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FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING

MATH 302 NUMERICAL METHODS SPRING 08-09 RESIT EXAM

Date: 26. 06. 2009 Instructor: Prof. Dr. Hüseyin Oğuz

Duration:2 h

Student Registration No:_______________________________

Student Name-Surname:__________________________________

Important Note: Your own scientific calculator is allowable to use during exam with forbidding of its

exchange. Formula sheet is given on the backside of your exam paper.

1. (25 p) To find the inverse of a number ‘a’, one can use the equation

1

f (c ) = a − =0

c

where c is the inverse of ‘a’.

Use the Newton-Raphson method of finding roots of equations to

a) Find the inverse of 2.5. Conduct three iterations to estimate the root of the above equation.

b) Find the absolute relative approximate error at the end of each iteration, and

c) The number of significant digits at least correct at the end of each iteration

2.(25 p) An investigator has reported the data tabulated below for an experiment to determine the growth rate

of bacteria k (per d), as a function of oxygen concentration c (mg/L). It is known that such data can be

modeled by the following equation:

k c2

k = max 2

cs + c

where cs and kmax are parameters. Use a transformation to linearize this equation. Then use linear regression

to estimate cs and kmax and predict the growth rate at c = 2 mg/L.

Data:

c 0.5 0.8 1.5 2.5 4

k 1.1 2.4 5.3 7.6 8.9

3.(25 p) The velocity v (m/s) of air flowing past a flat surface is measured at several distances y (m) away from the

surface. Determine the shear stress τ (N/m2) at the surface (y = 0),

dv

τ =µ

dy

y, m 0 0.002 0.006 0.012 0.018 0.024

v, m/s 0 0.287 0.899 1.915 3.048 4.299

4

∫ (1 − x − 4 x )

+ 2 x 5 dx

3

−2

(a) analytically, (b) single application of the trapezoidal rule, (c) composite trapezoidal rule with n =2 and 4,

(d) single application of Simpson’s 1/3 rule, (e) Simpson’s 3/8 rule. For each of the numerical estimates (b)

through (e), determine the percent relative error based on (a).

Prof. Dr. Hüseyin Oğuz MATH302 Spring 08-09 ResitExam_26-06-09

Page 2 / 6

FORMULA SHEET

Interpolation:

Newton Interpolating Polynomial;

f n −1 ( x) = b1 + b2 ( x − x1 ) + .... + bn ( x − x1 )( x − x 2 )...( x − x n −1 )

b1 = f ( x1 ); b2 = f [ x 2 , x1 ] ; b3 = f [ x3 , x 2 , x1 ] ;……….; bn −1 = f [ x n −1 , x n − 2 ,...., x1 ] ; bn = f [ x n , x n−1 ,...., x 2 , x1 ]

[

f xi , x j = ]f ( xi ) − f (x j )

; f xi , x j , x k =[ f xi , x j − f x j − x k

] [ ] [ ]

xi − x j xi − x k

f [ x n , x n −1 ,........, x 2 ] − f [ x n −1 , x n − 2 ,........, x1 ]

f [x n , x n −1 ,...., x 2 , x1 ] =

x n − x1

n n x − xj

f n −1 ( x) = ∑ Li ( x) f ( xi ); Li ( x) = ∏

i =1 j =1 xi − x j

j ≠i

n n n

− −

n ∑ x i y i − ∑ xi ∑ y i

i =1 i =1 i =1

Regression: y = a 0 + a1 x, a 0 = y − a1 x ; a1 = 2

n

n

n ∑ x − ∑ xi

2

i

i =1 i =1

Newton-Raphson formula:

f ( xi )

xi +1 = xi −

f ′ (x ) i

Integration:

f ( x0 ) + f ( x1 )

I ≈ (b − a ) ; sin gle Trapezoidal Rule

2

n −1

f ( x 0 ) + 2∑ f ( xi ) + f ( x n )

i =1

I ≈ (b − a ) ; composite Trapezoidal Rule

2n

I≈

h

[ f ( x0 ) + 4 f ( x1 ) + f ( x2 )] = (b − a) f ( x0 ) + 4 f ( x1 ) + f ( x2 ) ; single Simpson' s 1/3 Rule

3 6

n −1 n−2

f ( x0 ) + 4 ∑

i =1,3, 5

f ( xi ) + 2 ∑ f (x

j = 2, 4 , 6

j ) + f ( xn )

I ≈ (b − a ) ; composite Simpson' s 1/3 Rule

3n

I≈

3h

[ f ( x0 ) + 3 f ( x1 ) + 3 f ( x 2 ) + f ( x3 )] = (b − a) f ( x0 ) + 3 f ( x1 ) + 3 f ( x2 ) + f ( x3 ) ; single Simpson' s 3/8 Rule

8 8

3h n−2 n −3

I≈ f ( x 0 + 3 ∑ [ f ( xi ) + f ( xi +1 )] + 2 ∑ f ( x j ) + f ( x n ) ; composite Simpson' s 3/8 Rule

8 i =1, 4, 7 j = 3, 6 , 9

Page 3 / 6

MATH 302 NUMERICAL METHODS SPRING 08-09 RESIT EXAM SOLUTIONS (26. 06. 2009)

1

1. f (c) = a − = 0

c

1

f ′(c ) =

c2

f (c i )

ci +1 = ci −

f ′(c )

1

a−

ci

= ci −

1

ci2

1

= ci − ci2 a −

ci

= ci − ci2 a + ci

∴ ci +1 = 2ci − ci2 a

Iteration #1

The estimate of the root is co= 0.5

∴ c1 = 2c0 − c02 a

=0.375

The absolute relative approximate error, ∈a at the end of Iteration #1 is

c1 − c 0

∈a = × 100

c1

0.375 − 0.5

= × 100

0.375

= 33.33%

The number of significant digits at least correct is 0, as you need an absolute relative approximate

error of less than 5% for one significant digit to be correct in your result.

Iteration #2

The estimate of the root is

∴ c 2 = 2c1 − c12 a

=0.3984

The absolute relative approximate error, ∈a at the end of Iteration #2 is

c 2 − c1

∈a = × 100

c2

0.3984 − 0.375

= × 100

0.3984

= 5.8824%

The number of significant digits at least correct is 0.

Prof. Dr. Hüseyin Oğuz MATH302 Spring 08-09 ResitExam_26-06-09

Page 4 / 6

Iteration #3

The estimate of the root is

c3 = 2c 2 − c 22 a

=0.3999

The absolute relative approximate error, ∈a at the end of Iteration #3 is

0.3999 − 0.3984

∈a = × 100

0.3999

= 0.3891 %

Hence the number of significant digits at least correct is given by the largest value of ‘m’ for which

∈a <∈s = 0.5 x10 2− m

0.7782 < 10 2− m

log(0.7782 ) < 2 − m

m < 2 − log(0.7782 ) = 2.1089

So m = 2

The number of significant digits at least correct in the estimated root of 0.3999 is 2.

2. The equation can be linearized by inverting it to yield

1 c 1 1

= s +

k k max c 2 k max

Consequently, a plot of 1/k versus 1/c should yield a straight line with an intercept of 1/kmax and a slope of cs/kmax

0.5 1.1 4.000000 0.909091 3.636364 16.000000

0.8 2.4 1.562500 0.416667 0.651042 2.441406

1.5 5.3 0.444444 0.188679 0.083857 0.197531

2.5 7.6 0.160000 0.131579 0.021053 0.025600

4 8.9 0.062500 0.112360 0.007022 0.003906

Sum → 6.229444 1.758375 4.399338 18.66844

5(4.399338) − 6.229444(1.758375)

a1 = = 0.202489

5(18.66844) − (6.229444) 2

1.758375 6.229444

a0 = − 0.202489 = 0.099396

5 5

Therefore, kmax = 1/0.099396 = 10.06074 and cs = 10.06074(0.202489) = 2.037189, and the fit is

10.06074c 2

k=

2.037189 + c 2

The equation can be used to compute

Page 5 / 6

10.06074(2) 2

k= = 6.666

2.037189 + (2) 2

3. The velocity at the surface can be computed by using second order Lagrange polynomial function as

x0 = 0 f(x0) = 0

x1 = 0.002 f(x1) = 0.287

x2 = 0.006 f(x2) = 0.899

f 2 (x ) =

(x − x1 )(x − x2 ) f (x ) + (x − x0 )(x − x2 ) f (x ) + (x − x0 )(x − x1 ) f (x )

(x0 − x1 )(x0 − x2 ) 0 (x1 − x0 )(x1 − x2 ) 1 (x2 − x0 )(x2 − x1 ) 2

′ 2 x − ( x1 + x 2 ) 2 x − ( x0 + x 2 ) 2 x − ( x0 + x1 )

f 2 (x ) = f ( x0 ) + f ( x1 ) + f (x )

(x0 − x1 )(x0 − x 2 ) (x1 − x0 )(x1 − x2 ) (x2 − x0 )(x2 − x1 ) 2

2(0) − 0.002 − 0.006 2(0) − 0 − 0.006 2(0) − 0 − 0.002

f ' ( 0) = 0 + 0.287 + 0.899

(0 − 0.002)(0 − 0.006) (0.002 − 0)(0.002 − 0.006) (0.006 − 0)(0.006 − 0.002)

= 0 + 215.25 − 74.9167 = 140.3333

Therefore, the shear stress can be computed as

N ⋅s 1 N

τ = 1.8 × 10 −5 140.3333 = 0.00253 2

m2 s m

4. (a) Analytical solution:

4

4 x2 x6

∫ (1 − x − 4 x + 2 x ) dx = x − − x 4 + = 1104

3 5

−2 2 3 −2

I = (4 − (−2)) = 5280 εt = × 100% = 378.26%

2 1104

− 29 + 2(−2) + 1789

I = (4 − (−2)) = 2634 ε t = 138.59%

4

I = (4 − (−2)) = 1516.875 ε t = 37.398%

8

Page 6 / 6

− 29 + 4(−2) + 1789

I = (4 − (−2)) = 1752 ε t = 58.7%

6

I = (4 − (−2)) = 1392 ε t = 26.087%

8

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