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# RESULTS

## Table 8.1 Water level above the Lower Quadrant

Mass,
No. h1 hc=(h1+50) Ixc A1 x hc hR(theory) hR(exp)
m
mm4 mm3
Unit g mm mm mm mm
(x106) (x105)
1 500 67 117 6.25 8.78 124.12 126.54
2 400 42 92 6.25 6.90 101.06 104.32
3 300 70 80 6.25 6.00 90.42 93.33
4 200 18 68 6.25 5.10 80.25 82.71
5 250 6 56 6.25 4.20 70.88 72.67

## Table 8.2 Water level within the Lower Quadrant

Mass,
No. h2 hc=(h2/2) Ixc A2 A2 x hc hR(theory) hR(exp)
m
mm4 2
mm3
Unit g mm mm mm mm mm
(x106) (x105)
1 200 94 47.0 5.19 7050 7050 62.68 63.01
2 150 80 40.0 3.2 6000 6000 53.33 55.00
3 100 65 32.5 1.72 4875 4875 43.36 41.73
4 50 45 22.5 0.57 3375 3375 30.00 29.36
5 30 35 17.5 0.27 2625 2625 23.33 17.86
6 20 28 14.0 0.14 2100 2100 18.72 18.47
7 10 21 10.2 0.06 1575 1575 13.91 -9.69
OBSERVATION

From the experiment, we can see that when the water is filled in the tank and the quadrant
is completely submerged, the beam at the weight hanger end tilted upward. Thus, 500g weight
was added and at the same time drain the water from the tank until the beam is horizontal. The
height of the water measurements were recorded along with the removed mass of 50 g.

CALCULATION

## For the mass 500 g:

Ixc ,

𝑏𝑑 3 75(100)3
Ixc = = = 𝟔. 𝟐𝟓𝒙𝟏𝟎𝟔
12 12

A1 x hc ,

Where,
𝐴1 = 75 𝑥 100 = 7500 𝑚𝑚2

## Therefore, A1 x hc , 𝐴1 𝑥 ℎ𝑐 = (6.25𝑥106 )(117) = 𝟖. 𝟕𝟖𝒙𝟏𝟎𝟓

hR(theory)

𝐼𝑥𝑐 6.25𝑥106
ℎ𝑅(𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑦) = ℎ𝑐 + = 117 +
𝐴ℎ𝑐 8.78𝑥105

ℎ𝑅(𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑦) = 𝟏𝟐𝟒. 𝟏𝟐 𝒎𝒎

hR(exp)

𝑚𝐿 (500)(280)
ℎ𝑅(𝑒𝑥𝑝) = − 100 + ℎ1 = (0.001)(117)(7500) − 100 + 67
𝜌(ℎ1 +50)(𝐴)

ℎ𝑅(𝑒𝑥𝑝) = 𝟏𝟐𝟔. 𝟓𝟒 𝒎𝒎
Calculation for Table 8.2

## For the mass 200 g:

Ixc ,

𝑏𝑑 3 75(ℎ2 )3 75(94)3
Ixc = = = = 𝟓. 𝟏𝟗𝒙𝟏𝟎𝟔
12 12 12

A2 x hc ,

Where,
𝐴2 = 75 𝑥 94 = 7050 𝑚𝑚2

## Therefore, A2 x hc , 𝐴1 𝑥 ℎ𝑐 = (5.19𝑥106 )(47) = 𝟖. 𝟕𝟖𝒙𝟏𝟎𝟓

hR(theory)

𝐼𝑥𝑐 5.91𝑥106
ℎ𝑅(𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑦) = ℎ𝑐 + = 47 +
𝐴ℎ𝑐 3.31𝑥105

ℎ𝑅(𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑦) = 𝟔𝟐. 𝟔𝟖 𝒎𝒎

hR(exp)

2𝑚𝐿 (2)(200)(280)
ℎ𝑅(𝑒𝑥𝑝) = − 200 + ℎ2 = (0.001)(94)(7050) − 200 + 94
𝜌(ℎ2 )(𝐴)

ℎ𝑅(𝑒𝑥𝑝) = 𝟔𝟑. 𝟎𝟏 𝒎𝒎
DISCUSSION

## Mass,m against distance, h r (exp)

600

500
y = 4.0018x - 35.21
400

300
mass (g)

200

100

0
-20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
-100

-200
Distance hr (exp) (mm)

## Mass,m against distance, h r (theory )

600

500
y = 4.0018x - 35.21
400

300
mass (g)

200

100

0
-20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
-100

-200
Distance hrr(theory) (mm)

## Graph 2: Mass, m against distance, hr(theory)

From the graphs plotted, both of the graphs shows the same pattern which are linear graphs.
We can see that when the mass is increases, the vertical distance from point free surface to center
of pressure also increases. However, the comparison had made between theoretical values and
experimental values for the vertical distance from point free surface to center of pressure. It shows
all experimental values were consistently slightly higher than the theoretical values. This may due
some errors happen during the experiment.

In this experiment, only the forces on the plane surface were considered. However, the
hydrostatic forces on the curved surface of the quarter-circle block do happen, but they do not
affect the measurement. This is because no moment is created by forces acting on the curved
surface of the quarter circle block. The line of action of the forces on the curved surface are
perpendicular to the surface, all lines of action that acted on the curved surface will pass through
the center or so called the pivot. Thus, no moments are created and hence no effect on the results.

CONCLUSION

From this experiment, we are able to determine the center of pressure of a plane submerged
in water. We can conclude that the higher water level rises, the higher the line of action of
hydrostatic force rises. This is because, the deeper an object is immersed, the greater the force
acting upon it becomes.

However, we can see the differences between theoretical values and experimental values
for the vertical distance from point free surface to center of pressure, hr. The errors occurred due
to several factors. The factors are reading measurement.