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Nama : Pola Esiania

NIM : 210916014
Kelas : TI.A

with the aim that men pay more attention to important issues and big goals.

In the matter of family institutions, Kiai Muchith's gender thinking was not as aggressive as
other gender figures, but Kiai Muchith's view of the size of his era seemed to be contextual (at
least) up to the present. According to him, family is very important, as is the importance of
marriage between men and women. Kiai Muchith taslīm with God's provisions regarding
marriage contract or marriage which necessitates the life of a different type of husband and
wife. Unlike feminists who are anti-marriage, Kiai Muchith believes marriage is the
sunnatullah that is inhern in life. Thus this is because it is the sunnatullah that living beings
were created in pairs.

Kiai Muchith's views were in line with Neng Dara Affiah, a progressive Muslimah who was
engaged in the struggle for gender equality, not to accept the presence of lesbianism in Islam.46
Indeed, he agreed with radical feminism that the key to oppression of women is a patriarchal
ideology. This ideology influences all joints of life, not least the influence on religious
interpretations. Neng Dara Affiah also agreed on issues of violence against women committed
by men. However, Neng Dara did not agree with the transition of sexual orientation as a
solution or resistance to patriarchal ideology because if women choose to have sexual relations
with each other, how is the continuation of the type of human being? Here, according to Neng
Dara Affiah, activist duty women to socialize new meanings of marital values and not reject
their marriage institutions.

Kiai's view Muchith refused firmly the line lesbianism and gay, as confirmed in Islam. Kiai
Muchith is not the only one who advocates for other marriages kind, but also rejects same-sex
marriage as determined by Allah SWT. In this context, Kiai Muchith believes in the rules of
God which he considers to be the best rule. Including the rules for marrying other types (men
and women) that should be well received. The acceptance of Kiai Muchith regarding the
concept of marriage is in line with the acceptance of ideas about marriage and family, as
institutions that are always in life and uncertain.
Here, about the importance of marriage and family institutions, Kiai Muchith seia and sekata
with M. Quraish Shihab. Quraish Shihab, in this case, considers the importance of a marriage
institution and family. According to Quraish Shihab, humans are animals that have a large
sexual drive and have the potential to vent it anytime and anywhere, in contrast to animals that
have sexual outlet only in certain seasons. Humans get the necessities of life by hunting so that
they need to leave the house and leave their children and wife alone.

Thus, Kiai Muchith views the urgency of the family with all its functions. And Kiai Muchith,
a lot hoping to build a great civilization comes from a family institution. Such a view is similar
to the views of Sachiko Murata, a Professor of Religious Studies at the State University of New
York, who stated in her best and most recent work: "Whoever wants to govern a country, first
must properly regulate his family". Kiai Muchith's thinking of placing the central position of
women in life was strengthened by the view of the household as the headquarters of life. For
Kiai Muchith, a household or family is a very big role and influence on human life, both in
context physical, spiritual and social. By Islamic law, the husband's obligation to provide this
income, not only in the provision of food for drinking, but also its supply can be eaten drunk.
According to adat, the wife bother shopping at the market, cooking in the kitchen and so on,
then that in the view of Kiai Muchith is good will (kind mindedness) the wife must be aware
of and valued by her husband.

Kiai Muchith based his thoughts so clearly and strong rooted. He certainly chooses and sorts
out opinions more relevant in the present by basing his opinion on Ibn Hazm. In fact, the
demands of Ibn Hazm were as referred to by Kiai Muchith gives wife better rights than what
demanded by feminists at this time. Therefore, the husband is burdened with the obligations of
the dowry, a living,kiswah (clothes) and house in full, then the husband has the right demanding
full obedience of the wife.51 Thus, obedience directly proportional to the obligations that
should be fulfilled by a husband in the household. Without implementation of obligations by
the husband, do not expect to get obedience of the hundred percent wife. Besides making a
living, the husband was also burdened by a dowry.


The variant of Muslim feminist thinkers in Indonesia shows "different the way "between one
thinker and another. Indeed some this feminist thought uses an occasional perspective inclined
to deify Western values by ignoring for rests on tradition. Although some of these feminists
claim that they are also Islamizing feminism. Even though, if seeing the back ground adopted,
then truly all of these thinkers rests on the same tradition, namely the Islamic tradition and or
(also) boarding school.

Scheme 1
Muslim Feminist Relations
in the Thought of Women's Fiqh in Indonesia

This view can be seen from the discussion on the theme of family urgency which was almost
without criticism of Indonesian Muslim feminists. Even if there is criticism, it is not possible
to overthrow family institutions in Islam, as practiced by feminists who are not Muslims.
Feminist criticism of Indonesian liberal Muslims towards the family is only autocritical
because there is a distance between the ideals of the Islamic family and reality. Likewise the
family leadership role that the wife should also be able to hold - also can also be held by the
husband - according to liberal Muslim feminists.

While conservative feminists in a position to strengthen the family with wedding accessories.
Conservative feminist like Ratna Megawangi rejecting Marxist feminist views the anti-family
one. Therefore, feminists are based on values the theory of structuralism functionalism,
according to Ratna Megawangi, is the most ideal. The functioning of the functions and roles in
a family is the highest ideals of these conservative Muslim feminists.

Moderate Muslim feminist thinkers like Kiai Muchith Muzadi closer to liberal Indonesian
feminist groups, although in some respects there are still differences. The inauguration of
marriage as the most important institution as a pillar of the family in Islam is proof that Kiai
Muchith is very concerned about the institution.

In fact, furthermore, this hope for the family is so great in the context of creating a superior

Likewise when reviewing the nature of women. Para Indonesian liberal feminists tend to negate
women's nature. They say that women's differences are not natural, but merely mere social
construction. Although some feminists admit that is biological and genetic in nature, they all
agree that there is nothing natural in gender roles.
Conversely, feminists are conservative Muslims and feminists moderate Muslims see that
everything that attaches to women is natural, both in biology, genetics and the role of
womanhood. In logic and reasoning supported empirically, biologically women are created
differently from men. Biological differences at the next stage make their roles the same.

As for the role of women in the domestic sphere, Liberal Muslim feminists tend to humble
them. The proof, for them, is that domestic roles are low by encouraging women to leave their
homes and do self-actualization outside the home. Liberal Muslim feminists in Indonesia seem
to be influenced by Western feminists who make the main focus of their struggle by
encouraging women to work in the public sphere. Moreover, Muslim liberal Indonesian
feminists appear to be ignorant of women's domestic roles.

This is the opposite of conservative Muslim feminists who are looking at women only with
domestic roles. This means that domestic roles are natural, natural and do not need to be sued.
Conservative Muslim feminists condemn women who leave their homes, work and are
materialist oriented by abandoning their natural roles in the domestic sphere. Women must
faithfully wait in the domestic sphere with the various roles they play.

Meanwhile, for moderate Muslim feminists such as Kiai Muchith, argue that women should
only play a role in the domestic sphere. However, if needed, women can play a role in the
public sphere as long as they do not neglect obligations in their homes and get permission from
their husbands. Kiai Muchith's thinking brought a balance between women's domestic and
public roles in a balanced manner.

This moderate feminist thought, by Kiai Muchith, is based on the basis of the religious values
he adheres to, namely the flow of ahl al-sunah wal jamā'ah which adheres to the values of
tawāsuth (middle), tawāzun (balance), and i’tidāl (perpendicular). Thus this is different from
K. H. Husin Muhammad, and other Muslim feminists who, although based on the same
tradition, but their minds sometimes come out of tradition.

Thus this shows the variants of Muslim feminist thinking in Indonesia, ranging from
conservative, moderate to liberal. Of course, this will enrich the perspective of the feminist
movement in Indonesia. This wealth is not to be "hostile" to one another, but in the context of
dynamics as an effort to present the best in the discourse of gender equality in Indonesia, as


Although various Muslim feminist schools are related to women's fiqh thoughts, which are
divided into conservative, liberal and moderate schools, but one thing, that in fact in their view
they have a commitment in the same core, namely to honor and glorify women. Even in
conservative groups, Muslim feminists still want the position of women in a respectable and
dignified place. In addition, they have similarities: basing the argument on gender equality in
the Qur'an and al-Hadith. Therefore, it would be more appropriate for them to be said to be just
"different ways" and "different thoughts" on how women should get such an honorable
position. Therefore, this dialogue between Muslim feminist schools actually enriches the
wealth of feminist Muslims in Indonesia. There is nothing better for them, except that their
thinking will be functional or beneficial to women in Indonesia. The truth of their theories will
be functionally tested to what extent the benefits to society are widely in this country. Even
with the dialogue between the streams there will be various things that will complement one
another. So that it becomes a strong and strong mainstream force to glorify and honor
Indonesian women with various women's empowerment activities.