flows, which gives
positive control and greater flexibility.

Passive Venting:

In many landfill, local geology allows lateral

migration of gas to be controlled by perimeter
trench. Vertical migration through the cap is
passively controlled as well.

Figure shows some example of passive venting.

Active Venting:-

When passive venting is considered insufficient

for control of landfill gas, active or forced
venting is adopted. A vacuum pump or blower
may be connected to the discharge end of a
passive system pipe to develop an active
venting system or extraction well may be used.
Gas is generated in sanitary landfills as a result
of refuse decomposition and moisture. Methane
and carbon dioxide are major component of
landfill gas; other component are non methane
organic compound (NMOC). Methane is
explosive and need to be controlled, although it
does have side benefit as a source of fuel.

Landfill gas is measured in various ways that
may include conduction pumping test and is
vented by trenches, vent pipe and extraction

Extraction well can serve the dual purpose of

methane and NMOC control and LFG


There are mainly two purpose of monitoring
whether land fill is performing as designed and
to ensure that land fill meet all the regulatory
requirement and standard. Usually hydro -
geologist are assigned the task of developing
performance monitoring program med for
groundwater around landfills.


Leach ate head is monitored in a containment
type land fill. Leach ate head within a land fill
is expected to vary both with location and time.
It is expected to be highest near the cr est of
liner and lowest near the collection pipe.

At a minimum the leach ate head level should

be monitored at these two location. Leach ate
head level varies with time. Therefore leach ate
head level should be done frequently to see if
performing as designed. A weekly monitoring
for the last 3-4 years of operation & monthly
monitoring thereafter is suggested.



Head within the ground water dewatering

system should be monitored to check whether
the system performing as designed.

Head is expected to vary both in terms of

location & time. Only horizontal monitoring
well are used to monitor head.
Design of head well is similar to that for the
horizontal leach ate head well. A monthly
monitoring is suggested, for the first 3 -4 years.


The unsaturated zone between the liner and

ground water table (if the liner is completely
above the season high groundwater table) has
to be monitored to detect leaks.

1. Installation of Instrumentation that can

collect leachate exfiltrate. These are termed
direct leakage monitors.
2. Installation of Instrument that can detect
water percolation so on these are called
indirect leakage monitors.

Advantage and Disadvantage of vertical and

Horizontal type Leach ate head wells

S.N. Vertical Head Wall Horizontal Head Wall

Can be installed before, Can be installed before

during or at completion waste placement.
of waste placement.

2. Must be extended No extension is

periodically if installed necessary.
before or during waste

Chance of damage
3. Chance of damage
during waste placement
during waste placement
is high.
is low.

Waste shifting and

4. Hard to protect from
settling has no effect.
waste shifting and
settling especially in
sludge tend landfills.


There are two type of leakage monitor.

1) Suction Lysimeter
2) Basin Lysimeter

Location and number of lysimeter depends upon

landfill design.

Installation of more than one lysimeter below

the sub-base is preferable because performance
of the landfill continued to be monitored even
if one lysimeter fails. Lysimeter should be
installed at the edge of landfill .

So that length of transfer piping is minimum.

Lysimeter can be installed almost anywhere
below a natural attenuation landfill. Leach ate
head is highest at the crest of the base liner. So
this is the location w here maximum leakage is
expected. Minimum leakage is expected below
the leach ate collection trenches.

If one lysimeter is to be installed per phase in a

land fill, then it should be installed below the
crest of the base liner. And if two are to be
installed per phase then they should be located
at the following points.

a) One below a crest of a base liner a middle

of module and third below the collection

b) There should be at least one lysimeter below
each phase of containment type of landfill.

Suction Lysimeter

Suction Lysimeter should be installed below

liner. For protection these should be laid below
several feet below sub grade. These lysimeter
does not function well if the moisture content
of vadose zone is extremely low.

There are different designs of suction


1. Vacuum operated

1. Vacuum operated
2. Vacuum-pressure operated
3. Vacuum pressure

Samples with check values.

Example :

Determine an area for a basin lysimeter

installed below a 13m (4.3 ft) thick clay lined
site. Assume 10% spillage & sampling frequency

= 30 days, liner permeability = 1x10 -7 cm/sec
average leach ate head over the liner = 30 cm

Solution :


= ( 1 x 1 0 - 8 ) x ( 1 3 0 + 3 0 ) x 𝐴/ ( 1 3 0 )

= (1.23 x 10-8) x 𝐴

Leakage/30 day

= 0.03 x 𝐴 = (basin area)

There should be at least 4 liters of liquid in a

30 days period (assuming 10% spillage)


0.03 𝐴 = 4x1000

𝐴 = 125386 cm2
Assuming a length to breadth ratio of 2,
dimension of basin should be

2𝐵 x 𝐵 = 𝐴

= 125,386) 250cm x 500 cm (8ft x 16ft)

Size should be increased by 50 -10% to account

of lower permeability and additional spillage.


Indirect monitors can be divided i n two groups

1) Instrument that detect changes in moisture
content of vadose zone.

2) Instrument that detect change in

concentration in vadose zone.

Since some leakage are expected in clay liners and

these monitors are helpful to detect leakage.

Ground water monitoring :

There are two method of monitoring ground


1) Direct method

2) Indirect method

Geophysical method falls in indirect method
and is useful for routine geophysical

The following are issues that should be

considered in design installation and sampling
co-ordinate of sampling.

1) Co-ordinate of sampling point.

2) Minimum number of sampling required.

3) Design & installation of wells

4) Ground water quality status prior to land


5) Frequency of sampling

6) Collection & preservation of samples.

Co-ordinate and number of sampling points : -

An approximate leach ate plume configuration

needs to be visualized for the design and
installation of a monitoring network prior to
disposal of waste in land fill.

In general monitoring wells are placed on

potential migration path.

Interbedded Aquifer :

Groundwater flow direction can be different in

upper and lower stratum. There may be

different horizontal and vertical gradients in
each stratum, there is a possibility of existence
of vertical gradients in upper stratum in most
cases, proper assessment o f flow direction and
gradients (horizontal and vertical) is the key
successful monitoring network design.

Figure shows of a natural attenuation type
municipal waste landfill sited in a inter bedded

Note that background water samples are

collected from all three stratum and monitoring
points are well dispersed in each stratum,
because plu is expected to penetrate to lower
sandy aquifer.

Aquifer with clay lenses :

Size of lenses is an important issue for such


Sometimes lenses are quite large and may have

perched water. Following figure an example
of containment of landfill.

Three dimensional array of monitoring points is
needed for proper monitoring ground water
down-gradient of landfills

Monitoring points for each landfill should be
custom designed.

A three dimensional array of monitoring points

intercepting the plume is necessary to
determine status of ground water contamination
due to land fill sitting. Most difficult part is to
estimate plume geometry.

Plum geometry depends upon leach ate entry

velocity ground water, velocity, permeability,
soil stratigraphy.


Gas around land fill (both above and within the

land fill needs to be monitored. Although
movement of gas is low should be monitored on
routine basis.) Air around land fill should also
be monitored.

Gas prone similar to design of ground water

wells are installed around land fills. Sub-soil
stratigraphy is needed prior to selecting
monitoring points. Usually migration exit from
sand deposit however fracture also serve us
conduit of gas.

Gas also migrate from gravel bed usually land

fill gas is monitored for methane concentration.
However hazardous air contaminants may be
added to the list. Methane is explosive between
5 and 15% volume concentration of air.

Gas migration seems to occur in pulses. Because
of high variability in gas concentration
quarterly or even monthly monitoring may not
detect real status of migration because time and
date of sampling may not synchronize with high

Gas monitoring should be done twice a day(mid

morning& afternoon and late afternoon) for 7-
10 consecutive days in month when migration
likely to occur. Chances of gas migration are
high when ground is either frozen or saturated.

Landfill Air Monitoring :

Sample collection and allowable concentration

of air contaminated pose special problem for
landfill air monitoring. The threshold limit
values( TLV) issued by the American
Conference of Governmental Industrial
Hygienists (1987) are for indoor exposure.

Several sampling techniques are available

principle objective of sampling is to collect

polluted air sample to analyze concentration of
pollutants. Gas sample devices are divided in
three categories passive, grab and active.
Passive sampling involves collection of
pollutants by diffusion of gas to a collection
medium. Although passive system is simple and
costless a long collectio n time is required (7-30

Values of TLV obtained from American

conference of Governmental industrial
Hygienists (1987)

Threshold limit values of selected Air


Contaminants TLV

Dust 1mg/m3

Carbon monoxide 50 ppm

Asbestos depend on type

(0.2 to 2 fiber/m3)

Benzene 10ppm

Coal dust 2mg/m3

Cotton dust 0.2mg/m3

Grain dust 4mg/m3

Hydrogen sulphide 10ppm

Nuisance particulates 10mg/m3

Phenol 5ppm

Vinyl Chloride 5ppm

Wood dust

Hard wood 1mg/m3

Soft wood 5mg/m3


A leachate tank should be monitored for level

of accumulated liquid and leachate quality.
Leachate generation rate is estimated during
land fill design quality of leac hate should be
monitored at least once during the active life
and 2-5 years after closure of landfill.

Leachate quality monitoring is needed to

interpret ground water data and revise ground
water monitoring program.

Sometimes BOD and volume of leachate are
monitored daily prior to discharging leachate
into intake point of the treatment plant.

Final cover monitoring should also done





The term environmental impact is used to

define the alteration of the environment caused
by the activities involved in t he implementation
of a programme. In this context, the concept of
environment includes the complex of physical,
social, cultural and aesthetic factors regarding
the individual and the community which
determine both the form, the character, t he
relation and the development . The
environmental impact, in its above-defined
most vast) meaning, caused by the presence of
an installation may evoke both positive and
negative effects. The procedure of
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) aims at
evaluating (in the sense of weighing-up and
marking) the relationship which exists between
the installation proposed and the environment
in which it is to be implemented. This is carried
out by considering the largest amount of
information available which involves technical,
legal, economic, social and environme ntal
aspects in order to form a jugdement of
feasibility and acceptability. For the assessment
of environmental impact numerous methods
have been proposed and generally in use can b e
schematically summarized in two groups:

1. Formal methods, standardized as a guide

and work-tool used to arrange the
environmental information deriving from
the impact study;

2. ad hoc method, to be developed according to

the situation without any

With regard to the formal methods, the most

significant examples may be grouped in to 4

 the 'overlapping map' method

 lists of questions and controls
 correlation matrices
 networks

The first method consists in the overlapping of

transparent maps relating to all elements of
impact considered onto maps of various themes

(socio-economical, morphological, etc.) in order
to show up the areas of minimum and/or
maximum impact, This method has proceed to
be called and has mainly been applied to
studies concerning the sitting of
infrastructures, roads, motorways, oil ducts,

The list of questions is a series of queries

concerning the various environmental problems
which may be encountered. These lists are
necessarily compiled by involving as many
experts, corporations and populations as
possible and focus on the aspects which will
become the objects of the study. The control
lists represent and evolution of the list of
questions and permit the indivi dualization of
those activities and elements of impact which
may influence the environment as well as the
environmental categories present.

The matrices may be considered as two-

dimensional control lists in which on one
dimension the individual characteristics of a
project are shown (proposed activities,
elements of impact, etc.) whereas on the other
dimension the environmental cat egories which
may be affected by the project are listed. The
effects or potential impacts are therefore
individualized by a confrontation of the two

control lists. The differences between the
various proposed types of matrix are to be
observed mainly in the variety, number and
specificity of control lists as well as in the
system of evaluation of the individualized
impact, With regard to assessment, this ranges
from the more individualizing of impact (
marked with some sort of sign, a cross, dash,
asterisk, etc.) to a qualitative evaluation (good,
moderate, sufficient, reasonable ) or to a
numerical evaluation which may be either
absolute or relative : generally an assessment is
effected regarding the result of impact (positive
or negative). The numerical evaluation is often
subject to criticism as it would seem to
introduce a criteria of objective jugdement that,
in reality, id impossible to achieve. Al ong the
better-known examples of matrix is Leopold's
matrix (Leopoldm 1971). This is made up of two
control lists including respectively 100 possible
actions linked to the proposed project and 88
environmental components which are
susceptible to impact. The impacts to be
analyzed therefore are 8800. This method
requires that the intersection between each
action and each out, a number (from 1 to 10) is
inserted in the upper part of the barred square
to indicate the size of impact. In the lower part
another number (from 1 to 10) to indicates the
importance. Other examples are afforded by

Moore's matrix (moore et al.,'1973) which
requires an assessment on a ground-level
ordinal scale (negligible, low, moderate, high)
and Clark's matrix (Clark et al.,1976) which
gives not a numerical assessment but a
qualitative evaluation based on a give-polarity
nominal scale:

 beneficial/adverse
 short term/long term
 reversible/irreversible
 direct/indirect
 local/strategic

A further tool in use is that of networks which

introduce a falling sequence of cause/effect
conditions: in this way permitting the
identification of primary, secondary and
tertiary impact thereby enabling assessment of
cumulated impact as long as the proba bility of
the event happening (the occurrence of impact),
its degree o importance and its dimension are
taken into account. On closer examination, the
latter two factors represent the analogue of the
two numbers examined according to Leopold's
matrix. Application of this method, known also
by the name of 'impact tree' was undertaken by
Sorensen (Sorensen, 1973) with regard to impact
caused by the construction of a new road.

One of the major problems evidentiate in

literature is that of obtaining a q uantitative
assessment o impact in such a way as to allow
confrontation of the effects provoked by
various proposed projects by means of
numerical values. This tendency is clearly
shown in the application carried out by
Sorensen and in the procedure which was first
set up by the Battelle Institute (Dee Norbert et
al., 1972). The latter method is aimed at
assessing the effects on the environment in
commensurable units. The method consists in
the subdivision factors, human environment.
The impact on the various environmental
categories is described by means of parameters ,
each of which is given a certain value, with
regard to importance, so that the overall sum is
equal to 1000. Subsequently, an index of '
quality of the environment' s introduced for
each parameter, with values ranging between 0
and 1 which are plotted on graphs. Therefore,
by multiplying the index of quality by the
relative weight and adding the values obtained,
a numerical assessment of the impact to which
each environmental category is subject can be

It should be underlined that, in our opinion , it

is somewhat difficult to individualize
indicators of environmental quality which may
be effectively measured thereby rendering the
above-mentioned approach impractical or at
Andreottola et al.


This chapter describes a method for the

assessment of environmental impact which uses
chromatic tonalities in order to facilitate the
understanding of the final results of the study.
This represents the perfecting of a method
already used for assessment of the impacts
caused by a wastewater treatment plant. (Cossu
et al., 1986). The following section will consider
will consider the more significant steps of the
assessment its item by item.

General Description

As a reference point the EEC normative has

been applied (EEC, 1985). This underlines that
information is to be provided by means of
environmental impact assessment, but it does
not supply indications concerning the way in
which the impact is to be evaluated not
regarding the choice of criteria to be us e to
limit eventual negative effects. Therefore a new
' ad hoc' method has been developed, which
above all met the fundamental requirement of
flexibility of use.

In fact, EIA may be applied with various


1. a single project is a single site;
2. more than one project but relative to only
one site;
3. one project at different sites;
4. more than one project at more than one site;
5. a project that has already been carried out.

The chromatic matrix scheme proposed here

may be used for each of the five EIA objec tives.
This is made possibl e by the presence of five
matrix themes which evidentiate, each for their
own sector, interaction between the causes,
elements of impact and environment categories
. In order to carry out a more detailed analysis
of the causes of impact, several phases of the
evolution of the project are characterized and
linked to different types of impact with regard
to duration, entity and probability of the event
taking place. The phases taken into
consideration are as follows:

(a) temporary phase (pre-project period and

construction of the installation)
(b) phase of ordinary exercise
(c) phase of extraordinary exercise

For each of these phases a group of five

matrices may be prepared, as explained later.

Considering the difficulty often encountered in
quantifying the entity of interaction between
the various control lists present in each matrix,
we used a chromatic representation to describe
them in a qualitative form. Two different
chromatic scales were used to which positive or
negative influences corresponded and which
include four assessment levels (expressed by
different tonalities). The four chromatic
tonalities correspond to negligible, low,
moderate or high qualitative levels.

The chromatic representation of impact

consents an immediate and synth etic
individualization of the critical elements of
impact where action may eventually be taken.

Matrix of the Causes and Elements of Impact

(Matrix A)

The first matrix of the series evidentiate the

activities of the plant which cause the elements
of impact. As the method refers to three
different phases of the project, the here relative
matrices must on the various elements of
impact for each phase. The latter were
identified as those factors able to modify the
state of environmental categories. The
importance of the causes with regard to
determination of a specific element of impact

ids assessed by means of different chromatic

The first matrix (or better, this first group of

matrices enables us to individualize the
environmental impact of a project or of a plant
and thereby identify the need for
improvements. In the case of more alternative
projects to be assessed, the matrix represents
an efficient tool in establishing a sound
background for decision-making.

Matrix of indicators and Environmental Categories

(Matrix A1)

The environmental categories may be defined as

those components of the environment which
suffer from the effects generated by the
elements of impact. These include; not only the
physical components of the environment (air,
water, flora, fauna, etc.) but also those more
strictly related to human activity (public
health, economic activities, social relations,
cultural values, etc.). Contrary to the elements
of impact which are characteristics peculiar to
the single operational phases of the plant, the
environmental categories are cle arly invariable.

In order to describe the state of the single

environmental categories of the site (or sites) in
question, it is necessary to define some relevant

indicators. In fact the definition of an
informative background of the existing
environmental categories constitutes one of the
main phases of the procedure of impact
assessment and is specifically demanded in
some counties (e.g. USA and France).

The assessment of environmental indicators

may be either of a qualitative or a quantitative
nature depending on the categories being dealt
with and the mathematical or direct
measurement instruments available. The
chromatic tonality resulting from the
intersection between an indicator and an
environment category allows the assessment
both of the qualitative state of the environment
and the effect of certain causes in rendering the
environment, more or less compatible to
receiving the installatio n.

By means of this matrix ( unique as to its

independence from the activities linked to the
plant) it will be possible to express a judgment
of suitability of one or more sites with regard
to the type of plant which is to be installed,
which makes the method useful in solving the
problem of the best location.

Matrix of Potential Impacts (Matrix B)

This matrix presents as control lists the
elements of impact and environmental
categories already defined in matrices A and Al

From the intersectio n of these two lists, the

potential impact manifested by the installation
with regard to the environment can be singled
out and therefore the B matrix is capable of
globally evidentiating all problems under

In fact, if it should prove necess ary to assess

the impact of a particular installation at
various sites, the same number of matrices will
be obtained and on cross-examination a
judgment of acceptability may pass. Evidently
in this case the diversity of the various B
matrices is put down to the variations in the
matrix al (see last section). This latter variation
coincides with the different characteristics of
the sites whilst the A matrix remains
unchanged on account of its dependence on the
characteristics of the installation.

Vice versa, if it should prove necessary to

assess the impact of more than one installation
on one single site, the resulting various B
matrices will be influenced by the variation in
the matrices whilst obviously the A1 will
remain unchanged.

In the case of a decision which depends on
the results of consideration of more than one
project based on more than one site, the number
of B matrices taken into account increase
considerably as they are equal to the
combination of all possible cases. However, the
examination of the al matrices alone will
provide enough information in order to
immediately discard those sites which are
clearly unsuitable to contain a certain type of
installation (e.g. a sanitary landfill), thereby
allowing the examination of a smaller number
of B matrices.

Finally, in the case of an already existing single

installation, the B matrix simply demonstrates
the situation of potential impact, indicating
those points toward which improvements
should be directed. Concerning the other cases
previously discussed, although the B matrix is
capable of allowing a first judgment, the
definitive choice should be made only after
careful assessment of the situation in the light
of the operation of limitation.

Matrix of Limiting Criteria (Matrix C)

The fourth matrix of the scheme takes into

consideration, on the basis of potential
negative impact individualized in matrix B,
operations and measure to be adopted in order

to limit, or rather to eliminate or reduce to
acceptable environmental levels, the negative
impacts. Theirs action must have an influence
on the causes which greatly contribute towards
the onset of negative elements of impact and
therefore their singling out must include a
careful evaluation of the A matrix. To this
regard, two important aspects mus t be
underlined. Firstly, it is necessary to have a
clear picture of all possible interrelations as
any one single element of impact may be
influences by more than one introduced
improvement. Moreover, it must not be
overlooked that these same measures may
produce simultaneously positive effects on
some elements and negative side effects on
others. For example, in the field of sanitary
landfilling, with the aim of limiting the impact
caused by the presence of leachate using a
collection system and an on-site treatment
process, together with the evident positive
effects, some negative effects may arise from
odors coming from various parts of the
treatment plant. Therefore the effic iency of the
measures will have to be assessed using the two
different chromatic scales already defined.

Matrix of Residual Impacts (Matrix D)

On the basis of the limitation measures utilized
and of their efficacy, evaluated using the C
matrix, the method provides a fifth matrix for
assessment of limited impact, that is of t he
residual impact once the operations of


Plant Characteristic Site Characteristic

Analysis Analysis

Impact Source
(cause) Environmental
Matrix Matrix Indicator
Interactions Interactions
A A1
Magnitude Magnitude
Assessment Assessment
Impact Environmental
Elements B Categories

Potential Impact

Limitation criteria Matrix


Potential Impact

Sites or

Figure 1. Scheme of the environmental impact

assessment methodology through chromatic

limitation have already been set up to

counteract the various ;causes of impact.

This matrix is entirely analogous to the B

Matrix used for assessment of potential impact
but, diversely front the latter, the examination
of this matrix allows us to express a definitive
judgment on the degree of compatibility of an
installation with regard to the surrounding
environment. Moreover, the cross-examination
of B and D matrices will consent a visible
appreciation of the efficiency of limitation
criteria. This last observation demonstrates
how such a tool is undoubtedly suitable in
those cases where assessment of environmental
impact should require the formulation of
proposed restrictive operations in order to
obtain less and less residual impact: this aim
could be fulfilled by means of an iterative

Comprehensive Scheme of the Method

Figure 1 shows a block scheme of th e method
described in the previous section. The iteration
evidentiate in the scheme means that the
number of evaluations of residual impact will
be equal to the product of the number of project
for the number of sites deemed suitable. All
these assessments will subsequently be the
object of cross-analysis (dotted line in the
figure) prior to final judgment. Figure 2 shows
a global representation of the five matrices: the
arrows represent the logical pattern for their
use. Obviously, the whole scheme will be
repeated for each of the three phases of the
installation, thereby allowing the
individualization of residual impact both in the
temporary phases and in the phases of ordinary
and extraordinary exercise.

Only the person responsible for the final

session may give the correct value to the impact
present in each phase; this task is not the
responsibility of the person carrying out the
impact study. However, once the amount of
politico-strategic reasoning's), this method
permits the amalgamation into a single series of
matrices of all the various phases: obviously
this will mean dealing with matrices of a higher


The described methodological tool can easily be

applied to various types of installation.
Generally the environmental categories taken
into account are the same for all types of
installation, as underlined also in the EEC
directive (EEC, 1985):

1. man , flora and fauna

2. ground, water, air, climate, landscape
3. interaction between the previous factor s
material goods and cultural patrimony

Vice versa, the environmental indicator s will be

strictly dependent on the type of installation as
their function is to direct the strictly depende nt
on the type of installation as their function is
to direct the study of the pre-existing.
Environment in those directions which may
bitter be able to explain interaction with the
installation and the environment itself.
Similarly, the elements of activities peculiar to
the installation, will not be of a general nature
but will be specific for each different type. It
may prove necessary impact, to consider some
specific items of the processes used in any
given type of installation.

In the following sections the method is applied

to the specific case of a sanitary landfil l. It
must be borne in mind that the ass essment will

not only take into account the ordinary working
phase but also the preceding phase and also the
phase of extraordinary exercise . Each of these
may be examined either as a single ph ase or
together with the others, in which case the
results may be summarized into a single group
of matrices.

Matrix of Causes and Elements of Impact

Temporary Phase

The temporary phase concerns the time front
the decision to build the installation to its
completion. The necessity of constructing a
solid waste disposal plant is linked to the need
to solve a situation of environmental
degradation caused be the uncontrolled
disposal of waste matter together with
requirement of meeting precise legislative

Therefore, the environmental degradation and

the Obeyance of a normative should be
considered as causes of the decision to build a
sanitary landfill. This d ecision is itself and
element of impact capable of modifying the
surrounding environment; it affects soci al
relation with regard to the eventu al protests
from the population who live near the pre-
chosen site and affects the value and order of
the territory.

The start of the actual construction, the setting

up of the site and the occupation of the area
provokes the onset of several elements of
impact such as noise, heavy traffic caused by
lorries, dust, etc. which , although they do not
last very long , must not be ignored.

Table 1 shows the two control lists of causes
and elements of impact summarizing the
considerations made hitherto.

Phase of Ordinary Functioning

The singling out of the elements relative to all

phases may be conducted by means of
examination of all activities connected to the
functioning of a sanitary landfill. The elements
of impact linked to the phases of landfilling,
compacting covering of waste, must be
underlined as it may be the cause of numerous.

Table 1. List of causes and elements of impact for

a sanitary landfill during the temporary phase.

Causes Elements of impact

Environmental degradation Decision to build a plant

Obeyance of normative Emission of dust and particles

Installation and start of Noise

Increase of traffic

Occupation of area and


Risk of accidents

Table 2. List of causes and elements of impact for

the ordinary functioning phase f a sanitary

Causes Elements of impact

Cover soil supply Emission of dust and particles

Transport of waste Noise

Type of refuse Smells

Disposal and spreading of waste Biogas

Compacting of waste Increase of traffic

Covering Dispersion of light matter

Height of tip Leachate

Final covering Stability of ground/waste

Occupation of area and volume


Elements of impact : the local population is aware

of this and makes it a fundamental question in
the acceptance of a sanitary landfill.

Phase of Extraordinary Functi oning

Table 3. shows a list of causes and consequent

impacts during the extraordinary phase . With
this term we means those situation s which may
occur as exceptional event, even if already
taken into consideration by the containment

It should be specified that above all this phase

may be studied independently from the others
in order to acquire information which permits
the setting-up of maximum limitation measures
against catastrophic events and to assess the
risk linked to such situations.

Table 3.List of causes and elements of impact for

the extraordinary functioning phase of a
sanitary landfill.

Causes Elements of impact

Escape of leachate Leachate

Migration of biogas Biogas

Explosions Stability of ground/waste

Clogging of drains for collection of Risk of accidents

biogas and leachate

Breakdown of leachate treatment Odours


Breakdown of biogas treatment plant


Negative Positive

Negligible yellow light blue

Low orange blue

Moderate red dark blue

High gamet red dark green

Figure 3. Representation of A matrices in case
of a sanitary landfill a) temporary phase; (b)
ordinary functioning phase; (c) extra-ordinary
functioning phase. Intersection cells between
causes and impact elements are pointed out
with a stronger frame. The frame will be filled
by the colour suggested by the assessment.

Configuration of the Matrix

Interaction between the different causes and

elements of impact are summarized in Fig. 3
which shows the A matrices of the scheme
relative to the various phases. However, the
debate as to which criteria should be adopted
for the choice of the weight (and the refore of
chromatic tonality) for each interaction
cause/element of impact is still open.

Matrix of Indicators and Environmental


As already stated in the ge neral description,

the specificity of the installation requires a
choice of suitable environmental indicators.
With regard to sanitary landfills, the items to
be taken into account are shown in Table 4
along with the list of environmental categories .
It may be observed that together with those
items which allow the establishment of a site
suitable for the location of a sanitary landfill
(hydro geologic study, climatology, etc.) we
also took into account the ‘quality’ indicator in

Table 4. List of environmental indicators and

categories for a sanitary landfill.

Causes Elements of impact

Quality Surface and ground waters

Climatology Soil and sub-soil

Earthquakes Noise level

Availability of material for draining Air

and covering
Flora and fauna
Road network
Distance from townships
Health and safety
Traditions and cultural patrimony
Morphology of area
Resources and territorial order
Socio-economic status of the area
Social relations
Urban planning
Cultural values
Sanitary situation
Occupation and economic activities
Classification and state of species
Hydrogeological and geotechnic

order to characterize the state of environmental
categories which existed prior to the

It would be superfluous to give detailed

descriptions of the envir onmental categories,
considering the arguments previously provided
but it should be specified that the category
‘climate’ occupies and atypical role as it is an
active element influencing the elements of
impact (for example the formation of leachate).

Therefore is presence should have been

foreseen in the A matrix among the cause of
impact , but consideri ng the close dependence
of the items on the type of installation,
therefore directly subject to limitation criteria ,
this position would have also appeared as
anomalous . Therefore it is preferable to
include the latter in the present matrix as the
item ‘climate’ plays an important role judgment
of acceptance of a site. In fact, it should be
remembered that the global examination of the
A1 matrix permits, a priori, scrutiny of the more
suitable sites.

Concerning the chromatic tonality to be

inserted in the intersection square, the choice
will depend on the specificity of the sites and
will have to be supported by a series of data
not only regarding the quality of air , water,

soil, etc., but also on traditions , socio-
economic state, urban standards etc. Figure 4
shows the overall matrix in which the
intersecting squares are simply individualized
by a darker border.


Negative Positive

Negligible yellow light blue

Low orange blue

Moderate red dark blue

High gamet red dark green

Figure 4 : Representation of A1 matrix for a

sanitary landfill

Matrix of Potential Impacts

From the confrontation between the elements of

impact and environmental categories, the
situation regarding potential impact of a
sanitary landfill is obtained. The chromatic
matrix allows a clear and immediate visual
assessment of the entity of various impacts and
represents the conclusion of the examination
both of the project characteristics and of those
regarding the site where the installation is to
be located. In order to be thorough, Table 5
shows the control lists relating to this matrix,
or betters a list of elements of impact and
environmental categories, whilst Fig. 5 shows
the B matrix scheme valid for the phase of
ordinary exercise. The compilation of that
relation to the other two phases will follow the

same procedure: the elements of impact will
differ but not the environmental categories
that, representing the environment, will remain
unchanged. A first analysis of the matrix shows
how some categories are affected by numerous
elements of impact: this with regard to

Table 5. List of elements of impact and

environmental categories for a sanitary landfill.

Elements of impact Environmental categories

Decision to build the plant Surface and ground waters

Emission of dust and particles Soil and sub-soil

Noise Sound level

Smells Air

Biogas Flora and fauna

Gaseous emission Landscape

Movement of lorries Health and safety

Dispersion of light matter Traffic

Vectors Resources and territorial order

Leachate Social relations

Occupation of area and volume Cultural values

Stability ground/waste Occupation and economic activities

Definitive order of installation


Negative Positive

Negligible yellow light blue

Low orange blue

Moderate red dark blue

High gamet red dark green

Figure 5 :Representation of B matrix for a sanitary

landfill, in the phase or ordinary exercise.

Negative Positive

Negligible yellow light blue

Low orange blue

Moderate red dark blue

High gamet red dark green

Figure 6 .Representation of C matrix for a sanitary

landfill, in the phase of ordinary exercise.
And territorial order’ and ‘Social relations’
which evidentiate the most delicate problem
of the location a sanitary landfill.

Matrix of Limitation Criteria

Figures 6, 7 and 8 show the matrices of

limitation (Type C) valid for the three phases of
the landfill. With regard to the temporary
phase, emphasis is put on proper information
being given to the public since this is the only
thing limiting the impact caused by the
decision to build a landfill.

Concerning the ordinary functioning phase, the

limitation criteria will mainly affect the manner
of management of the plant, but can also
propose new protective installations such as
artificial lining , a plant fo r the collection and
treatment of leachate, a plant for the collection
and treatment of biog as, etc. As already pointed
out, such installations may produce negative
effects and so themselves be the cause of
further elements of impact. This same aspect is
chromatic scale indicates nega tive effects.

For the phase of extraordinary functioning , the

criteria used are aimed at limiting as far as
possible the entity (wells, drainage system
under synthetic liner) or the risk of occurrence
(measuring of the quality of biogas, flame-

breaking gear, etc.) of exceptional events. The
limitation criteria which have been indentified
and proposed in the three C matrices certainly
do not exhaust all problems relative to control :
new proposals will consent the amplification
both of the extent and efficac y of actions of

Figure 7.Representation of C matrix for a sanitary

landfill, during the temporary phase.

Figure 8.Representation of C matrix for a sanitary
landfill, in the phase extra ordinary

Matrix of Residual Impact

As previously explained , the aim of the D

matrix is that of showing the entity of the
residual impact still left after having applied
the measures of limitation. Therefore this is the

matrix which reassumes all information
concerning environmental impact and directs
the final decision.

The control lists are analogous to those of the B

matrix (Fig. 9) and their cross-examination
permits the evidentiation of the efficacy of
limitation measures adopted without obliging
the user of the study to examine the C mat rix.

If after having made use of limitation measures,

the D matrix should present a residual impact
which is still too high , the method consents
arrival at the conclusion (for a sanitary
landfill, this aspect is most important) that the
principal causes are to be found in the
unsuitability of the site.

With regard to the phase of ext raordinary

functioning, the matrix facilitates assessment of
the risk connected to the danger of the
installation in itself (risk of explosion due to
biogas, risk of sudden l eaks of leachate, risk of
landslides, uncontrolled migration of biogas,
etc.) in the case of accidents which are not
completely controlled.


The impact assessment scheme using chromatic

matrices, similarly to the other matrix sys tems
from which it is derived (Leopard’s matrix,

Figure 9. Representation of residual impact D
matrix in case of a sanitary landfill.

Moore’s matrix must be considered exclusively

as a tool for environmental impact assessment.
This method is applied to allow for a careful
individualization of all elements to be taken
into account, a rational organization of the

results of the study and a syntheti c and
efficient representation to the latter. The
seriousness and efficacy of the assessment must
on no account depend on the major or minor
graphic attraction or complexity of the tool.

The proposed method is capable of solving the

problem of Environmental Impact Assessment at
all levels, in the case of:

1. more than one site and more than one project

2. a single site and more than one project
3. more than one site and only one project
4. only one site and a single project
5. improvements at an installation which
already exists

Considering that, among all matrices proposed ,

the A and A1 matrices perfectly analyze the
characteristics of the project and the site.
Furthermore, the use of the A1 matrix alone
allows a direct scrutiny of the sites.

The assessment scheme illustrated moreover

presents the advantage of taking into account
all phases of the life of the installa tion, some of
which are often overlooked but are nonetheless
important. In fact, examination of the possible
risks in the extraordinary phase may represents
a further element of discrimination and

orientation in the choice of the type of

The application proposed for sanitary landfill

with individualization of the various items at
the origin of impact, for the elements of impact,
for environment indicators and criteria of
limitation, must not be considered to
completely exhaust the problem : the specific
situations, as also the technological innovations
will be the best guide for the continual
adaptation and improvement of the method.

In conclusion, this scheme is proposed for use

at various competent levels. An official of some
public administrative office who does not
possess particular technical knowledge in the
field of waste disposal but who id called upon
to express an opinion on an installation
(concentrating on political, social, economic
and of course, environmental aspects) ac quires
an immediate and easy understanding of the
potential and residual impact on the
environment caused by the installation, thanks
to the immediate clarity of the B and D matrices
in this scheme. However, if the reader of the
Environmental Impact series of matrices, he or
she will find answers to the need to
comprehend all interrelations and relative
weights which have led to the conclu sive result

of the final matrix. A final aspect, but by no
means the least important, is that of the
possibility offered by this tool of presenting in
and easy way the results of the impact study to
the public.



The purpose of this checklist is to prompt the

designer or reviewer to consider aspects of
design for the different components of landfill
liner systems including Leachate Collection and
Removal Systems (LCRS), and Leak Detection
Systems (LDS).

1. Protective soil cover/select waste layer.

Will a protective soil cover or select waste layer

 Be used at this site? Y______N_____N/A

 Does this layer meet the minimum thickness

Y______N_____N/A requirement if any?

 Is the material selected available in the

vicinity? Y______N_____N/A

 Is compaction specified using low ground

pressure equipment? Y______N_____N/A

2. Granular drainage layer, Leachate Collection

and Removal System (LCRS).

 Will a granular drain be used at this site?

 Has the granular drainage layer been

designed to limit the head build-up to less
than 300mm (12 in) on top of the liner?

 Is the hydraulic conductivity of the

drainage material greater than 1 x 10-2

 Does the granular drainage layer have a

minimum thickness of 300mm (12 in.)?

 Do the contract documents adequately

specify material and installation
requirements? Y______N_____N/A

 Has a value engineering evaluation

performed to replace or to lessen the design
requirements of the granular drainage layer
by using a drainage geocomposite? If "Yes"
go to item (3). Y______N_____N/A

3. Geocomposite drainage layer, Leachate

Collection and Removal system(LCRS).

 Will a geocomposite be used at this site?

 Have the soil retention properties of the

geotextile been evaluated?
 Have the filtration requirements for the
geotextile been evaluated?

 Has the survivability of the geotextile been

evaluated? Y______N_____N/A

 Has the transmissivity of the geocomposite

been evaluated to limit the head within its
thickness thus to ensure an unconfined
flow)? Y______N_____N/A

 Have the reduction factors for creep,

intrusion, particulate clogging, biological
and chemical clogging been considered in
the hydraulic assessment of the
geocomposite? Y______N_____N/A

 Have load, gradient, seating period and

boundary conditions been specified in the
transmissivity requirements of the
geocomposite? Y______N_____N/A

 Has the interface frictional behavior of the
geocomposite against adjacent layers been
considered for stabilit y analysis?

 Do the contract documents adequately

specify material and installation
requirements? Y______N_____N/A

4. Collection piping system.

 Are drainage pipes sized and identified on

the drawings? Y______N_____N/A

 Has the equation for the piping spacing

Calculations been evaluated?(note that
Moore's equation is outdated and its
validity is questionable) ?

 Do the drainage layer collection points

freely drain into perimeter ditches?

 Are the outlets of the drainage pipes placed

above the bottom of the perimeter collection
trench to prevent clogging?

 Have pipe material and installation
requirements been adequately specified?

5. Geo membrane.

 Will a geomembrane be used at this site?


 Does the clay layer have a saturated

hydraulic conductivity of 1x10-7 cm/sec or
less? Y______N_____N/A

 Is the minimum geomembrane thickness met

if Any? Y______N_____N/A

 Do the contract documents adequ ately

specify material and installation
requirements? Y______N_____N/A

6. Compacted clay liner (CCL)

 Will a clay layer be used at this site?


 Does the clay layer have a saturated
hydraulic conductivity of 1x10-7 cm/sec or
less? Y______N_____N/A

 Is the clay layer a minimum of 600 mm(2ft)

in thickness? Y______N_____N/A

 Has a clay borrow source been identified

and tested? Y______N_____N/A

 Do the contract documents adequately

specify material and installation
requirements? Y______N_____N/A

7. Geosynthetic clay liner (GCL).

 Will a GCL be used at this site?


 Will regulators allow the use of a GCL at

This site? Y______N_____N/A

 Do the contract documents adequately

specify material and installation
requirements? Y______N_____N/A

8. Geonet/ geocomposite drainage layer, Leak
Detection Layer if any (geonet/geonet with
geotextile laminated to one or both sides)

 Will a geonet/ geocomposite be used at this

site? (geonet can only be used when two
adjacent layers are both geomembrane)
 Have the soil retention properties of the
geotextile been evaluated?

 Have the filtration requirements for the

geotextile been evaluated?

 Has the survivability of the geotextile been

evaluated? Y______N_____N/A

 Has the transmissivity of the geonet/

geocomposite been evaluated to limit the
head within its thickness?

 Have the reduction factors for creep,

intrusion, particulate clogging, biological
and chemical clogging been considered in
the hydraulic assessment of the
geocomposite? Y______N_____N/A

 Have load, gradient, seating period and
boundary? Y______N_____N/A


The purpose of this checklist is to prompt the

designer or reviewer to consider aspects of
design for the different components of landfill
liner systems including Leachate Collection and
Removal Systems(LCRS), and Leak Detection

1. Protective soil cover/select waste layer

 Will a protective soil cover or select waste

layer. Be use at this site?

 Does this layer meet the minimum thickness

of 300 mm (12 in.)? Y______N_____N/A

 Is the material selected available in the

vicinity? Y______N_____N/A

 Is compaction specified using low ground

pressure equipment? Y______N_____N/A

2. Granular drainage layer, Leachate Collection
and Removal System(LCRS)

 Will a granular drain be used at this site?


 Has the granular drainage layer been

designed to limit the head build-up to less
than 300mm (12in) on top of the liner?
 Is the hydraulic conductivity of the
drainage material greater than 1x10-2
cm/sec? Y______N_____N/A

 Does the granular drainage layer have a

minimum thickness of 300mm (12in.)?

 Do the contract documents adequately

specify material and installation
requirements? Y______N_____N/A

 Has a value engineering evaluation

performed to replace or to lessen the design
requirements of the granular drainage layer
by using a drainage geocomposite? If "Yes"
go to item (3). Y____N_____N/A

3. Geocomposite drainage layer, Leachate
Collection and Removal system(LCRS).

 Will a geocomposite be used at this site?


 Have the soil retention properties of the

geotextile been evaluated?

 Have the filtration requirements for the

geotextile been evaluated?

 Has the survivability of the geotextile been

evaluated? Y______N_____N/A

 Has the transmissivity of the geocomposite

been evaluated to limit the head within its
thickness thus to ensure an unconfined
flow)? Y______N_____N/A

 Have the reduction factors for creep,

intrusion, particulate clogging, biological
and chemical clogging been considered in
the hydraulic assessment of the
geocomposite? Y______N_____N/A

 Have load, gradient, seating period and

boundary conditions been specified in the

transmissivity requirements of the
geocomposite? Y______N_____N/A

 Has the interface frictional behavior of the

geocomposite against adjacent layers been
considered for stability analysis?

 Do the contract documents adequately

specify material and installation
requirements? Y______N_____N/A


The purpose of this checklist is to prompt the

designer or reviewer to consider of design for
the different components of landfill final
closure systems (FCS).

1. Vegetation

 Is vegetation applicable at this site?


 Are locally adapted perennial plants

specified? Y______N_____N/A

 Will the roots disrupt the low-permeability

layer? Y______N_____N/A

 Will plant density be sufficient to minimize
s o i l e r o s i o n t o n o m o r e t h a n 0 . 4 5 k g / 𝑚2 ( 2
tons per acre) per year as determined by the
Universal Soil Loss Equations?

 Have items such as durabilit y, maximum

particle size, gradation of the material been
considered? Y______N_____N/A
 If a synthetic material is used, have items
such as durability, tensile strength,
permissive shear strength and velocity of
the been considered? Y______N_____N/A

2. Topsoil

 Is a top soil layer applicable at this site?


 Does the topsoil have a minimum thickness

of 150mm (6 in.)? Y______N_____N/A

 Is a medium textured soil specified for the

top soil layer? Y______N_____N/A

 Is the topsoil representative of soils in the

vicinity? Y______N_____N/A

 Is traffic compaction specified using low
ground pressure equipment?

 Is the final top slope, after allowance for

settling and subsidence, no less than 3
percent to facilitate runoff?

4. Vegetative support layer.

 Is an appropriate soil type specified for the

vegetative support layer?

 Is the maximum particle size specified?


 Is select fill material locally available?


 Is the select fill layer a minimum(including

the 150mm 6in. of top soil) of 610 mm(24in.)
in thickness or maximum frost depth,
whichever is greater? Y______N_____N/A

 Is placement of select fill specified to

proceed up the slope? Y______N_____N/A

 Is the maximum drop height specified?

 Is the depth of the first layer specified?

 Is traffic compaction using low ground

pressure equipment specified?

5. Geocomposite drainage layer.

(geonet with geotextile laminated to one or
both sides)

 Will a geocomposite be used at this site?


 Have the soil retention properties of the

geotextile been evaluated?

 Have the filtration requirements for the

geotextile been evaluated?

 Has the survivability of the geotextile been

Evaluated? Y______N_____N/A

 Has the transmissivity of the geocomposite

been evaluated to limit the head within its
thickness? Y______N_____N/A

 Have the reduction factors for creep,
intrusion, particulate clogging, biological
and chemical clogging been considered in the
hydraulic assessment of the geocomposite?
 Have load, gradient, seating period and
boundary conditions been specified in the
transmissivity requirements of the
geocomposite? Y______N_____N/A
 Has the interface frictional behavior of the
geocomposite against adjacent layers been
considered for stability analysis?

 Is tensile strength need to be considered

During design? Y______N_____N/A

 Do the contract documents adequately

specify material and installation
requirements? Y______N_____N/A

6. Granular drainage layer.

 Will a granular drain be used at this site?


 Has the granular drainage layer been

designed to prevent head build-up in the
select fill? Y______N_____N/A

 Is the hydraulic conductivity of the drainage
material greater than 1 x 10-2 cm/sec?

 Does the granular drainage layer have a

minimum thickness of 300 mm (12in.)?
 Do the contract documents adequately
specify material and installation
requirements? Y______N_____N/A

 Has a value engineering evaluation

performed to replace the granular drainage
layer with a drainage geocomposite? If yes go
to item(5)? Y______N_____N/A

7. Collection piping system.

 Are drainage pipes sized and identified on

the drawings? Has the equation for the
piping spacing calculations been
evaluated?(note that moore's equation is
outdated and its validity is questionable).Do
the drainage layer collection ponts freely
drain into perimeter ditches or natural
drainage swales? Y______N_____N/A

 Are the outlets of the drainage popes paced

above the bottom of the perimeter collection

trench to prevent clogging ?

 Have pipe material and installation

requirements been adequately specified ?
8. Geomembrane.

 Will a geomembrane be used at this site?


 Does the membrane need to be textured?


 Do the contract documents adequately

specify material and installation
requirements? Y______N_____N/A

9. Compacted clay liner (CCL).

 Will a clay layer be used at this


 Is the entire clay layer designed so that it is

below frost depth? Y______N_____N/A

 Is the clay borrow source been identified and

tested? Y _N____N/A

 Do the contract documents adequately
specify material and installation
requirements? Y______N_____N/A

10. Geosynthetic clay liner (GCL).

 Will a GCL be used at this site?

 Will regulators allow the use of a GCL at this

site? Y______N_____N/A

 Do the contract documents adequately

specify material and ins tallation
requirements? Y______N_____N/A

11. Gas collection and removal system.

 Is a gas collection and removal system

applicable at this site? Y______N_____N/A

 Have analyses been performed to determine

the landfill gas types and emission rates?

 Do vertical or lateral migr ation routes or

barriers exist? Y______N_____N/A

 Have the state requirements for gas control
and treatment been determined?

 Are there nearby residences or structures

(within 300 m (1,000 gt )) that could Be
adversely impacted by migration of landfill
gases? Y______N_____N/A

 Are gas monitoring probes needed between

the landfill and structures ?

 Is an active gas control system needed due

to the volume of gas being generated?

 Is a gas collection well system most

appropriate for this site? Y______N_____N/A

 Is a gas collection blanket system most

appropriate for this site? Y______N_____N/A

 Is a perimeter collection trench needed?


 Is the granular collection layer at least

300mm (12 in.) thick? Y______N_____N/A

 If a geosynthetic gas collection layer is
used, does it have adequate flow cap acity?
(see also item 12) Y______N_____N/A

 Are the vertical outlet vent pipes located at

the highest elevation of gas collection
blanket? Y______N_____N/A
 Are slip couplings required?

 Are the number of vent pipe penetrations

minimized? Y______N_____N/A

 Are temporary vents required during

construction to allow placement of select fill?

 Are all components of the collection system

compatible with the gas?

 Is exposed piping for the gas collection

system UV resistant?

 Is a condensate collection system provided

for the header piping?

 Have material properties and placement

procedures been specified of the gas
collection system?

 Is a monitoring schedule and contingency
plan specified for the collection system and
monitoring probes?

12. Random fill and regarded refuse.

 Has a random fill borrow source been


 Have materials and placement requirements

for random fill been specified?

 Is a procedural method specified for

placement of the initial lifts placed on the
refuse material?

 Is the refuse material to be regarded?

 Has the excavatability of the refuse material

been evaluated?

 Have lift thickness, compaction, and daily

cover requirements for refuse regarding been

 Are compaction requirements specified for

the landfill surface?



Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of

Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000, ELt
1110-1-162. CEMP-RT. Techinical Letter No.
1110-1-162 Engineering and Design "Checklist
for Hazardous Waste Landfill Cover Design" .

 Giroud, J.P., Zornberf, J.G., and Zhao, A.

(2000), " Hydraulic Design of Geosynthetic and
Granular Liquid Collector Layers", Geosynthetic
International, Special issue on Liquid Collection
Layers, Vol. 7, Nos. 4-6.

 Thiel, R.S. (1998), "Design Methodology gor a

gas Pressure Relief Layer below a Geomembrane
Landfill Cover to Improve Stability",
Geosynthetics International , Vol. 5, No. 6.

 Clark, B.B. et al.( 1976). ‘Assessment of major

insustrial applications: a manual’-Research
Report No. 13 .Department of Environment,

 Cossuet al.( 1986).’Studio di
ImpattoAmbientaledell’impianto di depurazione
di Pero’,Ctip, Toma, Cogefar, Milano.

 Dec Norbert et al.( 1972). Environmental

evaluating system for water resource Planning’.
Battelle – Columbus, USA.

 EEC (1985).‘ Council Directive No.


 Leopold, L. (1971). ‘A procedure for

evaluationg environmental impact ‘.US
Geological Survey Circular 645/1971.

 Moore, J.L. et al.( 1973). ‘ A methodology for

evaluation manufacturing environmental
impacat statements for Delaware’s coastal

 Sorensen, J.C. (1971). ‘ A framework for

identification and control of resource
degradation and conflict on the multiple use in
dicoastal zone’. Uni versity of California,