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Middle Technical University

Electrical Engineering Technical college

Introduction to Single-Chip
Lecture No.6
Mohammed D. Ali
3rd stage
• Overview
• Applications.
• Types of Microcontrollers.

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Microcontrollers Overview
• Microcontrollers - a key impact technology for the 21st century.
“In the aggregate, PC microprocessors are responsible for less than 1%
of all processors sold. Embedded processors outsell PC processors by
more than 99%.”


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Microprocessor vs. Microcontroller
Microprocessor Microcontroller
• CPU is stand-alone, RAM, • CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O and timer
ROM, I/O, timer are separate are all on a single chip
• designer can decide on the • fixed amount of on-chip ROM,
amount of ROM, RAM and RAM, I/O ports
I/O ports.
• for applications in which cost,
• expensive
power and space are critical
• versatility
• single-purpose (control-oriented)
• general-purpose
• Low processing power
• High processing power
• Low power consumption
• High power consumption
• Bit-level operations
• Instruction sets focus on
processing- intensive • Instruction sets focus on control
operations and bit-level operations
• Typically 32/64 – bit • Typically 8/16 bit
• Typically deep pipeline (5-20 • Typically single-cycle/two-stage
stages) pipeline
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General-purpose microprocessor:

• CPU for Computers

• Commonly no RAM, ROM, I/O on CPU chip itself

Many chips on motherboard

Data Bus
Purpose RAM ROM I/O Timer COM
Micro- Port
Address Bus

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Microcontroller :

• A single-chip computer
• On-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports...
• Example:Motorola’s 6811, Intel’s 8051, Zilog’s Z8 and PIC 16X


A single chip
I/O Timer COM

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Applications of Microcontroller
 There are many applications made using Microcontrollers such as:
oLine Following Robots.

oWireless keyboards, mouse, and headphones.

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 Suppose we want to make a Line following Robot. What do we do ?
 Use a computer with 2.4Ghz Intel core I7 with 4 Gb RAM , 500 Gb Hard
disk , 1 Gb Graphics Card ??
 Why not a Computer ?
PC is a general purpose computer.
Can run thousand of softwars
Microsoft ppt in which you are seeing this
presentation, Games (NFS , AOE , Call of Duty)
Highly expensive
 Why MCU
Small reflected by the word “MICRO”
Ideal for doing repetitive tasks
Easy to use
Highly Efficient and fast
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Applications of Microcontroller
• Personal products: Cell phone, pager, watch, recorder,
• Laptop components: mouse, keyboard, modem, fax card,
sound card, battery charger
• Home appliances: door lock, alarm clock, thermostat, air
conditioner, tv remote, hair dryer, small refrigerator, exercise
equipment, washer/dryer, microwave oven
• Toys; video games, cars, dolls, etc.
• Cars: they are about 20-30% silicon today, mostly microcontrollers
• Smart cards: Mohammed D. Altamemi 9
Microcontroller Families

• Most manufacturers offer a wide range of devices for low

end to higher end applications.

• Microchip shipped its 1 billionth microcontroller in the fall of

1999, the 2 billionth in spring of 2002, and its 3 billionth in
winter of 2004.

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Microcontroller Manufacturers
• Analog Devices
• Atmel
• Dallas Semiconductor
• Freescale Semiconductor
• Hitachi Semiconductor
• Intel
• Microchip
• National Semiconductor
• Renesas
• STMicro
• Texas Instruments
• Zilog

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Some Popular Microcontrollers…
• Major Players: Microchip 16Fxx, Intel 8051, Motorola MC68HCXX,
National COP800, SGS/Thomson ST62, Zilog Z86Cxx

Microchip 16Fxx Intel 8051 Motorola MC68HCXX

National COP800 SGS/Thomson

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Microcontroller Market
• Processing power: 4 bit, 8 bit, 16 bit, 32 bit
• 2003 market share

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• What are the main differences between a microprocessor and a
microcontroller in terms of
Instruction set

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One page [no more] written assignment to be handed in.
oFind a microcontroller based device or product [i.e. from your
oDetermine what specific microcontroller is used in the device
[i.e. PIC 16F874].
oExplain the function or functions of the microcontroller in the
device [i.e. send IR to TV.].
oBe prepared to present in class.

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• John A. Chandy, “L1: Microcontroller Introduction”, university of
• Dimitar Ivanov, “Introduction to programming with microcontrollers”,
Software University Foundation, (
• Dr. Konstantinos Tatas, “L1: Introduction to Microcontrollers”,
Frederick University.
• Rajat Arora, “Introduction to Microcontrollers”, Electronics Club,
IIT Kanpur (

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