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Prince Hanzoku terrorized by a nine-tailed fox. Print by Utagawa Kuniyoshi, 19th century. Kitsune (狐, きつね, ki·tsu·ne?, IPA: [kitsɯne] ( listen)) is the Japanese word for fox. Foxes are a common subject of Japanese folklore; kitsune usually refers to them in this context. Stories depict them as intelligent beings and as possessing magical abilities that increase with their age and wisdom. Foremost among these is the ability to assume human form. While some folktales speak of kitsune employing this ability to trick others—as foxes in folklore often do—other stories portray them as faithful guardians, friends, lovers, and wives. Foxes and human beings lived in close proximity in ancient Japan; this companionship gave rise to legends about the creatures. Kitsune have become closely associated with Inari, a Shinto kami or spirit, and serve as his messengers. This role has reinforced the fox's supernatural significance. The more tails a kitsune has—they may have as many as nine—the older, wiser, and more powerful it is. Because of their potential power and influence, some people make offerings to them as to a deity.
1 Servants of Inari 3. Indian. It is widely agreed that many fox myths in Japan can be traced to China. He states that.4 In fiction 2 Characteristics 3 Portrayal 4 See also 5 References ○ 5.D.2 Tricksters 3. There is debate whether the kitsune myths originated entirely from foreign sources or are in part an indigenous Japanese concept dating as far back as the fifth century BC. from the Qing edition of the ancient text Shan Hai Jing. and he contends that indigenous legends .2 Kitsunetsuki 2. Chinese folk tales tell of fox spirits (called Huli-jin) that may have up to nine tails. an 11th-century collection of Chinese.1 Etymology 2. and Japanese narratives. Korea.1 Other sources 6 External links  Origins A nine-tailed fox.1 Shapeshifting 2. according to a 16th-century book of records called the Nihon Ryakki. or India. the only things imported from China or Korea were the kitsune's negative attributes.3 Wives and lovers 3.○ • ○ ○ ○ • ○ ○ ○ ○ • • • 1.3 Hoshi no tama （ほしのたま） 3. Japanese folklorist Kiyoshi Nozaki argues that the Japanese regarded kitsune positively as early as the 4th century A.. foxes and human beings lived in close proximity in ancient Japan. Many of the earliest surviving stories are recorded in the Konjaku Monogatari.
• • Myōgoki (1268) suggests that it is so called because it is "always (tsune) yellow (ki)". 934). and that ne is an affix or an honorific word meaning a servant of an Inari shrine. which Nozaki presents as further evidence of an established.about the creatures arose as a result. spent the seasons longing for his ideal of female beauty. Japan is home to two red fox subspecies: the Hokkaido fox (Vulpes vulpes schrencki. Simultaneously with the birth of their son. a fox's cry is transcribed as kon kon or gon gon. there is no general agreement. These oldest sources are written in Man'yōgana which clearly identifies the historical spelling as ki1tune. non-imported tradition of benevolent foxes in Japanese folklore. but he . The oldest known usage of the word is in the 794 text Shin'yaku Kegonkyō Ongi Shiki. • • • According to Nozaki. an inhabitant of Mino (says an ancient Japanese legend of A. Early Kamakura period Mizukagami indicates that it means "came (ki) [perfective case particle tsu] to bedroom (ne)" due to a legend that a kitsune would change into one's wife and bear children. this one does not end tragically: Ono. the word for "dog". this becomes kitsune. but she maintains that some fox stories contain elements unique to Japan. pictured). Kitsu represented a fox's yelp and came to be the general word for fox. tsu is a possessive particle. Tanikawa Kotosuga in Wakun no Shiori (1777–1887) suggests that ki means "yellow". the word for cat. Following several diachronic phonological changes. Kitsu is now archaic. One of the oldest surviving kitsune tales provides a widely known folk etymology of the word kitsune.D. Other old sources include Nihon Ryōiki (810–824) and Wamyō Ruijushō (c. Many etymological suggestions have been made. Arai Hakuseki in Tōga (1717) suggests that ki means "stench". tsu is a possessive particle. He met her one evening on a vast moor and married her. and ne is related to neko. She begged her husband to kill it. however.  Etymology The full etymology is unknown. 545). the word kitsune was originally onomatopoeia. Inari scholar Karen Smyers notes that the idea of the fox as seductress and the connection of the fox myths to Buddhism were introduced into Japanese folklore through similar Chinese stories. and ne is related to inu. -Ne signifies an affectionate mood. and the Japanese red fox (Vulpes vulpes japonica). the story is now known to be false. Ōtsuki Fumihiko in Daigenkai (1932–1935) proposes that kitsu is an onomatopoeia for the animal. Ono's dog was delivered of a pup which as it grew up became more and more hostile to the lady of the moors. Unlike most tales of kitsune who become human and marry human males. in modern Japanese.
 One. and the word kitsune is often translated as fox spirit. . Because the word spirit is used to reflect a state of knowledge or enlightenment. When a kitsune gains its ninth tail. Local traditions add further types. They are a type of yōkai. In classical Japanese. long life. For example. "You may be a fox." Ono called after her. the yako (野狐?. The zenko (善狐?. There are two common classifications of kitsune. kitsu-ne means come and sleep. Physically. and magical powers. seven. kitsune are noted for having as many as nine tails. a greater number of tails indicates an older and more powerful fox. some folktales say that a fox will only grow additional tails after it has lived 1. literally field foxes. or spiritual entity.  Characteristics Statue of a kitsune at the Inari shrine adjacent to Tōdai-ji Buddhist temple in Nara Kitsune are believed to possess superior intelligence.000 years. all longlived foxes gain supernatural abilities. its fur becomes white or gold. five. At last one day the dog attacked her so furiously that she lost courage. they are sometimes simply called Inari foxes. you will always be welcome.refused. also called nogitsune) tend to be mischievous or even malicious. in fact. However. and nine tails are the most common numbers in folk stories. a ninko is an invisible fox spirit that human beings can only perceive when it possesses them. Other tales attribute them infinite wisdom (omniscience). resumed vulpine shape. "but you are the mother of my son and I love you. These kyūbi no kitsune (九尾の狐?." So every evening she stole back and slept in his arms. Come back when you please. she is called Kitsune. Another tradition classifies kitsune into one of thirteen types defined by which supernatural abilities the kitsune possesses. nine-tailed foxes) gain the abilities to see and hear anything happening anywhere in the world. this does not mean that kitsune are ghosts. Because the fox returns to her husband each night as a woman but leaves each morning as a fox. nor that they are fundamentally different from regular foxes. literally good foxes) are benevolent. On the other hand. leaped over a fence and fled. Generally. celestial foxes associated with the god Inari. and ki-tsune means always comes.
or elderly men. and some become so rattled by the presence of dogs that they revert to the shape of a fox and flee. or a reflection that shows its true form. invisibility. a historical person credited with wisdom and magical powers of divination. he ran out of the bathroom naked. this facial structure is considered attractive. mouths or tails that generate fire or lightning (known as kitsune-bi. such as a coating of fine hair. flight. a broad leaf. These shapes are not limited by the fox's age or gender. When the people of the household saw him. perhaps when the fox gets drunk or careless." Other supernatural abilities commonly attributed to the kitsune include possession. becoming an elderly fox and running away. and a kitsune can duplicate the appearance of a specific person. an ability learned when it reaches a certain age — usually 100 years. could be a fox. and some tales ascribe it to foxes in human form. although some tales say 50. "in his pain. especially at dusk or night. looking for the tail. Then. Kitsunegao or fox-faced refers to human females who have a narrow face with close-set eyes. literally. along with a fox's tail. a fox-shaped shadow. According to the story. Kitsune have a fear and hatred of dogs even while in human form. thin eyebrows. he was staying at the home of one of his devotees when he scalded his foot entering a bath because the water had been drawn too hot. As a common prerequisite for the transformation. willful manifestation in the dreams of others. Then Koan transformed in front of them. Common belief in medieval Japan was that any woman encountered alone. and the creation of illusions so elaborate as to be . young girls.  Shapeshifting A kitsune may take on human form. and high cheekbones. or a skull over its head. Traditionally. A particularly devout individual may be able to see through a fox's disguise automatically. The associated game involves matching clues from folklore to pictures of specific creatures. kitsune have difficulty hiding their tails when they take human form. Common forms assumed by kitsune include beautiful women. they were astonished to see that Koan had fur covering much of his body. One folk story illustrating these imperfections in the kitsune's human shape concerns Koan. Foxes are particularly renowned for impersonating beautiful women. In some stories. is a common method of discerning the creature's true nature. fox-fire).This obake karuta (monster card) from the early 19th century depicts a kitsune. the fox must place reeds. Variants on the theme have the kitsune retain other foxlike traits.
Kitsunetsuki is often attributed to the malign intents of a hereditary fox employers. . Inari and her fox spirits help the blacksmith Munechika forge the blade kogitsune-maru (Little Fox) at the end of the 10th century. Sometimes they run naked shouting through the streets. and it glides instantly to another place. Prick it with a needle. aburagé. Japanese tradition holds that fox possession can cause illiterate victims to temporarily gain the ability to read. azukimeshi. — and they eat a great deal. Some tales speak of kitsune with even greater powers. able to bend time and space. Folklorist Lafcadio Hearn describes the condition in the first volume of his Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan: Strange is the madness of those into whom demon foxes enter. He goes on to note that. etc. In some cases. or other foods favored by foxes. Possessed folk are also said to speak and write languages of which they were totally ignorant prior to possession. or tsukimono-suji. whom the fox enters beneath her fingernails or through her breasts. are hungry.  Kitsunetsuki Kitsunetsuki (狐憑き or 狐付き. In the past. Other kitsune have characteristics reminiscent of vampires or succubi and feed on the life or spirit of human beings. the victim will never again be able to eat tofu. And on some part of the body of the possessed a moving lump appears under the skin. Exorcism. which seems to have a life of its own. once freed from the possession. Sometimes they lie down and froth at the mouth. The victim is always a young woman.almost indistinguishable from reality. Though foxes in Folklore can possess a person of their own will. may induce a fox to leave its host. By no grasp can it be so tightly compressed by a strong hand that it will not slip from under the fingers. The legend is the subject of the noh drama Sanjō Kokaji. They eat only what foxes are believed to like — tofu. azukimeshi. the victims' facial expressions are said to change in such a way that they resemble those of a fox. also written kitsune-tsuki) literally means the state of being possessed by a fox. or take fantastic shapes such as a tree of incredible height or a second moon in the sky. often performed at an Inari shrine. drive people mad. Entire families were ostracized by their communities after a member of the family was thought to be possessed. alleging that not they. generally through sexual contact. when such gentle measures failed or a priest was not available. and yelp as a fox yelps. victims of kitsunetsuki were beaten or badly burned in hopes of forcing the fox to leave. but the possessing foxes.
In Japan. Jewels are a common symbol of Inari. Another tradition is that the pearl represents the kitsune's soul. Tales describe these as glowing with kitsune-bi. it's a terrible loss." The fox later saves his life by leading him past a band of armed robbers. "Give me back my ball!" The man ignored its pleas till finally it said tearfully. but stories of fox possession still appear in the tabloid press and popular media.  Hoshi no tama （ほしのたま） Kitsune glowing with fox-fire gather near Edo. "All right. and aversion to eye contact. One belief is that when a kitsune changes shape. kitsunetsuki is an ethnic psychosis unique to Japanese culture. Shunichi Shimamura noted that physical diseases that caused fever were often considered kitsunetsuki. When not in human form or possessing a human. Print by Hiroshige. For me. Symptoms include cravings for rice or sweet red beans. Those who obtain the ball may be able to extract a promise from the kitsune to help them in exchange for its return. I tell you. One notable occasion involved allegations that members of the Aum Shinrikyo cult had been possessed. if you don't give it back. Kitsunetsuki is similar to but distinct from clinical lycanthropy.  Portrayal . and representations of sacred Inari foxes without them are rare. Those who suffer from the condition believe they are possessed by a fox. For example. a kitsune keeps the ball in its mouth or carries it on its tail. In the late 19th century. The belief has lost favor. the kitsune will die if separated from it for long. restlessness. but you don't know how to keep it. you've got the ball. listlessness.  Some stories identify them as magical jewels or pearls. or fox-fire. In medicine. its hoshi no tama holds a portion of its magical power. Dr. I'll stick to you like a protector god. Possession was the explanation for the abnormal behavior displayed by the afflicted individuals. a 12th-century tale describes a man using a fox's hoshi no tama to secure a favor: "Confound you!" snapped the fox. It won't be any good to you. kitsunetsuki was noted as a disease as early as the Heian period and remained a common diagnosis for mental illness until the early 20th century. If you do give it back though. Depictions of kitsune or their possessed victims may feature round or onion-shaped white balls known as hoshi no tama (star balls). I'll be your enemy forever.
that flows from the northeast. Similarly. Inari's kitsune are white. Likewise. There is speculation among folklorists as to whether another Shinto fox deity existed in the past. Originally. entire shrines are dedicated to kitsune. sometimes large numbers of them. Many Inari shrines. the fox's power over evil is such that a mere statue of a fox can dispel the evil kimon. and they sometimes serve as guardian spirits. Foxes have long been worshipped as kami. feature such statues. goddesses conflated with Inari's female aspect. Kitsune are connected to the Buddhist religion through the Dakiniten. or energy.  Servants of Inari Kitsune are associated with Inari. the Shinto deity of rice. but the line between the two is now blurred so that Inari himself may be depicted as a fox. Dakiniten is depicted as a female boddhisattva wielding a sword and riding a flying white fox. those spirit foxes who do not serve Inari.  Tricksters .Inari appears to a warrior. This association has reinforced the fox's supernatural significance. This portrayal of Inari shows the influence of Dakiniten concepts from Buddhism. which is accordingly found in the noodlebased dishes kitsune udon and kitsune soba. They possess the power to ward off evil. Black foxes and nine-tailed foxes are likewise considered good omens. In addition to protecting Inari shrines. kitsune were Inari's messengers. According to beliefs derived from fusui (feng shui). Fox spirits are said to be particularly fond of a fried sliced tofu called aburage. where devotees can leave offerings. such as the famous Fushimi Inari shrine in Kyoto. they are petitioned to intervene on behalf of the locals and particularly to aid against troublesome nogitsune. Print by Utagawa Kuniyoshi. a color of good omen. Inari-zushi is a type of sushi named for Inari that consists of rice-filled pouches of fried tofu.
Any other particulars that you may wish to be informed of in reference to what has occurred. paper. causing her and others a great deal of trouble. I have to request that you make minute inquiries into the matter. The headman beats the hunter. wrote a letter to the kami Inari: To Inari Daimyojin. whom he outranks. the hunter beats the fox. you are to arrest and punish him at once. Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Their victims are usually men. leads people to try to discover a troublesome fox's motives. kitsune are thought to employ their kitsune-bi or fox-fire to lead travelers astray in the manner of a will o' the wisp. or vengeance for a perceived slight. greedy merchants. For example. If you hesitate to take action in this matter I shall issue orders for the destruction of every fox in the land. a hunter. My lord. humiliation of the prideful. but the three hand positions signify a fox. In one case. women are possessed instead. and endeavor to find out the reason of your subject misbehaving in this way. A traditional game called kitsune-ken (fox-fist) references the kitsune's powers over human beings. I have the honor to inform you that one of the foxes under your jurisdiction has bewitched one of my servants. a high government official. and boastful commoners. whom he shoots. The game is similar to rock. and let me know the result. Stories tell of kitsune playing tricks on overly proud samurai. you can learn from the high priest of Yoshida. with motives that vary from mischief to malevolence. while the crueler ones abuse poor tradesmen and farmers or devout Buddhist monks. scissors. whom he bewitches. theft of food. This ambiguous portrayal. the fox beats the headman.The Fushimi Inari shrine in Kyoto features numerous kitsune statues. Kitsune are often presented as tricksters. Another tactic is for the kitsune to confuse its target with illusions or visions. . coupled with their reputation for vengefulness. Other common goals of trickster kitsune include seduction. and a village headman. If it turns out that the fox has no adequate reason to give for his behavior.
knowledge. ." The man refuses. sir. They first try to scare him away. samurai families were often reputed to share similar arrangements with kitsune. where they can cause all sorts of mischief. you're understandably fed up with us. But the young ones. common households thought to harbor kitsune are treated with suspicion. Won't you pardon us. As yōkai. Tales distinguish kitsune gifts from kitsune payments. and a kitsune who has adopted a house in this manner may.Tamamo-no-Mae. a legendary kitsune featured in noh and kyogen plays. but these foxes were considered zenko and the use of their magic a sign of prestige. and by now I have many children and grandchildren. for example. and we'll be sure to let you know when anything good is going to happen!" Other kitsune use their magic for the benefit of their companion or hosts as long as the human beings treat them with respect. if only you'll forgive us. And now. But I just want you to know. One 12th-century story tells of a minister moving into an old mansion only to discover a family of foxes living there. only the homeowner's threat to exterminate the foxes convinces them to behave. bring its host money or items that it has stolen from the neighbors. we wish to register a vigorous protest. I gather that you're going to kill us all. sir — I'm sure they'll understand when I explain to them why you're so upset. however. one more time? If we ever make trouble again. how sorry I am that this is our last night of life. Accordingly. or similar valueless items under a magical illusion. They get into a lot of mischief. stones. sir. Kitsune keep their promises and strive to repay any favor. . Occasionally a kitsune attaches itself to a person or household. but they never listen. then claim that the house "has been ours for many years. Oddly. True kitsune gifts are usually intangibles. and . or long life. twigs. In one story from the 12th century. I'm afraid. and I'm always after them to stop. part or all of the sum will consist of old paper. We'll do everything we can to protect you from now on. The kitsune patriarch appears in the man's dreams: "My father lived here before me. and the foxes resign themselves to moving to an abandoned lot nearby. sir. . Print by Yoshitoshi. such as protection. kitsune do not share human morality. If a kitsune offers a payment or reward that includes money or material wealth. leaves. then of course you must act as you think best. Abandoned homes were common haunts for kitsune.
but the kitsune will seek revenge on any uninvited guests. Other stories tell of kitsune marrying one another. and powerful beings. Turnbull writes. bunraku. Western authors of fiction have begun to make use of the kitsune legends. kyogen. in 1544. in reference to a folktale describing a wedding ceremony between the creatures being held during such conditions. Noh. usually in stories involving a young human male and a kitsune who takes the form of a human woman. after which Shingen forced marriage on his beautiful 14-year-old daughter Lady Koi — Shingen's own niece. The event is considered a good omen. Many stories tell of fox-wives bearing children. disoriented. who proves a devoted wife. and kabuki plays derived from folk tales feature them. Stephen Turnbull. Print by Utagawa Kuniyoshi. In some cases. Shingen. kitsune are generally depicted in accordance with folk stories. When such progeny are human. The astrologermagician Abe no Seimei was reputed to have inherited such extraordinary powers. "wise old heads nodded.  In fiction Embedded in Japanese folklore as they are. Although these portrayals vary considerably. and the foxwife is forced to leave him.The kitsune Kuzunoha casts a fox's shadow even in human form. they possess special physical or supernatural qualities that often pass to their own children. "was so obsessed with the girl that his superstitious followers became alarmed and believed her to be an incarnation of the white foxspirit of the Suwa Shrine. in "Nagashino 1575". Rain falling from a clear sky — a sunshower — is called kitsune no yomeiri or the kitsune's wedding. who had bewitched him in order to gain revenge. Turnbull writes. as do contemporary works such as anime. The warlord Takeda Shingen. The kitsune may be a seductress. Kuzunoha is a popular figure in folklore and the subject of kabuki plays.  Wives and lovers Kitsune are commonly portrayed as lovers. the young man unknowingly marries the fox. . Typically. but these stories are more often romantic in nature. the husband wakes as if from a dream." When their son Takeda Katsuyori proved to be a disastrous leader and led the clan to their devastating defeat at the battle of Nagashino. He must then return to confront his abandoned family in shame. filthy. relates the tale of the Takeda clan's involvement with a fox-woman. manga and video games. cunning. defeated in battle a lesser local warlord named Suwa Yorishige and drove him to suicide after a "humiliating and spurious" peace conference. kitsune appear in numerous Japanese works. remembering the unhappy circumstances of his birth and his magical mother". and far from home. as wise. The man eventually discovers the fox's true nature.
Ran Yakumo from Touhou. Satō Tadanobu. In The Legend of Zelda video game series.  Genkurō is a kitsune renowned for his filial piety. Youko Kurama from YuYu Hakusho is a kitsune spirit living in a human body. as well as their evolutions. is often performed independently of the other scenes and tells of the discovery of Kuzunoha's kitsune nature and her subsequent departure from her husband and child. In the Star Fox video game series. but is able to transform herself into a fox when the occasion calls for it. . The series Usagi Yojimbo by Stan Sakai contains a recurring female thief and friend of Usagi named Kitsune. The Pokémon Vulpix and the Digimon Renamon. are based on kitsune and similar fox legends. but his identity is revealed. In Love Hina. Yoshitsune and Shizuka give him the drum. there is a character calling Mitsune "Kitsune" Konno. She is eventually redeemed by the Buddhist priest Gennō. At turns Kitsune is enamored by. Kuzunoha or The Fox of Shinoda Wood. the Keaton race is based on kitsune. the main character Fox McCloud was partially inspired by kitsune.Kuzunoha. Yoshitsune's lover. China. Shinobu Miyake. the story "Kitsunegari" features several kitsune and a part-kitsune werewolf. is also a kitsune. Miles "Tails" Prower from the Sonic the Hedgehog video game series is said by several sources to be a kitsune. Wagaya no Oinari-sama. and adversarial of. is a well-known kitsune character in traditional Japanese theater. Kitsune usually takes the guise of a beautiful Japanese woman who wears a foxfur cloak. so Genkuro grants Yoshitsune magical protection. The fourth part. Her spirit transforms into the "killing stone" of the noh play's title. the main character of the series. The kitsune explains that he hears the voice of his parents when the drum is struck. In the bunraku and kabuki drama Yoshitsune Sembon Zakura (Yoshitsune and the Thousand Cherry Trees). and Japan but is discovered and dies. Oliver Bascombe. Yukari Yakumo's shikigami. due to him having two tails. Kitsune is the name of a woman/legendary figure in The Veil trilogy by Christopher Golden. Tamamo-no-Mae commits evil deeds in India. is an anime about a mischievous guardian kitsune. The InuYasha Character Shippo is a kitsune demon. with her eyes based in a kitsune. owns a hand-drum made from the skins of Genkuro's parents. The fox takes human form and becomes his retainer. In Kelley Armstrong's short story collection.. mother of Abe no Seimei. and can transform into "chibi" versions (with fox ears) of the other characters from the series. The myth Tamamo-no-Mae is referenced in the video game Ōkami. Tamamo-no-Mae is the subject of the noh drama Sesshoseki (The Death Stone) and of kabuki and kyogen plays titled Tamamonomae (The Beautiful Fox Witch). She is featured in the five-part bunraku and kabuki play Ashiya Dōman Ōuchi Kagami (The Mirror of Ashiya Dōman and Ōuchi). Lady Shizuka. The same mangaka's (Rumiko Takahashi) earlier work Urusei Yatsura also features a fox spirit named Kitsune who becomes a loyal companion to one of the series leads. Men of the Otherworld.
the main character Naruto Uzumaki is possessed by a very destructive giant kitsune (the Kyuubi no Youko. the main antagonists is a couple of cruel and malevolent kitsune twins. Ishikawa Junichiro 9. New Hyde Park. Kitsune — Japan's Fox of Mystery. Human Animals: Werewolves & Other Transformations. he will often sell the player plain objects at inflated prices. god-like appearance of white fur. Jamie. 2.) Redd is known as a trickster in the game. 91 . "Foxes". 1999. a Korean fox spirit Huli jing. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. As a result. operating the Black Market. The Fox and the Jewel. a Chinese fox spirit  References 1.  See also • • Kumiho. transformation. Half Human. In Namco x Capcom. including: Nine-tails. Human Animals. The PS2 & Wii game Okami incorporates many aspects of the Kitsune legends during the second arc of the game. who are bent on destroying the entire town for their own amusement In the video game series Animal Crossing Tom Nook's shopkeeper rival. ^ Yōkai no hon written by Prof. 5 3. Crazy Redd. fox-fire. 2005. Bloomington.Y. The Fox and the Jewel: Shared and Private Meanings in Contemporary Japanese Inari Worship. 127–128 5. ^ Hall. N. 154 10. Kiyoshi. Romance. Tokyo: The Hokuseidô Press. 139 11. 129 13. Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan. Kitsune. 2003. ^ a b Nozaki. Half Animal: Tales of Werewolves and Related Creatures.: University Books.In Ljane Smith's The Vampire Diaries . ^ a b c Smyers. ^ a b Smyers. 72 8. 89 6. In the manga Naruto. When enraged he takes on fox-like traits and occasionally projects a fox-shaped aura with a matching shadow. ^ a b c Hearn. Abe Masaji & Prof. ^ Nozaki. Kitsune. Project Gutenberg e-text edition. Japan Quarterly 44:2 7. 3 4. Janet. ^ Goff. he has facial markings that resemble fox whiskers and is often mischievous. and mischievous abilities (like division and interfering during the celestial brush mode). ^ a b Hamel. Xiaomu. "Foxes in Japanese culture: beautiful or beastly?" Japan Quarterly 44:2 (April-June 1997). Shinichi and Misao.The Return: Nightfall. Lafcadio. Frank. and Humor. The Fox and the Jewel. Indiana: Authorhouse. 1969. 1961. ^ a b Nozaki. ^ a b Smyers. ^ a b c Hamel. ^ Goff. Karen Ann. the female protagontist. is a 765-year-old kitsune. or nine-tailed demon fox) at the time of his birth via a seal. 211–212 12. is a kitsune (opposingly as Nook himself is a tanuki.
issendai. ^ Downey. 2003. Kitsune. 221 27. ^ Haviland. Steven. 2003-04-28. "Kitsunetsuki (Possession by Foxes)". ^ Heine. ^ Nozaki. Cultural Anthropology. Handbook of Japanese Mythology. 10th ed. ^ Nozaki. Michael. ^ Hall. Santa Barbara. 19. The Fox and the Jewel. ^ a b Hearn. Kitsune. Kitsune. Shaping Text: Philosophy and Folklore in the Fox Koan. Glimpses." Kyoto Journal 63. Half Human.shtml#tails. Retrieved on 2006-12-14. Huli Jing. ^ Hearn. Retrieved on December 13.uci. 165 34. Glimpses. 153 . ^ Hearn. 148 20. ^ Hearn. 43. http://academia. 144 24. 183 39. ^ Tyler 299–300. 211 33. 156–157 25. 216 29.com/fox-misconceptions. 1999. 153 23. New York: Wadsworth Publishing Co. 2002. Kitsune. ^ Hall. Glimpses. Shifting Shape. 90 32. 2006. William A. ^ Hall. 169–170 40. Jean Miyake.. ^ a b c d Tyler xlix. 214–215 35. Half Human. Glimpses. 145 18. ^ "Kitsune. ^ Nozaki. 112–114 41. Kitsune. ^ Nozaki. ^ Smyers. ^ https://eee. Transcultural Psychiatry 1:2 (1964). Kitsune. ^ a b c Ashkenazy. 144–145 37. 36. Kitsune. Kitsune.edu/clients/sbklein/GHOSTS/articles/CatalpaBow-WitchAnimals. ^ a b Hearn. "Ten Thousand Things. ^ Nozaki.14. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. 26. ^ Smyers. ^ Smyers. 155 21. 149 42. 59 28. ^ Nozaki. The Fox and the Jewel. Half Human. 158 31. ^ Nozaki. ^ Hearn. 95–97 38. 15. 76 44. ^ Yonebayashi. ^ Nozaki. T. Kumiho. Fox" (html). Glimpses. 25–26 17. 206 22. Kitsune. California: ABC-Clio. 159 16. 95. Kitsune. 36–37 26. The Fox and the Jewel. Glimpses. ^ a b Nozaki.pdf 30. ^ Nozaki.
 Other sources . 148 56. ^ Hall. ^ Hearn. 122–123 69. 81 47. http://www. Retrieved on 2006-12-12. 68. Kitsune. ^ "Ashiya Dōman Ōuchi Kagami" (php).com/egg-p/mibu/pages/plays/tamamonomae. 71. 195 58. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.yamanakart. Half Human. 90 60. ^ Hamel. 150 62. 82–85 48. 1985.45. ^ a b Smyers.php. The Fox and the Jewel. Handbook. ^ Hall. ^ Addiss. ^ Nozaki. 64. 109–124 66. A compilation of terms for sun showers from various cultures and languages. Kabuki21. 157 61. ^ Hearn. ^ Smyers. Half Human. Kitsune. ^ Nozaki. The Fox and the Jewel. ^ Smyers. ^ Nozaki. ^ Nozaki. 112–113. The Fox and the Jewel. 1998). ^ Tyler 122–4.com. "Sunshower summary". 96 46. Retrieved on 2006-12-12. The Mibu-Dera Kyogen Pantomimes. ^ Smyers.html#Anchor-SESSHOSEKI48213.com. ^ Smyers. Retrieved on 2006-12-12. Glimpses.com/egg-p/mibu/pages/plays/noh. 2006. 114–116 72. Glimpses. The Fox and the Jewel.kabuki21. ^ Tyler 114–5. Ghosts & Demons. ^ Hall. ^ "Noh synopsis: Sesshoseki" (html). 77. ^ "Tamamonomae Pantomime" (html). Kitsune. ^ "Yoshinoyama: Yoshitsune Sembon Zakura" (php). Human Animals. 54. Braziller. The Fox and the Jewel. The Mibu-Dera Kyogen Pantomimes. 159–161 55. 98 52. ^ Nozaki. http://www. ^ Addiss. Kitsune. LINGUIST List 9. ^ Vaux. Glimpses. 57.kabuki21. Half Human. ^ Hearn. 110–111 67. 137 53. 103–105 59. Bert. Kitsune. 230 51. 70.html. Kabuki21. 137 49. http://www. Japanese Ghosts & Demons: Art of the Supernatural. 132 63.php.com/adok. 142 50. ^ Nozaki.com/yoshinoyama.1795 (Dec. Retrieved on December 13. http://www. 162–163 65. Stephen. New York: G.yamanakart. Kitsune. ^ a b Ashkenazy.
N. Half Human. ISBN 0-8248-2102-5 Turnbull. Great Britain. 1987. Shaping Text: Philosophy and Folklore in the Fox Koan.Y. "Far Eastern Fox Lore". Fox – Fox spirits in Asia. 2003.com/html/oinari. Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan. A to Z Photo Dictionary of Japanese Buddhist & Shinto Deities. ISBN 1-57607-467-6 Bathgate. 121–152) ISBN 1-4107-5809-5 Hamel. Tyler.) Japanese Tales. Half Animal: Tales of Werewolves and Related Creatures.onmarkproductions.shtml. Retrieved on November 20. 132–137) ISBN 0-8076-1126-3 Ashkenazy. 88–102) ISBN 0-7661-6700-3 Hearn. Kiyoshi. Michael. 1999. Stephen. Royall (ed. 2003. 2005. Lafcadio. Nagashino 1575. ISBN 0-394-75656-8 • • •  External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Kitsune • • • • • • The Kitsune Page Foxtrot's Guide to Kitsune Lore Kitsune. "Oinari" (html). 2006. Mark (September 1995). 2000. Jamie. Japanese Ghosts & Demons: Art of the Supernatural. Karen Ann. 1985. Indiana: Authorhouse.: University Books. Osprey Publishing.• • • • • • • • • • Addiss. Steven. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Santa Barbara. Romance. 1961. Handbook of Japanese Mythology. 1969. Huli Jing. Stephen. Human Animals: Werewolves & Other Transformations. Tokyo: The Hokuseidô Press. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.W. California: ABC-Clio. (pp. and Duplicities. Retrieved on 2006-12-14. (pp. Shifting Shape. 2004. New York: G. Project Gutenberg e-text edition. and trans. New York: Pantheon Books. T. Transformations. Smyers. and Humor. Bloomington. Kumiho. ISBN 0-8248-2150-5 Johnson. Heine.org folklore Kitsune. http://www. Michael. The Fox and the Jewel: Shared and Private Meanings in Contemporary Japanese Inari Worship. Kitsuné — Japan's Fox of Mystery. Portal of Transformation: Kitsune in Folklore and Mythology IDEAS Undergraduate On-Line Journal . New Hyde Park. (pp. 1999. Schumacher. Asian Folklore Studies 33:1 (1974) Nozaki. New York: Routledge. and Asian fox spirits in the West An extensive bibliography of fox-spirit books. The Fox's Craft in Japanese Religion and Folklore: Shapeshifters. Frank. ISBN 184176-250-4. ISBN 0-415-96821-6 Hall. Braziller.
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