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Alexandria University - Faculty of Engineering

Production Engineering Department


st
1 Year Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Department
First Semester - Academic Year 2009/2010

Subject Name
Maunfucturing Engineering

Report: Metal Rolling

Team Members:
1) Ahmed Hassan Mahmoud 2) Hesham Atef Mohamed
3) Abdelrahman Khamis 4) Riham Taher Ahmed
5) Abdelrahman Abdullah Ali 6) Sara Hassan Ali
7) Mahmoud Shawky Mahmoud 8) Hader Mostafa Azat

Presented to: Dr. Ismail A.Abdullah

Due Date: 23/12/2009


1. Introduction:
ROLLING is the process of reducing the thickness or changing the
cross section of a long work-piece by compressive forces applied
through a set of opposed rotating rolls (Fig. 1). This Primary
Working operation takes a solid piece of metal (generally from a
cast state, such as an ingot) and breaks it down successively into
shapes such as slabs, plates, and billets. Rolling is a bulk
deformation process. The term bulk deformation is applied to the
processing of workpieces having a relatively small surface area-to-
volume (or surface area-to-thickness) ratio. In all bulk deformation
processing, the thickness or cross-section of the workpiece changes.
Rolling, which accounts for about 90% of all metals produced by
metal working processes, was first developed in the late 1500s.
Temperature, size of the workpiece can group rolling processes. For
example, using temperature as a criterion, the categories would be
hot rolling and cold rolling. If we are interested in size, it is
important to note that plates are generally regarded as having a
thickness greater than 6 mm, whereas sheets are generally less than
6 mm thick. And where plates are used for structural application,
such as machine structures, ship hulls, bridges and nuclear vessel,
we find that sheets are provided to manufacturing facilities as flat
pieces or as strip in coils for further processing into various
products, such as automobile, aircraft bodies, food and beverages
containers, and kitchen an office equipments. Flat rolling, strip
rolling, or simply rolling, is the most basic operation, where the
rolled products are flat plates and sheets, and the main purpose is to
reduce the thickness of the material (Fig.1). This process results in
the production of flat plate, sheet, and foil in long lengths, at high
speeds, and with good surface finish, especially in cold rolling. It
requires high capital investment and low to moderate labor cost.
In addition to flat rolling, various shapes can be produced by shape
rolling. Straight and long structural shapes, such as solid bars (with
various cross-sections), channels, I-beam, and railroad rails, are
rolled by passing the stock through a set of specially designed rolls
(Fig.1)

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Traditionally, the initial material form for rolling is an ingot, but this
practice now is being rapidly replaced by that of continuous casting
and rolling, at much efficiency and a lower cost.
Rolling is usually first carried out at elevated temperatures (hot
rolling); during this phase, the coarse-grained, brittle, and porous
structure of the ingot or the continuously cast material is broken
down into a wrought structure having finer grain size and
enhanced properties.

FIGURE 1 Schematic outline of various flat and shape rolling processes

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2. Flat Rolling:
A schematic illustration of the flat rolling processes is shown in Fig.2a.
A strip of thickness ho enters the roll gap and is reduced to thickness hf
by a pair of rotating rolls, each roll being powered through its own shaft
by electric motors. The surface speed of the roll is Vr. The velocity of
the strip increases from its entry value, Vo, as it moves through the roll
gap, in the same way fluid must flow faster as it moves through a
converging channel.
The velocity of the strip is highest at the exit from the roll gap; we
denote it as Vf there. Because the surface speed of the roll is constant,
there is relative sliding between the roll and the strip along the arc of
contact in the roll gap, L.
At one point the contact length, called the neutral point or no-slip point,
the velocity of the strip is the same as that of the roll. To the left of this
point, the roll moves faster than the strip; to the right of this point, the
strip moves faster than the roll. Hence, the frictional force, which oppose
motion, act on the strip as shown in Fig.2b.

FIGURE 2 (a) Schematic illustration of the flat-rolling process. (b) Friction forces acting
on the strip surfaces. (c) The roll forces, f, and the torque acting on the rolls. The width W of the
strip usually increases during rolling, as is shown in Fig. 5.

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2.1 Frictional Forces:
The rolls pull the material into the roll gap through a net frictional force
on the material. It can be seen that this net frictional force must be to the
right in Fig.2b; consequently, the frictional force to the left of the neutral
point must be higher than the frictional force to the right.
Although frictional is necessary for rolling materials, energy is
dissipated in overcoming the friction; thus, increasing friction means
increasing forces and power requirements. Furthermore, high friction
could damage the surface of the rolled product. A compromise has to be
made, one which induces low coefficients of friction by using effective
lubricants.
The maximum possible draft, defined as the difference between
the initial and final thicknesses, (ho – hf), is a function of the
coefficient of friction, μ, and the roll radius, R:
ho – hf = μR
Thus, the higher the friction and the larger the roll radius, the
greater the maximum possible draft (and reduction in thickness)
becomes. This situation is similar to the use of large tires (high
R) and rough treads (high μ) on farm tractors and on off-
road earth-moving equipment, which permit the vehicles
to travel over rough terrain without skidding.

2.2 Roll Force & Power Requirement:


Because the rolls apply pressure on the material in order to
reduce its thickness, a force perpendicular to the arc contact
(Fig. 2c) is needed. Note, in Fig. 2c, that this roll force, f, is
shown as the perpendicular to the plane of the strip rather than
as at an angle. This alignment is used because the arc of contact
is generally very small compared to the roll radius, so we can
assume the roll force to be perpendicular without causing
significant error.
The roll force in the flat rolling can be estimated from the

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formula f = L W Yavg
Where L is the roll-strip contact length, W is the width of the
strip, and Yavg is the average true stress of the strip in the roll
gap. This equation, ideally, is for a frictionless situation.
The higher the coefficient of friction is between the rolls and the
strip, the greater becomes the divergence, and the formula
predicts a lower roll force than the actual force.
The power required per roll can be estimated by assuming that
the force f acts in the middle of the arc of contact: In Fig 2.c,
a= L/2 . Torque per roll is the product of f and a. therefore,
the power per roll in S.I units is
Power= πf LN/ 60,000 (KW) or
Power= πf LN/ 33,000 (hp)
This formula calculates the power for one roll, so to calculate
the total power we multiply it by 2.
Reducing Roll Force, Roll forces can cause deflection and
flattening of the rolls; such changes will, in turn, adversely
affect the rolling operation. Also, the roll stand, including the
housing, chocks, and bearing (Fig. 3), may stretch under the roll
forces to such an extent that roll gap can open significantly.
Consequently, the rolls have to be set closer than was calculated,
to compensate for this deflection and to obtain the desired final
thickness. So, Roll force can be reduced by any of the following
means:
1. reducing friction;
2. using smaller-diameter rolls, to reduce the contact
area;
3. taking smaller reductions per pass, to reduce the
contact area; and
4. rolling at elevated temperatures, to lower the strength
of the material.

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FIGURE 3 Schematic illustration of a four-high rolling-mill stand, showing its
various features. The stiffnesses of the housing, the rolls, and the roll bearings are all
important in controlling and maintaining the thickness of the rolled strip.

2.3 Geometric Considerations:


Because of the forces acting on them, rolls undergo certain
geometric changes. Just as a straight beam deflects under a
transverse load, roll forces tend to bend the rolls elastically
during rolling (Fig. 4a); the higher the elastic modulus of the roll
material, the smaller the roll deflection.
As a result of roll bending, the rolled strip tends to be thicker
(have a crown) at its center than at its edges. The usual method
of avoiding this problem is to grind the rolls so that their
diameter at the center is slightly larger than at their edges (give
them camber). Thus, when the roll bends, its contact along the
width of the strip becomes straight and the strip being rolled has
a constant thickness along its width.
For rolling sheet metals, the radius of the maximum camber
point is generally 0.25 mm greater than that at the edges of the
roll. When properly designed, cambered rolls produce flat strips
(Fig. 4b). However, a particular camber is correct only for a
certain load and a certain strip width. To reduce the effects of
deflection, the rolls can be subjected to bending, by the

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application of moments at their bearings (a similar technique to
bending a wooden stick at its ends); this manipulation simulates
camber.

FIGURE 4 (a) Bending of straight cylindrical rolls, caused by the roll force. (b)
Bending of rolls ground with camber, producing a strip with uniform thickness.

Because of the heat generated by plastic deformation during


rolling, rolls can become slightly barrel-shaped (thermal
camber). (Unless compensated for by some means, this
condition can produce strips that thinner at the center than at the
edges.) Consequently, the total (or final) camber can be
controlled by varying the location of the coolant on the rolls
during hot rolling.
Roll forces also tend to flatten the rolls elastically, producing an
effect much like the flattening of automobile tires. This
flattening of the rolls is undesirable; it produces, in effect, a
larger roll radius and, hence, a larger contact area for the same
draft. The roll force, in turn, increases with increased flattening.

Spreading. In the rolling of plates and sheet having high


width-to-thickness ratios, the width of material remains
effectively constant during rolling. With smaller ratios,
however, such as with a square cross-section, the width
increases considerably in the roll gap, as a result of the same

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effect that occurs in the rolling of dough with a rolling pin. This
increase in width is called spreading (Fig. 5).
It can be shown that spreading increases with a decrease in the
width-to-thickness ratio of the entering material (because of
reduction in the width constraint), with an increase in the
friction, and with a decrease in the ratio of the roll's radius to the
strip's thickness (the latter two being due to increased
longitudinal constraint of the material flow in the roll gap).
Spreading can be prevented by the use of vertical rolls in contact
with the edges of the rolled product (as in edger mill).

FIGURE 5 Increase in the width (spreading) of a strip in flat rolling. Similarly,


spreading can be observed when dough is rolled with a rolling pin.

2.4 Flat-Rolling Practice:


The initial breaking down of an ingot or of a continuously cast
slab is done by hot rolling. A cast structure includes coarse and
nonuniform grains. This structure is usually brittle and may
contain porosities. Hot rolling converts the cast structure to a
wrought structure (Fig. 6). This structure has finer grains and
enhanced ductility, both resulting from the breaking up of brittle
grain boundaries and the closing up of internal defects,

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especially porosity.

FIGURE 6 Changes in the grain structure of cast or of large-grain wrought


metals during hot rolling. Hot rolling is an effective way to reduce grain size in
metals, for improved strength and ductility. Cast structures of ingots and continuous
castings are converted to a wrought structure by hot working.

Now, almost all traditional methods of casting ingots are being


rapidly replaced by continuous casting. Temperature ranges for
hot rolling are typically about 450 °c for aluminum alloys, up to
1250 °c for alloy steels, and up to 1650 °c for refractory alloys.
The product of the first hot-rolling operation is called a bloom
or slab (Fig.1). A bloom usually has a square cross-section, at
least 150 mm on the side; a slab is usually rectangular in cross-
section. Blooms are processed further, by shape rolling, into
structural shapes, such as I-beam and railway rail. Slabs are
rolled into plates and sheets.
Billets are usually square, with a cross-sectional area smaller
than blooms; they are later rolled into various shapes, such as
round rods and bars, by the use of shaped rolls. Hot-rolled round
rods are used as the starting material for rod and wire drawing;
they are called wire rods.
In hot rolling blooms, billets and slabs, the surface of the
material is usually conditioned (prepared for a subsequent
operation) prior to rolling. Conditioning is done by various
means, such as the use of a torch (scarfing) to remove heavy
scale or of rough grinding to smoothen surfaces. Prior to cold
rolling, the scale developed during hot rolling may be removed
by pickling with acids (acid etching) or by such mechanical
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means as blasting with water (or grinding, to remove other
defects as well).
Cold rolling is carried out at room temperature and, compared
to hot rolling, produces sheet and strip with much better surface
finish ( because of lack of scale), dimensional tolerances, and
mechanical properties (because of strain hardening).
Pack Rolling is a flat-rolling operation in which two or more
layers of metal are rolled together; this process improves
productivity. Aluminum foil, for example, is pack rolled in
two layers. One side of aluminum foil is matte, the other side
shiny: The foil-to-foil side has a matte and satiny finish, but the
foil-to-foil side is shiny and bright, because it has been in
contact with the polished rolls.
Mild steel, when stretched during sheer-forming operations,
undergoes yield-point elongation, a phenomenon that causes
surface irregularities called stretcher strains or Lueder's bands.
To correct this situation, the sheet metal is subjected to a final
light pass of 0.5% to 1.5% reduction, known as temper rolling
or skin pass.
A rolled sheet may not be sufficiently flat as it leaves the roll
gap, because of variations in the material or in the processing
parameters during rolling. To improve flatness, the rolled strip is
passed through a series of leveling rolls. Several different roller
arrangement are used, one of which is shown in Fig.7. Each roll
is usually driven separately, by an individual electric motor. The
strip is flexed in opposite directions as it passes through the sets
of rollers.

FIGURE 7 A method of roller leveling to flatten rolled sheets.

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2.5 Defects in Rolled Plates & Sheets:

Defects may be present on the surfaces of rolled plates and


sheets, or there may be internal structural defects. Defects are
undesirable, not only because they degrade surface appearance
but also because they may adversely affect the strength, the
formability, and other manufacturing characteristics.
A number of surface defects, such as scale, rust, scratches,
gouges, pits and cracks, have been identified for sheet metals.
These defects may be caused by inclusions and impurities in the
original cast material or by various other conditions related to
material preparation and to the rolling operation.
Wavy edges on sheets (Fig. 8a) are the result of roll bending.
The strip is thinner along its edges than at its center; because the
edges elongate more than the center, the buckle, because they
are restrained from expanding freely in the longitudinal (rolling)
direction. The cracks shown in Fig.8b and c are usually the
result of the poor material ductility at the rolling temperature.
Alligatoring, shown on Fig. 8d, is a complex phenomenon and
may be cause by nonuniform deformation during rolling or by
the presence of defects in the original cast billet. Because the
quality of the edges of the sheet is important in sheet-metal
forming operations, edges defects in rolled sheets are often
removed by shearing and slitting operations.

FIGURE 8 Schematic illustration of typical defects in flat rolling; (a) wavy


edges, (b) zipper cracks in the center of the strip, (c) edge cracks, and (d) alligatoring.

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FIGURE 9 (a) Residual stresses developed in rolling with small rolls or at
small reductions in thickness per pass. (b) Residual stresses developed in rolling with
large rolls or at high reductions per pass. Note the reversal of the residual stress
patterns.

2.6 Other Characteristics:

Residual Stresses. Because of nonuniform deformation of the


material in the roll gap, residual stresses can develop in rolled
plates and sheets, especially during cold rolling. Small-diameter
rolls or small reduction per pass tend to deform the metal
plastically at its surfaces (Fig.9a). This situation produces
compressive residual stresses on the surfaces (which can be
beneficial for improved fatigue life) and tensile stresses in the
middle.
On the other hand, large-diameter rolls and high reduction tend
to deform the bulk more than the surfaces (Fig.9b); this is due to
the frictional constraint at the surfaces along the arc of contact
between the roll and the strip. This situation produces residual
stresses that are opposite of those in the case of the small-
diameter rolls.

Dimensional Tolerances. Thickness tolerances for cold-rolled


sheet usually range from ± 0.1mm to 0.35mm. Tolerances are
much greater for hot-rolled plates. Flatness tolerances are
usually within ± 15mm/m for cold rolling and ± 55mm/m for hot
rolling.

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Gage Number. The thickness of a sheet is usually identified by
a gage number; the smaller the number, the thicker the sheet.
Several numbering systems are used, depending on the type of
sheet metal being classified. Rolled sheets of copper and of
brass are also identified by thickness changes during rolling,
such as 1/4 hard, 1/2 hard, and so on.

3. Shape-Rolling Operations:

In addition to flat rolling, various shapes can be produced by


shape rolling. Straight and long structural shapes, such as solid
bars (with various cross-sections), channels, I-beams, and
railroad rails, are rolled by passing the stock through a set of
specially designed rolls (Fig. 10). Because the material's cross-
section is to be produced nonuniformly, the design of a series of
rolls (roll-pass design) requires considerable experience in order
to avoid external and internal defects, to hold dimensional
tolerances, and to reduce roll wear.

FIGURE 10 Stages in the shape rolling of an H-section part. Various other


structural sections, such as channels and I-beams, are also rolled by this kind of
process.

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3.1 Ring Rolling:
In the ring-rolling process, a thick ring is expanded into a large
diameter ring with a reduced cross-section. The ring is placed
between two rolls, one of which is driven (Fig. 11a), and its
thickness is produced by bringing the rolls closer together as
they rotate. Since the volume of the ring remains constant
during deformation, the reduction in thickness is compensated
by an increase in the ring's diameter.

FIGURE 11 (a) schematic illustration of a ring-rolling operation. Thickness


reduction results in an increase in the part diameter. (b) Example of cross-sections that
can be formed by ring rolling.

The ring-shaped blank may be produced by such means as by


cutting from a plate, by piercing, or by cutting a thick-walled
pipe. Various shapes can be ring rolled by the use of shaped
rolls (Fig. 11b). Typical applications of ring rolling are large

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rings for rockets and turbines, gearwheel rims, ball-bearing and
roller-bearing races, flanges, and reinforcing rings for pipes.
The ring-rolling process can be carried out at room or at
elevated temperature, depending on the size, strength, and
ductility of the workpiece material. Compared to other
manufacturing processes capable of making the same part, the
advantages of this process are short production times, material
saving, close dimensional tolerances, and favorable grain flow
in the product.

3.2 Thread Rolling:


The thread-rolling process is a cold-forming process by which
straight or taped threads are formed on round rods, by passing
them between dies. Threads are formed on the rod or wire with
each stroke of a pair of flat reciprocating dies (Fig. 12a). Typical
products are screws, blots, and similar threaded parts.
Depending on die design, the major diameter of a rolled thread
may or may not be larger than a machined thread (Fig. 13a) -
this is the same as the blank diameter. In either case, volume
constancy is maintained, because no material is removed.
The process is capable of generating similar shapes, such as
grooves and various gear forms, on other surfaces, and it can be
used in the production of almost all threaded fasteners at high
production rates. In another method, threads are formed with
rotary dies (Fig. 12b) at production rates as high as 80 pieces per
second.
The thread-rolling process has the advantages of generating
threads without any loss of material (scrap) and with a good
strength (due to cold working). The surface finish is very
smooth, and the process induces compressive residual stresses
on the workpiece surfaces, thus improving fatigue life.
Thread rolling is superior to the other methods of manufacturing
threads, because machining the threads cuts through the grain-
flow lines of the material, whereas rolling the threads leaves a
grain-flow pattern that improves the strength of the thread
(Fig.13b).

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Threads are rolled on materials in the soft condition, because of
ductility requirements; however, they can subsequently be
subjected to heat treatment and, if necessary, to final machining
or to grinding. For metals in the hard condition, threads are
machined and/or ground. Rolled threads are readily available in
the most widely used standard thread forms; uncommon or
special-purpose threads are usually machined.

FIGURE 12 Thread-rolling processes: (a) and (c) reciprocating flat dies; (b)
two-roller dies. Threaded fasteners, such as blots, are made economically by these
processes, at high rates of production.

FIGURE 13 (a) features of a machined or rolled thread. (b) Grain flow in


machined and rolled threads. Unlike machining, which cuts through the grains of the
metal, the rolling of threads causes improved strength, because of cold working and
favorable grain flow.

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Lubrication is important in thread rolling operations in order to
obtain good surface finish and surface integrity and to minimize
defects. The manner in which the material deforms during
plastic deformation is important, because internal defects can
easily form. Usually made of hardened steel, dies are expensive
to make because of their complex shape. They usually cannot be
reground after they become worn. With proper die materials and
preparation, however, die life may range up to millions of
pieces.

4. Production Of Seamless Pipe & Tubing:


Rotary tube piercing is a hot-working process for making long,
thick-walled seamless pipe and tubing (Fig.14). It is based on
the principle that when a round bar is subjected to radial
compressive forces, tensile stresses develop at the center of the
bar. When it is subsequently subjected to cyclic compressive
stresses (Fig. 14b), a cavity begins to form at the center of the
bar. This phenomenon can be demonstrated with a short piece of
round eraser, by rolling it back and forth on a hard flat surface,
as shown in Fig. 14b.
Rotary tube piercing (or Mannesmann Process) is carried out
using an arrangement of rotating rolls (Fig.14c). The axes of the
rolls are skewed, in order to pull the round bar through the rolls
by the axial component of the rotary motion. An internal
mandrel assists the operation, by expanding the hole and sizing
the inside diameter of the tube. The mandrel may be held in
place by a long rod, or it may be a floating mandrel without a
support. Because of the severe deformation that the bar
undergoes, the material must be high in quality and free from
defects.
The diameter and thickness of tubes and pipes can be reduced
by tube rolling, which uses rolls (Fig. 15). Some of those
operations can be carried out either with or without an internal
mandrel. In the pilger mill, the tube and an internal mandrel
undergo a reciprocating motion; the rolls are specially shaped
and are rotated continuously. During the gap cycle on the roll,

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The tube is advanced and rotated, stating another cycle of tube
reduction.

FIGURE 14 Cavity formation in a solid round bar and its utilization in the
rotary tube piercing process for making seamless pipe and tubing. (The Mannesmann
mill was developed in the 1880s.)

FIGURE 15 Schematic illustration of various tube-rolling processes: (a) with


fixed mandrel; (b) with moving mandrel; (c) without mandrel; and (d) pilger rolling
over a mandrel and a pair of shaped rolls. Tube diameters and thicknesses can also be
changed by other processes, such as drawing, extrusion, and spinning.

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5. Rolling Mills:
Several types of rolling mills and equipment are built; they use
diverse roll arrangements. Although the equipment for hot and
cold rolling is essentially the same, there are differences in the
roll materials, process parameters, lubricants, and cooling
systems.
The design, construction, and operation of rolling mills require
major investments. Highly automated mills produce close-
tolerance, high-quality plates and sheet at high production rates
and low cost per unit weight, particularly when integrated with
continuous casting.
The width of rolled products may range up to 5m and be as thin
as 0.0025mm. Rolling speeds may range up to 25m/s (about a
mile a minute) for cold rolling, or even higher in highly
automated and computer-controlled facilities.
Two-high or three-high rolling mills (Fig.16a and b) are used
for hot rolling in initial breakdown passes (primary roughing or
cogging mills) on cast ingots or in continuous casting, with roll
diameters ranging from 0.6m to 1.4m. In the three-high or
reversing mill, the direction of material is revered after each
pass; the plate being rolled is repeatedly raised to the upper roll
gap, rolled, and then lowered to the lower roll gap by elevators
and various manipulators.
Four-high mills (Fig.16c) and cluster mills (Sendzimir or Z
mill; Fig. 16d) are based on the principle that small-diameter
rolls lower roll forces and power requirements and reduce
spreading. Moreover, when worn or broken, small rolls can be
replaced at less cost than can large ones. However, small rolls
defect more under roll forces and have to be supported by other
rolls, as is done in four-high and cluster mills. Although the cost
of a Sendzimir mill facility can be millions of dollars, it is
particularly suitable for cold rolling thin sheet of high-strength
metals. Common rolled widths are 0.66m, with a maximum of
1.5m.

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FIGURE 16 Schematic illustration of various roll arrangements: (a) two-high;
(b) three-high; (c) four-high; (d) cluster (Sendzimir) mill.

The Planetary mill (Fig. 17) consists of a pair of heavy backing


rolls surrounded by a large number of planetary rolls. Each
planetary roll gives an almost constant reduction to the slab as it
sweeps out a circular path between the backing rolls and the
slab. As each pair of planetary rolls ceases to have contact with
the workpiece, another pair of rolls makes contact and repeat
that reduction. So, the overall reduction is the summation of a
series of small reductions by each pair of rolls. Therefore, the
planetary mill can hot reduce a slab directly to strip in one pass
through the mill, as it capable of reducing up to 98% in one
single pass.

FIGURE 17 Schematic illustration of the planetary mill.

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In tandem rolling (Fig. 18) the strip is rolled continuously,
through a number of stands, to smaller gages with each pass.
Each stand consists of a set of rolls with its own housing and
controls. A group of stands is called a train. The control of the
gage and of the speed at which the sheet travels through each
roll gap is critical. Electronic and computer controls, along with
extensive hydraulic controls, are used in tandem rolling
operations.

Rolls. The basic requirements for roll material are strength and
resistance to wear. Common roll materials are cast iron, cast
steel, and forged steel. Tungsten carbides are also used for
small-diameter rolls, such as the working roll in a cluster mill.
Forged-steel rolls, although more costly, have greater strength,
stiffness, and toughness than cast-iron rolls. Rolls for cold
rolling are ground to a fine finish; for special applications, they
are polished.
Note that the bottom surface of an aluminum beverage can
appear to have longitudinal scratches on it. This surface is a
replica of the roll surface, which is produced by grinding; in this
way, we can easily determine the rolling direction of the original
aluminum sheet.
Rolls made for cold rolling should not be used for hot rolling,
because they may crack from thermal cycling (heat checking)
and spalling (cracking or flaking of surface layers). Note from
earlier discussion that the elastic modulus of the roll influences
roll deflection and flattening.

Lubricants. Hot rolling of ferrous alloys is usually carried out


without lubricants, although graphite may be used. Water-based
solutions are used to cool the rolls and to break up the scale on
the rolled material. Nonferrous alloys are hot rolled with variety
of compounded oils, emulsions, and fatty acids. Cold rolling is
carried out with water-soluble oils or low-viscosity lubricants,
such as mineral oils, emulsions, paraffin, and fatty oils.

Page 21 Metal Rolling Report


The heating medium used in heat treating billets and slabs may
also act as a lubricant. For example, residual salts from molten-
salt baths offer effective lubrication during rolling.

FIGURE 18 A tandem rolling operation.


A typical tandem sheet-rolling is shown in Fig.18, which
indicates the thickness and the speed of the sheet after each
reduction in the stands. The 2.25mm-sheet is supplied from a
pay-off reel. The surface speed of the sheet after the first
reduction (stand 5) is 4.1m/s. Four additional reductions are
taken through the rest of the stands. The final thickness of the
sheet is 0.26mm, and the sheet is taken up by the take-up reel at
a speed of 30m/s. the total reduction taken is
(2.25 -0.26)/2.25=0.88, or 88%.

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6. Summary:

 Rolling is the process of reducing the thickness or changing the


cross-section of a long workpiece by compressive forces applied
through a set of rolls. In addition to flat rolling, shape rolling is
used to make products with various cross-sections. Products made
by rolling include: plates, sheet, foil, rod, seamless pipe, and
tubing; shape-rolled products, such as I-beam and structural
shapes; and bars of various cross-section. Other rolling operations
include ring rolling and thread rolling.
 Rolling may be carried out at room temperature (cold rolling) or at
elevated temperatures (hot rolling). The process involves several
material and process variables, including roll diameter (relative to
material thickness), reduction per pass, speed, lubrication, and
temperature. Spreading, bending, and flatting, are important
considerations for controlling the dimensional accuracy of the
rolled stock.
 Rolling mills have a variety of roll configurations, such as two-
high, three-high, four-high, cluster (Sendzimir), planetary and
tandem. Front and/or back tension may be applied to the material,
to improve performance and to reduce roll forces.

Page 23 Metal Rolling Report


Contents

1. Introduction……………………………………………1
2. Flat Rolling…………………………………………….3
2.1 Frictional Forces…………………………………………....4
2.2 Roll Force & Power Requirements………………………....4
2.3 Geometric Considerations………………………………….6
2.4 Flat-Rolling Practice………………………………………..8
2.5 Defects in Rolling Plates & Sheets………………………..11
2.6 Other Characteristics…………………………………..…12
3. Shape-Rolling Operations…………………………….13
3.1 Ring Rolling……………………………………………….14
3.2 Thread Rolling…………………………………………….15
4. Production of Seamless Pipe & Tubing………………17
5. Rolling Mills……………………………………………19
6. Summary……………………………………………….23

I Metal Rolling Report


References

1. Manufacturing Engineering Technology,


Fourth Edition, By Serope Kalpakjian and
Steven R.Schmid.

2. Manufacturing Engineering Reference


Book, By D.Koshal.

II Metal Rolling Report