Nursing Theorists This page was last updated on 16-01-2010 ---------------------------------------------------------------Definitions

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Theory- a set of related statements that describes or explains phenomena in a systematic way Concept-a mental idea of a phenomenon Construct- a phenomena that cannot be observed and must be inferred Proposition- a statement of relationship between concepts Conceptual model- made up of concepts and propositions

Nursing Theorists 1. Florence Nightingale 2. Martha Rogers 3. Dorothea Orem 4. Imogene King 5. Betty Neuman 6. Sister Calista Roy, 7. Jean Watson 8. Rosemary Rizzo Parse 9. Madeleine Leininger 10. Patricia Benner 11. Hildegard Peplau 12. Virginia Henderson 13. Fay Abdella 14. Ida Jean Orlando 15. Dorothy Johnson Concepts in the nursing Metaparadigms 1.Person
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Recipient of care, including physical, spiritual, psychological, and sociocultural components. Individual, family, or community

2. Environment

All internal and external conditions, circumstances, and influences affecting the person

noise External influences can prevent. characteristics and attributes of person giving care Florence Nightingale. light. Nursing • Actions. good diet. suppress or contribute to disease or death Nightingale’s Concepts 1. quiet to facilitate person’s reparative process Hildegard Peplau -Interpersonal Relations Model • • • • Based on psychodynamic nursing using an understanding of one’s own behavior to help others identify their difficulties Applies principles of human relations Patient has a felt need .3. Environment • Foundation of theory. warmth. Included everything. Health • • Maintaining well-being by using a person’s powers Maintained by control of environment 4. Nursing • Provided fresh air. Health • Degree of wellness or illness experienced by the person 4. physical. psychological. and social 3. 1859) 5 components of environment o ventilation. warmth. Person • • • Patient who is acted on by nurse Affected by environment Has reparative powers 2. effluvia. cleanliness.Environmental Theory • • • • First nursing theorist Unsanitary conditions posed health hazard (Notes on Nursing.

Peplau’s Concepts 1.Topology of 21 Nursing Problems A list of 21 nursing problems Condition presented or faced by the patient or family. productive. Nursing • • • • A helping profession A comprehensive service to meet patient’s needs Increases or restores self-help ability Uses 21 problems to guide nursing care . and community living 4. Environment • Not defined 3. a developing organism who tries to reduce anxiety caused by needs Lives in instable equilibrium 2. get inside the skin of each of her patients in order to know what he needs". will. Problems are in 3 categories o physical. She must in a sense. Health • Implies forward movement of the personality and human processes toward creative. constructive. in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength. • • • • • Fay Abdella. or knowledge. social and emotional The nurse must be a good problem solver Abdella’s Concepts 1. therapeutic. Nursing • • A significant. And to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible. sick or well. interpersonal process that functions cooperatively with others to make health possible Involves problem-solving Virginia Henderson -The Nature of Nursing "The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual. personal. Person • • An individual.

Johnson’s 7 Subsystems Affiliative subsystem • social bonds Dependency • helping or nuturing Ingestive . home. and community Ida Jean Orlando.Deliberative Nursing Process • • • • • • The deliberative nursing process is set in motion by the patient’s behavior All behavior may represent a cry for help. or social needs The recipient of nursing care. emotional. Patient’s behavior can be verbal or non-verbal. Health • • Excludes illness No unmet needs and no actual or anticipated impairments 3. A steady state is maintained through adjusting and adapting to internal and external forces. psychological. Perception. and sociological factors. and integrated subsystems Constancy is maintained through biological. Person • • One who has physical. Environment • • Did not discuss much Includes room. interactive. The nurse reacts to patient’s behavior and forms basis for determining nurse’s acts. thought. interdependent. 4.2. Dorothy Johnson-Behavioral Systems Model • • • The person is a behavioral system comprised of a set of organized. feeling Nurses’ actions should be deliberative. rather than automatic Deliberative actions explore the meaning and relevance of an action.

and interactive . Person • A behavioral system comprised of subsystems constantly trying to maintain a steady state 2. infinite. Health • Balance and stability. Martha Rogers -Unitary Human Beings • • • Energy fields Fundamental unity of things that are unique. open. Nursing • External regulatory force that is indicated only when there is instability. dynamic.• food intake Eliminative • excretion Sexual • procreation and gratification Aggressive • self-protection and preservation Achievement • efforts to gain mastery and control Johnson’s Concepts 1. and infinite Unitary man and environmental field Universe of open systems • Energy fields are open. Environment • Not specifically defined but does say there is an internal and external environment 3. 4.

body image .Self-Care Model • • • • • • • Self-care comprises those activities performed independently by an individual to promote and maintain person well-being Self care agency is the individual’s ability to perform self care activities Self. probabilistic.Pattern • • Characteristic of energy field A wave that changes. Characterized by nonrepeating rhymicities Change Dorothea Orem. deficit occurs when the person cannot carry out self-care The nurse then meets the self-care needs by acting or doing for. increasing diversity of the human and envrionmental fields. becomes complex and diverse Pandimensionality • A nonlinear domain with out time or space Roger’s Definitions Integrality • Continuous and mutual interaction between man and environment Resonancy • Continuous change longer to shorter wave patterns in human and environmental fields Helicy • • • Continuous. guiding.Patient can meet some needs but needs nursing assistance Supportive educative-Patient can meet self care requisites. time space. growth. teaching. development. but needs assistance with decision making or knowledge Imogene King-Goal Attainment Theory • • • Open systems framework Human beings are open systems in constant interaction with the environment Personal System o individual. supporting or providing the environment to promote patient’s ability Wholly compensatory nursing system-Patient dependent Partially compensatory. self.

Facilitating adaptation The person is an open adaptive system with input (stimuli). work. changing. 4. 5. peers The nurse and patient mutually communicate. with interrelated parts maintains balance and harmony between internal and external environment by adjusting to stress and defending against tension-producing stimuli Focuses on stress and stress reduction Primarily concerned with effects of stress on health Stressors are any forces that alter the system’s stability Flexible lines of resistance . schools. communication and transaction Society o Family. ideas.Adaptation Model Five Interrelated Essential Elements 1. self.Protective barrier. who adapts by processes or control mechanisms (throughput) The output can be either adaptive responses or ineffective responses . religious groups. development.Adapting to change Health-Being and becoming a whole person Environment Direction of nursing activities. body image Interpersonal o Socialization.• • • • • Interpersonal Society Personal System o Individual. time space. affected by variables Wellness is equilibrium Nursing interventions are activates to: • • • strengthen flexible lines of defense strengthen resistance to stressors maintain adaptation Sister Calista Roy . 3. perceptions to exchange o o Betty Neuman . 2.Health Care Systems Model • • • • • • • • • • The person is a complete system. growth.The person receiving care Goal of nursing.Normal adaptation state Flexible line of defense .Surround basic core Internal factors that help defend against stressors Normal line of resistance . interaction. establish goals and take action to attain goals Each individual brings a different set of values. • • Patiency. attitudes. perception.

mental and social well-being and functioning Nursing o Concerned with promoting and restoring health. cared for. preventing illness o • • • Rosemary Parse . mutual interaction with environment Originally Man-Living-Health Theory . psychological.Human Becoming Theory • • • Human Becoming Theory includes Totality Paradigm o Man is a combination of biological. respected. sociological and spiritual factors Simultaneity Paradigm o Man is a unitary being in continuous.Philosophy and Science of Caring • • • • • • • Caring can be demonstrated and practiced Caring consists of carative factors Caring promotes growth A caring environment accepts a person as he is and looks to what the person may become A caring environment offers development of potential Caring promotes health better than curing Caring is central to nursing Watson’s 10 Carative Factors • • • • • • • • • • Forming humanistic-altruistic value system Instilling faith-hope Cultivating sensitivity to self and others Developing helping-trust relationship Promoting expression of feelings Using problem-solving for decision making Promoting teaching-learning Promoting supportive environment Assisting with gratification of human needs Allowing for existential-phenomenological forces Watson’s Concepts • Person Human being to be valued.Jean Watson . nurtured. understood and assisted Environment o Society Health o Complete physical.

whose goal is to provide care congruent with cultural values. complimentary to and evolving with Health o Open process of being and becoming. recover from illness. or face death Cultural care re-patterning o help restructure or change lifestyles that are culturally meaningful Patricia Benner . Involves synthesis of values Nursing o A human science and art that uses an abstract body of knowledge to serve people o o • • • • • • Madeleine Leininger .Parse’s Three Principles Meaning Man’s reality is given meaning through lived experiences Man and environment cocreate Rhythmicity o Man and environment cocreate ( imaging. 3. 2. or face death Cultural care accommodation o help adapt to or negotiate for a beneficial health status. languaging) in rhythmical patterns Cotranscendence o Refers to reaching out and beyond the limits that a person sets o One constantly transforms Person o Open being who is more than and different from the sum of the parts Environment o Everything in the person and his experiences o Inseparable. 4. beliefs. and practices Sunrise model consists of 4 levels that provide a base of knowledge for delivering cultural congruent care Modes of nursing action Cultural care preservation o help maintain or preserve health. valuing.From Novice to Expert • Described 5 levels of nursing experience and developed exemplars and paradigm cases to illustrate each level Novice Advanced beginner Competent Proficient 1.Culture Care Diversity and Universality • • • • • • Based on transcultural nursing. .

Philadelphia. Meleis Ibrahim Afaf (1997) . 2002. George B. Theories should be developed in nursing. 3. 3rd ed. Tomey.).Evelyn. Expert • Levels reflect: o movement from reliance on past abstract principles to the use of past concrete experience as paradigms o change in perception of situation as a complete whole in which certain parts are relevant Importance of Theoretical Frameworks • • • Foundation of any profession is the development of a specialized body of knowledge. Mosby.Lillis Carol (2001)The Art and Science Of Nursing Care 4th ed. not borrow theories form other disciplines Responsibility of nurses to know and understand theorists Critically analyze theoretical frameworks Reference 1. Alligood. 2. Potter A Patricia. Philadelphia. London Mosby Year Book. Philadelphia. 4. Lippincott. McEwen Melanie (2002). 2nd Ed. Wills M. Julia . Nursing theorists and their work. Nursing Theories. 2002. 6.R. Norwalk. Mosby. Lippincott. 5. 7.M. Theoretical Basis for Nursing Philadelphia. A. Theoretical Nursing : Development and Progress 3rd ed. . Alligood M. Lippincott Williamsand wilkins. Appleton and Lange. Taylor Carol.The base for professional Nursing Practice . Tomey AM. Perry G Anne (1992)Fundamentals Of Nursing –Concepts Process and Practice 3rd ed.5. MR. Philadelphia. Nursing theory utilization and application. (5th ed.

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