You are on page 1of 17

Vacuum Treatment of Molten Steel:

RH (Ruhrstahl Heraeus) vs. VTD (Vacuum Tank


Degasser)
Zulfiadi Zulhan*), Christian Schrade**)

*)Institut
Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
**)Technometal GmbH, Tenova Metals Division, Essen, Germany

2014 SEAISI Conference & Exhibition

May 26th – 29th 2014 • Kuala Lumpur • Malaysia


Teknik Metalurgi
Iron and Steelmaking Route

LT
BF
Blast Furnace
BOF
HM de-S

RH /
RH-OB

COREX / FINEX CCM

VTD/
VTD-OB
LF
EAF
Direct Reduction Ingot
Primary
Secondary Steelmaking
Ironmaking Scrap
Steelmaking (Reduction + Final Refining +
(Reduction) (Oxidation) Adjust Composition & T) Casting

Kuala Lumpur, 26 - 29 May 2014 Zulfiadi Zulhan 2014 SEAISI Conference & Exhibition
Teknik Metalurgi
Secondary steelmaking

Secondary Metallurgy is the Hearth of All Production Steps of Modern


Steelmaking

Max. impurity (in ppm),


Steel product
Inclusion size, D
[C]10-30, [N]40-50, denitrogenation
IF steel
T.O.30
NGO Silicon dehydrogenation alloying
dn
[C]30, [S]20
Steel
Automotive and deep decarburization homogenization
dn
[C]30, [N]30, D<100m
deep drawing
heating
dn Inclusion modification
Drawn and [C]30, [N]30, T.O.20,
ironed cans D<20m
deep desulphurization
dn control of steel cleanliness
dn
HIC resistant [P]50, [S]10-30, [N]35-
steel - Line 50, H]1.5,T.O.30, temperature setting for dn
casting
deoxidation
dn
pipe D<100m
[H]2, [N]40, T.O.15, = Vacuum metallurgy
Tire cord
D<10-20m
[H]2, [N]30-40, T.O.20,
Heavy plate
Dcluster <200m,
steel
Dsingle inclusion <15m

Kuala Lumpur, 26 - 29 May 2014 Zulfiadi Zulhan 2014 SEAISI Conference & Exhibition
Teknik Metalurgi
Development of Vacuum Technology: RH and VTD

Patented by Patented by Mare in 1938


Williams in 1932
Around 1950,
1959, started Samarin started 22t
operation of RH scale test
(Ruhrstahl –
Heraeus) degasser

100 ton RH Plant 150 ton VTD Plant


S: G. Stolte, Secondary Metallurgy, Fundamentals Processes Applications, Stahl und Eisen, 2002.
W. Coupette, Die Vakuumbehandlung des fluessigen Stahles, Rudolf A. Lang Verlag, 1967.
Kuala Lumpur, 26 - 29 May 2014 Zulfiadi Zulhan 2014 SEAISI Conference & Exhibition
Teknik Metalurgi
Development of Iron and Steelmaking Technology

1500 BLAST FURNACE

1400 ELECTRIC FURNACE

1300 SIEMENS MARTIN (OPEN HEARTH FURNACE) HISMELT


DIOS

1200 BESSEMMER / THOMAS CONVERTER HyL III ROMELT


ITmk3

1100
Steel Production [Mio. Ton]

CIRCORED FASTMET
MIDREX Hisarna
1000 KR (COREX)
FINMET
900 Rotary Kiln FIOR Technored FINEX
(SL/RN)
800

700 HyL I Strip Casting

600 Thin Slab Casting


Ladle Furnace
500 Rotary Kiln CAS - OB
(Krupp - CODIR)
400 AOD
CCM Converter
300
OBM
200 RH / DH/VD VOD

100
LD Converter
0
1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010
Kuala Lumpur, 26 - 29 May 2014 Zulfiadi Zulhan 2014 SEAISI Conference & Exhibition
Vacuum Pump

Freeboard
Teknik Metalurgi

Lift gas /
Stirring gas
S & T, a[O]

Ar

Vacuum Pump

Ar

VTD Plant
RH Plant
Kuala Lumpur, 26 - 29 May 2014 Zulfiadi Zulhan 2014 SEAISI Conference & Exhibition
Teknik Metalurgi
Model to Simulate Refining Process on RH

C O dC/dt
1000 mbar 100 mbar 10 mbar 1 mbar
Circulation Vac. N
Temperature model 1200
700 1000

1000

C [ppm]; O [ppm]; 10*dC/dt (ppm/min)


600

Decarburization model

Vacuum Pressure [mbar]; N [ppm]


800 500
100

[O] in ppm
dC 400

 k c . (C  Ceq )
600

300

dt 400
10
200

200
100

Chemical heating model 0


0 1
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

[C] in ppm Time [Min]

Deoxidation model Ladle Transfer to Treatment Position (1)


1660

Increase ladle position (1)


S1, T1, a[O]1 (2) 1640
dH/dt = - kH H Immersed snorkel (1)
Vacuum Treatment (28)
Degassing model dN/dt = - kN N Decarburization (17)
Oxygen Blowing (0 Nm3) (0)
1620

Temperature [°C]
Alloying weighing + transfer to vacuum hopper … 1600
T2, a[O]2 (1,5)

Desulphurization model Al Deoxidation + Alloying (3)


Alloying addition (3)
1580

Mixing + Homogenization (5)

dS Flooding (1) 1560

=-k S - Se Lowering Ladle (1)

dt
S3, T3, a[O]3 (0,5)
1540
Transfer ladle to wire feeding (0,5)
Wire feeding (0) Steel Temperature (Predicted)
Transfer ladle to covering powder (0,5) 1520
Steel Temperature Measured
𝑆𝑜 Covering Powder addition (0,5)

𝑆𝑡 = 𝑆𝑜 − 𝑆𝑓 𝑒𝑥𝑝 −𝑘𝑠 𝑡 + 𝑆𝑓 Transfer ladle to lifting position (0,5)


1500

𝑆𝑜 − 𝑆𝑓 0 5 10 15 20
Time [Min]
25 30 35 40

Kuala Lumpur, 26 - 29 May 2014 Zulfiadi Zulhan 2014 SEAISI Conference & Exhibition
Teknik Metalurgi
Model to Simulate Refining Process on VTD

Temperature Model
Decarburization Model
dC/dt = - kC C
Vacher-Hamilton: [%C] * [%O] = 0,0025 * PCO (atm)

Degassing Model
dH/dt = - kH H
dN/dt = - kN N

Deoxidation Model
Statistic and Empiric Model

Desulphurization Model
Sulphide Capacity, Sulphur Distribution Ration (Ls)
ks = 0,000597826 * + 0,005072464
V T  1 H  [S] t - [S] f  Kp 
  14.23   log    exp - .t 
 M 
  1.48 Po 
[S]i - [S] f  L s . w s / L s . w s  w m  

Kuala Lumpur, 26 - 29 May 2014 Zulfiadi Zulhan 2014 SEAISI Conference & Exhibition
Teknik Metalurgi
Model to Simulate Refining Process on VTD

1000 mbar 100 mbar 10 mbar 1 mbar 1000 mbar

1200

1000

800
[O] in ppm

600

1660
400 Ladle Seated into VD Tank (2)
Argon connection and started (1)
200
S1, T1, a[O]1 (2) 1640

0 Cover closed (2)


0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Vacuum Treatment (37)
1620
[C] in ppm Decarburization (25)
Al (CaO/Flux) weigh. + trans. to lower vac hopper (4)

Temperature [°C]
C O dC/dt Vac. N Oxygen Blowing for de-C and heating (0 Nm3) (0) 1600
Alloying weigh. + trans. to upper vac hopper (1)

700 1000 Al(CaO/Flux) Addition for Deox + Alloy + Heating (3)


1580
Alloying Charging (3)
600 Mixing + Homogenization (5)
C [ppm]; O [ppm]; 10*dC/dt (ppm/min)

Vacuum Pressure [mbar]; N [ppm]

Flooding (1) 1560


500
100 Cover opened (2)

400 S2, T2, a[O]2 (2)


1540
Trimming (10)
300 Wire feeding (0)
10 S3, T3, a[O]3 (2) Steel Temperature Calculated 1520
200
Ladle lifting (2) Steel Temperature Measured

100 ()
1500
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75
0 1
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Time [Min]
Time [Min]

Kuala Lumpur, 26 - 29 May 2014 Zulfiadi Zulhan 2014 SEAISI Conference & Exhibition
Teknik Metalurgi
Boiling

1000 5,0 1000 5,0

4,5 4,5

[m] [m]
[mbar]
[m] [m]
[mbar]

4,0 4,0

Bibir ladle
[mbar]
[mbar]

Bibir ladle
3,5 3,5

dan height
pressure
100

dan height
100
pressure

3,0

Vacuumvakum
3,0
Vacuum vakum

2,5

and ladle
2,5

and ladle

Tekanan
2,0

lelehan
Tekanan

2,0

Meltlelehan
10
10 1,5
1,5 Vacuum Pressure

Melt
Ladle height 1,0
Vacuum Pressure

Tinggi
1,0

Tinggi
Ladle height Melt height 0,5
0,5
Melt height
1 0,0
1 0,0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55
Time [minutes]
Waktu [Menit]
Waktu
Time [Menit]
[minutes]
With vacuum control
Without vacuum control

T. Kuhl, S. Sun, M.K. Trinh,


ISS Tech 2003 Conference
Proceedings, pp. 853-863.
Kuala Lumpur, 26 - 29 May 2014 Zulfiadi Zulhan 2014 SEAISI Conference & Exhibition
Teknik Metalurgi
Decarburization and Degasing

350 1,6
RH
RH 1,5

Hydrogen after vacuum [ppm]


300
VTD
VTD 1,4
Carbon content [ppm]

250 1,3

1,2
200
1,1

150 1,0

0,9
100
0,8

0,7
50
0,6
3 4 5 6 7
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Hydrogen before vacuum [ppm]
Vacuum treatment time [Min]

Kuala Lumpur, 26 - 29 May 2014 Zulfiadi Zulhan 2014 SEAISI Conference & Exhibition
Teknik Metalurgi
Desulphurization
180 2000

RH Plant 160
Sulphur content
1800 VTD Plant
1600
140 Sulphur equilibrium
Nitrogen

Fluxes addition
120 Slag weight
1400
Top slag

Sulphur [ppm]
LS (sulphur distribution ratio)

Slag weight [kg]; LS


1200
100

Fluxes powder blowing 80


1000

800
60
600
CaO sat. = 0,8
40
400 CaO sat. = 0,9

20 200 CaO sat. = 1,0


CaO sat. = 1,1
0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 CaO sat. = 1,2

Treatment time [Min]

This area is not suggested


for desulphurization,
because the slag viscosity
is high and CaO is already
over saturated

120 Optimum Slag


40 composition

0.025
Sulphur content after VTD (ppm)

100
calculated 0.022
Sulphur content [ppm]

30 measured
80 0.020 0.019

20
60

Silicon (%)
0.015

40
10
0.010

20
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 0.005
0.003
0
Desulphurization time [Minutes]
0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Sulphur content before VTD (ppm) 0.000


Si before VTD Si after VTD Si pick-up

Kuala Lumpur, 26 - 29 May 2014 Zulfiadi Zulhan 2014 SEAISI Conference & Exhibition
Teknik Metalurgi
Vacuum Pumps

Full steam jet pump system


Hybrid (steam ejector pump + WRP)

Dry pump
Pump system Steam jet pump
system
Steam generation O -
Condenser cooling water O -
Condenser cooling water O -
treatment
Machine cooling water - O
Dust filter system . O
Typical dry mechanical vacuum pump Dust treatment - O

Kuala Lumpur, 26 - 29 May 2014 Zulfiadi Zulhan 2014 SEAISI Conference & Exhibition
Teknik Metalurgi
Comparison of RH and VTD

RH VTD
Ladle freeboard 200 – 300 mm 600 – 1200 mm
Heat size More than 50 ton More than 3 ton
Sampling, temperature and Taking sample and Taking sample and temperature
oxygen activity temperature measurement measurement under vacuum is
measurements under vacuum is simple complicated
Observation of molten steel
Easy by installation a video Depends on the opening diameter
height / surface during
camera on hot-off take of ladle cover heat shield.
vacuum treatment
Vacuum pressure and argon stirring
Easy to control due to high
Boiling shall be well controlled to avoid
feeboard of RH vessel.
excessive boiling.
Decarburization < 20 ppm in 15 minutes < 30 ppm in 20 minutes
Denitrogenization < 40 ppm < 40 ppm
Dehydrogenation < 1.5 ppm < 1.5 ppm
Possible through powder
Desulphurization Intensive slag metal reaction
injection or flux addition

Kuala Lumpur, 26 - 29 May 2014 Zulfiadi Zulhan 2014 SEAISI Conference & Exhibition
Teknik Metalurgi
Comparison of RH and VTD

RH VTD
Yes, SiO2 content in slag shall be
No, less slag metal
Silicon pick-up? controlled to produce free silicon
interaction.
steel.

RH Vessel must be well


Vessel preheating heated before vacuum Not required
treatment

Snorkel is changed after ca.


Vessel exchange Not required
100 – 150 heats

Large space is required for


Space vessel drying, preheating as Small space than RH
well as maintenance
Ladle refractory life Longer than VTD Shorter than RH
Overall investment cost Relatively high Low
Overall operational cost Relatively high Low

Kuala Lumpur, 26 - 29 May 2014 Zulfiadi Zulhan 2014 SEAISI Conference & Exhibition
Teknik Metalurgi
Summary

• Selection of RH or VTD for steel plant is dictated by steel grade to be produced


(product mix).

• From operational point of view, VTD is more simple as it is not required special
preparation e.g. vessel preheating, snorkel maintenance and exchange before
vacuum treatment. VTD treatment can be performed at any time provided that
vacuum pump is ready. Carbon boiling and excessive slopping shall be taken
care during the operation.

• Decarburization performance of VTD is inferior compared to RH. The degassing


performance is more or less similar between both of these vacuum
technologies.

• Desulphurization can be better conducted on VTD by intensive reaction


between metal and slag under vacuum environment. Silicon pick-up shall be
considered for silicon free steel by controlling amount of slag carry over. On RH,
desulphurization is done by powder blowing or fluxes addition.
Kuala Lumpur, 26 - 29 May 2014 Zulfiadi Zulhan 2014 SEAISI Conference & Exhibition
Thank You
for Your Attention

Dr.-Ing. Zulfiadi Zulhan Christian Schrade


Metallurgical Engineering Managing Director
Institut Teknologi Bandung TECHNOMETAL GmbH
Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Tenova Metals Division
Bandung 40132 Am Lichtbogen 29
INDONESIA 45141 Essen
Email: zulfiadi.zulhan@gmail.com GERMANY
Email: Christian.Schrade@tenova.com