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# Noil Extraction theory

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Forward feed
Lap feed (7 – 19)

Nipper movement
Detachment

## Forward swing (34- 19)

Backward swing (19 - 34

Cylinder
Lap feed combing

Combing
Detaching roller movement
(27 - 36
0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40
Index Number
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Backward feed
Lap feed (19 –27)

Nipper movement
Detachment

## Forward swing (34- 19)

Backward swing (19 – 34)

Cylinder
Lap feed
combing

Combing
Detaching roller movement
(27 - 36
0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40
Index Number
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Noil extraction ( Backward feed)
C
Detaching
E+ S/2
rollers r
Feed n
M
roller
E+S
E

Nipper plate E A q m B
Detachment
setting (E) Staple diagram of fibres
At the end of detaching process all fibres > E are detached.
Feed
roller All fibres left to line mn pass to the combed sliver i.e. represented by
AmnC
Nipper
Cylinder comb AS nippers retracts , feed roller feed the lap by an amount S
plate
Fringe length = E + S
E = part combed previously
S = freshly fed lap

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C
Noil extraction … r
E+ S/2
p n
Feed M
roller E+S
E

A q o m B
Nipper
plate Cylinder comb Staple diagram of fibres

During combing by cylinder comb all fibres l < E+S lying in front of nipping line will be
removed by cylinder comb as they are not gripped by nippers and passed to noil.
This length = qr in the staple diagram
All fibres to the right of line qr are combed out into noil ( area qBr)

In the region qmnr, it is matter of chance whether the fibre remain in the fringe or pass as noil. One can
draw a line which is half of qr and mn i.e line op and consider
trapezium AopC represents fibres going into sliver
Triangle opB represents those pass in noil
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In the region qmnr, it is matter of chance whether the fibre
remain in the fringe or pass as noil.

One can draw a line which is half of qr and mn i.e line op and
consider
C
• Trapezium AopC represents fibres going into sliver
E+ S/2
r
p n
• Triangle opB represents those pass in noil M
E+S
𝑆 E
𝑜𝑝 = 𝐸 +
2
A q o m B
Being similar triangle , the areas stand in the same ratio as the
squares of the side. Staple diagram of fibres

## Noil % (p) is ratio of weight of waste to weight of feed stock.

2
𝑆
𝑜𝐵𝑝 𝑜𝑝 2 𝐸 + 2
𝑝% = × 100 = × 100 = × 100
𝐴𝐵𝐶 𝐴𝐶 2 𝑀2

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Forward feed S E-S

## • Feeding of lap takes place during forward

motion of nipper Feed
• After detaching all fibres > E have passed to roller
sliver
• Fringe is combed by cylinder comb
• All fibres < E are extracted as noil represented by Nipper plate E
area qBr a
• Feed occurs during subsequent forward stroke b
of nipper , the combed fringe is pushed by c
length S C
• detaching rollers detaches all fibres >E and
also r E- S/2
those fibres shorter than E by S ( fibre b = E-S) p n
M
• these fibre are represented by trapezium Amnc E
E-s
• qmnr can be divided according to mean fibre
length by line op A q o m B
Staple diagram of fibres
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𝑆
𝑜𝑝 = 𝐸 −
2 C

Noil % : r E- S/2
p n
𝑆 2 M
𝑜𝐵𝑝 𝑜𝑝 2 𝐸 − E
𝑝% = × 100 = × 100 = 2 × 100 E-s
𝐴𝐵𝐶 𝐴𝐶 2 𝑀2
A q o m B
Staple diagram of fibres

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End

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Differential combing
Top comb Detaching
Nipper grip line of action
S
roller nip line
Maximum number of combing action
Fibre position f f f f would be:
b
1 C 𝑠−𝑐
b1 =
2 𝑓
3 b2 b1 Where, s = detachment distance
b3 b1 c = length of fringe not combed
4 b2
f = amount fed per cycle
b4 b3 b2 b1
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Degree of
Line of action of combing
cylinder comb (C )
Combing zone

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Quality of combing operation
• In forward fibres shorter than detachment setting ‘E’ (i.e. E-S) has a
chance to move into the combed sliver
• A fibre as long as ‘E’ can be extracted as waste ( noil) as it is pushed
by feed distance just before cylinder combing
• In backward feed quality of combing is better.

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Factors affecting combing
• Lap feed length/nip or cycle
• Detachment setting
• Type of feed ( forward or backward)
• Depth of penetration of top comb

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Lap feed /cycle or nip
• High lap feed length /nip increases production

## • However, quality deteriorates as

• noil extraction reduces
• degree of combing reduces

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Type of feed
• Forward feed for higher production rate, less noil ( 5- 12%) but poor
quality

• Backward feed less production, more noil ( 12- 25%) but better
quality

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Influence of fibre parallelization in lap
• Both over and under parallelization is bad
• Lack of longitudinal orientation/parallelization leads to
• extraction of long fibres
• Increase in combing force which causes plucking and tearing of lap sheet
i.e fibres in tuft form are taken away

## • Over parallelization leads to

• Inadequate removal of trash and neps

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• Noil decreases with increased parallelization

## • After combing , 1/5 th to 1/6 th fibres presented are drawn out

combed fringe. Impurities, and neps remain in the sheet due to
retaining power of the sheet.

• The retaining power and the self cleaning effect will be greater the
more disoriented the fibres are.

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• If fibres are too parallel the retaining power of the sheet reduces and
it can not hold back the neps and impurities. Some neps may even
pass through the needle of top comb.

• The sheet also do not hold the fibre together too well. It lacks
strength. The alp becomes hairy .

## • The parallelization depends upon pre-combing draft.

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Detachment setting
• High detachment setting results in more noil extraction than low
setting

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Top comb penetration
• With increase in depth of penetration noil level increases.

## • Too much depth makes fibre movement during detaching difficult

difficult during piecing.

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End

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