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# ME 2303 Design of Machine Elements

## Use of approved design data book is permitted

Assumptions and assumed data have to be clearly stated

## 3 What are the steps in machine design process?

4 What is coupling?

## 9 Can a knuckle joint be used for compressive load?

10 When two concentric springs of stiffness 100 N/mm and 50 N/mm respectively are subjected
to an axial load of 750 N, what will be the deflection of each spring?

11 What is a lever?

12 What is nipping in a leaf spring? List the materials commonly used for the manufacture of the
leaf spring.

13 List any four advantages of rolling contact bearings over sliding contact bearing.

## 15 What is a quill bearing?

1 (a) A shaft, as shown in figure is subjected to a bending load of 3 kN, pure torque of 1000 Nm
and an axial pulling force of 15 kN. Calculate the stresses at A and B.
3 kN
A
50 mm Dia 15 kN
B
250 mm
1000 Nm

(b) Determine the diameter of a circular rod made of ductile material with an endurance limit
of 265MPa and a tensile yield strength of 350 MPa. The member is subjected to a varying
axial load from -300 kN to 700 kN and has a stress concentration factor as 1.8. Take factor
of safety as 2.
(c) An overhang crank, shown in the figure, carries a tangential load of 10 kN at the centre of
the crankpin. Find the maximum principal stress and the maximum shear stress at the
centre of the bearing.

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25
10 kN
50

125
75

40 25 100

All dimensions in mm

2 (a) A solid circular shaft is subjected to a bending moment of 3000 N-m and a torque of 10000
N-m. The shaft is made of 45C8 steel having ultimate tensile stress of 700 MPa and a
ultimate shear stress of 500 MPa. Assuming a factor of safety of 6, determine the diameter
of the shaft.
(b) A flexible coupling is used to transmit 15 kW power at 100 rpm. There are 6 pins and their
pitch circle diameter is 200 mm. The effective length of bush, the gap between two flanges
and length of the pin in contact with the right hand flange are 35, 5 and 23 mm
respectively. The permissible shear and bending stresses in the pin are 35 and 152 N/mm2.
Calculate the pin diameter by shear consideration, bending consideration.
(c) A shaft is supported by two bearings placed 1 m apart. A 600 mm diameter pulley is
mounted at a distance of 300 mm to the right of left hand bearing and this drives a pulley
directly below it with the help of belt having a maximum tension of 2.25 kN. Another
pulley 400 mm diameter is placed 200 mm to the left of right hand bearing and is driven
with the help of electric motor and belt, which is placed horizontally to the the right. The
angle of contact for both the pulleys is 180º and µ = 0.24. Dtermine the suitable diameter
for a solid shaft, allowing working stress of 60 MPa in tension and 40 MPa in shear for the
material of shaft. Assume that the torque on one pulley is equal lto that on the other pulley.

3 (a) A 50 mm diameter solid shaft is welded to a flat plate as shown in the figure. If the size of
the weld is 15 mm, find the maximum normal and shear stresses in the weld.

200 mm 10 kN

50
50 mm

Figure
(b) Design a knuckle joint to transmit 150 kN. The design stresses may be taken as 75 MPa in
tension, 60 MPa in shear and 150 MPa in compression.
(c) The cylinder head of a steam engine is subjected to a steam pressure of 0.7 N/mm2. It is
held in position by means of 12 bolts. A soft copper gasket is used to make the joint leak-
proof. The effective diameter of cylinder is 300 mm. Find the size of the bolts so that the
stress in the bolts is not to exceed 100 MPa.

4 (a) A concentric spring is used as a valve spring in a heavy duty diesel engine. It consists of
two helical compression springs having the same free length and same solid length. The
composite spring is subjected to a maximum force of 6000 N and the corresponding
deflection is 50 mm. The maximum torsional shear stress induced in each spring is 800
N/mm2. The spring index of each spring is 6. Assume same material for two springs and

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the modulus or rigidity of spring material is 81370 N/mm2. The diametral clearance
between the coils is equal to the difference between their wire diameters. Calculate:
(i) The axial force transmitted by each spring.
(ii) Wire and mean coil diameters of each spring.
(iii) Number of active coils in each spring.
(b) Design a cast iron flywheel for a four-stroke IC engine developing 50 kW at 150 rpm with
75 explosions per minute. The total fluctuation of speed is limited to 0.5% of the mean on
either side. The work done during the working stroke is 1.4 times the work done during the
cycle. Assume that the flywheel stores 16/15 times the energy stored by the rim and the rim
section has width four times the depth so that the hoop stress does not exceed 4 N.mm2.
(c) A truck spring has 12 number of leaves, two of which are full length leaves. The spring
supports are 1.05 m apart and the central band is 85 mm wide. The central load is to be 5.4
kN with a permissible stress of 280 MPa. Determine the thickness and width of the steel
spring leaves. The ratio of the total depth to the width of the spring is 3. Also determine the
deflection of the spring.

5 (a) The load on a journal bearing is 150 kN due to turbine shaft of 300 mm diameter running
at 1800 rpm. Determine the following:
(i) Length of the bearing if the allowable bearing pressure is 1.6 N/mm2 and
(ii) Amount of heat to be removed by the lubricant per minute if the bearing
temperature is 60ºC and viscosity of the oil at 60ºC is 0.02 kg/m-s and the bearing
clearance is 0.25 mm.
(b) Design a connecting rod for an IC engine running at 1800 rpm and developing a maximum
pressure of 3.15 N/mm2. The diameter of the piston is 100 mm; mass of the reciprocating
parts per cylinder is 2.25 kg; length of the connecting rod 380 mm; stroke of piston is190
mm and compression ratio 6:1. Take a factor safety of 6 for the design. Take length to
diameter ratio for big end bearing as 1.3 and small end bearing as 2 and the corresponding
bearing pressures as 10 N/mm2 and 15 N/mm2. The density of material of the rod may be
taken as 8000 kg/m3 and the allowable stress in the bolts as 60 N/mm2 and the cap as 80
N/mm2. The rod is to be of I-section for which you can choose your own proportions.
Draw a neat dimensioned sketch showing provision for lubrication. Use Rankine formula
for which the numerator constant may be taken as 320 N/mm2 and the denominator
constant 1/7500.
(c) A single row deep groove ball bearing is subjected to a radial force of 8 kN and a thrust
force of 3 kN. The shaft rotates at 1200 rpm. The expected life L10th of the bearing is
20,000 hrs. The minimum acceptable diameter of the shaft is 75 mm. Select a suitable ball
bearing for this application.

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