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— BOSTON AND NEW YORK HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY CTbe KtoetatUe JJretsti. P. studying the Columns to draw them in Perspective.APPLIED PERSPECTIVE FOR ARCHITECTS AND PAINTERS BY WILLIAM P. and gave himself up to Architecture. (LONGFELLOW ^l Peruzzi was a Painter so learned in Perspective that. CamirtUffe . he grew Proportions of ancient Serlio enamored of these Proportions.

REPLR-CTNG COPYRIGHT. I9OI. P. LONGFELLOW ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Publiihed November. /go/ . BY WILLIAM P.

the faculty of perceiving perspective relations in what tion. is easy to acquire enough for every-day use the skil- fits him draughtsman to meet a variety of exigencies as they arise. and to show how they influence the painter's or the architect's a sense will find it way of looking at things. In the first Part I have given what seemed he who has gained an instinctive readiness of resource that necessary to qualify the student for ordinary perspective work. which should be of value to students to whom perspective is a study interesting in and should smooth the way to the more complicated problems that sometimes occur. the tangents and axes of circles. He who has such instinct easy to acquire the various special devices and the which he needs for the exigencies of practice. Feeling the paramount importance of what may be called the perspective sense. To these I have added discussions of some more theoretical topics of oblique planes.PREFACE The ful practice of perspective depends not so It is much on many principles as on the : varied applications of a few. Out of this to abundance I have tried enough if for the student's needs. The processes and devices are so abundant. In writing this book I have had in mind both the every-day use and the skilled use. He who and will lacks it will make hard liable to labor of mastering any but the most obvious processes. A fair acquaintance with ordinary school geometry taken for granted. that the adept differs from the ordinary draughtsman as the skilled watchmaker from the workman who blocked in his knows only enough to furnish to oil a Connecticut clock. to show what trained draughtsmen actually do. I is before one in nature or in imagina- have taken pains to set forth these relations as they appear to the eye. tri-conjugate — the perspective — vanishing points itself. and the mathematical . offer so many ways of saving labor and securing precision. demonstrations are meant to be clear and exact yet have hoped that an intelligent 458 . to get on with the fewest possible postulates. have not undertaken to adhere forms of theoretical mathematics. but rather to assume as much as seemed safe of the is common I stock of knowledge. and in the second have included a series of special problems. and to suggest him how to increase his resources he will. full For students who wish for a theoretical account of the science of perspective I : know no that this treatise in English so good as Professor Ware's Modern Perspective it I hope book will put the application of In the discussions I into serviceable shape without injustice tp to the rigorous its scientific side. always be be work by an unusual problem.

Cambridge. the discussions. . other men can best judge. whether mine.IV PREFACE and careful reader who does not know geometry may find profit in the book. there are they are really some things in them which I do not see elsewhere . 20th September. and the methods. 1901. P. P. As for the problems. and whether they have any value. and learn what is fundamental in it without unreasonable eiTort. I have tried to give it a plan and development that suited this purpose. W. L.

Pavement Trace of a of Squares set diagonally (Fig... Craticulation. Perpendiculars. . F"ig. 14 Gable Perspective (Fig. 7 8 PRACTICE. — Dividing by squares Scales of width. To draw a horizontal square. Perspective distortions found by looking in direction of lines Vanishing Points of lines — I — 2 — 3 (Plate II). Projection. 15) . 24). Squares the units of Scales. — All objects projected by visual rays — Visual Cone or Pyramid 5 6 Picture diminishes as picture plane approaches the eye. ii). 4) .. Parallel planes have the same vanishing line Vanishing Lines of planes. Horizon Line marks the level of the eye Postulates and definitions.. — Geometric and perspective plans Problem of the Cross (Fig. Problem of Diigonal Squares (Fig. .. 3. 17) — Figures in Landscape (Figs.CONTENTS PART Perspective in Nature. Ground Line — — — — . 25). Perspective Diagonals — H 12 Distance points are measuring points for Perpendiculars. — Vertical Distance Points . Folding Chess-Board.vcK PoiNis To draw two walls with returns at right angles. of depth. . All distance poinis lie in circumference about Centre. 19-22) Perspective and geometric division 19 20 ai The Perspective Plinth Block ( Plan. — Use of scales with Half-distance Points.. Axis. Room with Doors and Windows Placing a figure (Fig.. 10) line or plane. Picture Plane. Horizontal planes vanish in the horizon.. ' .15 l6 18 Half-distance Points. I INTRODUCTION PAGE The Horizon. Perspective Scales. Centre. . 9 10 DisTA. 18). Inclined horizons. Perspective of Standing Screen (Figs. Ground J: lane. as far from Centre as Station Point is in space. Effect of distance on aspect of objects diminution and foreshortening. Station Point.. Contiguous squares Vanishing points of their diagonals are called Distance Points. . — (Fig. 13 Distance points of inclined lines. Horizon Line. Distance points are in Horizon Line. — Front Lines... It rises and sinks with Observer (Plate I) . Compression ot distance in perspective in Parallel — Circle of distance points constructively verified. Parallel lines have the same vanishing point — 4 All lines in a plane vanish in iis vanishing line.

.. Circles or arches in contact. — Drawing constructed for one point of view — . — Its measuring point in three ground projection. Parallel perspective. Vanishing points equal distances. with hypotenuse Station Point on semicircumference with WVV — 29 Such vanishing points called Conjugate. — Foreshortening of Perpendiculars. — Distance points give longest Axis. V . 56) 39 Dormer Circles. proportional on front lines Real measurements by measuring pomts. — called Mitre — how found. Centre. 27 Case of inaccessible measuring point 28 Conjugate Vanishing Points. in Roof (Fig. Descending grouid indicated by horizontals as of architecture or sea (Plate XI) Pattern in .. . Distance points a special case Measuring points in all horizons as far from vanishing points as S. . — Too high horizons.. Construction of Pictures.. Folding Screen (Fig. 33 An inclined line has the same measuring point as its vanishing point. Problem of Chair (Plate VII) Vanishing point of lines at 45° Opposite distance points are conjugate — Perspective Chart. proportional by vanishing points on proper horizon — 24 — 25 26 Accidental measuring points Essential that line to be measured and measuring line be in same plane.31 32 • — • • . Circles to be tested by eye. 35 Terrace with Steps Ramps (Plate X). Selection of vanishing points. _ 30 . 63). . Circle of measuring points. . 46 47 far at as conjugates ' . Relations of vanishing points of lines at right angles. They are at acute angles of triangles in picture plane right angled at S. — Line to an inaccessible-34 . 55). distance Effects of foreshortening — long colonnades — crowding Peter's (Plate Tricks of perspective architecture.40 41 Circles in enclosing squares. Point for diameter. Objection that perspective distorts. Continuing measures on new measuring line. Parallel Perspective. Slope line at measuring point of ground projection finds its vanishing point over — . inclined axes. . Chaumont (Plate XIV) 43 in 45 in St. by sub-diagonals Circle by diagonal squares. — Placing picture plane. 33 Measurement of Oblique and Inclined Lines Measuring Points are distance points of inclined lines. Problem of Doorway and Steps (Plate VIII) their vanishing point and ground-projection Slope Lines of steps are parallel Steps constructed by slope lines (Plate IX). . Arch through wall (Fig..vi CONTENTS Lines. To measure a line without its trace Real measurements in picture plane. Roofing of Cotiage (Fig. Inclined Planes.. 49 Picture to be everywhere visually foreshortened toward Graphical and visual foreshortening. Everything stretched out radially from Centre — 50 . - 48 Perspective Distortion . — Circle on front diameter — Chateau of 42 — Broletto of Como (Plate XV). — Effects of long Axis — Vanishing points near and Conjugate vanishing points. — Distance points Horizontal and vertical circles. 38 Inclined Plane (Fig. by diagonals. 57) . Fixed distance between vanishing points.. — Teatro Olimpico — Court before XVI). 30).

Spheres drawn as circles — — figures sketched. Sub-centre and Sub-distance points Oblique planes. Visual lines and visual planes meet in solid angle at Station Point Centre Is meeting point of three altitudes of triangle. Picture plane constantly changed in perspective vii — — . — No — 54 PART Perspective Helps..c Box on sloping platform (Plate XXIII). unrolled. Chart of oblique plane. — Panorama of Paris (Plate XIX) — — line. cases. Convergent lines. Projection from plan phenomenon. Three points give three horizons. — of conjugates badly placed. — US. Circles in Oblique Planes. . Spheres This distorts pictures seen excentrically. —Cathedral of Cremona (Plate Perspective Panoramic perspective. Special Poi. — Square by g^ 62 g- Perspective of Oblique Pla. m a given square — special . forming sides of a triangle. — Best remedy is in arrangement of picture Distortions in photographs. II the natural method. Perspective chart.(. The shorter the Axis. no measuring points. Sub-centre. to Tangent at any point. but rectilinear fig- C2 both vanishing points of a is changing position of eye.. the greater the distortion. Axes. Circle . — Symmetrical points.vts and Tangents. Relations of tri-conjugate points. Oblique horizons. Triangles of solid angle revolved Into picture plane. Traces and horizons of planes — Sub-Axis. Vertical tangents. „ « -. — Horizontal Tangents Horizon Line Tri-conjugate Vanishino Points. projected on cylinCentre. Slope lines and horizontals conjugate. . Diameters and Axes. — — — — — 64 . These distortions avoided in sketching. . Rectangular object on inclined plane — plane parallel . — — Parallel chords Special Tangents. Only one possible Centre for three given points.CONTENTS constructed as ellipse with long axes pointing to Centre. Geometrical relations of vanishing points and Practical construction measuring points. Method of Shadows. Sub-distance points Conjugate vanishing points in Inclined planes. 65 c^ 07 General case „. Conjugate diameters. Centroliniads. . ci Panoramas projected on cylinder. curved when cylinder ures distorted. — . Attempt to der. Concessions to demands of eye. Conjugate vanishing points. Circle on a given diameter go Concentric circles. Treasury (Plate XIX). Triangle always acute-angled and Centre Inside it. Dangers of Parallel XVIII). — of — Vanishing points the surest Convergence parallels the and most convenient means Far-off vanishing points.ves. Curvilinear Perspective.. fractional vanishing points — . Vanishing points but of reach. suits utilize — Castle of Urbino (Plate XVIII). Straight lines Objects preserve their relative size. Ellipsessymmetrical. General case Division of circumference. — — •. most characteristic 59 — — Fractional vanishing points. by two revolved Station Points — Positions of measuring points determined . General maxims.. sketches on sphere.

125.. to XXIV) . . it Two horizon (Fig. -79 80 81 — Hexagons oblique Horizon Line Octagonal Pavements. 127. Octagons parallel to Horizon Line Hexagonal Pavement.' viii CONTENTS 77 7^ (Plate Determination of third conjugate when two are known combined construction Vanishing point o£ normals — Monument with Tri-conjugate Vanishing Points Hexagons and Reciprocal Vanishing Points. 128) 82 Perspective from Elevations (Plate XXVI) Broach Spire (Plate XXVII) Base OF A Pedestal AND Console Mouldings. . . 123) reciprocal vanishing points in every (Figs. Perspective of a Pediment (Plate XXIX) Entablature in Perspective (Plate XXX) — (Plate XXVIII) 83 85 86 87 89 9' • Romanesque Arcade (Plate XXXI) Groined Vaulting (Plate XXX ri) Vault with Lunettes (Plate XXXIII) 93 96 . . — oblique to (Figs. 126) ..

Diameters and Tangents 112. 113. 56. — Terrace and Steps — Slopes and Buildings — Inclined Planes — Dormer. XXII. 137. 10. VI. U. Cremona. Craticulation — Scales. XIII. — Circles. Figs. 138. XXVIII. IV. — Pediment — Entablature Fig. — Panorama of Paris XX. 86 88 go 92 94 96 . CoMo. Fig. — Pedestal and Console Fig. — Groined Vaulting Fig. Figs. 17. 41. 74 78 80 82 84 . 70-77. XXIV. 122.. 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 XIV. XXXIII. Towers. 52. Concentric and Divided 102-107. XXX. 22. XXIX. . Urbino. — Tri-conjugate Vanishing Points Vanishing Points . Fig. V. . 135. Fig. Figs. 132. Figs. VIII. . 63. Circles 59. 141. — Hexagons and Octagons — Pesrpective from Elevations Fig.LIST OF PLATES FACING PAGE I. 14. — Romanesque Arcade Fig. XXXI. Figs. Vessels on Horizon i II. XI. ii. — Capital XVI. Two Sides of Street 12. 57. — Vault with Lunettes Fig. 66 68 70 XXIII. 134. 53. Peter's. Perspective in Landscape Plan. Palace 44 46 48 50 52 54 — — . XII. Fig. — Figures 24. S. Cross 18 20 VII. 130. 4 10 14 III. — Chair — Steps and Doorway — Steps 44.. Fig. 50. Cathedral. Figs. Figs. 45. Figs. XXV. Figs. 25. — Spire Fig. Chaumont. XXVII. Figs. — First Problems — Gable. Broletto. Figs. Figs. 3-7. 98-101. XXI. Front Court XVII. Treasury. XXVI. 18-21. IX. 55. 136. XXXII. — Circles in Inclined Planes — Circles. — Monument with Tri-conjugate Figs. 125-128. io8-ni. Placing of Conjugate Points XVIII. Chateau XV. X. St. XIX. 133. 43. Figs.

.

PART I .

.

.

o o I M X fz. o to M in CO .

Some curious consequences follow.APPLIED PERSPECTIVE INTRODUCTION PERSPECTIVE IN NATURE As we look out over sea or plain the earth seems to end in we call the horizon. If two persons separate. all the vessels upon it will be cut by the horizon at giant. at level of his own. the surface of the water being convex. being on a level with If we go to the house-top or to the masthead. but it is a circle or hoop seen from the centre. If one overlooks a plain below him. It is a commonly noted phenomenon that. irrespective of their size. while the edges look as high as themselves. come below Yet it is not uncommon horizon. appear at strung on a rope passed through their eyes. This horizon is in appearance just at the sharp level line which the level of our eyes. The position of the horizon therefore shows the observer's level he can tell : exactly what part of any building or other object before him is at the height of his eye by noting where the horizon crosses it. and to carry it with him. it is still at our eyes. . and are not subjects for pictures. the same number of feet above the water (Plate I). being substantially at the owing to the This effect. and any head that comes above it must be the head of a he looks out upon the sea. diminishing effect of distance. If they are vessels of uniform when he stands as high as the mast-head every mast-head will touch the horizon. and distant ones painted in this 1 marine painting in which near vessels are below the above it. will If whatever distance. as of people all sorts of levels. near or far. I have seen a picture impossible way for the French Salon. a theoretical exception in what is called the dip of the horizon. form a band at the height of the horizon. and always remains so. comes too near the ludicrous for pictoriiil use. When we see the whole horizon we see a circle or hoop about us. it rises with us. and every part of it looks like a straight line. while their feet. . and by a clever artist. One who stands on a field of ice covered with skaters may notice that all their heads. the visible horizon is not exactly as high as the geometrical horizon of a plane would be this difference is one of the invisibly small things which are neglected. and to follow their motions. the middle being visible far below them. while their feet dangle and kick at different heights. hulls come above it and then sink again behind it but ships in this position can hardly be seen without a glass. and not a plane. one going up and the other down. due to the curvature of the whereby vessels which are just disappearing over the horizon do seem to rise till their . our level. and painters instinctively avoid representing a collection of figures at different distances at the level of the spectator. the horizon seems to the one to rise. the head of any person on that plain.* to see a rise There is earth's surface. the horizon. height. The exception occurs because. of which only a small part is seen or considered at once. People who go up in balloons say that this appearance is so marked that the land or sea beneath them looks like a saucer. so that each may be said to have his own horizon. to the other to sink.

2

APPLIED PERSPECTIVE

The

horizon, being a definite line, determinable even when it is invisible, invariable and an index of the relative position of the view and the beholder, is nat-

in direction,

is simply a The factors of record of the effect of relative position on the aspect of certain things. The study of the this effect are the angle at which things are seen and the distance.

urally the cardinal line or horizontal dividing axis in any perspective view, pass, as it were, of the perspective draughtsman, for a perspective drawing

— the com-

effect of the angle

would be comparatively simple

if it

were not complicated by that of

fact that the farther off things are the smaller they look needs no illusNot only do distant tration, but the results of this in their aspect give room for study. objects look smaller than if they were near, but their farther parts look smaller in pro-

distance.

The

portion than the nearer; the apparent pioportions of the objects are changed, that is, they are distorted, and the study of perspective is mainly the study of such distortions.

windows of a building look smaller than the nearer; the farther side seems shorter than the nearer, so that in most positions the square does It is not uncommon for persons who are offended by some extreme not look square. case of this sort to speak with annoyance of the distortions of perspective, as if it were a human invention, and to be discredited by them. But perspective is in nature. It which is simply unrecorded perspective, always distorts, and always distorts; vision, the distortions, so far from being on the whole faults, are the source of most of the pleasure that we take in the forms of things that we look at. It is they that change the circle into the more graceful curve of the ellipse, and give the varying skyline to a building they give the interest and charm that an artist finds in foreshortening, and substitute variety, life, and endless change in all we see for the monotony and tameness of geometric views. But some of the distortions are becoming and some unbecoming. Extreme distortions are usually better avoided, and in objects whose proportions will

distant

of a square

:

The more

not bear alteration artists are careful to make the point of view so distant that the difference between the nearer and farther parts does not greatly count, and avoid such a hands look too large because difficulty as we sometimes see in a photograph where the

the camera was too close.

The

is

distinction

diminution from obliquity of view,

**between mere diminution from distance, and foreshortening, which If we stand in front is not to be forgotten here.
**

:

of a square or circle, its plane being at right angles to our line of vision, it looks like a square or circle at any distance it may grow larger or smaller, but its proportions do

not change. If we look at it obliquely, the farther parts diminish more than the nearer, the lines that are seen obliquely more than those that are seen squarely, and the shape

it is the most characteristic phenomenon of vision distorted. This is foreshortening and perspective. How does this foreshortening take effect, and how is it to be recorded ? Another phenomenon of perspective gives the key to this question. If we watch a bird flying straight into the distance, we see as it gets far off that it scarcely seems to change its position, but at last grows dim, and disappears without

is

:

apparent motion. If we could turn a telescope exactly in the direction of its flight, we could cover beforehand the point where it would vanish, and in due time it would come In the same way every straight into viev/, and disappear in the axis of the telescope.

line,

which may

if

of disappearance, which

we please be considered as the path of a moving object, has its place we call its vanishing point, and this point may be found by

PERSPECTIVE IN NATURE

looking into the distance

to

it.

3

**in the direction in
**

if

which the

line itself runs

— that

is,

parallel

looking in the same direction we change our position, the vanishing point moves with us, like a star or like the horizon, and is still before us. If we look down a long straight street, we see the vanishing point of the house-cornices

It follows naturally that

**before us on our side of the street.
**

side (Plate II).

If

we cross the

street,

it

follows

and

is

on the other

Two other interesting consequences follow First, if several lines are parallel, they have the same vanishing point, for they have but one direction, and but one straight line can lead from the eye in that direction to find a vanishing point. In fact, it is one

:

of the

commonly

point.

:

noticed

phenomena

of vision that parallel lines

seem

to

tend to the

same

street

line

We

we may

see this in the rails of a straight railway, in those of a long straight prove by geometrical reasoning tliat it must be so. Second, as every

common phrase two ends, that is, has two opposite directions, so it must have two opposite vanishing points, a hemisphere apart. When we look in the direction of a system of parallel lines, and see their vanishing point before us, there is another vanishing point behind us in exactly the opposite direction. We may distinboth vanishing points sometimes in the shadows that are thrown across the sky guish by broken clouds at sunset, one being the sun itself, and the other at exactly the oppohas in

site point, just

below the eastern horizon.

We

shall

have

to

consider coupled vanishing

points when we discuss

**curvilinear perspective, but in ordinary problems these are
**

retires

eliminated, the point of view being considered unchangeable. It is to be noticed how fast foreshortening increases upon a line as so that

if it is

it

from

us,

prolonged

indefinitely in its distant part,

miles will at last be condensed

compass of a dot. The effect on a plane is similar, and it is this extreme foreshortening of the distant parts that gives character to many landscapes. Looking out over open water we see that the first quarter or eighth covers most of the view, and the far distance is crowded into a very narrow compass. In a fleet the distant ships

into the

seem huddled

lines, are

together, and the waves, which near at hand show a network of open compressed far off into close horizontal wrinkles that give the water its level look. So in an open meadow a river shows broad where it runs away from us, but where it crosses the view is reduced to a ribbon or thread, and its far-off windings are

shut up like a lazy-tongs into close zigzags, or compressed into nothing for the most and so the outlines of masses of trees are part, coming into sight only at the turns

;

by pressure into lines almost horizontal. In painting such views the effect of space and distance, and the impression of repose that attends it depend, so far as drawing goes, on rightly seizing this compression and horizontality of lines; and it is one of the difficulties of the So it is tyro to realize their degree and importance.

if

condensed as

with the sky, which a painter not seldom conceives as a curtain hung up before him, instead of a roof under which he looks. Only the lowermost remote part of the sky is

usually painted, and here, when it is clouded, we are looking into an opening, perhaps a quarter of a mile high, that extends away miles into the distance. This effect of a

retreating roof

It is

1

is

**often striking, though
**

:

much overlooked.

except where

**not only lines* that vanish
**

line, unqualified, is

**planes also have their definite visual limit beyond
**

line,

it is

The word

is

understood to mean a straight

applied to some-

thing that

obviously not straight.

4

APPLIED PERSPECTIVE

is

**which they cannot pass, and the limit of the plane
**

point.

a

line, as that of

the line

is

a

The

horizon

It

is

**the earth or sea.
**

eye,

simply the vanishing line of the (approximately) level surface of is the far-off verge of the horizontal plane that passes through the

and as we have seen, it follows the eye as does the vanishing point of a line. As parallel lines seem to meet in the distance, so do parallel planes ; and as the lines apparently meet in their vanishing point, so do parallel planes in their vanishing line. This may be proved by geometry, All parallel planes have the same vanishing line. and verified by observation, as in the case of lines I shall not stop here for the geometrical proof. Everybody sees that the sea and sky .seem to meet in the horizon, that the walls of a street, the sides of a tunnel, the roof and floor of a long gallery tend to the same thing, and would appear to come together, if they were long enough and

:

straight enough, like the rails of a railway. vanish in the horizon.

So, for instance,

all

horizontal planes

Naturally any lines that lie in a plane must vanish where the plane vanishes ; otherA plane may be conceived to consist of the wise they would pass out of the plane. Where lines that lie in it, just as a woven cloth consists of the threads that lie in it.

the threads end the cloth must end, and where the lines vanish the plane must vanish. Since planes extend indefinitely in all directions, the vanishing line of every plane, like the horizon, extends

the horizon

it

round the celestial sphere, and is a great circle of it; but like appears straight, and only a small portion of it is included in a picture. As the vanishing point of a line is found by looking in its direction, that is, parallel to and is the line in it, the vanishing line of a plane is found by looking parallel to it, that is to which a visual plane parallel to it cuts what is called the celestial sphere, what the sky would be if the earth could be removed and the sky left for us to see, say,

all

—

**below as well as above.
**

practice, and we may see

These

in

the

principles, simple as they are, are often violated in same picture the horizontal lines of houses, which

should vanish in the horizon, pointing higher and lower, as if the scene had been warped by an earthquake, or, worse yet, lines at the surface of still water or parallel to it, such

as those of piers, are

made

to vanish

above or below the horizon.

Pl. II 1 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^M .

.

which must not be changed. Years ago a wanderer appeared at Harvard College who tried to introduce an apparatus and a process by which anybody could sketch without learning. and transfer to the paper on our table. but it is really behind what we are is object that is drawn cess as this. the perforations in the glass would be their projections. and this exactly what rays of light are made to do in photographing. which must also be immovable. If we connected the perforations by the proper lines on the glass. these lines would outline a picture of the object as it appeared from the Station Point. Every. or to the sketchbook on our knee. we practically look upon it as seen through a window. upon Fig. limiting points of the object. say a square of pasteboard. This process of projection is in most cases unconsidered. and is named hold up a sheet of glass between the eye and an object. cast upon a flat surface. as is thrown on the glass. as if by such a prowe draw something which is before us. which is drawing in perspective. the projection of the scene upon the glass of the window. The process was to set up the apparatus before the view. but it was a good illustration of the view. I represents an object AB. or of sketching. scene or projected. defining the projection When we of the object. the artist. tive In studying Perspec- we have to consider that we draw things as they are seen against an imaginary plane set up in front of peats what them. all of the eye. projected in this way as . and a fixed eyepiece. that is. the paths of the needles would be the visual lines of these points. If we could shoot needles from the eye point or Station Point through the glass at all the the Station Point. and trace the picture by a pen and ink with which he contrived to draw lines on the glass. When doing. or the representation will alter both in shape and position on the paper. we see against the glass what is called a projection of the object. For a true sketch or perspective drawing is only a copy on paper of such a tracing. The apparatus was a sheet of glass slipped into an upright frame.PROJECTION We see lines. and that our picture only reis thrown as by a camera this plane. making a picture. keeping the eye at the eyepiece so as to maintain the point of is The contrivance helped no one to draw. or The fixed eyepiece marks the Station Point of projection. and to recognize it adds clearness to our sight as well as to our understanding. underlying process of perspective. objects by rays of light that come from every point of them to the pupil The paths of these rays are a series of straight lines. for the view will change with it . the glass plate represents the surface on which the view is thrown. which was simply a wooden standard with a hole in it. which we call visual and all meet practically in a point which is the position of the eye.

of which 6' would be the vertex and the ABCD slice base. as at - ABS. etc. BCS. if we should stretch of an object. The picture seems to Again.S upon the plane surface CD. second nearer section at a'b'c'd' would give the smaller picture that would be projected on a picture plane in that position. . or. by reference to certain fixed lines and points. 2). If now we should away the farther part of the pyramid by cutting it across. These visual lines and planes form the perspective pyramid or cone which envelops the object. ABCD. The projections ab are the pictures of . and will give a series of different projections. BS. threads from the Station Point to the principal points these threads would form the skeleton of a pyramid. and the plane of roller a^C(/ would be the picture plane in that position. The picture we draw is a copy on paper of the perspective picture at any scale we To construct it we determine geometrically the intersections of the visual please. _. converging The most and planes with the picture plane. direct and natural way is to take these intersections from plans or side views (elevations) of the objects and visual cones yet for complicated pictures shorter and simpler means have been devised. The perspective picture is the section of this perspective cone by the picture plane. and has its vertex at the Station Point. as at abed.APPLIED PERSPECTIVE seen from the Station Point .. we should have a section in which every point and line corresponded line in the object If in its reduced scale to the answering point or abed. the eye at and if slips of mica or paper were fitted in between the threads and the lines of the object. . as it is roughly called. S to cover the object in each case exactly. increasing in Our imaginary picture plane proportion as that is set farther from tlie Station Point. just as parallel slices cut from a cone plane by give a series of similar sections. and planes. the picture is as large as the object. they would make . till when the picture plane stands against the object. as AS. the plane surfaces on which they are projected are called the PicThe farther off the picture plane from tlie eye. the picture is larger than the object. AB the larger the picture. to in sum up : — An object represented visual lines perspective is conceived to be projected upon a picture to the Station Point from its several points and lines. as will appear later. inclosing the object (Fig.--- * ^ the faces of the pyramid.. etc. and the nearer to the object. a visual cone. and if the plane passes behind it. The size of the picture depends on the position of the picture plane. all may similar. be interposed at any distance.. but varying in size with the distances. we might A Thus it appears that a picture of any object is its visual projection upon a plane set between the object and the eye of the spectator. we could pass an inked over the lines of the section print from it on a sheet of paper the outlines of such a picture as would be projected on the picture plane in that position. To reduce these considerations to practice and put on paper our copy of a scene as lines . and that any point A is projected by a visual line AS which pierces the picture plane in the corresponding point a or a' of the picture. We may say then. ture Plane.

PROJECTION

we see

it

7

projected on the picture plane, we must have

some

fixed line of direction,

some

**starting point by which to place things. natural horizontal axis of our view it
**

:

ings.

The

line

which

is

to represent

it

have already seen that the horizon is the is universally used as such in perspective drawon the paper we call the Horizon Line, and we

We

draw it at a convenient height, giving room for what we have to put above and below it. This Horizon Line marks the level of our eye in the picture, and that we may have a definite point by which to fix distances to right and left, we choose the point in that line which is directly opposite the eye as we look at the view, and we mark a point for it which fixes the position of the view on the This point we call the Centre. paper. Since the picture plane and the paper which represents it are assumed to front us ' exactly, the Centre is the point where a perpendicular from our eye pierces the paper, and stands for that in which one pierces the picture plane. It is the centre of our

may or not be put in the middle of our picture, for we may choose to show one side of the view than of the other. It will be seen at once that the position of the eye must not change with respect to either the view or the picture, and that to see the picture rightly the eye must be exactly opposite the Centre, at what we have

view, but

more

of

Station Point. The line which joins the Station Point and the Centre, necessarily perpendicular to the picture, is called the Axis. (This special geometrical use of the word is to be distinguished from the general sense in which it has just been applied to the Horizon Line.)

called the

A horizontal plane is commonly assumed at the bottom of a picture, corresponding with the floor or level ground when there is such in the view, and upon this plane, called the Ground Plane, the positions of objects are conveniently laid out. Its interGround

section with the picture plane is usually the bottom of the picture, and is called the Line, and it is a useful line on which to take the measures by which positions

are determined.

If the spectator is conceived to stand on the floor or ground of the he stands on the Ground Plane, and the Ground Line marks in the picture the view, level of his feet, as the Horizon Line does that of the eye.

From the foregoing discussion we deduce the following fundamental The vanishing point of any line is seen by looking in the direction of

parallel to

it,

**postulates the line, that
**

:

—

is,

and so appears

in the picture

plane where a visual line parallel to that

line pierces thej)icture plane. All parallel lines have the same

The

vanishing line of a plane

is

vanishing point. seen by looking in the direction of the plane, that

is, parallel to it, and so appears in the picture plane where a visual plane parallel to the given plane cuts the picture plane. A line in any plane vanishes in the vanishing line of that plane.

All parallel planes have the

same vanishing

line.

at the level of the observer's eye. It is the vanishing line of all horizontal planes, and in it are the vanishing points of all horizontal lines.

is

The Horizon Line

The fixed lines -and points that belong to the picture are these The Horizon Line represents the visible horizon. The position of the observer's eye is called the Station Point.

1

:

—

The

here that

extraordinary misuse of the word perpendicular which it means at right angles, and not upright.

is

common makes

it

proper to recall

8

APPLIED PERSPECTIVE

The

point in the picture exactly opposite the Station Point the Horizon Line.

is

called the Centre,

and

is in

The line that joins the Station Point and the Centre is called the Axis. It is a visual line perpendicular to the picture plane ; and the Centre is, therefore, the vanishing point of all lines that are perpendicular to that plane.

Lines that are perpendicular to the picture plane are called Perpendiculars. perspective all Perpendiculars are horizontal, and parallel to the Axis. The horizontal plane at the bottom of a picture is called the Ground Plane.

intersection with the picture

1

In

Its

is

called the

Ground

The

Line.*

adjective perpendicular

The word

line, unqualified,

means a

straight line.

means

at right angles

:

upright lines are called vertical.

PRACTICE

For our

first

problem

let

us

blades, open at

any angle

(Fig. 4).

make a perspective view of a standing screen of two For convenience' sake we will assume the picture

to be set against the salient angle of the screen, as shown in the plan (Fig. plane 3)^ so that the vertical edge (/(/shall appear in the picture plane in its real size, being, as

its own perspective, and shall be so shown in our drawing, according to the which we adopt, which shall be that of the plan. the plan represents the scale as seen from above, 6' the position of the spectator, the Station upright picture plane, and acb the plan of the screen with its vertical edge in the picture plane at c. Point, In the perspective (Fig. 4), we assume the level on which the screen stands for the

it

PF

were,

PPm

—

—

ground plane, and taking a horizontal line for the Ground Line, draw a second horizontal HHkox the Horizon Line at whatever distance above it is suitable. If we conceive the spectator and the screen to be standing on the same level floor, the Horizon

Line, being at the height of his eye, will be, say, five feet above the ground line, accordThen setting the point c conveniently on HH, we draw ing to the scale of the picture.

a vertical line through given for the screen.

it

to the

Ground Line

zXf, and

up

till/^/ is

equal to the height

x

Then_/^ upright edge of the screen in its proper place and scale. The lines ca and cb (Fig. 3) at the bottom of the screen, being horiwhere visual lines parallel to these lines meet zontals, will have vanishing points in

will represent the

HH

**the picture plane. parallel to cb and
**

will

From ^

**then, in the plan,
**

to ca,

5 F parallel

— meeting

we draw two

lines right the picture plane in

and

V and

left,

— SV

which

V,

be the required vanishing points. We transfer them to Fig. 4 by setting off on the Horizon Line the corresponding distances cF and cV. The lines /FandyF', drawn

to these points, represent the lower edges of the screen prolonged till they disappear in their vanishing points. The upper edges, being respectively parallel XofVand/V,

must have the same vanishing

points,

and so may be drawn from

d as dV and dV.

It

remains only to cut off these upper and lower edges at the right lengths. Now the extreme points a and b at the base of the screen in the plan will be projected by visual

lines

aS and

Vc

left

get a'

and

dV

bS, and will appear in the picture plane at a' and b\ at distances a'c and and right from c. Transferring these distances to the perspective drawing, we and b' on each side oifd. Vertical lines from a' and b' will cut/Fand fV, dV at the proper distances from y and d, and will give the vertical edges of the

screen.

The

figure

agdhbf

is its

true perspective outline.

the Centre. The sides ac and bd being Perpendiculars will abed. having only one vanishing point. are of equal length. like the walls in the last problem. in the plan. To DRAW HH as before use a plan. in the We may may be found as The points c and d perspective vanish to the centre C on the lines aC and bC. gC. completing the perspective construction. and the top lines. as in the plan (Fig. The bottom lines will be right and left on GG. and must vanish in C. which we assume to be level. 5). not because they are any part of it. Then the perspectives of put a and b. the Horizon Line. Suppose that the Centre C comes between the two walls. and SC being the Axis let x represent the height of For convenience of comparison we set the plan directly over the perspective. Let the walls be assumed to be in the same The return walls plane. let ^ in the plan be the Station Point. in their true size. and kC. they are said to be in Parallel Perspective. their top and bottom lines. which. of the perspective. we construct the square half as large as the required square. is the Ground Line. with returns at right angles to the picture plane and parallel to each other (Fig. or are perpendicular to objects are so situated. 6). to save space. it remains only to cut them off at the right points. a and b. in the preceding problems by projecting them upon FF .DISTANCE POINTS To DRAW TWO WALLS ON LEVEL GROUND. the Ground Line or another. This is the simplest kind of perspective. which we take for the picture plane. and we the Centre C directly under its projection on the plan. being in the picture plane. and allowing the lines and surfaces which are parallel to the picture plane to be represented in their true forms and proportions. we make on half the scale Centre. above it at a suitable distance. but only for the sake of compactness in placing the figures. bC. 5 a). can be projected downward upon in a and b. We have only to project the picture plane by the visual lines dS a. A HORIZONTAL SQUARE WITH ITS FRONT EDGE IN THE PICTURE PLANE. It will be seen that some of the lines of the plan are allowed to cross the perspective. in the perspective lines at the right points. On FF. Let oa be a horizontal line in the picture plane (Fig. Since the return walls are at right angles to the picture plane. coming directly under them. that the principal it and therefore vanish in the Centre. like those of the front walls. In the plan the extreme points d and/" are projected into off ag and bh in the perspective equal to x. these down upon //and /"(which is equivalent to measuring off the distances Cd' and Cf) aC and bC by verticals which will cut off all the vanishing lines and give the vertical lines at the ends of the walls. the projection of the picture plane. : the walls. GG GG we have the corners of the walls in Measuring their proper height. in like manner.nA fS at d' and/'. We may accordingly draw aC. will be horizontal lines drawn right and left from g and k. are their own perspectives. will be Perpendiculars. and if they are in that plane. Hlf. When lines either are parallel to the picture. The corners of the walls. is the Horizon Line and C the in which lies the side ab of the required square.

.

I .

and gD. for the distance CD marks the length of the axis. which would be sufficient for the whole construction. as at cD. we can draw as many ab any number of equal parts. Perpendiculars which it may not be convenient to measure in front may still be determined by points and lines that have been already found. at a distance equal to the length of the axis. on the lines ^Cand hC. the positions of the Horizon Line. for by it. and laying off succesto twice equal equal to ab. ii them to the perspective on ab. at the points /.. we may lay nals.. to have all the needed data. being the length of the axis. might have been laid off at once on HH. for But in the it is parallel to the picture plane. C mark off diagonals as are necessary to determine the corners of the squares. d. Moreover. and if we could draw plan the diagonal this diagonal in perspective. parallel to ab. aC and bC. c. or. being plane. one vanishing point will give them all in perspective. or more simply the Distance Point. will remain so in the perspective if the construction is correct. if we draw other squares beside the first. through which we might draw cd parallel to ab. and so the position of the spectator. a considerable number of perspective problems can be solved without other help. etc. passing through by drawing SD CD CD for was only necessary to determine C and D. This the diagonals being parallel. 4. and all the sides. By this construction the perspective might have been drawn without any plan at all . The point Z> is a very important point. would be cut off by these diagoThus in Fig. ad passing through d cuts off the side bd at d. and drawthe joints perpendicular to the picture plane. The parallel lines aD. are necessarily at being diagonals of squares whose sides are parallel an angle of 45° to that plane . Then ad. The distance CD. draw the lines aD. as in a tiled floor. we set off sively bg and gh The other diagonals will mark the the point d. j. all vanishing together in the vanishing point D. by simply drawing aD. If we had several squares laid together. very few diagonals will be enough to determine all the necessary A At the margins of the picture.DISTANCE POINTS transferring to . the Centre. in the plan. The side cd. Transferring it to parallel to ad or bi. bD. and it the plan dispensed with. and perpendicular to the picture plane. The two points Cand indeed fix the essential conditions of the picture. which mark the rear sides of the successive lines of squares. 2. and ik will all be in the perspectives of the sides gi and hk. his distance from the picture. what is the same thing. cD. and finish the square without projecting the points c and d from the plan. which we shall draw to the centre. perpendicular and vanishing to the centre. that is. Then. The first square might have been determined. besides the line ab. points. like the others. 7. as bdig and gikh. and so only one point c ox dxs necessary. where a visual line parallel to the diagonals pierces the picture vanishing point. etc. as at xm. points i and k. which would have cut off the side bd on the perpendicular bC. all the diagonals would be either parallel or continuous. must verify the previous construction.. and the Station Point. in combination with the Centre. etc. off on the front line ing Perpendiculars to having fixed D. di. or by counter diagonals. it would give us at once the point d. taking care to measure off and drawing vertical lines to carry them up double distances on the perspective. the front lines through b. is projected on the plan the perspective. they being The farther sides cd. D — D is therefore appropriately called the Point of Distance. the straight line drawn through the point c or d parallel to ab.

and therefore isosceles. . running off to the horizon at the left in the horizon line. that is. the distances cut off on perpendiculars and horizontal alike represent one foot. by the Diagonals that to xb. Fig. and the distance point is therefore the vanishing point of Diagonals. etc. 4C. In measuring by Diagonals we must be sure that the lines we represent really interand do not merely appear to cross. on jCit cuts off j/. and the length a6 cut off on aC must represent to a length equal to the distance ax. and will cut off on any Perpendicular **" and Horizontal that Note. cut off xb. at D or D'. So it cuts off on squares from the foot On 4C it Therefore if we wish to cut off a required length s: on a Perpendicular. 9. as on ax it cuts off two cuts off four squares. in which the Perpendicular at a is drawn in its due position at right angles with the picture plane. Any line that vanishes in them is a Diagonal. which being parallel to the visual line SD are parallels make a series of triangles similar SCD. or one yard. draw from x a Diagonal to the convenient distance point D. It will be seen by looking at Fig. equal to ja cut Diagonals on the left must vanish. it crosses equal distances from the intersection of these. x'b'. All lines. at distances from it equal to the length of the Axis. The geometrical reason for this construction is clear from the plan.12 APPLIED PERSPECTIVE to the and such Axis . 2C.jf6. Fig. are Diagonals. ax' and ab'. whether or not they appear as the diagonals of squares.' as at a in Fig. lars 2C two squares. etc.. and having measured off on it the required distance to X. and on ax four squares from If the sides of the squares are a foot or a its foot 4. 9 shows. and how the Diagonals drawn from y and y'. yard. how the Distance Point may be taken on either side of C. and three yards. 2. or as far from it as 6" is. are repeated in the distances ab. we have only draw a horizontal line through its trace. ax". will give the same points b and b'. D\ the same distance from C as D. sect in space. the same perspective length that it cuts off from the feet of the Perpendiculars on the horizontal ax. three feet. and so on.. aV. as they may if one is behind the other. 8. and all lines that are parallel to them must also vanish in D. horizontal 7 that any Diagonal aD cuts off on the PerpendicuiC. symmetrical with and there is another distance point. . Hence we say : — The Distance Points in the Horizon Line are on each side of C. This ' The point in which a line pierces the picture plane is called its trace. in which all these left. two feet. two yards. at Diagonals like xm. at equal distances from C with x and x'. Note. equal in each. moreover. having their sides ax and ab. There on the is of course another set of these. and The distances ax. are in perspective called Diagonals. off on ax from its foot j.jC.

' Lines parallel to the picture plane. there is nothing in the geometry of the construction that limits these points to If we turn Fig. is out of reach. The line ao is taken for the line of 2. etc.. The picture plane is for convenience and three deep so set that a small part of the floor is in front of it. to half the diagonal of a square (Fig. of the border lie the front lines or Perpendiculars. to test the alignment of the corners of the squares. this in the construction. etc. and is projected back against it To DRAW . Horizontal _/)-(?«///«« through the division points of any of the perpendiculars will intersect the Diagonals at the corners of the successive ranks of squares. draw the Perpendiculars aC. as they are used in this hook. to begin with. Half of a^ gives the width of the Perpendicular border.' makes no difference measures. are called front lines. Note. If one of the distance points in are drawn by connecting Diagonals at their corners. which all vanish in the Horizon Line. assume an inclined line. — — which we may call a Hue of measures.' A PAVEMENT OF SQUARE TILES SET DIAGONALLY. from the points of division on Diagonals We ao. like that of a line. Perpendicular. which must be exact if the construcall Perpendiculars is . when it so that is inclined. 6C. and the division set off to the left from a. The trace of a line is a point. Centre. or even both. they will not really intersect those lines (see Fig. it is very simple to find the edges of the squares by the division of the single front line ao. This line is the trace of the plane of the measuring lines and the lines to be measured. are set off each way from i at distances equal to the diagonal of the squares. serving as is it does the purpose of the The trace of a plane.DISTANCE POINTS 13 requires that they be in the same plane. ax. 7 about the centre Cit may represent lines in an inclined instead of a horizontal one. printed with capitals. is ' sometimes called a secondary horizon. same horizontal line. The only necessary condition is that we take a line parallel to ax for a new horizon. the Ground Line for instance. fronting the spectator. The construction will be just as correct if we plane. The line DC. . that is. which is secured by drawing them from points in the or such a line as we use in Fig. we may still represent a series of Diagonals lying in the same plane with the line of measures ax and the perpendicular aCy if they are not in the same plane. the intersections of 1>C and iC with the mitre lines give the width of the borders parallel to ao. that of a plane is a line. 10). and no plan is needed except for explanation. If the distance point Z>' on the left of Cis within reach. The lines are really in the same plane if they all vanish in the vanishing line of the plane. that position. as at a and ^. toward the centre of the picture. j. which It is impracticable to are peculiar to Perspective without them they are taken in their ordinary sense. that is. It is important that the student should always distinguish the different meanings of the words Axis. as they are called. where it intersects the picture plane. 9). discuss perspective problems without using the words in both ways. its trace. With capitals they have the special meanings here defined. the counter-diagonals proper order the points where the Diagonals toZ) intersect The mitre lines. will divide may be continued from other points these Perpendiculars at the corners of successive squares. without further front lines or nevertheless it is well to draw one set or the other. DC parallel to ax. tion accurate. with a border equal in width The bay on the left side is one square wide. from the meanings same words without capitals. in the It should be noted that although we have in these last constructions taken our distance points in the Horizon Line. 8. of the . because we were dealing with lines in a horizontal plane. Diagonal. at proper equal distances. The points a. drawn to D.

the upper lights in the window are square. on which the square be. we draw the Diagonal AD'. separately by one of the distance points in the Horizon Line . are useful in solving many problems. 9. and dC fixes its peak. so is that of the sundial. and the height. and its radius the length of the Axis of the and D'. The next an inclined plane by a problem will show the convenience of measuring There will be further illustration of these distance point in their inclined horizon. Fig. so that the con- means D It will Each line might have been measured is best carried out in that plane. and so will all be in the circumference of a circle whose centre is at C. and by their intersections with Ae. above Horizontals to C from the points of division fix the top of the window and the it. The front edges of the board are parallel to the . they must always be at the same distance from it. A verification may be given by measuring off the distance of the lower corner from ^ on a horizontal line of measures through b by two corners by which in the Horizon Line. but it is more convenient to measure them all together by a common measuring line Ad in their own plane. It is understood principles in the discussion of the measurement of inclined lines. the pitch of the gable itself allows it to be inscribed in a A The plane of the wall square. the section of wall between outline of the triple window is a square. Measuring off the height Ab of the section of the front up to the base be of the gable. Distance points vertically over or under the Centre. . the mullions. and will still be just as conclusive. divided into three equal parts. Any two corresponding distance points. ties of the same diameter. so that all the facts allow all the measuring to be done by the vertical distance point D' Starting from A. that of The line the gable : cross diagonals below give its central line. again. The gable in Fig. Fig. points of all Diago- nals are points in the circumference of a circle Axis of the picture. may be in any plane. diagonal cuts off the width of the base transom. we shall perceive the usual relations of Horizon Line. and the diagonal eD fixes it can be drawn. we draw bC. horizontals vanish in the Centre. lines means a horizon in the picture. Therefore we may enlarge our maxims. The top of the dial is measured off at bf. 11 is an example. must lie at the opposite extremipicture. its distance back from b on be from e. and distance points. the the adjoining elevation shows. D . and making Ab in the picture plane a line of heights. of the window-sill is set off at a. of the left-hand distance point at be noticed that the vertical distance point D' is useful in this problem because the lines to be measured lie together in a vertical plane. one of that in these discussions horizon which is in an inclined horizon. shows the use of two distance points. special The folding chess-board. 12. may be conceived to be a plan made in any inclined and D' then. Centre. is These perpendicular to the picture plane. and say : The vanishing is C. often called vertical distance points. The height Ab repeated gives bd. As and b is square. D . except where there is reason for referring to the distant horizon in the view itself. All these points are distance points for the whose centre and its radius the measurement of Perpendiculars by means of lines of measures which are parallel to the diameters in which the points lie. struction and this calls for a distance point in the vertical horizon D'C of in that plane. and the line of measures must be parallel to the line DCD' If we turn the paper so that DD' looks horizontal. The distance points direction from C .14 APPLIED PERSPECTIVE Horizon Line in measuring.

<.1> u /^ I^la^U IV .

.

DISTANCE POINTS

We

'S

assume the centre C, and the position of the front line ab, which picture plane. is the near edge of the squares on the half that lies flat, and draw the inclined line

also a front line.at the proper. angle for the tilted half. From^ we measure off four From the division points and the squares on ab toward a, and four toward c on be. extreme points a and b we draw perpendiculars to C. From C we mark off on HHthe length of the Axis to the distance point D, and drawing through b an inclined horizon

be,

ITH'

parallel to be, lay off

an equal distance to D'.

The Diagonals

7.

**the horizontal leaf vanish in
**

to repeat for those

D, and those

in the inclined leaf in

in the plane of D': we have only

**two planes the construction of Fig.
**

is

here taken in a plane that is perpendicular, or normal, to the picture plane, like the Horizon Plane, and whose horizon passes through C. The horizons of all normal planes, and these only, pass through the centre, so that distance points can be used for constructions in normal planes, and in them only.

inclined leaf of the chess-board

Note.

The

The striking compression in depth of the squares as they recede is only a particular case of the general phenomenon described in the introductory chapter. One does not at first expect the extreme disproportion between the distance and the foreground,

and

it

may

Plane the middle line between

surprise the student to learn that to an observer standing on the Ground and fflf represents a distance only just as far

GG

**behind the picture plane as the Station Point is in point C is in the remote horizon, if the line mn
**

is

front.

Thus

in Fig. 7,

although the

to Hff, a person standing halfway from will be as near the picture plane as the spectator. This is clear from the side view of Fig. 13,

at

GG

**which the right triangles CSo and oo'P being is halfway between /"and C, SC raust similar, if
**

in

be equal to Fo'.

Here represents the picture seen edgewise, the spectator stands at a on plane the ground plane with his eye at the station point S, and

plane which

is

PF

0' is

the point in the ground

projected at

0.

Note. The application of distance points in the inclined horizons, justified by geometrical Let Cbe the Centre, and a distance reasoning, may be verified by construction in Fig. 14. in the Horizon Line////. Describe a circumference about C, passing through D: it point

D

Draw the Perpendicular aC from any point a, and laying measures parallel to HH, any distance ax, join xD, which cuts off ab proDraw any inclined horizon D'CH' and on a new line of measures spectively equal to ax. Then a line from x' to Z>' will pass through the parallel to it lay off the same distance ax' This will be found true for every point same point b, again cutting off ab equal to ax or ax' in the circumference used with its appropriate horizon and line of measures.

will contain all the distance points.

off

on a

line of

,

.

.

To DRAW TWO EQUAL CONCENTRIC SQUARES SET DIAGONALLY (Fig. 15). Having the side ab given or constructed as a front line, and drawing the Perpendiculars be and ad to C, and the Diagonal bd or ae to D' below ox above, we set out the square abed.

C

D

The Diagonals bd and

ae fix the perspective centre o, and the vertical through it on which are two angles e and g of the second square. The part oe, equal to ob, is a halfConstruct mb' equal to mn, the real length of ob, by an isosceles diagonal of the square.

right triangle

mbn ;

project

b'

on

oe

by the Perpendicular b'C and

lay off og equal to

oe.

i6

APPLIED PERSPECTIVE

A Diagonal from e to Z?' below gives yj and one from g gives h. The second square is completed by joining eh and gf, or, for verification, by drawing Diagonals from g and above is in reach. This figure e \.o above, which should pass through,^ and/, if makes an eight-pointed star, and also an octagon which is the overlapping portion of

D

D

A

..J'cff /J"

It will be of use in putting circles into perspective. A series of octathe two squares. gons, such as is often seen in mosaic pavements, may be easily drawn in a similar way, as we shall see later, by using Perpendiculars and Diagonals.

It often

**happens that the distance point comes too
**

In that case

it is

far

on one

side,

and

is

practically

important to find some substitute for it. Ordinarily if we would measure on the perpendicular aC, Fig. i6, we draw a front linear?, and marking off on it the required distance ax draw

inaccessible.

j<

xD,

cutting off ab, which But if we take equal to ax.

is

perspectively

tween

like

C

and

D

Dj ^ halfway beand draw Dj ^bxf^, we shall

have, as the similar triangles show,

CD, That

to half ax,

**ax halved we had taken axj ^ equal and drawn x/ ^Dj ^, that line would
**

is, if

have passed through b. Hence we may take a point Dj ^ halfway from C to Z>, and by using half measures instead of whole, get the same division of any Perpendicular that we should get from is called a half-distance by whole measures. The point

D

D

point.

If

CD

is

very long,

we may use a

and then of course the measures on distance points must not be confounded with the vanishing point of the Diagonals, which is always D. This device is of value, for, as a little experience will show, perspectives in which the Axis is short, and the distance point correspondingly near, look strained and unnatural, and for good pictorial effect it is desirable in most cases

to use a rather distant Station Point, that

point.

is,

third or a quarter, or any other fraction of it, ao are divided in the same ratio. These fractional

a long Axis, and so a remote distance

DISTANCE POINTS

It is

17

understood that a

will

is

the trace of

aC

:

**plane, and though ax
**

length.

be perspectively equal to

otherwise ao will not be in the picture ab, it will not represent its true

This point will be further discussed. student will soon find by experience that of the two distance points in any horizon the most convenient is usually that on the opposite side of the trace a from C.

The

accordingly. we shall see that the divided lines make scales of width and depth by which we might place an object in any desired position on the floor. The AB which balances the first. applied . the door. An analogous system of lines at right angles has been used by painters in laying out their work. or a plane of measures parallel to it. For instance. an object at/ would be three feet back from the front line ax. then upon 6C by the vertical . and thus furnished with a network of scales by which any things that lay or stood on it could be put accurately into perspective position by constructing the network in perspective. ax may serve for a scale of width. which the French call craticulation. set off on AE. and so have a means of placing objects of three dimensions. It is into squares. and aC as a scale of depth and instead of first graduating the scales it is enough even to set off . It may be measured on £6 and carried back on a Perpendicular 6C. which will be everywhere six feet above the floor. The and AB. 17. are fixed in the same way. and the second window. man whose position. represents AB Ground Line. or the pattern of a mosaic floor. In Fig. four feet from the right hand wall and six feet back from the front. may be found in two ways. We may add to them a vertical scale by which heights also may be fixed. three feet wide and set back one foot and a half from A. depth. if the divisions indicated were a foot square. and the Perpendicular aC into a scale of measures back from the picture plane. This method. set off on The positions of the first window. or what not. Their heights. and three to the right of aC. is determined by the same means. We may imagine any horizontal surface divided into squares of a yard. lines of the retreating angles of floor and ceiling are Perpendiculars. like the rest. from the mural painters of ancient Egypt to the scene painters of modern theatres and the same system. vanishing in C. three feet wide and set back seven feet. 18 the door and windows of a the room are placed by this means. It is of course not indisin perspective. : The The sides of room EAB are parallel and perpendicular to the picture plane is the the picture plane. are mm' represents the height (six feet) of a projected by Perpendiculars. which must be measured in the picture plane. and plotting the positions of the objects upon it. such as garden-beds. 16 feet. however. vanishing in C. and the point m be projected on BC by the horizontal front line mn. and the outline of the view completed height and width are ^et off on AE and measured to Z?. His height. on them the particular measures that we need for placing our objects. 7.PERSPECTIVE SCALES If we turn back to Fig. is illustrated in Fig. but this is most convenient. gives the corner F. and is serviceable whenever irregular or freely curved lines are to be represented. not necessary. That is. may be used for constructing the representations of varied pensable that the network should be of lines that are parallel or at right angles to the picture plane. and complicated figures. a foot. that the horizontal plane should be actually divided We may conceive the front line ax alone to be divided into a scale of measures parallel to the picture plane.

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the height assumed. and m7n' must be equal to nn'. and know where it stands. and that.. columns or If we have a series of figures or other upright objects.* If the figures stand at different levels. like a row posts. marched him along the away from the wall and parallel to the picture plane. 20. But perspective scales are useful in . and then from any point where is to stand draw a horizontal front line mm' till it meets The point 2X m'. is drawn to the same vanishing point on UH. where lines are measured in their shows a convenient way to continue the spacing of such a series when the first interval has Through the middle point c of AB we draw cX. as in Fig. always irrational and often absurd. Then a diagonal Bd through the middle d of the second will mark the point j oa aV. where they are in least obstructive. 19 Then mm'n'n is a rectangle parallel to and again on mm' by the horizontal n'm'. usually in the picture plane (Fig. projected again horizontally upon the vertical at m. and drawing 6'C. and then tion mm'. the picture. the horizontal ^Fwill cut off all the columns at the right height. J. m AV is projected up vertically on BV^X n'. through the position at m to the Horizon Line. if some are children. AB AV and if H V. which is perspectively equal to B6. Animals and carts that could not get into their barn doors. Fig. the vertical mn between But if we have to distribute a number of figures about the picture at the same level. 19. where they interfere least with the things that are represented. and when the third is drawn the point 4 may be found in the same way. Horizontals.5 gives the height of the figure in its proper place. 21. set in the picture plane. and men who could not inhabit the houses provided for them. especially in architectural subjects. 22 (Plate VI). Then only to draw ^and . a vertical line of the figures and the positions with reference to the Horizon Line.PERSPECTIVE SCALES nn'. the height of the figure. for if they vanish in it difference to what point of they are drawn they must be horizontal and parallel. a line may be drawn through their feet from its trace and the height being set off in the picture plane. a measure must A AB be provided at each level. to the Horizon Line. where the figures on the Ground Plane are fixed by one scale.-6' from 4. by the first process that m' we used of for Fig. 2t been fixed. and those on the higher levels by others. to his posiOr we may set off the height 4. and join BV. it ^F A F is a figure better to set up a scale in the margin as in Fig. This is as if we had set the man in the picture plane at B6. . on the Perpendicular ^Cby which the figure was placed. If the figures vary in height. 18. which will bisect all the upright lines. etc. Therefore if we have an isolated figure to place. we have that It makes no HH . though perspective scales may the picture. Indeed. gives mn. keeping measuring lines at the side of wall to nn'. the positions of their feet being determined at 2. it will allow for this The proper scaling of figures and animals is important to good effect the neglect of many blunders. the picture plane. for instance. after we have fixed our measure AB. the artist's judgment when he has fixed the standard for figures of normal size. are among the commonest instances. cut off mm' at once. and a figure of that height will fit between them anywhere. as in Fig. leads to many other things than They are most commonly * the placing of figures. 19). A single scale thus gives the positions and heights of all the figures that stand at the same level. it is usually convenient to put them in the margins. This is the simpler process. be set anywhere A We that shows the height establish. common use of scales of heights is for the placing of figures in pictures. but the other method is sometimes better. as in Fig. will be everywhere six feet apart.

according to the scale of the picture. it is often well to establish scales of widths and heights in a plane so far behind the picture plane that dimensions that are set off on them to the scale of the data may sufficiently increase the size of the picture. spective division represents in perspective the due are geometrically equal. but that ao and bp are perspectively equal.same the line which the line on paper represents. if the drawing had been complicated enough to require measurements from the plan. 23. in geometric middle of aC. 23) . in order to magnify the dimensions. Fig. if distances are laid off on a scale lines. to construct a picture of the same size. in is too small for the the plans and elevations. at bn. the picture will be magnified three times. that the scale of the data from which the drawespecially perspective. perway geometric So we say that division of the actual line. the scale of the sketch plan was Fig. Nevertheless. ao and om (Fig. *' J '"y 3 'a- Note. and 6. 23. In such a case. division is division with reference only to the length of the line on paper. for the scale of am as for the geometric middle of a line drawn is The perit as it lies on the paper. In If ^Cis taken at a third of aC. for instance. too small for the perspective. and am and bn both front be twice as long as bn. On the other hand. and therefore. For ing is to be made — — instance. ZJ spective middle is the perspective of In the . it often happens. and so on. b being the am will we might have had to place our scale considerably nearer C. for instance which dimensions are much reduced by foreshortening and by retiring behind the picture plane.20 APPLIED PERSPECTIVE true dimensions. we must use twice as long a unit that of bn in Fig. the picture will be twice as large as if they were laid off in the same size at am. the middle point of jTV. in architectural perspectives. By **' i"* meant the middle of .

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and the plan be broadened and opened out so as to be easily constructed and easily This appears in Fig. and the Diagonals aD' and bD'. The geometrical plan of the plinth block is shown at the top. and by plumbing up to the same Perpendiculars iC. This same line is used also to represent the picture plane in the geometric plan to save space. which is given next. with the many lines that are needed first and construct the picture from it. Its Ground Line may come as far below the Horizon Line as we choose. from which the plan is easily constructed. problem it and the elevation are taken at half the intended scale. conIt will be seen that the form of structed by plumbing up from the perspective plan. The 3C. intersections of these give the points j'. may be obviated by lowering the plane of the plan. block had been lengthened out like a chimney. 8'. 24. The geometric plan as In this given at the scale of the picture in the last problem was awkwardly large. and the corners projected up to them. and still more in buildings.THE PERSPECTIVE PLAN In drawing objects of more complex outlines. read. 4'. although the two The subjects have nothing to do with each other. in the lower plan. corresponding Perpendiculars may be drawn in the It is to be noted that plane of the upper bed. or the scale of the . for instance. and the perspective view between. and carried down to a foundation below ground the same superstructure could be built up from the cellar bottom or from the : ground level. 7'. the Horizon Line of this problem serves also for that of the next. can be set below the picture. to say nothing of the clearness which is gained by banishing many constructive lines from the picture. but so and uncertain to construct it inde- It will be easily seen that the intersections are more securely constructed pendently. the perspective plan at a lower level. brings out to advantage several points in the use of the perspective plan. The perspective plan is simply found by transferring the widths from the geometrical plan to the Ground Line G'G'. above the Ground Plane. which intrudes upon the space of the other problem. in the picture. 25. and the Station Points are different. drawing from their traces the Perpendiculars iC. Fig. jC. It is simply as if the the picture is nowise changed by taking the plan at a low level. The upper surface of the block it is foreshortened and crowded that would be difficult really a plan at a higher level. 24.' 4C'. the angles of the lower bed of the block are determined. it is often helpful to put the plan in perspective This plan. The height x being set off on a vertical 2-g in the picture plane. is encircled in order to distinguish it. which vanish in the Distance Point D'. and then determining the heights Fig. which can be constructed by simply plumbing up from the perspective plan. 2C'. 2C.^'. Ground Line of the The time-honored Problem of the cross. to project the necessary points. distance point D. and for the same reason the picture does duty as the Horizon Line of the perspective plan. the plinth block. due to its being not far below the eye. as. crowds the lines together. The difficulty that in ordinary views the foreshortening of the Ground Plane. and makes their intersections very acute in the plan. 4C.

and so the point b is origin from which these widths are set in determined by setting same distance aj from PP. e. on G' G' at 7/2 (or. Cz. etc. The horizontal lines of the arms of the cross are found in the same way. some distance in front The plan being square. for that is inaccessible.f. etc. assumed in the perspective plan. 10. and 7C in the plan may be taken for a scale of The and the front lines of the steps in the plan are produced till they cut this scale in d. set halfway is The geometric plan in z.. Moreover. mark the heights of the steps and arms of them off directly the cross on a vertical plane depths. I.x\6. that The whole is. projected up respectively upon 7C. J. etc.22 picture is doubled. with a considerable gain in clearness. through which horizontals may be drawn which will contain the front edges of the steps. gC. projected on mn by the perpendicular aC at a'. by setting Cto 7^. in the picture. is well to Sometimes one method proves more convenient and sometimes the other it be used to both. is taken as the enough below that of the picture be convenient. shall be doubled. apparatus of distance point and measuring lines has been banished from the picture to the plan. It pendiculars. Cj. The is horizontals which transmit these heights might vanish to any other point on were done in the plan as well as in the picture. The may CD/^ represents widths of the geometric plan are projected on J'P. gC. give two angles of all the steps and of the shaft The corners / and 7 may be at once of the cross. to be projected on G'G' in The Diagonal ao the doubled dimensions required for the picture. HH as well as to C. d. d. at one side clears the picture of obstructive lines. here and in the last problem.. is taken. means of laying it out. gives points p'. roC. The Ground Line G'G' is chosen diagonal ao is a convenient far and the positions of and a half the length of the Axis. by halving «/ all the perpendiculars Ci.Its intersections with thing. Instead of transferring our widths directly from the geometric plan and projecting them in double scale upon G'G'. C are taken as ofT at /'. the half-distance point £>/^ is substituted. exactly at the scale of the geometric plan and also of the elevation. and so drawing ab to P>l 2. e. The picture plane. because the scale of the drawing HH carries the distance point inconveniently far off. so that the measures. G'G'.f. 2'. and the plan is easily completed. Line of the picture APPLIED PERSPECTIVE cross stands on a base of three steps. Since this is to double the scale. j'. JcC . series of points 7'. what is the on G'G'). and the rest of the picture offers no difficulty. iiC. The perpendiculars yC. For the heights we use to their respective perpendiculars in the picture. the of the object. we might have at once set them oflf upon this line in full size. to display the plan well. the widths are measured on a scale of widths. provided this not necessary that they be Per- . and may be cut oflf at the proper points by projecting up from the plan below. The trace a of the diagonal. and the measures of depth are set off at half the scale of the widths on G'G' . plumbed up off the a vertical scale at 7^ in the picture. as is done here at p. Here the Horizon used as the Horizon Line of the plan. etc. It will be seen how taking the heights on the same scale yc . as explained above. 2. or we may set them off at double scale directly on 7^. mn. /"/". e. etc. Here the heights may be got as the widths were from the elevation on a measuring line halfway from got. loC. transferred to G'G' between hy Perpendiculars. cannot be drawn to the distance point Z>. a condition that is often required in practice.

that every vanishing point of horizontals has its measuring vanishing point of bb' used is justified. 27. 26) be an oblique horizontal. one on each side of C. It perpendiculars. Hence The the visual line construction SAf ^nds we have just CKS. ab and be are set M equal to ab and the plan below. the isosceles triangles SM. usual. tion Point. and are as far from these as the Station Point but they have to be determined for each case. Fig. . on the We Horizon Line. simplicity's sake we begin as before with horizontal lines. in which for variety the point in the trace a and the line of measures are taken . and point which we assume to have been found. one on each side of V. and 2in& bab' zre similar. . just as there were two distance points in the Horizon Line. an inclined Here we note a distinction : an oblique line makes an acute angle with the line with the ground plane. then. are determined Distance points of inclined lines. are set off from their vanishing points. but tice seldom happens in practhat the two fall in equally convenit M^S^. say. and bb' is VM made is taken equal to to Then parallel equal to ab. ^ above the Horizon Line. and to find Mthe M and ^^'in perspective. and being as far from this as the Station Point is. Let aF(Fig. be.Mr T--^ on which given distances a measuring off. which for all by the conditions of the picture. The distance points of Perpendiculars are set ofl from their vanishing point. as far from it as the Station Point is in space. and the planes used have remains to measure oblique lines. For once . shows how the two measuring points will give the same division. The will 5' construction and proof are simple. as appear from Here vsx being the Sta- SV the plan parallel to ac finds V as VS. ient positions for use. But in reality there must be two such points.MEASUREMENT OF LINES Thus been all far the lines measured have been all normal to the picture planes. Furthermore.?r . Measuring lines bM and cM'cvX off distances ab' and b'c' which are really parallel to HH. so that ab' is SVM in we have only to construct the triangle or elsewhere.^ The process is essentially the same. which is the Centre. and a its trace in the ac' is a line of measures picture plane. as we found that distance 1 J*C' Ji ypicture plane. . and transfer the distance VS to the Horizon Line perspective drawing in FAf. are called measuring points.

. applies exactly to the distance points and Diagonals. illustrates The picture the use of measuring points. Assuming <• at a convenient point we draw cd to its proper vanishing here it is plumbed down from the plan. etc. 28 shows the use of different measuring points with the same vanishing point. So we reach the general statement parallel to uring lines : — Every vanishing as far from it point has a circle of measuring points about it in the picture plane. points of horizontals in the the visual lines SV. 29 shows the complete circle for different measuring points with points. and measuring d'M". M. giving the same The construction is obviously independent of the direction of division of the line aV. This statement. the line of measures must be it. the same vanishing All three points. Fig. and so would any other point in the same circumference. V. for which abed above is the plan and x the height. we have the true outline of the The blade eg is constructed in the same way with the help of the right-hand blade. when the vanishing point is the Centre. insures that the measand the line to be measured shall really intersect. determined as before. V".. the Horizon Line. 30. whatever the position of that may be. and the only condition is. of GG'. draw a measuring line. M'. plane is set at the near corner c of the The upright edge ch may once from the Ground Line at the scale of the picture.24 APPLIED PERSPECTIVE points were not confined to the Horizon Line. and if h V" is drawn and the vertical at d intersecting it. but might lie in any direction from C. by taking on the plan VMeq\id\ to VS. which cuts off the true length cd on cV". and the corre- — — point r". The measuring points will lie in a circle about V as the distance points about C. This. so that the be measured off at MT' The vanishing three blades are V. VM' to V'S. M". which vanishes in the horizon VM'. the lower edge of the blade. that whatever the line may be the inclination of which as before we may call VM\ a secondary horizon. measuring points and vanFig. which are only particular cases of ishing lines. ing point must be parallel to that secondary horizon in which the vanishing point and the measuring points lie. so the measuring points of an oblique line may lie in any direction from V. off the width of the blade cd to cd is d'. Ji^S in any direction from V. and is applicable to lines J«CT^. by putting them in the same plane. Fig. determined by sponding measuring points M. The line of measures for any measuras the Station Point is in space. as in the case of distance points. and V"M" to V"S. screen. as in the case of distance points. division of a M\ and M'\ give the same Fat b. folding screen.

and d upon cV\ then a upon is in b V. laying off any point as well as from same line of tti but having a. Projecting a from J/ into the Ground Line at a\ we measure rt'i^' equal to x. is It often happens that we need to measure off a given distance on a line important. after drawing i?Fto measure off ea on it at a by the measuring line aM. 31^. which is not in the picture plane. . b. not having a'b'. To This problem. we wish to set off a length x on the horizontal ao lying in the Ground Plane. we measure off successively 3/a. off the proper length ab. 31a) but its measuring point M'\s known. Suppose. the other. (Fig. The plumb- lines give the vertical This solution this case simpler than Z'cg. may be easily solved in by the method lines of visual projection. having the trace m. 3/1 ma and ab by once. for instance. and projecting that into GG. whose trace is out of reach. 24). draw b'M. is we cannot reach. 25 place the corner a. F^. the simplest way is to prolong ab in the plan to its trace e. from them to their positions in the picture. then d upon cV^' and edges of the screen.MEASUREMENT OF LINES points F' and M'. We may b first fixing c upon PP and plumb down upon GG. which not in the line of measures eb (here the Ground Line) but is projected upon it. SO But a method of finding the point a by measuring from a point b. and then. Ma' and Mb' . and drawing b'M c\i\. the plan by project a. we draw Maa' at So measures may be set off on a line from its trace. as in Fig.. c. natural visual like that of the plinth block (Fig. but the starting point must be referred back to the measures ma' as if it had beeij measured off from the trace m. or whether. The result whose trace is the same whether.

It is not essential to use the measuring point is M for equal or proportional division of the only one that will give identical lengths on ab and the actual measuring point line of measures in the picture plane. The we should have on GG. that the line of measures must be parallel to the horizon in which the given lines vanish. HH will represent parallels dividing ab and the assumed that the given line ab is horizontal but the same construcany line whose vanishing point we can use. Therefore. that all measures to the same must be conceived to be taken in the same front plane. Suppose then that we have ^. but line of measures proportionally. Thus far it has usually been the picture plane. we may measure them in any plane parallel to the picture their true ratios. 33. 26. from the points of division on ab will divide ab as is required.' . tively diminished in proportion as they recede from it. must be parallel.26 . or. or in given ratios. and projecting b upon from at b\ divide ab^ into four equal M parts at ^^ " /. ures will agree For. Fig. because it is the only one which will make the similar lines to any point in triangles isosceles. if they are equal. 32 shows that we 75^ "-[J ~i" should in this way get the same division as if we projected ab upon the Ground Line in same ratio. that is. it . — the original condition being remembered. the line is not horizontal. back upon the —^. . and all that recede equally from it. by merely projecting that dimension back upon a plane. and requires. The ab. all dimensions parallel to the picture plane are perspecplane. if they are not equal.^ _ to divide a certain length ab of a given horizontal line into four equal parts. remain equal in perspective. We tion will serve for Then lines to m line through V. draw b^b produced to m laying have thus far . 2. as in Fig. in which all measures appear in their true size . APPLIED PERSPECTIVE This leads back to the principle before laid down. If. which is the horizon that corresponds to ao. in whatever plane. line of measures in the picture Note. but the measscale among themselves \i they are taken in any one plane parallel to that we have seen.' measures through a. are diminished in the same proportion. if plane. we may draw through Fand off on ao as a line of measures the required parts to b'. but if we have only to divide them into equal parts. **-' and j. As we used accidental distance points for the measurement of Perpendiculars in inclined normal planes. are in the same plane parallel to it. ^ of '. as and.'h • . and this shows us a means of getting the exact dimensions of the parts recorded at the real length of any perspective dimension on a line whose measuring point we *" '^' ^\^ "*' «'(5"anddivided that difference is in the that in that case know. as in Fig. and therefore all lines of measures for that horizon. they keep we would measure off lines in true dimensions. may draw a line We '. that is. so we may use accidental measuring points in inclined horizons when we construct in planes on the that are not normal. we must measure them in the picture plane. and project these points line. if its vanishing point V\s not in HH. or if any other reason a two geometrically parallel lines Vm and ao.

we continue the division exactly as if we had gone on with the first line 04'. by projecting . may test our construction in Fig. : From these examples we deduce the following rules — to to Any a point front line may be used for a line of measures it m on a. and therefore ao is in the picture plane and unless is the actual measuring the division of a a is . The first. We may draw a second line of measinstance. that in measuring off succeson the same line of measures the 71^ last divisions would pass out of reach. like those of the must be equal. lines 27 is still The and the line to essential thing here (as was stated be measured shall be in the on page 12) that the measuring- Now plane. if the divisions of these lines are the same. however. the point m must be M. we shall get an identical division of a V. the intervals of a colonnade for on a^hy the measuring point And the line of measures 04'. of which one or neither may be the Horizon Line. and projecting the last division j-4 upon it from any convenient point m in VM. 34. and two lines of measures parallel to We them through a. so that they shall intersect. unless the trace of aV. Repeating this unit at 5". If. In this case the divisions will be proportional to those on the line of measures but they are to be equal to them. again. we have determined one division of the given line. we can. the cor: if . responding measuring point of the given line. and therefore intersect and be in reality parallel lines vanishing in m. It may happen sive distances 3 <^ Suppose that in Fig. 35 we have set off equal parts. line parallel to if the measuring lines are drawn which passes through the vanishing point of the line be divided. corresponding on the two to V. 33) may represent a front line through a. and it is desirable to continue them on a new line of measures. and the parallel through Kthe horizon same or vanishing line of the plane of ao and a V. and must pass through the trace of the line to be divided moreover. d". and drawing lines from these points to m. 7". M ures through 2 parallel to the first.^" for them. the line ao (Fig. m point M. and so divide the lines ao and at) proportionally. in which case the por- tions cut off lines are equal. and having reached the point 4' have no room to go farJtc ther. it cannot be too carefully borne in mind that Kand ao is only proportional. Then the measuring lines I'm. ab. b'm must be in the same plane of Vm and ao. divisions of this line. that line must be in the picture plane. or in the same ratio.MEASUREMENT OF LINES Note. by drawing two lines through V. we get a unit j"-. s/m.

28 it APPLIED PERSPECTIVE line upon any front from a suitable measuring point. Having measured off the required distance a'b' from the same measuring line the sheet. a measuring line drawn from the inaccessible m on aa' at the proper distance from a. the parallel sides ab and a'b' must be equal. bb' is so also. and ab will be perspectively equal to a'b'. as in the case of Fig. It is obviously essential that the measuring lines should be drawn across the line that is to be measured. The two triangles abm and a'b'm' in space are similar. and having equal bases they must be equal. and the two are parallel in space. fix a unit by which we can con- tinue an equal division. or which will serve for a scale of division. but sometimes the condi- Jtr tions of the drawing forbid this. making am=a'm'. where there is not room on aV m may draw any same vanishing point it will then have the same measuring point M. aa! being a front line. The intersection b will be the required point on aV. 36. Imagine For. . having Therefore their homologous side parallel. In this case we a' l^ to convenient line : the aa\ we draw ^^' parallel to aa'.

V. or have the to ab. the angle SVC. points of its sides. say by the distance CV. 37. and then a semi-circumference from through S. C. as is there shown. may be constructed anywhere .CONJUGATE VANISHING POINTS Thus far we have used only single or unrelated vanishing points. . as in the plan. we may perform anywhere and simply transfer the distances to It is HH in the picture. We need not draw the plan. when we lay out the vanishing and SV to ac. and F'will always be the angles of a right triangle whose hypoihenuse is in the picture plane. of the objects which are drawn in perspective. The vanishing points of two lines or series of lines at right angles to each other.S. will fix v. The semicircle KST' with the points It M. V Knowing its the angle of either side of the square with the picture plane.nd evident in the figure. Moreover. or even the triangle. this diagram represents it as if FFand laid flat in the as is picture plane. and the like. furniture. are either rectangular or based on But most rectangular forms. that is. angle of one side of the square with PP. Fig. If. making 5 ^parallel we shall have a right angle at S. that is. The triangle really is in the Horizon Plane with 5 at its v^<r>"^ revolved about right angle. may be called Conjugate Vanishing Points. and the vanishing points are to be. measuring points Afa. this fixes the triangle SVC. of constant use in perspective. and the angle being invariable. will furnish the The same diagram M\ and will be so called here. with its centre in VV. except in the case of Perpendiculars and Diagonals. for we know that any right triangle may be inscribed in a semicircle VSV that has VV ioc its diameter. 38). it is worth while to find some relation between the vanishing fix is points which will There spective. since this it is a purely geometrical construction for finding distances. we can construct vanishing point from S (Fig. then. and we can find the other vanishing point. buildings. where C is. 39). for which we have found a special tieatment. the angle in pera very simple relation. we have the position of one vanishing point given. and M' on its diameter may be called a perspective chart (Fig. If we have a horizontal square to put in perspective. and the square may then be described. natural to lay it ofl from HH. in view of their close perspective relation.

Let V&nd V. be coordinate vanishing points. its right angle may be swung round to describe the semicircle and find a position for diameter. as C. standing on a quadrant. are measured by the corresponding measuring points anA M' on double the scale of the and elevation. and this is easily included in the diagram or chart. 42. the dimensions being enlarged. V S. upon any convenient line op parallel to HH. the frame at a. It gives clearness to the drawing to take the vertical measures plan directly from the elevation on a scale of half heights mn at half the distance from Fto the vertical az in the picture plane and project them on az. points are apt to come very far off. and its distances are set out on HH The horizontal line of measures ax is taken at the lowest square corner accordingly.3° APPLIED PERSPECTIVE to and any scale. the rest follows necessarily: sometimes it is convenient to fix both vanishing points is the first. vanishing right and left in of and V. or the mitre line which bisects the angle of a rectangle. at half the scale of the perspective. Si we draw the diameter VV. ^S Fig. and . which are projected back on ee'. Sd must be the diagIf onal passing through 8/ for the inscribed angle VSd. may be accomplished by projecting the extreme points from any convenient point. If the Station Point and one vanishing point are known. give . and then the Station Point is confined to the circumference of which W It is a common practice to take ^and as far apart as the paper or the drawing board allows. being merely the division of a horizontal line into equal parts. and if a draughtsman's triangle or square is thrust between them. must be 45°. It is M V often convenient to know the vanishing point of the diagonal of a given square. 40). and adjust 5' and C to suit them. Let us take the case of a chair. its The plan and elevation. The spacing of the balusters under the arms. or diminished in due proportion when they are transferred to the picture. while its sides show the inclination of the object to the picture plane (Fig. in HH. The horizontal lines. Pins are often stuck into the board at Fand V. Inasmuch as it is in large drawings the vanishing often convenient to construct the chart to a smaller scale than the picture. Fig. a piece of furniture that often refuses to stand firm in a picture. and being the diagonal. bd perpendicular to the Station Point. 41. and dividing the intercepted section op into the necessary number (six) of equal parts. dimensions and assumed position with the picture plane the perspective chart on the left is at one third the scale of the picture.

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so that the whole construction becomes compact and simple. and so suit a narrow sheet or drawit by the regular construction. in drawing the mitres of borders or pavements. balance each other. or in constructing octagons. where there is but one vanishing point. convergent Perpendiculars. and the painter or draughtsman learns that things look better for being drawn with their vanishing points remote. and all the construction points are symmetrically placed about the Centre the two mitre points both coincide with the centre. and are apt to avoid. It is the essence of efft-ct drawn in views and long interiors of great churches or galleries. especially in architectural views. They are nearer together than any other two conjugates. and the fore- But it will be noticed that in parallel shortening and convergence are at a maximum. The two points may conveniently be called ing board. or in in street most columnar buildings.^ The point is often useful. as in Gothic. the strongly converging lines that come with near ones. 58 parallel to ao will give the point 8. as at a street corner. which are naturally parallel perspective. Foreshortening carried far enough to be conspicuous is often very effective. is the van- If we have not room for the lower half of the ishing point of all lines parallel to Sd. Buildings and other rectangular objects are best shown with the lines on one side not far from parallel. circle we may bisect the arc Sb at a. the side perspective. and draw the radius ao. which fronts the spectator and shows no convergence is apt to disappoint the desires some slight convergence. It will be seen that any two opposite distance points must be conjugate. subtending the arc ab. This does not appear in interiors. Sd and . where 5^ cuts the Horizon Line. the vanishing point of the cross-diagonal will be conjugate to 8. mountain tops. The choice of conjugate vanishing points has much to do with the agreeable look of a picture. 31 VSV. It towers and strongholds set on high rocks or suits well with picturesque architecture. On the other hand. where two sides of an object are shown. 1 peculiarly ao must be parallel. and therefore a right angle with each other. where the walls that front the eye are in the remote middle of the picture. are actually divergent. One vanishing point approaches as the other recedes. conTherefore parallel perspective is verging on both sides. for they are the vanishing points of lines that make angles of 45° with the Axis on opposite sides. giving them a stiff and ungainly aspect which is only partially cured by setting the principal subjects as far to one side as practicable. The point 8 therefore. The diagonals of a square being at right for instance. which seen lines. found from mitre points. and may be angles.CONJUGATE VANISHING POINTS so half of . the steepness of horizontal lines that converge downward and vanish close at hand makes things look high. and all the mitre lines become per: It has the pendiculars. must be equal to the inscribed angle Sdb subtending double the arc. and the like. unless for special effects. in rectangular objects near the Centre the lines slope both ways at disadvantage that nearly equal angles.iyed is usually agreeable. and tells well in picturesque architecture where there are many other — vertical lines. remote vanishing point. and the contrast of strong foreshortening on one side when the Painters recognize the advantage of a is broadly displ. for the angle aob at the centre. and are usually enclosed between two retreating walls whose lines. and often adds grandeur to a picture. and is inclined to fancy that the parallel in contrast to the sharply eye. As a matter of fact the distance points in the Horizon Line are much used as conjugates.

To determine the lines of the sloping buttress. which are analogous to interiors. j V. or for rectangular objects away from the There will be more to say about certain unpleasing Centre. and drawing i 2 6 V bV. is at least as we also that of the picture. the intercepted interval d-7 being repeated on it for a unit as in Fig. The picture is plumbed up from the perspective plan with the help of the same Horizon Line HJf&nd a new Ground Line G'G'. V. aspects of parallel perspective when we come to speak of perspective distortions. and plumbing upon gV. We begin with this the picture plane a little in front of the near plan. Two steps surround the square platform before the arched doorway. The counter diagonal y^ may be drawn for verification of these corners. and from this a straight ramp ascends to the right against the wall. C.32 APPLIED PERSPECTIVE its showing both walls at once. fixing F. c. on which we can measure the widths of the steps. c. Fig. From that point the heights are measured on the auxiliary scale A'z'. it is less satisfactory. according to a rule that will perspective. The point 6 gives the right front corner of the platform. and S. b. which is To make the case general we take FP it ric plan at A. being set off on A'z'. The lines aV\ the points j. 6. and its depth found like the width of the buttress. Az is taken as a scale on which heights opening set off from 4 and 5. measured in the same way. and d. V. V. 27. AV from GG by M'. 2. are measured up to the sill of the door. line en of the wall behind the steps may be drawn to through d. We draw down we choose such be presently the picture. According to the principles just laid a view that the right-hand vanishing point shall be considerably farther off than the left-hand. The parallel edges. and d. in well suited to interior views. in the perspective plan. But for open views which show two sides of a building. Producing it to cut zon Line of the perspective plan. p. long as the greatest width we mean to include in out our perspective chart. 35. and draw AV. and laying off Aa' on The corner a at is . b. The diagonal ai/ of the platform. The width of the buttress of the ramp is set off on d F at // by projecting h from ^ upon with i'). the door This completes the perspective plan. The successive heights of the steps in the ramp. The line at the base of the wall of the ramp is found by setting back from g on the plan to k. Successive measures for the steps of the ramp are set off on an auxiliary line of measures dm. in the perspective plan. The arch is sketched in the method of constructing circles will be given later. till it cuts FP in a'. and measuring off V. which corresponds to /. Assuming an Axis which. which contains the corners in the geometa. which contain the and by their intersections with Ah give the corners a. M. the corresponding front edges of the steps. 7 and 8. GG fixed by producing ea double scale but may be found AB in with the other corners b and c by producing ea and the parallel edges of the steps to the plan. M'. are transferred by horizontals vanishing in V. apart from convenience and it is agreeable in most street views. the reduced units being transferred from Az. 43 represents a flight of outside steps. we choose the front edge of : . in whatever lay place and scale are convenient. will be a mitre line vanishing in 8. The is line of the face of the wall it happens drawn through being already GG (where to coincide e. corner of the steps at a. and the corners plumbed up from the plan. On the right are the geometric plan and elevation at half the scale of the first a perspective plan. and set off the points at proper distances on the Horijustified. we place this point on GG. the cV give corresponding corners of the steps and the edges vanishing in V.

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it is well to draw also the slope lines of the inner angles beneath the others. The vanishing line of a vertical plane is a vertical line. There are to from A. that is. Suppose we have to lay out the steps in Fig. the lines Ab. which makes an angle with the Ground Plane. ofif the edge on the height ««' above by the scale Ah'. but better to control the points b'. under Ae. cutting b'F'. of it. no in the plan. zontals iV. the upper and under slope lines once established. the upper a square landing. any line. and a vertical at c intersecting i ramp is measured off on A gives the corner c' . The line Ab. then the horizontal a'b. which is the ground plane.CONJUGATE VANISHING POINTS set 33 a convenient upper step. Then drawing the horizon- tal «'/. cFand bV give d. and i-b' are all in the same vertical the plane of the ends of the steps their vanishing points must be in the vanishplane. and the corners of the ramp from d to n are in the same straight line dn against the wall. from the figure that. But by the help of the slope line dn we may construct a flight of steps without a plan. whose tread and rise are shown in the margin. dangerous where precision is required. Ae. The bonding of the masonry offers no difficulty. independent Now going back to Fig. and the vertical dd'. and on Aj' four treads. in the plane Abe. Moreover. It is Then any and must have the same vanishing point : : if we can find this vanishing point it will be easier to place them. Examination of Fig. which fixes the slope The steps can now be drawn in two ways either by dividing ib' with horiline c'd'. will transfer the divisions to c'd'. for the risers. which is V. c'. etc. 44 we may see that all four slope lines are really parallel. zigzagging from one to the other with horizontals and verticals. aims. If we had set out this line beforehand we could plumb up the corners upon it from the plan at once. by merely dividing the upper slope lines : it is easily drawn. for in piecing one part on another small errors are apt to accumulate. corner On Aj we be five steps. and plumbing up a vertical to n in the picture. and these will be accurate tests of the The landing being square. or A V. ing line of the plane. would find the vanishing point lies directly in its intersection with the vertical through V. by dividing one slope line perspecerror in an intersection will be isolated. 43 suggests a simpler way of constructing the steps. is in the vertical that passes through the vanishing . and the next point will be tively. This is usually enough for free drawing or for field sketching. its diagonal is a mitre line precision of the construction. and so It is clear and so on. and the draughtsman is not likely to come out where he bb'. gives <*". We may : say then that the vanishing point of any inclined line. it must be the vertical through V. Any one of the slope lines then. V V : Thus all the steps may be determined nevertheless. d'. The width of the at r. we may draw the vertical aa'. edges /^. having placed ab and a'b'. or by plumbing up the treads from AV. and is its projection on the Ground Plane we may call it the horizontal ground projection of Ae. and they rise to the left set off the height of five risers. The edges of a straight flight of steps are all in the same inclined plane. which are AVhy M. then is b'c.. etc. 44. then vanishing in S. plumb up the points and/ upon it. The front transferred to b'. 2 V. the lines of the ends of the stairs may be drawn in without farther construction than Thus in Fig. if continued. and since that of this plane contains the vanishing point of Ab. 45. The horizontal jF and the vertical bb' give the upper front and the slope line /iJ'must contain all the near corners.

for all such projections must have the same vanishing point and hori- vertical V zontal measuring point. its perpendicular in the picture plane. and are really at the is angles of a right triangle whose base F V V SV Z'i^ <^6 the horizon plane. projection. The vanishing HH V of its and the picture plane PP. is the triangle in its normal position. and its where a line from the meas- uring point. We then arrive at the rule : — An inclined line has the same measuring point as its vanishing point is horizontal projection.34 point of its APPLIED PERSPECTIVE ground projection. the projection of aV on any horizontal plane will ground plane serve our turn. is evidently the slope-angle of the line in the Horizon Plane on the circular arc SM. as it may be from a chart like that in Fig. line It remains to see how this is to be found. Fig. VV the The angle VMV. It is . 48 shows how this may be done. is then the angle the angle between aVand its horizontal projection. and VMV The angle VMV picture plane. If this were revolved round the vertical in SV. for MV'is SV is revolved. unseen the to VV triangle till it --^ lay in round angle. Suppose we need to draw a line from a toward a point F which is out of reach. and MV SV way fore the natural into position. place in plan its horizontal with the vanishing point V. 47. F. which will intersect the its is when we know first to HH If the in the required vanishing point V. is the angle VSV. Let a V point ground at the foot of the vertical VV. be any inclined vanishing (Fig. where SffH is the horizon plane with S upon it. The three points S. point MV. M. But Af is the measuring point of both a V and its horizontal projection. and then from the measuring point of that on projection draw a line making the proper slope angle with HJI. In the plan is projected in and SV\x\ SV. making its slope angle with the Horizon Line. SVV and MVV the into same triangle revolved round which moves and to picture. measure distances on it. but whose distance from some point m on its horizon is known. cuts the vertical through the vanishing point of the horizontal projection. to put an inclined line inclination. showing the Station Point and Axis. Thererevolved. that is. as we have seen. and PP the picture plane upright before the Station Point. The relative positions of the different points are sketched in Fig. 46) in V. its slope angle. and its hypothenuse in W is the plan. The M sometimes important to draw a line toward an inaccessible vanishing point. through the vanishing point is not convenient. is directly under V'va The lower half of the figure represents the plan. would swing would be the tri3' VSV.

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scale A of the lower landing is in the pic- and the Ground Line. for instance. But r + V= go°. So zXio SMV or SMM' = y^i8o°. J/ being also out of reach. The easiest way to construct the chart third of the Axis is to set off SC equal to a and the angle CSVxo <f>: then describe the semicircumference by bisecting the chord VS. CVS.A/i which corresponds directly to By accident 't coincides with M'. The perspective chart is set at the top. and any serve.i8o°-\{ V+ V). picture plane As appears in Fig.133° = 45°. a fractional measuring point at a thir. or construct the right angle VSV. to be the vanisliing point. and a = 180° . from i^to . Then SMM'JrSM'M. for the is mV is far off. or angle half a right angle. the angle <^ is equal to at a third the scale of the picture. and draw bn. The corner ture plane. Hence S^fM• + SM'M=i8o°-4S° = i3S''. and ^r+ V) = 4S°. it are similar if and line is the line will mn is mn one of m V. a is MSM'. being always 45°. equal to any convenient fraction of the distance from am. is laid out according to the sketch plan.CONJUGATE VANISHING POINTS 44.Ie we call a MSM SM'V (Fig. Ax. and wfl are divided proportionally: therefore aV"\s parallel to ^«. we substitute Mj ^. triangle Triann. or a tiiird. The measuring easily found when the conjugate vanishing point is constant. The short ramp in the middle of the steps is the only one whose slope lines VM . MSM' If Note. m to V. we have constructed. SM' V or SM'M=\{i8o°-V). The problem is a simple geometric one. or horizontal it. 50 involves many of the foregoing principles and methods. The pera flight of steps in three ramps connecting terraces at four levels. and that again to CSV. so as to show the steps well. outside the drawing. say one and half of ma. and a V The triangles mbn and ma V to be drawn. We divide am in the same ratio. making mb one or whatever fraction lay off join mn mn is of the distance to the vanishing Then the required point. if only it passes through V if continued. where point of an inaccessible vanishing point is accessible.l the distance \n the chart. ture does not take in the being taken eight feet pic- The width of the point V. 49) the angle gives. the scale of feet in the margin. For suppose F in the figure. passes through below the Horizon Line. 35 We half. and spective Some care is necessary to choose the angle ^ of the the length of Axis there shown.V). and if were prolonged would pass through V. 51. line may be drawn parallel to bn. therefore isosceles. and we know what part The question is apt to come up with conjugate vanishing points. shows The sketch plan Fig. the = i8o°—{SMM'-^ SM M).

48).F"'. but would be surer. 8b may be divided in the same way. The corners of the steps might be found by measuring the widths on AFand projecting up on b8. and uprights being drawn through them. then is drawn parallel to aO. Beginning with F'" is out of reach. so we draw through 6 a line parallel to F"M. ^Fand 6F. these points being in the vertical which passes through F. we use M/^. but the off measured of the middle : construction would be crowded. both above and below the Horizon Line. 32. whose rear edge can now be drawn. If we prolong V8 till it meets the scale of heights Az in z. using the rule of Fig. by their intersections with the diagonal *8 and the upright from j.• to their inclined horizon ' : M' F"' that to divide them in the ordinary way would be troublesome better to divide the horizontal projection 8-6 prolonged. There are ten steps to be measured off on 7. The same angle <o. It will be clearer to divide b8 or cd perspectively. or the edges may be drawn toward F' edges by the process which and 8-6 were drawn. this will it is 1 A line of measures parallel to M' V" would lie so close to 7-F" as to be embarrassing.F'" and 9. and 4 found by A4 which vanishes in the mitre point S. Points 2 and j are measured off like /. and the vanishing point F. of the steps put in between.1-4 is drawn and completes the landing. . gives the directions of the inaccessible vanishing points F'" and F"" of the slope lines of the ramps which ascend and descend to the right. and measure off on it Ai for the width of the landing. These once found. but of dividing into perspectively equal parts. ramp can now be drawn from b and c to F". Their vanishing point F" is in the vertical through V. These slope lines are so nearly parallel . which gives the height of the second landing its edge 8-6 is found by bisecting 8 F. from which the slope angle w would be set off. for we must use the point M/^ for measuring. Starting with A. and set off FF" equal to three times Fi'. remains to draw the ramps that ascend and descend to the right. and from the dividing point draw a line to F"'/J the slope line from 7 to F'" is parallel to this. In the same way we draw 6. Then F \s drawn. we set off d-/ equal to the riser below it. and 8-6 parallel to this last. On M'7 we set off one third the distance from M'. and draw ze parallel to Iflf. and draw the vertical which will cut off one third each on M'F'" and M'F"".. the height of the corners b and c is AB B £ by the scale of heights at A. drawing a line to O from its middle point. off to the right from J/'.F'". To draw toward the inaccessible F' we bisect AF. and must is measured off on the point to F' (see Fig. set getting the point t. the other lines AB of the steps are easily found. being ofl the picture. which will This is be the vanishing point for lines from /to the division points of 6^. and we canM' on owt third the distance HH marking the point F'/j. for any irregularity in the double division of the slope lines would disturb the convergence of the edges. and the width of the landing to Ground Line by M'. we draw using one third of the measure of length.36 APPLIED PERSPECTIVE vanish to the left. and laying off on it any four equal parts. find the other corners of the second landing. that will divide 61:. and project the divisions on 7. not draw the slope 7-F'" directly: we set off from to F*. not a case of measurement. F.F'". and the front giving the corners of the steps. It the upper. but M. The second method would be a little more by laborious. and draw a line from the A A£ middle point a to the halfway point O. The slope lines F"b marks the point 8. draw a/ through the last point </to find /on F"M.

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lay off from ing. and construction. and the slope line Bp parallel to this. in which 8-6 lies. the lines points of division. The point /o at the top of the steps marks the level of the upper landing. and the risers are then easily drawn. and drawing a line from the upper upper steps. divide /-lo as is desired. plumbed up. It is determined by the intersection of lo'-io and 7-10. will test the accuracy of our The descending Az produced downwards. The e the measures of the ten treads. and should come in the Horizon Line.CONJUGATE VANISHING POINTS 37 be in the picture plane. and plumb them down to Bj>. treads toward an inaccessible vanishing point. and be a line of measures for any line in the plane of the landWe project the lower point 6 upon it from M' at e. as we did those of the upper ramp on 6-10'. . steps might be constructed by measuring the heights on the scale but it is easier to divide the slope lines than to draw so many for instance. joining £M'. division point to V""/j. of the treads. trisecting These lines are drawn like those of the it. and project these back on 8-6 prolonged to 10'. The front edges. Then by Ax we measure off the dimensions for the risers on Bm.

slope. if a is the brow of a slope or the edge : of a terrace. that is a considerable slope and are seen obliquely their rise or fall distinctly. In any view in which the ground slopes away from the spectator the more distant would be hidden. ground Tt^. The slope page. they may in the drawing the steps. and finds The vanthe vanishing point of be at V". those of and the same lines of road or terrace may be or the sea. a plane must vanish in We means of determining the position of lines in inclined planes. Here. Those lines. As a matter of fact. parts appear higher in the picture than the nearer if they did not. but in pictures the horizon is very apt to be obscured. according as the horizontator can for the . ^ being the Station Point. also accessible. and FPihe picture plane. off the The . tend up toward the horizon. Suppose we have to draw an oblique pattern in an inclined plane. and Of course the change in the lines of the buildings indiin the other that it is level. as may be seen by comparison with Ax. 55. Fig. — shows the trend of those of the path. in the vertical through V. as in Fig. that is clearly visible its level line is sometimes enough to indicate the direction of the though not always . the inclination of lines that slope away from the specplay . because it indicates a change in the hotizon. We have seen that all lines that lie in the vanishing line or horizon of that plane. and S3. or not at all. as the point b is projected into visual line the picture at b' above a'. so far as they are straight. 52 where the lines of the roads are the same.-i'U will nothing of the descending be seen which sinks below the Sam. one being traced from the other. though angle of the inclined plane bed is set off at the proper measuring point M'. buildings. made to seem to slope in different ways. for instance walls. and conversely that the vanishing line of a plane must have then a convenient pass through the vanishing points of all the lines in it. conjugate vanishing points V and V are accessible. This is illustrated in Figs. and anything that comes view beyond m will appear higher into than «. or not to slope at all. Where cates a change in the Station Point. vanish below the horizon. though lines in a landscape which have sometimes disfrom one side. and really do so here if it were not for the contrast of the lines in the wall we could not know whether the ground at the base of the wall sloped up or down. they as appears from Fig. 54. but higher than V"" because their slope is not so steep as that of In truth.INCLINED PLANES The of roadways and the like. 50 shows how the sloping lines of the ground appear horizontal coursing of the terrace wall. tal lines which combine with them are differently arranged. only those of the surrounding buildings show in the one case that the road runs up hill. with lines vanishing in the horizon at V. — — most part be shown only by the contrast of horizontal lines.

1 \<^a. <^' ^7 S-i Stt \ 4. . . . ^^^ kJ IS: m A -1 V r t •vii ^l! V. .' 1-1 1 1 / I'ZZi.1-1''''.S -ill . I ^ . a N ' ^.f^ I V.

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and drawing any convenient measuring mn of it that is intercepted between the lines to sides which vanish in O. vanishing in F'". the intersection of these horizons. The chimney is constructed in the same way. The heights. measured by Its vanishing diagonal bd vanishing point. The eaves and ridge in F'. Those sides of the star which trisect the sides which vanish which is their vanishing point would be found. shows the same principles applied to the roofing of a house. The positions in the roof. measured on the vertical scale at a. toward vanishing points below F and F' may be drawn without these points. which must be in both their horiroofs. and its : pattern divides the sides of this square into three equal parts. The horizonFig. and again to the left in the plane of the front of the dormer. The walls and inaccessible. and the diagonal square put in two of its sides vanish is in the inclined plane. a part of which The principal dimensions on the lines that vanish at at the top of the page. and the square top of the block and its square panel are outlined. in The plane of the main roof vanishes in F". and chimney may be constructed with the rest from a perspective plan. The arrangement of the and the band of slates behind it are shown in the marginal sketch. The middle points of the sides of the panel are found by crossing diagonals. be M'. The plane of the dormer dormer is V V". The dormer ridge of the L. M' is the measuring point of is be. which contains be and cd. vanishing in O. It stops and is stopped by the horizontal eaves of the L. and up slope of the roof by lines vanishing at F'". 56 tal eaves of the main house vanish to the left in F. can only be O. is found by producing it to that line.INCLINED PLANES two vanishing points F'" and ' 39 ishing line or horizon of this plane. and thrown up to bV. being therefore in VV". In Fig. or by direct measurement. must pass through their V. The oblique valley which joins it lies in the planes of both its vanishing point. and is the line marked /t>Fand toV". in O are nearly parallel to VF'". We mn parallel take to O for a VV" we trisect that part measuring point. by lines vanishing at F. but those on be are measured in their own plane of bed. at O. roof vanishes the scale of heights at A. and drawing a line of measures bg parallel to M' V". The near angle of the widths are measured on a horizontal line of its . measured on aV. in This point would be conjugate to O. The eaves of the gables horizontal eaves are constructed by the ordinary methods. This gives us two lines. may be transferred to a vertical at e by lines vanishing at F'. appears Fare measured on ^F rather than bV. to avoid crowding. as well as of Af. The short valley where the main roof stops against the wall of the L is perspectively parallel to the slope of the main gable. line line The VV". and by measuring O divide the other two sides. are drawn upwards toward their proper vanishing points the peaks may be found by plumbing up from cross diagonals below. and their actual length is not important to us. the inclined ones to the right in F'" above V: the plane of the visible slope vanishes in its horizon Vy'". its slope lines in Vl^ '". which define four points of the star: the other points and the sides of the four little squares between the points follow easily. being their intersection : zons. or by measurement the eaves wliich descend : . 57 is dormer in the roof a further application of the same principles. but they must be set off by a point in the vanishing in O. In the same way the visible slopes of the L and the dormer vanish in V'V". but and it is not necessary to us. It stops and is stopped by the The valleys of the dormer are treated in the same way. are projected up the wall.

the vanishing of the oblique of the slating the intersection of the horizons F^"'and V'V". The ridge of the dormer stops against the valley that vanishes at O in It Fig. These slope lines are at right angles to all the horizontals of the plane. the other this. by means of the vanishing points near lower corner is V" and O. being a slope line of the roof. \ . 55. The pitch of the gable is first drawn in the plane of the window. like that of Fig. The ornament clearly in Fig. vanishing at V. vanishes to V". the overhang of the gable at its own level by M. The valley against the side of the dormer. indicating its pitch. As in the last example. 71^ -i'S ^--3u^ should not be forgotten that of all the lines in an inclined plane one set of parallels is the steepest. as the rafters of a roof are at right angles to the horizontal eaves.40 measures at APPLIED PERSPECTIVE A. points following from The height of the 2>5— o main ridge is determined like the other heights by the vertical scale at a. The construction of the gable is shown more Only the projection at the measured by M. it. and the ridge drawn through valley is (9. 58. and so to its intersection with the ground plane and other horizontal planes. the peak found by diagonals below.structed. 57. by means of M'. and then projected forward to the plane of the eaves. is con.

^Ftg.A^MM'-f^iK 1 f J»/tf' <S'i TZccZe.-. 311 .' \.r.v- T=X73 vir -^-7^ 2.7^ — .*^ -V ^ . \\.ss JH.

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This construction. and the vanishing sides measured by J/ and respectively. in the horizontal circle. geometrically The plan. the first arch being constructed. These eight points are usually enough to enable the draughtsman whose eye is well trained to draw the circle satisfactorily unless it is pretty large. giving the data for the second arch. and this is conveniently set against the front The point where the diagonals cross is the perspective of the side ab. one circle being in a vertiThe position of the square being arbitrary. as maybe Here again we have eight points. and two horizontals through the points where the diagonals intersect the circumference. and must be determined point by point. Thus. 60 is convenient for describing a series of circles or round arches in contact. as is easily seen. is not used in the confour intersections. The easiest usually an ellipse. and the four intersections of the diagonals are drawn. an intermediate diagonal drawn through d and e' finds the crown c' of the second arch and the vertical c'd'. gives us eight points of the circumference of the sides of the square. points of <:</ to if struction. which is given for illustration. is to enclose the circle in a square. has the advantage that all the found directly without the use of a plan. and lines drawn from the quarter The second method. centre of the circle and of the square. whose measuring point is M. take one side in or parallel to the picture plane . for which. used and/ will intersect these diagonals on the circumference. and the front side cd is divided into quarters. 59 shows two ways of HH vanish in C. and vanish in square are Perpendiculars and Fig. the other in a horizontal. the sides at right angles to this are : those of the horizontal horizontal. This method uses few lines in the construction.CIRCLES perspective of a circle is not a circle except when its plane is parallel to the picture plane. In other positions its perspective is The way to find points first. The square is divided into two points maybe rectangles by the front diameter ef. but is not the centre of the perspective ellipse. The process is analogous to that described on . we cal plane. its The tangents show not only the position of the curve but direction at the points of contact. however. The sides ab and <r^of the two squares being set off in the plane of measures. the whole with very few lines. in the vertical square D seen in the smaller plan at the side. Diagonals ^and ed axt drawn in the nearer rectangle. those of the vertical square are oblique and vanish in F. and the square in enough put perspective utilizing the enclosing square. and so are a double htlp. the four middle points put into perspective. the four tangent points and proved. and so on. but has the disadvantage of requiring a plan to determine the four intersections. and then it may be described with compasses. as in the figure. where the circle is tangent. so that like any other figure in such a plane it is projected in a figure similar to itself. as is — diagonals and horizontals. a half-plan is sufficient. The construction shown in Fig. a second diagonal through b' and 0' finds a".

is to be constructed in it being geometrically equal and parallel the same way in a plane parallel to the plane of the face. 59. only question is when the plane of the circle is direction. When we through a wall. We get a surer control of the curve by combining with the method of Fig. and the diagonal square is drawn as The diagonals of the first square give the before. instead of having a front to bisect the diameter at draw our Perpendiculars Diagonals through i^. have to draw a round arch cut curve at the back of the wall. Ti^. Or the vertical distance points may be Then we may find out of reach (Fig. as in Fig. be the sub-centre corresponding to ing point may an oblique plane its in which the circle lies. and the 0. 6z as through f. and so find a and b. colonnade or other TJie symmetrical siiape of the circle allows a square to be circumscribed wiih its sides in any and there is usually no obstacle to putThe ting one side parallel to the picture plane. for spacing a series of uniform objects. This will be considered later. which are in the horizon of the plane. face of the wall. Then we have only 0. the 45° tangent points (/and d' in the usual way. 15. 21. The auxiliary quadrant with its radius at 45° fixes the point <r. where the diagonal square gives tangents at the 45° points. and are determined by the methods provided for inclined planes. so that we have eight points and eight tangents. — the question of the vanishing point and measuring point of the oblique sides of the square. 62). whose axis is horizontal and perpendicular to the for the rear curve coordinate with V. being the sub-distance point. the to that in the face. 61. inclined.i/ tangent points of the second.42 APPLIED PERSPECTIVE page I"^ 60 19. as in Fig. and the construction will remain the same. and so vanishes in Every constructive point is to be found directly behind the corresponding point for the front V . and CD horizon. which is then easily completed. Fig. and behind is The soffit of the arch a cylinder at a distance equal to the thickness of the wall (Fig. It D may happen that tangent ab to begin with we have a front diameter at f. and draw through them the sides edh and ed'h' of the diagonal square. 63). 59 the double square of Fig. and the direction of The vanishthe curve is shown at all the points.

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and that of the horizontal directly over or under the Centre. especially in vertical circles which are enclosed between upright lines. Examples may be That from the Broletto of sometimes incredible to artists who have not studied such cases. The round tower Chaumont). more simply and securely than by measuring oiT each one independently and the rear . 65. and that of a horizontal circle level of the vertical circle . is traced by doorway at the landing of the steps in Fig. it is safe to say. 6t. The ovals in which circles are projected have a great deal of beauty cially in their delicately graduated curvature. and to find the cornices one above another so spread as to tilt at all sorts of angles with the horizontal. The structed in this way. for to construct points close enough together tain. and gjh of the diagonal square. necessarily depends much on the draughtsman's eye. e'. which in perspective means of them. abed being half of the primary square. to believe that the perspective ellipse of a vertical circle stands upright. Other points may be found in the same way. 1 _7J^ 4S' inclination far is often disagreeably conspicuous when the circle is from the centre. and . corresponding to e. at a distance equal to the thickness of the wall. but inclined toward the Centre without pointing to it. is found by measuring off the thickness em of the wall e(^ vanishing in V. yet it by in Fig. So it is that comparatively few painters put into their pictures an arcade or a round tower banded with string-courses at which an eye _ trained to such things can look without disappointment. curve. Most painters and most dravighfsmen.CIRCLES 43 curve. This is \ . those on the soffit and the surfaces of the joints are in a series of planes vanish in the vanishing point which meet in the line 00' that joins the centres of the arch lines. | on the Horizon Line. 63 the front curve is constructed by the method of diagonal squares shown The on point in Fig. It is an example out of many in seen many photographs. 43 would be con' The joints of the voussoirs seen on the face of the wall all is . even among artists. as in Fig. XV). but if the vertical distance points are at hand. The drawing of circles in perspective. is Como is one (PI. 64. may be fixed by their help as here by lines e'g'. and the eye not attentive to this beauty is not competent ^ -^pj ^^^ '"'| | to deal with them. since they are constructed by points at intervals. etc. that is. In other positions the long axis is neither vertical nor horizontal. radiate from the centre of the arch V. and on a horizontal that vanishes in V. do not give this attention. In Fig. It is common. espe- when they that is are much foreshortened. not exactly parallel to the front curve. that its longest diameter is vertical. delicate tangent curves. e'h'. It is to leave nothing to his judgment would be very laborious and unceronly by careful attention that one learns the curves sufficiently well to draw them satisfactorily. as in a clock tower. but this is true only when the centre v. is relation of the successive string-courses of the is full of grace which is often unseen by those The common to see rings merge them drawn with a corner as into the vertical lines at A who paint them (Plate XIV. or even draw a bell or a mug void of offence.

It is perhaps well in sketching such views for picturesque uses to change slightly the inclination of the axis rather than draw what is disagreeable to most eyes . is yet an uncertain judge of position. especially if they are flattened. 66. enough to mar the curve. are the most troublesome parts. most painters would. and it is often of advantage to get additional points and tangents But so much depends on the guidance of the eye in the curves.44 to APPLIED PERSPECTIVE show us that nature is full of things that do not look well in pictures. much labor may be saved in constructions that are not critical by reducing the number of points that have to be found. as at £. as . The much the other hand. in these parts more than elsewhere. What is the use of measuring and constructing if all this is not more But the eye. which detects variations in continuity exact than sketching by the eye ? Here the paradox that are too small to measure. is more For this reason it is desirable to besetting than one might imagine. are the and the temptation to make the ellipse. that it is till their important to discipline the eye by the habit of drawing circles from nature in construction if we wish character becomes familiar. which show not It may be thought that only the position of the line but its direction. where the curvature is sharpest. a point of view which leads to such appearances of The curves are symmetrical. and to add tangents. a fair experience in free-hand drawing would make a draughtsman independent of constructive methods in this but a moderate familhim that this is not the case. iarity with perspective will convince circle is like. and is somethe draughtsman's sense of line. of perspective circles are the more sensitive to distortion in that they The ends of the ellipse. : applies which is guide where precision not fine enough. Fig. whose flow may depend on the thickness of a line. and so much of the beauty of a picture in which prominent depends on giving the right character to the curves. even when the points are found with extreme care they will sway a trifle this way or that from their precise position. as at A. for actually drawing them measurement alone is is necessary : — . but a better remedy is to avoid. or pinched and sharp. as distortion. them swollen. critical parts. so at these parts. Here the last refinement must come from On times asked The question may naturally be asked. knows what a perspective ends of was just said. There will still be enough to do and no one knows this so well as he who best to get the curves into the right places circles are . when the size of multiply points the circles gives occasion for it. iax placing curves the eye is an inadequate true in all fine drawing.

XIV CHAUMONT.Pl. CHATEAU .

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have seen that the length of the Axis repeated behind the picture covers half the distance to the extreme horizon. but in others it is a disadvantage. In Palladio's Teatro Olimpico at Verona the stage is set with a street seen endwise. Consequently the colonnades are robbed of their apparent length. We have seen how fast a horizontal surface like a floor or the sea shrinks together as retires into the distance. lined with models of houses which diminish in scale as they recede from the front. enclosing an open court. however. the front. or the windows and columns of a building. for the spectator to Viewed from is as deep as it is wide. so that a street forty feet long or so seems to extend an eighth of a The effect is greatly increased by the narrowing of the street as it retires. so that the last mile may be shrunk to the thickness of a line. or a pillared aisle. which the buildings are brought forward and displayed instead of crowding at the far end. unless we can count the pillars. This fact helps in certain tricks of perspective that the architects of the Renaissance used to play. and these unequally. Exactly the opposite effect is shown in the colonnades which Bernini prefixed Here the galleries on each side which lead up to to the front of St. Perspective foreshortening affects only lines and surfaces which are oblique to the picture. we can note some of their favorable though it is not and unfavorable conditions. the church. the colonnades seem lengthened out. notice often the unsatisfactory effect of a long colonnade or arcade. the farther parts being diminished more than the near.THE CONSTRUCTION OF PICTURES have seen that the effects of perspective are due to foreshortening by oblique projection on the picture plane. in the gappy look of the near parts contrasted with the crowding of the distant. In like manner figures it We trees. lending intricacy and mystery to the picture. and it is difficult. We crowding of far-off objects would add to the impression If we examine a photographic view down the long nave of a church. we shall find that. especially in architectural subjects. are to the eye crowded together as they retire faster than they diminish in size. and the columns crowd together in the view much more than if their lines were parallel. and possible to classify them fully. and that variations in this foreshortening are main sources of the interest we take in the aspects of the things which we depict. by mile. which is really the case. side looks farther off. the side on which they are crowded close looks shorter. but the rate . and that the end on the other It might be thought that it this of distance. But We some of these foreshortenings are agreeable. This may in some cases be an advantage. and lessening the appearance of distance. spread apart as they approach the church instead of converging. It is not only the crowding of parts that mars the effect of long lines reaching into the believe that the court distance : not only are the farther divisions diminished by foreshortening. as may be seen from the figure in Plate XVI. and some are not . Peter's at Rome. which may be miles away. but is not so. and interfering with clearness.

and with advantage to the picture. as appears in Fig. where they are in the distance and the parts are small in scale. whereas the abrupt change at an angle makes an lars it effect of contrast which is lines are to the line of vision. may be a disfigurement where the lines are continuous. and are moreover apt to be framed in by balanced Perpendiculars on each side. is the foreshortening. and that is one of the difficulties of parallel perspective. In other forms of perspective. In this kind of perspective there is some disadvantage in a long Axis. the farth-r parts being seen much more obliquely If an arcade or colonnade starts near the front. They are therefore troubleand as a rule the less they are shown the better. the depth of the view is usually comparatively small. for they alone show the effect of perspective. so that the displaying of the near parts which comes with a short Axis may not be a disadvantage. open.near the Centre. ^ ^ tance of a picture is achieved by raising the Horizon Line. In interiors cut them off altogether in this position. The lines which are at right angles with these of the picture which are constructed on them comparatively uninteresting. where the vanishing viewed very obliquely. inasmuch as the Perpendicular vanishes at C. or it may be opened on either side by moving the Centre to the other side. &7 S' It may be noticed also that in parallel perspective the important lines are the Perpendiculars. where the principal lines are not Perpendiculars. and with it the eye. Thus the advantage of a near Station Point and short Axis is confined to opening out those parts which are near the front. They are kept subordinate therefore. where. the foreslioriening increases so that the disiance often looks out of harmony with This dissonance. and subject to distortion. the perpendicular distance Ax is foreshort- I' ened into the length Aa. is with the long Axis unless the important parts of the advantage The opening out of the dispicture are near the picture plane. it is very common to some. which displays the floor. where it looks very than the near. is foreshortened into the length Cc. 67. all its length beyond x'. Indeed. while as seen from S it occupies Ab.46 APPLIED PERSPECTIVE of foreshortening increases rapidly. the parts are seen in geometrical elevation. which is not felt where the line is broken by a marked the foreground. 68 shows how equal lengths ab and picture plane. so to speak . and appear best near the Centre. while from S' it covers Cb. In the foreground the front lines come naturally into the margins of the picture plane where they are unbalanced. angle. while the disproportion- The ate compression of the distant parts is aggravated by it. as someti. because the eye does not expect broken lines to agree in foreshortening. extreme changes of foreshortening are not less unbecoming and when. But on the other hand. the more extreme The more nearly parallel the apt to be pleasing. convenience requires us to represent apart of our picture that stands before the Fig. as we have seen in looking down the colonnaded aisles just men- ^^ tioned. . where these lines prevail.mes happens. . In Perpendicu- lines are becomes excessive as they are prolonged to . seen from S. so that this construction is used chiefly for in- teriors and street scenes. as we shall see. and are being front lines. from the Station Point 5'. it may become very disturbing.

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which disappoints the eye. confined in the picS'. especially the photographing interiors of churches. ay' and ox'. when other things are equal effect by giving the long vanishing lines to the broader side to the narrower : we are apt to get the best and the foreshortened view and the contrast of a very considerable difference in the distances of The student will do well to rid himself as early as possible of the tyranny of his sheet of paper. while those from 71^. we may remember that a near vanishdesign tempt ing point and steeply converging lines rob the building of its height.THE CONSTRUCTION OF PICTURES cd 47 may be projected from different Station Points with very different rates of fore- siiortening. Drawings with two or three vanishing points are apt to be built on conjugate points. by taking the camera up to the triforium. which are often spoiled in order to humor the infirmity of a poor it. those seen from S\ between _j'' and x'. or to employ some of the devices which are provided for drawing lines to inaccessible vanishthe points is of value. recent invention of telescopic photographing relieves much difficulty when it can be used. from 3' differ more nearly equal. and learn to use vanishing points outside it. and showing half the height below the Even exterior views are constantly marred by the necessity of carrying horizon level. not only because it obviates various distortions due to short axes. In placing the picture plane it is naturally desirable to show most of the more interesting side of the building. and the ugliness of isometric drawings is due to the equal angles of the three sets of lines.^xis may give. . are 68 y and o. would probably look extreme. Drawings made in Isometric Projection. than to take buildings from too high a point of view. the longer Axis gives ture between —^ almost always the more agreeable effect. so that one point recedes as the other advances. Even when picturesque grouping or the upward shoot of a Gothic one to emphasize the vertical lines. which will be presently noticed. because photography is perspective. which is stiff. but the practical difficulty of using a very long Axis is safeguard enough. The variations seen from S. to be sure. lens. On the whole. for on these depend the breadth and repose of their architecture. which at is perspective with the Station Point distance. The stiffness is made more disif a building or other is so set that the Horizon Line bisects agreeable rectangular object No fault is commoner in giving equal slopes to lines above and below the horizon. The the camera close to a building and so bringing the vanishing points near together. make the most of their horizontal lines. The two projections ay and ox very much. still more than to monotony of foreshortening. but because the remote vanishing points of a distant view are very becoming to buildings. are likely to be more agreeable. We have noticed before that vanishing points at equal distances from the Centre are unsatisfactory because they give two series of lines with equal convergence. show. Whatever is true of photogtaphic views is true of perspective It is well in pictures of buildings to drawings. and to their lack of con- vergence. an infinite the monotony of division which an inordi- nately long .

is likely to be viewed from the In Fig. and the roof does not sit well. In Figs. If it is only a cube. 72. 70 and 71 the is same cube is shown under two conditions. being at the Centre. 71 the object. 76 and 77. Yet the tower is not very far from the Centre. If the chief usually slight. since the as appears in Fig. is The distance VV edge in the same position between them. and at the same height on the Horizon Line. the distortion is still more unpleasant. but if it is more complicated it will probably look deformed. certain distortion in drawing the object in this position which we shall have to consider. seeming to be out of level. the distance being only one third the length of the Axis. The effect of foreshortening is in Fig. it may not suffer by the change. CKand VV V CV being equal to SC. and likely to be viewed right point. Figs. 74 74 as before in Fig. In the round towers.48 APPLIED PERSPECTIVE When he is constrained to keep these points within fixed limits he will find ing points. 72 and 73 show the same cube prolonged into the shaft of a square tower. In Fig. 69 that for a given distance Station Point must be on the semicircumference VSV. 70 it is on one side. it is true. Figs. In this case f'and become also distance points. and capped with a pyramidal roof. There is some practical convenience in this construction. the longest VV Axis is got by putting the Centre in the middle of at C. the lines slope equally both ways. The increased length of the Axis is worth something. by setting the object aside from the Centre. for the Axis SC. turning it into an octagon. and a great many architectural drawings are made by it. so that the lines slope alike in the two figures. But the different positions the same. and so quite within the limit commonly allowed. the farther from the Centre it is. between conjugate points. it is not likely to be looked at from this position. the axis of the tower will seem to draw back into its proper position and the awkwardness of the eaves line to disappear. from the wrong point . the more danger. . the universal temptation being to put the eye directly in front of the thing we look at. the cube set with its front of the measuring points give quite different proportions to the two In Fig. but the unpleasantly distorted. In Figs. being the radius. 72 to drag the peak and the vertical axis of the tower toward the middle. and to look natural. If we fix the eye at the is not only the axis of the tower drawn toward the middle broken line of the eaves is proper distance just in front of C. There is a pictures. yet the difference is the gain. is longer than any other half-chord S'C. as here. and there are losses which outweigh object is put at the Centre. but if the tower is the principal object in the picture. The slopes may be made unequal. being unrelieved by vertical lines. or other simple rectangular form. and 75 the angles of the tower are cut off.

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and even seem offensively distorted. We need to bear in mind the distinction between graphical The first occurs when the lines. the second when lines. for a line and parallel to the picture plane oblique to the line of vision. in other words. or. so that from »S they subtend equal angles and look of equal length. the angles which they subtend being changed. The difficulty is in the fact that the picture. so that noticeable is distortion It is likely to follow. ' Its ^ / ' ^ • construction provides duly for its foreshortening when it is seen from the Station Point. but are projected The visual into the picture plane in two lines hg and fd which are quite unequal. like the eaves of the octagonal An tower in Fig. ' \'*\ ^*' ' directly in front of the eye. ing the Station Point at equal distances. It is indeed inevitable that when the eye leaves the Station Point the foreshortenings. or may front may be & ^ ^ the eye and be oblique to the picture plane. the eye in Only the part which is '« .* ' '•'/ ^'^•7° ^\' and all other parts suffer it _. when the eye leaves the Station Point the parts which come opposite it are seen to be stretched out in directions In Fig. but the visual foreshortening due to the new position makes ^/^ look still shorter. Inevitably. is exempt from / . look shorter than they would if they faced the eye. or either without the other ' '' . if the eye shifted to S'. in proportion as it recedes from the Centre and the . adapted to the old point of view. but ' ' - ' ' i T 1 not from any other. proportion because they are viewed obliquely. the Centre when is at the Station Point. being oblique to the foreshortening and visual. perspective construction provides for this. V -. itself obvious that.PERSPECTIVE DISTORTION objection that is brought against perspective is that an object of known form. are not visually foreshortened. carefully constructed by it. not only is the line seen to be longer than gh. But when once the lines are drawn in the picture. or it may be oblique to both. opposite /</. being oblique to the line of vision. are projected on it smaller (or larger) than they would be if they faced it. ' ' "^ \ ^^' ' < ^ '*/'•' /^ ^ ' j ' an oblique view. 78 the two equal horizontal lines ab and cd. part but the Centre looks smaller than it is drawn. will sometimes look wrong. The two may occur together.S y - 'a. This is to say that from the Station Point every this foreshortening. frontradiating from the Centre. is itself subject to the laws of perspective and is visually foreshortened in -^ ^^' ''/^ ' . once made. •> 1 y^ .'^' ^. $ as they recede from the Centre. foreshortening oi fd corrects the inequality. and their disproporis tion is aggravated. \ . is drawn larger than it is intended to look. the foreshortening in the picture being everywhere in the . 74. should not suit the new. picture plane.

why use it ? When we look at an object or view as a picture. 79. objects in the Horizon Line have no vertical stretching. standing in a horizontal front line. we hold it right across the and change its position and direction to suit every successive object we do not think of a picture plane held rigidly in one position and everything referred to that. It is this stretching in one direction that distorts the pictures of detached objects: if it were in all directions they would only be magnified. and the objects shown there look misshapen. into an ellipse. seen from S. but even within the ordinary limits they will someWe have seen in Figs. as every flat direction of the Centre. A sphere. A file of figures climbing a ladder would grow taller as they rose above the ground without getting any stouter. for projected. being stretched out away from the Centre. so that objects in the margin of the picture are drawn larger than they look. whether the lines of vision strike it squarely or obliquely. unless it points to the Centre. 74 and 75 how the moving of the tower out sketched directly from nature ? And if we cannot correct them by perspective. Equal spheres. If we hold up a sheet of paper to test directions or dimensions. are drawn of equal height. to the eye at ' surface does. The questions naturally occur: How are these distortions avoided in pictures against them. a long Axis and a narrow picture are in most cases not great enough to be disturbing : sufficient precaution times give offence. but as soon as the eye leaves S^ and passes over to one margin. the Centre. We look at not simultaneously but successively. we instinctively refer it to a picture plane squarely in front of our eye. but to an eye at the Station Point these radiating ellipses would be foreshortened into circles. Inasmuch as the distortion is radial. and would be visible to an eye at the margin of So long as such objects are clustered about the Centre. which always looks round to the eye. looking smaller than it really is. We . and change the picture plane every time we things line of vision. exactly covers and neutralizes the visual foreshortening. we perceive the distortion there. so that the picture looks right. eye will wander. The perspective construction ^ ^/f ^ by expanding everything in lines that radiate from the Centre. as if meets this by a centrifugal force. look at. of the Centre for the sake of giving unequal slopes to the vanishing lines has given a It is impossible to hold the spectator's eye to the Station Point: the false look to it. This stretching out. and the picture in which such things occur will give offence. at right angles to our axis of vision. but their pictures grow wider and wider as they recede from the centre. and those above and below the Centre no horizontal. The increase would be more rapid as the Axis was shorter. so that its long axis upon the Axis would be constructed all in the picture as in Fig. is comes A right in ring of spheres centred example. the distortion is the picture. and so with a range of columns or a rank of soldiers: they grow fatter toward the margin of the picture.so APPLIED PERSPECTIVE ^ the whole picture crowds in toward the Centre. that is.

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took in the whole sky. and with care not to injure relations with the rest of the building. Some concession may be made to the common Other desire to see the axis of a circle upright. is in fact drawing by spherical projection. . or else unrolled before us bit by bit. but naturally it needs to be a trained eye. But what is to be done with perspective drawings under these conditions ? Shall we reject is them not ? or put objects outline circle difficult. the only use of perspective for it is to determine its scale. which accommodates the projection unwittingly to a flat surface. sketching as he turns. and our picture is in the end not one projection. unless it is confined to the neighborhood of the horizon. which may come in unfortunate positions. skill. but it is easy to make too much. though the dislocations which it occasions are often less conspicuous than those which perspective shows to the displaced eye. cannot be viewed spread out. with a free hand . Sketching. They have to be made on a table or a drawing board. the only guide in modifying . When it comes to subjects like architecture. Separate features like capitals and bases. changing the plane turn our eye. is But to construct perspective drawings by spherical projection and they would be impracticable for use if they were constructed. and judgment naturally it should be as slight as can be accepted. and could not be unrolled. working from nature. A sphere is drawn as a A human figure or an animal is always drawn always looks like one. till presently his back is turned where he faced before.PERSPECTIVE DISTORTION 51 When we sketch. but parts of larger wholes. in Plate XV The amendment for instance. impracticable. and he keeps on turning with his picture plane until he has gone round the whole circle of the hori- zon and come back to his lirst position. is not scientifically exact. up instead of turning horizontally. of which we occupy If the panorama instead of a belt the centre. may be modified so as to bring it into harmony with the straight lines about it: at the same time the draughtsman should accustom himself to the looks of circles in nature. modified so objects of geometric shapes may be first constructed and then if necessary Since it is the eye that protests. objects that are not isolated. and kept flat. which sphere. A man who paints a panorama turns from point to point. planes on which our picture is thrown would if put together When the panorama. may be modified to suit their because it which as we have seen often takes a shape that looks queer. the questions are more difficult. with our eye at its centre. owing to the unexpected inclination of its axes. as we go. but must be rolled up into a belt. finished. for changes in a detail may throw a combination out of gear. The innumerable fragtnentary picture : . often require that their perspective shall be amended. and is discontinuous. Sketching. we turn from one point to another. so that he may not be disturbed at seeing in a picture what he would see in nature if he watched. their up with their known proportions. as we may see in photographs. The treatment of isolated shortcomings ? Where their principal dimension has been determined. it would come down to the horizon behind us. A circle. does His picture is a piece of a panorama. overhead it is horizontal if we painted the whole sky. but a series of projections on different planes. If we look high just this so far as he goes. is a matter for knowledge. or to which involve large combinations of lines. too. . it would be a hemisphere. the effect is similar as we look higher the picture plane slopes toward us. or in perspectives constructed without that indulgence. it make is not a plane but a is horizontal. the eye is as to be subdued into unoffending form. The sketcher.

though it be very slightly. away so *x ^ ^ ** . the effect is very apt to be unpleasant. X . 1 from the Perpendiculars. if it borhood of the Centre. and lend an expression of unvexed tranquillity that is very to architecture. and occupy the remote parts with forms in which perspective is not important. being castle at three times as far from the Centre as their bases.\ \ J!'' >\' '• ( to arrange the picture. so do not converge sharply. We can restrict the area. but in the point of view. and that both It is better so sets vanish in the same direction. that these lines shall converge. yet correctly photographed. The remedy is in a long Axis or a change of parts are view. of the will : Urbino. if almost insensibly. the relative size of the parts be changed the proportions of the ends of' buildings may be unpleasantly disturbed if the picture is wide. An analogous violence. but make a visibly obtuse angle with the front lines.. Plate XVIII. ' i' . the front lines shall be made v^i' S shows a still to converge away from them. that the perpendiculars When the meeting is well to one side of the Centre. as in the Treasury Building. used to lines at right angles vanishis almost persuaded that the front . . this cannot be arranged. may be done if when the whole close to the Centre. where one on the left seems to vanish on the wrong Here both . Photographs taken with a telescopic lens are often a useful lesson in this respect. and some part which should be dominant is reduced to insignificance. to the neigh- to obesity as they draw away from the Centre due proportions. to the proportion of a building. we noticed the disagreeable effect that sometimes comes with the contrast of perpendiculars vanishing to the Centre. becoming In discussing parallel perspective. to tinker the drawing so that. while the Perpendiculars remain. »> ' ' eye.' > I ' ' lines actually diverge from the angle. In such views. which longer Perpendiculars . Plate XVIII. which is so near that the top of the towers. and their cornices and cupolas are most unpleasantly distorted. But the most effective remedies are in rightly arranging the picture. and as this is likely to widen the intermay sometimes be well to shorten the whole range. of the transept of Cremona cathedral. not amounting is to distortion. as where connected buildings fill the picture. if possible. will if then be no i' / or even. lines at the top of the tower worse deformity. shows the distortion of a high picture. Plate XIX. The greatest embarrassment is found in large architectural views. at least that of the parts which require perspective construction. showing how the gently converging lines that go with a distant Station Point preserve proportions. or of the upper parts if it is high. The fault is not in the photograph. '. even the Station Point is so near that the far-off much diminished by distance. We can attract the spectator's eye as much as possible to the Centre whether it is the middle of the picture or not. are too far off for safe perspective. and uniting with front lines which are parallel. set of horizontal side. if the visual angle of the picture is great.52 APPLIED PERSPECTIVE starved Columns and balustrades which tend may be down to their vals between them unduly it can be done without doing harm elsewhere. or parts that balance each other are made plainly unequal. The ing both ways.

> 4 < a. o" Z m Oi P .

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is so turned that from 6' the retreating face of the object will be seen on the right of the principal face. gular object should be so placed that its horizontal lines vanish both ways it should . In Fig. 80 we see that the square A. and the effect direction. and the horizontals in both faces will vanish on that side. we expect to see the other vanishing lines on the side opposite to the vanishing point of the first. in fact. the conjugate vanishing points is intolerable. not be set so far from the Centre. The difficulty comes from the fact that. the sides vanish in opposite directions. that we see the side of it towards which the horizontals of the principal face converge. or so turned. while in D. on the left instead of the right. and the acute angle on the left is very ugly.PERSPECTIVE DISTORTION sets of lines actually 53 do vanish in the same being both on the same side of the tower. like the Cremona tower. . which may represent the plan of a cube or a square tower. We see round the wrong This means that a rectancorner. given the position of the lines in the principal face of the tower. that is. seen differently.

But the vanishing points of a straight line are at opposite ends of the world. has led can enough of any If it line to display the to insist that they should be drawn so in one and the same picture. the horizontal projections being taken from a plan. Fig. by projecting the view as on a vertical cylinder with the Station Point in its axis. the first in ab. and or nowhere. provided they are long enough. C may comparison be taken for a Centre on the cylindrical surface ab'. they too will look curved. some men In the plan. — for as would be the natural appearance. and cannot be put in the same plane-picture. there are no Diagonals. and it is clear that while the projection a"b" is larger than ab. the cornices that border a long street for instance. and the picture must be constructed by conical projection in the manner described above as the natural system. Yet the fact that as we were. as the horizon is in space and all but the Horizon Line are ellipses. 8i. being normal no point in its horizon line has different There being no Centre. less than the diameter of A' or even than ab. If they are extended far enough. A' being farther than from the eye at 6".CURVILINEAR PERSPECTIVE It is sometimes urged that in nature even straight lines look curved. The Centre C is here taken as the of columns. the two equal circles shafts A and A' representing towers or same and on the cylindrical surface. the whole apparatus of measuring is done away with. and though there are vanishing points. and the heights from a side projection or elevation. drawing. which is practically the same on both surfaces. the second in a"b" on the plane and a'b' on the cylinder. are projected from the Station Point S on the picture plane common tangent point of plane cylinder. for any radius. turn the eye successively toward the opposite ends of a series of parallel lines. 8i. but are really hoops centred on that point. . nor apparent curvature ordinarily be included in a the drawn line would also look curved. and no properties from any other. as in Fig. of course. tending as they do to meet their parallels in a vanishing point at each end. or even than and the width of the object A'. We see it in the rays of light that stretch across the whole sky at sunrise or sunset. for these are phenomena of vision. being sections of the cylinder by oblique visual planes. and not of the picture. distance points. which cylinder is unrolled into a flat picture. but properly the A Centre to the cylinder. Straight lines projected on the cylinder look straight from the Station Point. This is true. and to devise ways of doing this. It is equally true of the lines of a perspective drawing. while . we see them converge both ways. being made obliquely on PP^ a'b' is considerably less. the Axis. may be anywhere on its may be called horizon line. It is done as in panoramas.

XIX U. S.PL. TREASURY I PANORAMA OF PARIS .

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these sections become elongated curves. and the distortion disappear. The extreme possible length of such a picture unrolled. the Hotel de Ville. This to find much use in ordinary pictures. when one takes in a very wide area. are warped into a crescent. instead of being extended enormously when it assumes to take in a wide area. which are parallel to them. that is. The main proportions of the building are preserved as they would not have been in a plane photograph. unrolled. The lines of the principal building. corresponding to the theoretical but impossible projection of half the horizon on a plane surface. Fig. and after all too unsatisfying. c^ o a. becomes a straight line. and the distance between vanishing points of any straight line is half the circumference.S^ come impossible to represent the straightness of a long building or street. and those of the adjoining buildings. When the cylinder is developed. If. and how any limit nar- rows the width of the cylindrical picture when it is unrolled. the only resource. out conspicuously curved makes ^ -2> it _ "- bringing distortions that no change of posiwill cure. — — except the Horizon Line. taking in the whole horizon and returning into itself. like circles in ordinary perspective. so that the picture is narrowed within convenient limits. in truth. photographed on a cylinder with a revolving camera. which are really as straight as they can be built. but the fact that all but vertical lines — c 6" J^^. It will be seen that the only straight horizontal line in it is the Horizon Line. at D the regular plane perspective the cylinder developed. shows part of a panoramic view of Paris. 8i on the pic- construction. which. »' tion by the spectator and that often are as oflEensive as those that are amended. and then unrolled. so that it is in true cylindrical perspective. 82 ture surfaces. like all oblique plane sections of a cylinder. This is a considerable advantage. It will J}' be seen how the projections widen in the first as they withdraw from the Centre. however.CURVILINEAR PERSPECTIVE SS the vanishing points are the points where these ellipses intersect the Horizon Line on opposite sides of the cylinder. makes curvilinear perspective too laborious. Plate XIX . the picture were rolled up into a cylinder of the right diameter. with the labor and difficulty of making large drawings in which all the lines but the verticals are curves to be constructed point by point. is only the circumference of the cylinder. fact. are conspicuously curved in the picture. at B shows the projections of Fig. the curves would straighten to the eye. and viewed from the axis of the cylinder at the height of the Horizon Line. being a right section. but at the cost of very unflattering distortion.

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PART II .

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Yet the most conspicuous phenomenon of any perspective view is the convergence of lines that in nature are parallel. there is only one point left to determine instead of two. and his work will not satisfy a more instructed or a more It is also usually the simplest way. its The two edges of convenience is narrowed because it can only be set to fixed distances. for drawing lines two pins traverse the arc the line aa that The working edge of joins them is a chord. the vanishing points once placed. may be conceived as the chord of a circle. which obviates this difBculty. 83. will always point to the centre. against which The centre traverses a T-square by two pins set in the head. for. on which the right look of the drawing depends. < | » — \ to the vanishing the plate can be cut to point. 84. Perhaps the simplest is a metal plate. as in Fig. but it is the surest or two of our first One method . the lines that are drawn to them are compelled into their true relation to each other. in order to vanishing point place any line. The use of vanishing points not only keeps the artist's attention fixed on this phenomenon. because those that are far off are awkward. it is extremely difficult to get their true convergence. p// '*^. that is. especially large ones. whose arc will be described by the point b at the vertex of the triangle. and as the of the arc is the vanishing point. for when we have the sensitive eye than his own. the most characteristic. cut to a circular arc and pinned to the drawing board. Another centrolinead. problems were solved by it. but for V. and seldom quite successful. When we have to place a close series of parallel lines. and therefore to him the most essential. it will . look so much better with far-off vanishing points that various contrivances have been devised under the name of Centrolineads toward an inaccessible point of convergence. for a painter who does not feel that certain separated lines converge to a certain point will never draw them quite right. which must be made perpendicular to the chord at its middle point. as in drawing a cornice or a group of mouldings. is a T-square with isosceles triHere again the line aa angular head traversing between two fixed pins. is so much felt that draughtsmen are constantly tempted to mar their drawings by using vanishing points that are too near rather than do without them. Perspective drawings. of making a perspective picture. It is an education to the eye. different arcs and so give two different distances The device is simple and practical. If the working edge is set to bisect the angle b. if both ends of each line have to be fixed The inconvenience point by point: it is very laborious.PERSPECTIVE HELPS out of ihe geometric process of vision. the T-square. as is shown in Fig. and Perspective construction by direct projection from a plan is the most direct following It is in many simple problems the easiest method is made useful in the preliminaries of many more.

This may be accomplished by making the head a lozenge. and the vanishing point approach or recede. Being equal inscribed angles. 85). Suppose we have two lines ab and cd running to the A same inaccessible point (Fig. a point a{Y'\g. We Through m we draw mo parallel to cd. in The geometrical theory of this centrolinead is simple. and through the intersection o draw on parallel to ah. Note. 86) we may set off on the line joining Fand C — the horizon. Note. The size of the circle depends both on the angle of the instrument aba. or in pictures on canvas. That one point. mn. already used in Fig. The angle 6 traverses pins. but the ratio of aa to cF\& constant for anyone instrument. Since am is parallel to cd. as shown by dotted lines Fig.6o APPLIED PERSPECTIVE always point to the farther extremity Foi that diameter of the circle which bisects the chord aa. and F\s always the middle point of the arc aFa. cutting ac in «. Since the angle aba is bisected. which is a matter of adjustment. and F is at the extremity of the diameter co V. 50. join be. the chord and the diameter of the diminish or increase. 113. Then mn will be the required line. According as the pins are set nearer or farther apart. they must stand on equal arcs: therefore the arcs aFare equal. 84. that some needed vanishing point is out of reach. two system of perspective. whose distance from a If we wish to draw a line to such a point from given point C. however. is known. and on the distance aa. There is occasion in the problem of the steps and others (Figs. and cd meet in The following method. which depends solely on vanishing points and direct projection is incomplete. Let a and a (Fig. the arc aca. or in scene painting. the two angles abF ^rt equal. and in bm : md= an : nc. an : nc = bo : oc. one passing through m : the problem ratio in is which bd equivalent to dividing ac at n in the is divided at m. 84) be the and 6^ the line of the edge of the T-square prolonged to F. we have manner since c« is parallel to ab. like is. and ab. is often more convenient when there are several lines to be drawn to the same inaccessible point F. 50. the instrument may F be accommodated to short distances. . of that distance from Cat Fj^ in the direction of F. It continually happens in large drawings. so that it shall point toward instead of from it. Hence ac and bd are divided proportionally. say a third. say the Centre. and wish to draw another line through m to the same point. perpendicular to aa. By reversing the blade of the circle will square. 122) to construct lines for an inaccessible vanishing point. We may join the lines by any two parallels ac and bd. if it is that — any convenient fraction. bm : md — bo : oc.

on a line ab whose vanishing point is out of reach. c^ fr . we find its conjugate in the usual way at V'j ^. then parallel to b'd'. thus found. a' F'/^ and ax parallel to is vanishing point F' and perpendicular to ad. a square for instance. and taking this as a vanishing point. meeting the horizon in Vj ^ . and that every line in the larger system will be three times as great as the homologous line in the smaller. We join a' F/g. perspectively If now we draw and i' F'/^. F'. and if we are drawing a square their mitre point 8/3. with C. for they are similar figures constructed to different scales. joining a and C. though we know the horizon in which it vanishes (Fig. and even unknown. say a third.87 draw if which. on lines radiating from C. the smaller being only a geometrical reduction of the larger.X Joining iC. and a'li' as it were the diagonal of a square a'b'd'e' at one third the size of the required one. 6i Suppose again that we wish to construct any figure. from C at a'. Ca' equal to one third of Ca. prolonged. set off one part of it. duced For it will is meet CF in the true mitre point making C^ equal clear that we have here two systems of siinilar triangles. we cut off a'6' on a' F/^ and rc^. These last drawing from b and e. we set off on that. 87). It must be noted that the small square and the larger one will not be parts of the same perspective picture. a'S/3. These three points will be severally one third as far from C as the unknown V. . and ad pro8. We join one end of the line. The required square may now be drawn by drawing Ce' and Cd! sufficiently prolonged. constructed to three times C8/3. auxiliary to its construction. a'8/g will be as it were a mitre line cutting off i'd' perspectively equal to a'i'. a. would pass through the it.PERSPECTIVE HELPS Then. for the triangles a VC and a' F/3C must be similar triangles. and a V must be parallel to it. ed parallel to e^d' and bd two lines will meet in the same point d on Cd'. and aC in a convenient ratio. and 8. dividing Through a' we draw a parallel to ab. from C.

Fig. that The Horizon Line is the one of these horizons by which is. sloping directly away from the spectator up or down. and so measures the distance from the Station Point to this horizon instead of the Centre. and trace are The trace and The ground trace of a plane is its intersection with the ground plane. horizon of an oblique plane are neither vertical nor horizontal. and men. nor its horizon through the Centre. 88 is a view of line : . those of a horizontal If a plane is parallel to the Horizon Line. and the point a sub-centre. remembering that the trace of the plane in which we are working. drawings are commonly constructed. have their horizons and traces parallel to that in horizontal planes. but because land and sea are horizontal. Inclined planes which are parallel to the Horizon Line. Since such a does not pass through the Axis. The laws of vanishing and measuring are applied as tion of vanishing points but the determina- and measuring points requires special study. but not oblique. This is the only difference to be regarded in working in normal planes. line. that is perpendicular to the picture plane. and proceed in the usual way. The problem of the inclined Inclined planes which are not normal but oblique. the Axis and plane Centre are not directly used in constructing in it. which will be parallel to its horizon.PERSPECTIVE OF OBLIQUE PLANES Before considering farther the perspective relations of planes it is well to recall some and maxims that have been given. we need : only cheat the eye by turning the paper till our horizon is horizontal. Instead of the Axis we use a visual which is perpendicular to its horizon. As planes slope in all directions. the point where this line meets this horizon. In Fig. The line may be called a sub-axis. chessboard. horizons of all The which are normal. pass through the Axis. it cuts the picture plane. has already given us an example. Such a plane may be inclined. and its The trace of a plane is the line in which it cuts the picture plane horizon are always parallel. whose horizons do not pass through the Centre. The trace : trace and and horizon of a vertical plane are always vertical . also parallel to it. because the visual planes which are parallel to them are axial planes. and positions and directions are estimated by them. animals. and to state some geometrical consewhose proof may be taken for granted. will take the place of the ground line. its horizon plane horizontal. not because it has any geometric properties which the others have not. so their horizons incline in all directions. 12. and things stand upright on them. and the same horizon. Its definitions perspective is the line in which a visual plane parallel to is called its horizon. require somewhat different construction. pass through the Centre. Parallel planes have parallel traces. All the constructions of perspective can be carried on by inclined horizons as well as by the Horizon Line if the unaccustomed position causes embarrassment. quences The vanishing line of a plane is seen by looking in the direction of the plane.

The triangle sec rightangled at C. If in Fig. just as are It will be seen that if two vanishing points in is done in horizontal planes. It may oblique plane CDC represents be called the slope angle or pitch of the plane. The plane of the triangle (Fig. and its hypothenuse this to the ordinary construction for a apply SC length of the Axis. and horizon 63 H'H< of the Axis an inclined visual plane H'H'EF ^ parallel to HH. for. its SC To sub-axis. If we draw CC perpendicular to into HH and H'H. and distance point (Fig. 89 is longer than ther apart. as are the distance points (p. DC CD. coordinate. 89) let D the being the Axis. A vertical plane through CS will be perpendicular to the ^' j'^. 31). obviously longer than SC. and passing a semicircumference through V and 6' in the usual way fix the point V. and -therefore to with the inIts intersection H'H'. the points directly over them in H'H' cannot be. If we take the more general case of an oblique plane. the sub-axis being longer than the Axis. The position of the Station Point and the length of the sub-axis being determined. to find its coordinate point we need only draw perpendicular to CS s H'H' and equal to CD. The mined sub-axis in this and sub-centre. may be used for fixing measuring points and coordinate vanishing points of lines in the inclined plane. horizon plane SHH. one that is neither parallel to HHnor normal. will give the sub-distance points D' belonging to the horizon H'H. yet not complicated.PERSPECTIVE OF OBLIQUE PLANES the picture plane FP. and be the sub-axis hypothenuse revolved. Axis SC. the ^' DC therefore equal to CS. as .se and picture plane. once deter- way. 91) when it is revolved still taken perpendicular to H'H'. Station Point S. angle The measuring it points be noticed that the the angle between the and the horizon plane. the construction is not quite so simple. laid off on H'H'. that is. and join £>C. is now oblique to being SCC HH: . the coordinate vanishing points corresponding to it must be far- HH in Fig. CD CD the perspective chart is laid down as simply as before. but the sub-distance points are conjugate. the CDC will represent the triangle CSC 88 revolved about its CC "^ will the picture plane. 90 V is one vanish- ing point in H'H'. SC equal to CS. triangle of Fig. and CO will base be perpendicular to HH and H'H'. HH SC clined plane will therefore be perpendicuand will be the sub-axis lar to H'H is : C will be the sub-centre. Let follow regularly. be the distance point.

A perpendicular to at S. with its diameter in H'H.' If Fis a vanishing point on H'H'. CS will fall on Co. will be the normal. (See page 34. and F' that of horizontals which are perpendicular to these and therefore to SF. equal to CD'. therefore. will find the vanishing point of slope lines F is V at its intersection and gate.64 APPLIED PERSPECTIVE round CC. The first is the point where its horizon meets the Horizon Line. The same thing is true for any series . KSF" V v. a line at right angles to and so parallel to H'H'. the angle cab at the eaves is also a right angle. measured off right from on H'H'. and then M C and M'. and V" is vertically : VSV over T/^. 93. The vanishing point of the slope lines found by Thus in Fig. shown in its revolved as Sn. normals. we know. The vertical y". If two walls of a gabled house make a right angle. will contain both a slope line and a being will be the slope line.) Kand F' then are conjuare both right angles and V" are also conjugate. in the vanishing point of all position produced. ^3 These facts are important in architectural perspective. and n. the vanishing point of horizontals in the plane which vanishes in H'H'. C D D. Fig. in their intersection. as and in its horizontals vanish also in both. SC CC The most important conjugate vanishing points for lines in an inclined plane are those of its horizontals and its slope lines. is therefore is. 46. 34. and find V. SC the vanishing point of all slope lines. are at right angles. Take CS to represent the CC Axis revolved will . for all its lines must vanish in its own horizon. and C horizon. The plane of the triangle SCC. and describing a semicircumference which passes through and S'. which. will give the distance points Z*' and Z>' on that centre. and the vanishing points of the horizontal and the sloping 1 The loci of all the distance points of planes parallel to the Horizon Line are the branches of an and and its vertices equilateral hyperbola whose centre is of planes parallel to an oblique horizon 00 passing through C. and normal of the visual plane which vanishes in H'H'. then CS' equal to CS sub- be the sub-axis. V make the perspective chart in the usual way. — that HH. V" with H'H. as at Fig. in its natural position normal to H'H'. 92 the method of p. we may lay off CS' on CC' produced. left C being the and this.

fJ- V Fig. 46). 90. that of ac being vertically over that of ad. and VS- V"S= VS'. M' is so that all VM°= VM. the vanishGiven ingly simple. it will be seen.PERSPECTIVE OF OBLIQUE PLANES we had 65 eaves are conjugate. as CDC F was that of the plane in Fig. are also perpendicular to the triangle VS' V" is equal to SC. The slope angle laid off at M' gives F" on the vertical from (page 34. M". the triangle has been taken perpendicu- CCS lar to VV". 34). and .7^ Note. For. V" (cf. first. we join F" and M'. relations of these several vanishing points They are represented as before in Fig.struction is true may be proved by comparing the perspective diagram. Their measuring points may then be found by the usual be measured and divided like other The geometrical are often useful. so that SC and equal. This is the condition in Figs. measuring zon Plane. since a measuring Rule. 96. p. Also. found also that the other two measuring points are equally distant from F". is equal to the pitch of the its oblique plane. That this con. the vanishing points in each slope of the roof being conjulines in either direction in either slope gate in both those problems. so that V"M'i= yi'M'. 95). ing points of the horizontals of the given plane slope lines. the plane of Fig. The arc M' M" from the centre F" gives MAP -r7>t- from the centre F gives M°. the arc this is all. point of lines that vanish in -Tcf f^ VM' and V"M" must be equaL . M° and M" of Fand V" in V is common to both series of points. The angle V'M'V". and points of Fand V and measuring points and M' being the M in the Hori- the oblique plane. as all jlf and M° It will be measuring points must be. by conso VS'. and four of these are equal. and its two measuring points are equally distant from it. The practical construction is then exceedand F'. with Fig. which are VV" Then VSV" it is . 56 and 57. 94. : : that triangle revolved up info the picture plane V"S'. 94. and lines. : — jr^. process. Second. and struction if VM°= VM= VS. and the pitch of the plane — say and of the horizontal projection of the its vanishing points of the courses in the walls of a and we may lay building and the pitch of its roof out a chart thus (Fig.

. S' must be found first but this The middle point 0' of simply done. the middle point of W. so that if 8' is . is very FF»". described from will 0' as a centre with a radius 0' V by its intersection with the arc SMM° de- termine S'. a good deal of space. The use of this process will sometimes save trouble.66 APPLIED PERSPECTIVE No mitre points 8 and convenient relation appears between the 8' (Fig. centre of the semicircumference V'S' V". from which the line S'h' is to be drawn. and if the pitch of VV" is high. making an angle of 45° with S'V. is verAn arc tically over 0. 97). needed.

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If One side of the square is a front But we may have a square which is already fixed. right-angled at C. since oq is half the side of abed. square. vanishing in D'. and s the opposite angle. produced till they meet in /. and sh finds n.x\d V'h in/ and s. drawing ei and g2. and 8 the mitre point. the lines that vanish in V. its size so much that there is danger of inaccuracy in finding the inter- If it happens that one vanishing point V oi the given square is out of reach. and the second square be completed as before. measures the length of the vanishing side. meeting a/" iny" and h. are divided proportionally in perspective by these parallels. But ^is equal to the half diagonal of a square whose half side is eg . and oblique to the picture plane.eg : ef. Last. This case would have occurred if mpns had been the given and S being interchanged. In that case the 45° points may be projected on and IV to the diagonals ac and bd 2X /. To INSCRIBE A CIRCLE IN A GIVEN SQUARE. 100. Then.f nor the diagonals to their vanishing point. and CD = C being : the tri- angle CCS. but the auxiliary semicircumference may be drawn anywhere across the lines that vanish in V. and the diagonal ab of the square.CIRCLES IN OBLIQUE PLANES the sub-centre. and conjugate vanishing points of the sides of the given square abed in it. fh2Xk and /. 0. j. 2. j. and the circle may be inscribed as usual. It may happen that neither F' nor 8 is in reach. Now/>4 and ps are two lines which in space are crossed by a series of parallels. and draw through the centre o of abed" the diameter that vanishes in V. the problem is already solved. 98. the diameter /J cannot be drawn to it. CS the length of the Axis Z> is a distance point. these diagonals till they meet Vf and Vh in m. /8 then finds m on eV. and oq : op =. V — . which gives the points e and g. The rest of the construction is as in Fig. and so it. In Fig. Hence Ve passes through the perspective centre oi ps. convenience been passed through a. so that we can draw neither the diameter /. as in Fig. gives the sub-distance points D'. by projecting the 45° points on We produce the diagonals ae and bd we get four points of the circle i. and produce two opposite sides ad and ag describe a semicircumand draw the tangents at 45°. is and/ is one angle of the coordinate square. joining m to n and q to r. and transferred by kV and 4. 98 shows the construction in an oblique plane whose horizon is H'lf'. n. 59. and r. therefore. Then the sides /« and sn may be drawn through i and j. Two sides of the diagonal square and the diagonals of the given square V V must vanish in S. and 4. on the front \\\\&f'h' for instance. Join these points and the centre e to V. be of abed they meet On the included portion ference. having described our semicircumference with its tangents on af. Fig. 99 let VV'' be the horizon of any plane. prolonging it till it meets V'/z. line. q. as in Fig. and sm and pn complete The Xva^fh has for the square as before. Draw any convenient till front line af. yet this position reduces sections. 2. op is equal to its half diagonal ob.

nor have they parallel axes except in special cases. look parallel. and project the tangent points by perpendiculars on//. and from the extremities of the semicircumference. the problem is already If the plane of the circle is oblique. mo. : : VV plane. oq. we know has been put into perspective with its enclosing square. and upon this drawn to the middle of an will find project b at n from the measuring point M.. 26) and m is the In the plan. and through q and the front diameter qop. The construction is justified by proving that aJ/and «jI/ intercept the diameter qop. s. giving the tangents at and 4. it is When if the first circle easy.4^ in which the circle may be inscribed.68 APPLIED PERSPECTIVE I. on the lines that join 8 with the extremities of the semicircumference. where they are tangent to the circle. oa. The construction. But if only the vanishing point of a diagonal is given. points k and /. and e. Through one extremity a draw a front line of measures. or the horizon of any oblique construction lines to 8. abed being the given square. its own sub-centre and subsolved in Fig. then. and ab and qp are its diameters. and 4. 61. and qp op are to all the triangles aoq and bop are isosceles and equal radii of the same circle... distance point must be substituted for C and D.aS must as before bisect//. /. Fig. 2. J. If the given diameter is a front line ab. is isosceles (compare Fig. and e4 and gj meeting in s. the diameter of a concentric circle. ob. 2. and This problem applies when a round tower has to be added to a building or an apse to a church. here drawn through a. loi. we may draw any front line_/%. and front lines through these extremities will give the perspective square ^. on which the lines and «. Through Mm aM p Perpendiculars Cq. the triangle middle of an. but each has to be constructed point by point. thus found. The measuring lines aq. g. The axes or even similar ellipses. and the plane is normal. Concentric circles do not in perspective make parallel ellipses or concentric ellipses. SVM . as in Fig. producing them. When the given diameter ab is an oblique line (Fig. six points being already determined. we draw The lines ^8 and //S will cut the sides of the square in the four points i. VM. To CONSTRUCT A PERSPECTIVE CIRCLE ON A GIVEN DIAMETER IN A GIVEN PLANE. and project the corners of the square upon it by lines from 8. we complete the second square.o SV. The curves offer. Upon_/% as a hypothenuse we erect an isosceles right triangle. J. 103. Then . and Cp.^ will intercept the centre 0. The diagonal ps fixes the points of contact of the sides ad and be. and nb are parallel ab is parallel X. Connecting these corners completes the second square its points of tangency are found by drawing ac and bd. inscribing in it a semicircle whose From the centre will be a. 102). Draw a front line through draw also the Perpendicular oC. requires great nicety. to describe a corresponding . and are convergent in perspective. Diagonals from / and q to the proper distance point will fix the extremities of the Perpendicular diameter de. In all these cases the position of the plane of the circle makes no difference in the or HJI may be the Horizon Line. it will be seen. none of the helps which we look for in concentric figures. The lines i-j and 2-4 joining these points will be diagonals of the second square and will find its corners. the centre cannot be found by bisecting it.

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.p' and q\ will be parallel. and producing it to its vanishing point »/' in the horizon of the circle's plane. know the extremity/' of any radius of the second circle. for instance. io6 we have the circle mpqn constructed about the centre 0. and so on. we may connect the correis already constructed. found q\ we secant qr to that vanishing point find the point r' on may draw any vanishing point «'. same diameters of Thus the figures on the circles. The corresponding points 2 and 2 on are found. evidently on the ob. that is the centre of the enclosing squares. method of the double square is convenient here as before. a clock dial or the joints of a round arch converge to the original centre of the circles. ^' and/. Then drawing the chord pq. in sponding point / of the first circle with any other point q of it. This suggests a more general way of drawing a second circle concentric with one that We see in Fig. q. and in perspective will have the same vanishIf in Fig. and ing point. 104). Having and connecting^' with and so on indefinitely./' points/ and q. the chords which connect the points^. draw a chord from p^ of the second circle to the same vanishing point this will : intersect the radius oq in q\ which will be the point that corresponds to its r. i and / on oa.CIRCLES IN OBLIQUE PLANES 69 square within the first or outside it on the same diagonals and cardinal diameters. and The to draw the second curve through the corresponding intersections (Fig. 105 that if we have two pairs of corresponding two concentric circumferences.

serving for the line of m' and «'. and oC will contain On ae as a diameter describe the semicircumference ampe. therefore. the corresponding one on the other side of oC may be found by setting off od equal to ob. or an architecrepeat the construction as before. becoming a Perpendicular. in r. in the axis of rotation. remains fixed the tangent may therefore be drawn from /' . Let 1-2-J-4 (Fig. 107 shows that the points influences the curvature on both sides of last method provides a tangent the semicircle . Draw the half chord mb perpendicular to Now any chord angles to ae will when revolved into the plan of the perspective circle become a Perpendicular vanishing in C. at m and n. the chord. the chord when revolved will prolong continue to pass through r. ae will be the front diameter. C being the Centre. If we meets ae. the point being to t. and so falls on oC. This process may be used to divide a circumference into any required parts. SupWe divide the pose. The draughtsman soon discovers that the direction of a curve at any point greatly it. and drawing the perpendicular chord bC and the front line m'm". being When the joined by a chord. Fig. We draw the tangent at a point/ of the and produce it till it meets the axis ae in /. semicircle is revolved into the plane of the. tural decoration. Let m be any point ae. and 1-2 and j-4 being front lines. both extremities of the chord m'm' may be found. The chord m'm' once determined. and the chord vib will fall on bC. at right angles to the radius op. at semicircle. any point. a clock. in the curvature of the perspective circle by tangents. which are at equal distances from a and s. : it will represent half the required circle revolved about parallel to the picture plane. 107) be the square in which a circle is to be inscribed. and dropping perpendiculars on ae at b and c. any two symmetrical points n and m. It may be measured off on bC by : laying off bj equal to bm and drawing a measuring line to the distance point by laying off the length both ways from d and measuring. If is the perpendicular diameter. This may serve for an arch. D It is worth noting that if the quadrant as (Fig. of which will be the centre ae till it is the centre of the circle. as they should be. becomes a Diagonal vanish- Diagonal that measures the position of both n' and m'. When is revolved as before. that we have to divide it into twelve equal parts. or the proper sub-centre. and it will be found that the distance rb is measuring equal to bm and ing m D — the very mn till it re to en. quadrant anms into thirds.SPECIAL POINTS AND TANGENTS It is easy to put special points on the circumference of a circle into perspective by the following process. There is great advantage. circle. the axis of rotation. in which it is to be found at right in perspective. being still at an angle of 45° with it. The tangents at the 45° defining have been already provided by the enclosing squares. It may then be drawn through r at once. /. 107) is divided into equal parts. that chord will be at an angle of 45° with ae and os. for instance.

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we shall see how later.?/ drawn through it will be the conjugate diameter. The determination of the ends of the diameter will be best shown in another problem (Fig. That diameter of the circle to ab must be parallel to the plane of the ellipse. and imagine a right section of the cylinder. cd. for these chords. and the shadow of any diameter which is parallel and equal to its shadow on that plane. and all chords parallel to it. This is not a complicated process when we have once determined. are divided by it in perspective in their true proportion. it takes. and each of the pair bisects all chords which are parallel to the other. the longest and shortest diameter. let us consider the ellipse as the <r section of a circular cylinder whose axis is oblique to the plane of the paper. Conjugate diameters help considerably in defining the curve of the circle in per- when still greater precision is needed it is well to find the axes. the rays of light centre 0' will being parallel to the axis of the cylinder. and the other a Perpendicular. found on one side of it. It is convenient to know the axes. one parallel to these sides. represents a diameter of the circle which is at right angles to the front diameter ab. any point m. which are at right angles . It has its therefore bisects the chord ab of the ellipse. will give a corresponding point «' on the other side by simply repeating the distance from cd on a front chord. will be the circle here drawn. being a Perpendicular. Moreover. and therefore parallel . The be the shadow of the centre of the circle. for that provides a pair of conjugate diameters. as we know by geometry. point (not the corresponding point m'). some advantage may be taken of this quality in drawing them. a pair of conjugate diameters. being front lines. of the circle will be a diameter of the ellipse. o'. But every diameter however. revolved into the picture plane about ab. Now in Fig. as we have just done. ab being the tangent at one extremity of the longer diameter. and the symmetrical ^ in taking two sides of the enclosing square parallel to the picture plane. and xy and cd the conjugate diameters. The circle. if we draw through m a line parallel to Thus every point found by the previous construcequal lo pm. 109) be the perspective ellipse.DIAMETERS AND AXES The ellipses into which circles are projected in perspective being symmetrical curves. then determine and lay off on it tions will give a character of the parallel chords will assist the eye in drawing the curve. This centre. the only diameter which is parallel to ab. Any point m already found cd. By an ingenious device called the Method of Shadows the ellipse is conceived of as the solar shadow of this circular section. some trouble to determine them — conjugate diameter. io8. is found by bisecting cd geometrically. and its conjugate is that one of these chords which passes through the centre of the ellipse. no). spective : Let cydx (Fig. pn new its conjugate point n. It is then a diameter of the ellipse. This shadow must be xy. Disregarding for the moment the question of perspective. since all the front chords are is Here again there convenience bisected by cd. and will in chords that are geometrically parallel to cd. made by a plane passing through ab. its and a front chord all turn bisect will . and parallel to xy.

Now the only pair of conjugate diameters in the ellipse which are at right angles are : . — shall also — be at right angles. the two methods will verify each other. must intersect ab. . o'b meeting on ab. Hence the problem reduces itself to at right angles whose shadows radial lines oa. p' and q' are represents the direction of the rays of light. These be inscribed in the halves of a circle whose diameter is ab. by drawing mp and nq parallel to oo'. and must be the on a perpendicular at the middle of oo' The circle described from k and passing through o and o' fixes the intersection k. Parallel lines give parallel shadows in the circle which are at right angles give conjugate shadows. ob. and must meet their shadows at the point of intersection then if we draw any diameter ob. which When / and q are found. and this will be true of their shadows. Diameters of the circle. Then oo' is a chord of this circle. or are found by extending ao and no into diameters and castb.72 APPLIED PERSPECTIVE with radius co equal to half xy and perpendicular to ab. and o'a. we can draw therefore any pair of diameters its shadow cfb. . points a and as yet undetermined o'a and o'b if To determine their extremities we have only to find the ing the shadows of their farther extremities . for the tangents at the extremities of each are parallel to the other. that finding the two diameters of the circle is. to find two pairs of produced will then contain the axes. prolonged. shadows of the extremities of the corresponding diameters of the circle. and which right angles may passes through o and o'. o being the revolved position of its centre. its axes. and the centre must be found It must also be found on ab. . measured off accordingly. and each pair at right angles.

uring off This may be done by projecting both the points on PP. no shows a method of getting the vertical tangents of a horizontal circle. are the vertical tangents. For if we join Sd and whose diameter is So. and producing the chord cd in the plan to its trace n. is the tangent at d . To draw the tangents in plan. and meeting in a vertical line that passes through S. have then to find the points of contact by drawing the We chord den. plane will be the required in a semicircle c and d. that looks like the transverse axis of the ellipse it is. : The chord cd visual ellipse. as has been said. which in the plan stands for the picture plane. more convenient and more precise. and here they are oblique but these tangents are parallel. measor D by finding one of them. as at the base or top of an upright cylinder. tangent to the circle at c and d. as to make its independent determination troublesome the use of ti is often spective . against the front line PP. and cutting the circumference of the circle in two points which distance from PP. which is our line of measures. — but — the points where the arches are highest in the Fig. and Sd. may be seen for st also is a diameter. which will be the required tangents. for the tangents at the extremities of an axis must be perpendicular to it. It is then a od. The plan of the circle is set over the perspective for the construction's sake. in be vertically over C. therefore tangent to the circle. such . and two vertical visual planes drawn tangent to the cylinder. and cd parallel to HH. It remains to The diameter^// is projected put the circle in perspective. and as is in it fact that of the if the picture plane were parallel to ed. so that ed was a front line. describe an arc from the middle point of So. . the angle Sdo is really inscribed right angle. and find the points c and d. the enclosing square and the determining points dicular to a radius at for the curve being found as usual. taken above the Horizon Line. a tower for instance or the upper and lower points in a vertical circle. These planes will be projected in the plan into the lines Sc and Sd. and find its tangent points. The vertical lines from c' and d'. It is not the axis. of the ellipse as it appears to the eye. in the horizon. These for the tangent at the crown of last points are not the crowns of the arches or circles. The centre (?' of the ellipse is the : would be on paper which case o would intersection of cd with in the circle st. io8. by the distance point k. being perpen- its extremity. as an arch or a clock. and so with c. an arch vanishes picture. where the perspective tangent is geometrically horizontal. where the tangents become vertical in perspective. in ab.SPECIAL TANGENTS Points where the tangents are of special interest are the ends of horizontal circles. and will cut the picture in vertical lines at c' and d'. Its eccentric position in the plan at the intersection of the corresponding lines. passing through o. . and therefore cd is a diameter. the position of the Station Point 5 being marked on the vertical T'Cat the proper Imagine the circle to be the section of a vertical cylinder. as c at the distance ck on the Perpendicular kC. c. as in Fig. and drawThe point d is apt to come so near h in the pering en through to d in the picture.

The trace of the tangent plane is then cS. and transferring the distance oS" to the picture at the proper scale. The lar point X here comes. that is. and pierces the horizontal plane not in not normal. vertical it must therefore be the line through Now if we pass a vertical visual plane through o\ its trace on the picture plane xy. instead of oS. round 90°. and SS" in S"c is then the revolved position of the tangent. and c the tangent point revolved. Turning the circle from the normal position. In this case the circle is assumed to be normal. Fig. which is a horizontal shows these conditions in plan.74 where it APPLIED PERSPECTIVE is not even in the middle of cd. though still still the same point S. The tangent to the to the picture plane becomes elliptical. whose axis is taken parallel to the picture plane. we proceed as before. o' : _)'_)''. and is determined in the same way. but in another in the trace of the visual plane. line passing through S and parallel to ac. being the Centre. and c is the tangent point of the horizontal tangent cj. and if we wish to find the extremities of xy we may do it by determining x and y as we determined c and d. eb being the diameter. and we may trust to the course of the curve to find it. when of this last construction to that case we have only to turn Fig. is vertical. . The plane of the circle appears in is the horizontal trace of the tangent plane. and is likely to come. must be this vertical diameter xy. zontal plane. no PP will become vertical and CP the Horizon Line. so near the line ab that there is no room to measure. The highest point in perspective of a circle or arch is evidently that where the perTo see the application spective curve is horizontal. plan as the line ebS". The tangent to the circle then pierces the The semicircle and tangent are shown revolved into the horihorizontal plane in S". and lengthening inconsequence the subtangent <73' raises away the tangent point higher on the shoulder of the circle. and the chord of the circle to which this corresponds will be the chord xy in the plan . which being parallel circle still lies in the same tangent visual plane. it no longer gives a right section of the cylinder. eb the diameter. and is a right section of the assumed But if the plane of the circle cylinder. The diameter conjugate to cd must pass and be parallel to the tangents. We may draw the perpendicuand putting it into perspective measure its length by the distance point.

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The planes of the top and bottom of the box. The dimensions of the box. we have still but two vanishing points. taken two by two. 113. which vanish in V. in its conjugate V. lie in three points tri-conjugate vanishing points. Let V. are conjugate. so that the vanishing points lie two by two. . the plane of the right side. horizon takes the position of the Horizon Line. ile. and the lines of the in a : VCV. where no side is V. like the axes of a cube. d/. Then the picture is constructed exactly as if this horizon were the Horizon Line. the Rectangular object is When so placed that none of its edges is vertical. eg.TRI-CONJUGATE VANISHING POINTS As most plane figures which are put into perspective are based on the right angle and constructed by conjugate vanishing points. if points in the Horizon Line. The parallels da and y? vanish in V" . which vanish in Z*'. their plans are composed of lines which vanish in the Horizon Line. and so on. V. vanish in Here the parallel parallel to horizon plane or picture plane. and constructed on three sets of lines at right angles to each other. we have planes or series of parallel planes which are all oblique and inclined. which contains these lines and ac and d/. are measured off in the usual way. If C is the Centre. so that all are vanishing lines. the sub-distance point. while the lines of the third system are front lines. in three inclined horizons. lines. jugate vanishing one edge is parallel to the picture plane. vanishes in the horizon V". lozenge on the cover. parallel to the picture. and do not vanish produced below. the sub-centres on the three horizons will ?i^ //« be found by dropping perpendiculars from C on VV. and by turning the paper through the proper angle the construction may be brought to the customary aspect. which contain these horizon which joins these vanishing points. moreover. and the box is seen to be drawn VCV like an ordinary parallelopiped standing upright. set If the figure is turned 90° the vertical out below it. and their horizon passes through the Centre. that point being the conjugate of V. 114). and none three systems of parallel in three points which. We may call these lines. The box on the sloping platform in Fig. the other system of parallels ac. vanish in the W. as we see by the same box in Fig. case the planes of the top and bottom of the box vanish in the sub-horizon and so do the retiring lines in them.fg. which are conjugate. and V" be three tri-conjugate vanishing lines ab. vanishing The three series of lines. and the other lines are vertical lines which have no vanishing point therefore they are constructed by one set of conEven when such an object is tilted. The other lines in the upright edges vanish in V. 112 and their measuring points is constructed by the conjugate vanishing points V and : V on the In this vertical horizon H'H' : way that will be easily understood by inspection. So long as such objects stand on a horizontal plane. in VC these planes are front lines. V points making the three vertices of a triangle (Fig. so most solid objects also are based on rectangular forms.

the line which joins any one of three tri-conjugate -?J>. meet in S. 117. and the solid angle at ^ is therefore made up of three right angles (Fig. that CC". being parallel to the sides and edges of a rectangular object. containing the Axis SC. produce V" in jr. Therefore by the theory of projections. are themselves at right angles. connecting the Note. and S'" being the several positions into which S would be carried with them. In Fig. because it contains SV. must be it till it meets normal to the picture plane. which is perpendicular to that plane. In other words. on the picture plane. and It follows that the V V". lines and planes. and the three visual lines which vanish in the three vanishing points. But CC"'. 115. which is only saying that if a rectangular solid is set on a fixed inclined plane the direction of the lines that are perpendicular to that plane is also fixed. being normal to the plane V". which is the picture plane. That VC is perpendicular to VV" may be proved geometrically thus: SC. and passes through its sub-centre. VS' and VS" represent the same edge of the solid angle. — or the perpendicular CC" pro- is. and VV". the third point follows of course. which means that the triangle must be acute-angled (Fig. FC". the Axis.Swith the three vanishing points and the intercepted planes may be regarded as the corner sliced off by the picture plane from a great parallelopiped whose edges are parallel to those of the object. Now the three visual planes which vanish in these horizons. It will is follows of course. V"S" and . when the Station Point is fixed. S". VC prolonged duced will pass through F. SV. The plane VSx. Consequently. and SV". It is therefore perpendicular to the intersection F'F". and therefore that for any system of tri-conjugate vanishing points there but one possible position for the Centre. — of the box in Fig. 113. is also perpendicular to VV" j therefore x must be C". 115). It follows also that the volved into the picture plane. 116).76 APPLIED PERSPECTIVE V". Fig. Join VC. and form But these visual a solid angle. which is the ortho- V graphic projection of will be perpendicular to the plane cide with ^F V V". //JT vanishing points with the centre is perpendicular to the horizon which contains the other two. It is also perpendicular to the plane V'SV". S'. and any line Vx \n it must also be perpendicular to VV". and draw Sx. for in- Centre must always be inside the triangle W'V". that when the horizon of a plane is known normal lines maybe determined. we have all three of the triangles that make up the solid angle 5' restance. the vanishing point of its The solid angle . or finally. VV'V" is Centre is always the point where the three altitudes of the triangle meet. and therefore the Centre. two points if two of the tri-conjugate points are fixed the third be seen presently that even if the horizon which contains the determined. and are therefore equal. the horizon of will coin- SV V". as we already know. whose edges are the visual lines SV. is V W Centre with the sib-centre C"' for the horizon the two perpendiculars must coincide. and so for the same reason are V'S' and VS'".

77 The measuring VS' and VS". drawn through VV. For we know that these last two lines are perpendicular to the altitudes VC" and VC". all the usual way. and of measures parallel the appropriate horizons. In Fig. K being. at the for it. then. But inasmuch as each pair of measuring points of the revolved Station Point J/ and — is given by either sf two positions — V M. or in those that vanish in VV". It is a V to S'MMS" from Fwith a radius VS'. as the conditions of the problem may require. as we know. Here. using lines the appropriate measuring to points. give the M the horizons FV J*'^. by an arc it from S' or S" 1 18. 119 if we make the diameter of a semicircle enclo^irrg C. the semicircumferdescribed. and the angles and VC" V. This V appear experimentally if we use other pairs of points on H'H'. taking care that they are really conjugate. for the construction will always give the same point V". If we describe the arc gives M' and radius V"S" gives VS'V being C. must inscribe in a semicircle of which VC" V'C" V VV is the diameter. to determine the tri-conjugate point. in and so with the others. Then the lines VC" and must intersect in the tri-conjugate point V". as appears in Fig. for V" is only the . being right angles. its VV" will determine S". intersection with the perpendicular from measuring points will follow.TRI-CONJUGATE VANISHING POINTS V"S"'. This is what we should expect. Thus an arc struck from with radius VS' gives and one from V with M M. that only two of these revolved Stawill tion Points are needed to fix all six meas- uring points. measuring points a circumference about Lines that vanish in in /^ V.ons M" ence from F"with and M". M points are set oil in the instance. when the centre and two conjugate vanishing points are fixed. with the same Centre and Axis. may be measured either the planes that vanish in the horizon FF'. VS'. be found. for instance. for and in measuring points and yV". and the other simple matter. It will and will V so long as these are conjugate -and remain be seen that vanishing point V" is independent of changes of position of on the same horizon H'H'. as they same distance from V. VV we may draw they sub-centres the chords VCC" C and will intersect the and VCC" through semicircumference in the C" and C". radius VS' M' . which are. or perpendicular to determines S'. should be.

which would meet the prime vertical C C'C in the vanishing point sible. is normal to a given plane will be coordinate with any two lines in rectangularly any line which that plane which pass through its foot and are at right angles. and a line drawn from C parallel to ^F" finds V" inaccessible upright edges are drawn towards the F"/. in V".78 APPLIED PERSPECTIVE vanishing point of lines which are normal to inclined planes whose horizon is H'H' (of. If we SCC SC Fig. will represent the sub-axis. and is taken parallel to the Horizon Line. the horizon of Fis the only vanishing point on the sheet. Fig. The problem next to follow. The upright edges are then normal to planes that vanish in H'H'. 1 19. and will be used again in the its substitute. and may prove experimentally that both processes give the same result. The relations of symmetry that exist be- tween tri-conjugate vanishing points and their measuring points do not appear between the mitre points. have conjugate vanishing points. is is naccessible. and these are to be found singly by the ordinary process when they are needed. . by the process that was used in Fig. Fig. 120 shows how the process of p. will determine the required vanishing point V". and drawing a perpendicular to OS. Let us revert now to Fig. H'H' being the horizon which contains and V it. that is. But since this point is inacces taken at a third the distance from to ^S". and V" The planes of the top and bottom of the box vanish in H'H'. The vanishing point of normals is indicated as shown on page 64. which the platform. by laying off the length of the sub-axis from to S on HH. that is. p. This method is useful in problems of and some others where the normal is reflection to a plane required. 64 for ~y—H finding the vanishing point of normals to the planes that vanish in H'H' will determine F".. inscribed in the semicircle. it a point Sj ^ is of normals. 50. 122. 64). Fig. only revolve the triangle into the picture plane as in Fig. 113. and the right angle C '5 F". 121 shows how this construction will combine with that of V. 91. and V"C being perpendicular to C is the sub-centre on that horizon.

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conjugate to F^. and the Centre being of the sides of the bed of the stone. F' will contain the sides found from the plan. and so tilted Since the edge de lies in the plane of the face of the horizontal. bF'. and the measuring point is M". and SF"^ at right angles to it. its ground projection lies in kt. and joining it with For the edge at b we take h'. The measuring points andM"^ enable us to lay off the dimensions in the ground plane. The horizontals of the and of the ends of the sarcophagus vanish in ^'o. in the terrace and steps. 122 a sarcophagus : is tilted . A figured plan and section are given at the scale of the chart. the base line of the wall. The base line kl of the buttress-wall of the steps pierces the picture plane in the Ground Line at I. and at the AF A Ab and horizon is drawn parallel to the by M'l ^ the corner e. F. the chords Fl ^B and F'E produced will with C'j ^Cj ^ all meet in though off the paper. The line of measures b'Ae' FF' : Ae'. which at M"g. The pitch of the steps. on the Horizon Line vertically under F. gives — rally. It remains to put its lid. taken at the scale of the plan. the edge at A. and the Centre projected on it at c. the positions of the other points are worked out by the chart at half scale. its upper edge in contact. The perpendicular on FF' . and Ab' These two fix the bed Abde of the stone. M' more convenient to use The Ground Line being drawn the near cornt-r A of the lid is proper height. This being out of reach. and F'B and Fj ^E being chart. none of its lines being vertical. we do as in Fig. gives F'" for the vanishing point of the slope lines of the steps and buttresses. being off the sheet. 50. which awaits that The it is no line in stone leans against the wall. and so on. and its horizontals vanish in then. F" comes out of reach. A semicircumference being described on F'Fj^. laid off is projected up to its proper level. on the long sides of the sarcophagus also vanish in F^.S vertical and equal to the Axis (given by the chart) and draw- tals buttress-walls is ing SF^. The rest of the construction follows natu- ae of the bed of the stone. which is found from the plan. parallel to the horizon F'F". drawn through C/^. reach . and to draw there the plan qp^r of the M^ sarcophagus. is within is substituted for it CC C CC F" I ^. In Fig. half of it set off from F' gives the sub-centre and on a perpendicular at C'j^ half gives C/^.MONUMENT WITH TRI-CONJUGATE VANISHING POINTS the lid is set on a terrace at the head of a flight of steps up against the terrace wall. and the body of the monument. : The measuring points it is M and M" M'l ^. The line of measures for these uprights is Am. nishes the chart. wall. representing C on the gives C'l ^. vanishes in a vertical horizon passing through F. completing are found from the chart the conjugate triangle of the chart. for instance. for The upright edges vanish in F". the vanto the picture and to the horizon plane. we take the middle point/' of AF'. and at which we set up a scale of heights. and the triangle F'F/^F"!^ furdistance. The arrises of the steps and the horizonF^. but all oblique boih Here the conjugate points Fand F'. which found by drawing C'. and F"/^ at one half the on the horizon F'F". The plane of the wall. are assumed ishing points at C. . the middle point of f'/jj draw ^parallel to/'f"/^. at double the scale gives by J/ the corner b.

HEXAGONS AND RECIPROCAL VANISHING POINTS T .

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and o/'and its parallels. intersections enough to find all the angles that correspond to d. The right intersections being will may be drawn. we may substitute for the third that of the perpendiculars to one side whose vanishing point is known. as in Fig. and a front line through ^cuts off all A few diagonals like art^give the corresponding sides of the first row of hexagons. three series of sides are not commonly all accessible at once. Four sides and all the and third series. vanishing in V. are the other angles required.HEXAGONS AND RECIPROCAL VANISHING POINTS 8i draw a line through the vertex of the adjoining triangle at g which will cut off the side ^^of the first hexagon on the Perpendicular bC. the hexagon are every third section in a series of oblique lines. ad and parallels.^. etc. the plan. vanishing in V". the first The three vanishing points are determined from may be fixed by a chart. the hexagons are oblique to the Horizon Line. the other sides series of parallels. vanishing in the conjugate point V . reciprocal vanishing points The vanishing points of the are of no use. finally. . 126. and the problem is solved without them. Here the most its available series of lines are ab and its parallels.and not necessary.. but having two of them. If. and is be alternating sections of a fourth is whose vanishing point perhaps inaccessible. being conjugate to V. and the vertices of the It will be noticed that the sides of triangles./. or V. in angles of each hexagon lie picked out.

which are the centres of the small squares. the point c and the repeated from the plan. as in position of the octagon formed by the overlapping squares in being chosen on the front line AB. and add those which vanish in F' conjugate to F. 129 It will tilted is if shows the process on a larger scale. lines to ^from the intermediate points contain diagonals of these squares. according to the plan. that all we have two pairs of con- ^' "^f ^"^ ordinate lines making angles of 45° with It will scarcely happen the other set. etc. can be drawn in. and the pavement may be constructed without the fourth point. Fig. 2. 127. Starting from A. even more than one of squares. 4. 15. parallel to that of 2. be noticed that a pavement of octagons. We leading lines those that vanish in F. . will which Al> is one side. unless one series of its lines it is not symmetrical to the Ground Line — of front lines. 5. and mark their corners. The Diagonal points a front line dd will give the points of contact of of the first square f£> gives the centre rank of squares . so that the remaining sides. The artist therefore will prefer to arrange his pavement symmetrically with the Ground Line unless the exigencies of the rest of his picture forbid. and those in 8. completing the pavement. j. J. Here the pavement is interpolated. 4F. Fig. whose vanishing point is These centres being found. all If the squares drawn in. Fig. laid out as a series of larger squares with smaller squares choose for and turning them into octagons. d. Lines drawn from these points to 8 contain two sides each of a series of squares etc. but if one pair is determined by the ordinary perspective chart. and Perpendiculars drawn to C. as in Fig. are set off . whose sides may then be filled in. the mitre point of this pair will be one of the other pair. they are in tlie is illustrated in the perspective of pavements which are the octagons lie with sides parallel to the picture plane. will cut the sides of the large squares at the corners of the small ones. proper distances each side oi 2F. a series of lines to Fat inaccessible. 128. etc. all the points of contact can be found and The point A /.OCTAGONAL PAVEMENTS The use of diagonal squares If based on octagons. and by the help of Diagonals to both distance points. — one set of cojugate vanishing points. cutting off their corners. or of the front one set of Diagonals and of Perpendiculars. we set off the points /. no sides of the octagons are parallel to the picture plane. looks that is. Next. four vanishing points are within reach.

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A house looks better. is measured directly from the elevations. most easily done without measuring. the construction is simple. is transferred by the horizontal a A horizontal cVgivts the ridge of the gable. left. out first in the plane of the wall. and is prolonged in front of the wall to Ay and AV in the plan On them the dimensions of the front M AV — — V cover the overhang. the house is blocked up to the roof. scale of heights in the picture. measure the horizontal distance of the peak from the corner at c. and plumb up to the picture the vertical cc. and the overhang is then added. height. as well as more natural. and the horizontal bV. as the projection of the bays was measured. and a perspective view is to be constructed from them. bays. representing the intersection of the planes of the front and the roof. The measuring points may be determined in full scale on the board. and the side foreshorten to the best advantage. and some small details are omitted for the sake of clearness. The two elevations and perspective are drawn to the same scale. When the projections of the produced in front of the Ground Line. From the elevations so much of a A . and openings are set off. and side are measured off by diX\d M'. is prolonged like the sake of the overhang. The were set as far apart as the picture will look best will if drawing board one elevation is con- siderably more foreshortened than the other. This overhang may be measured in the plan on the of VA. or as here by a perspective chart at a fourth the scale. The near angle the Centre through it are drawn the horizontal scale in the perspective plan and the V put twenty inches from the vanishing point Fon the on the right. to be transferred to the drawing by multiplication. The height of the point b. Assuming that they are not. when the Horizon Line is put rather low. and chimneys require special constructions. The pitches are all 45°. By plumbing up from the plan and measuring the heights on Ax in the picture with horizontals vanishing to ^and V. The to cc at c in the picture. by bisection with the help of diagonals. and if the proper vanishing points are within reach.' allowed — here twenty-eightvanishing points The inches. . where the vertical line of the corner pierces the roof plane. show the positions of the two visible walls of the house. and the widths of the porches. standing against The placing of the muUions of the windows and the arches of the porches is level. and the vertical lines are of the porch is put in the picture plane at plumbed up from it. The The gables are laid roofs. not much higher than the eyes of a man and we choose the transom of the bay-windows for the horizon it. eaves. the outlines of so much bays are laid off on of the perspective plan as is needed may be put in. gables. and the line b' prolongation * cViox V The elevations are copied as I find tliem printed in the American Architect. we begin with the side gable. Sketches of elevations have been made to scale. 130 is such a problem as is constantly occurring in an architect's office.PERSPECTIVE FROM ELEVATIONS In Fig. The Centre then is and only eight inches from perspective outline plan as is necessary can be constructed. measured on Ax at a.

they may be considered as sensibly The valley eo is determined thus the point e is parallel. or can be deterishing points mined by one of the processes already given for such cases. while the eaves have a farther overhang the corner/ is fixed like h by measuring its height in the picture plane. is measured directly on the scale of heights Ax. when as here the scale is small and the lines close together. The lines farther and mouldings of the gables can be drawn to their respective vanabove and below Fand V\ where these are accessible. The other side of the gable is easily found. The arches on this small scale are sketched in the rest of the detail needs no comment. manner. The face got of the gable projects as far as the front of the bays. . The are first placed on the plan. are omitted to avoid crowding the picture. 131 shows on an enlarged scale the construction of the overhanging corner of the in eaves. The ridge of the gable produced will pierce the picture plane in a point which is projected in the plan at k. accessible or inaccessible. They present no difficulty.84 APPLIED PERSPECTIVE in like represents the line of eaves in the plan. /. found b'c'. The its real is : HH end of the ridge. ^ may be found by the horizontal ^ ~ o perspective) from the trace /' whose the plane of the roof. the plan. of the verge boards — : 2^. may be determined like that of the ridge . which stands flush upon the side wall. and the rest of the eaves in like manner. being parallel to be. represents the eaves-slope of the gable. This front gable we will find by a different process. intersection with the return wall rVm The plumbed up from the plan is o. and the half of an assumed rear gable may be drawn to determine the bit of its slope. The farther end its intersection of the ridge is hidden behind the front gable. which bestrides chimneys the ridge of the front gable. One window the side elevation. that of the other. . The height of the main chimney. determined like the ridge of the front gable. vanishes in V". But if V" is not in reach. In. which rises above the cross ridge. is the point where the ridge pierces the vertical plane that contains the cross ridge cV. yj/ plumbed up on bVlxom. tending to V". Then the point / is plumbed up from the plan upon t'V. and the dormer which would flank the front gable on the right. or finally. Fig. the measuring lines being here somewhat crowded. and their intersection The plan of the horizontal eaves in front is ^' is plumbed up to b' in the Then picture. and c' with cVis its peak. and is found in the picture by plumbing up to ?A h : and on the indefinite line of the ridge hV^ the peak k height above from the plan after determining the overhang as for the other gable. to fix the hip st is to draw the simplest way ridge tV which unites it to the main roof in which it (seen in the elevation but hidden in the pierces the picture. to be transferred to the picture. and drawn in accordingly. and eo.

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which are based at the height of the point n. The spire is a high pyramid whose vertex is in the axis of the tower. stopped against the middle line pm of the near face of the spire. The half-diagonal e'f of the square. diagonal squares used before for the octagon and circle. Its edges may be drawn when its vertex has been measured off. as shown in the lower half of the plan. The perspective square abed being set out by its conjugate vanishing points Fand V. and transferred to the diameter^. Lines ^8 andyS. since the edge ap is in the vertical plane The lower dormers. the width is projected back upon this encompassing calls for a special construction to in / and /. that is. 132 tower of the same diameter. of the upper lines of dormers. determined like m. and drawing also gk we determine all the visible points at the base of the spire. or the height of its vertex may be measured from/' by 8. bm. The corner pyramids are drawn in like manner. and straight lines drawn upward from i' and /' and / will represent parallels in the face of the spire which will contain the through A similar construction gives the positions valleys between the dormers and the spire. fix the corners h and k. gives the diagonal of the second square. which centre on the of measures that passes through am' and om. etc. The corners of the square of the tower are filled out by four triangular pyrasquares. dm.A BROACH SPIRE The broach spire in Fig. The recession of these dormers from the face of the tower determine their width and projection. and is in great part covered up by the The lines of the eaves of the tower. which is done here by a line m'h perspectively parallel to the diagonal ac. middle lines em. Its cutting off the corners. The width is from the eaves of the spire at V and /'. square from the verticals / . the salient The nearer one only is completely seen its in «. and encircling this pyramid with squares at the height of the bases. are constructed on the spire. on verticals on which the height plumbed up The same height being projected of the bases is projected from the scale of heights. of the cardinal faces of the spire. set plan is of a single square pyramid which caps the tower. which indicate the pyramid of the spire filled out to the square of the top of the tower. set off both ways from e' on ax. eaves. thence measured on the side ab prolonged. and may be regarded as the visible corners in the usual way on a square a regular octagon inscribed in a square by the octagon made by the overlapping of two concentric is an octagonal pyramid. for the encompassing square. mids or engaged pinnacles which lean against the adjacent sides of the spire. at the proper height in the scale of heights am'. intersecting the other diameter. and the salient edges of the four small pyramids would meet in a lower point of the axis. and ridges of the dormers. which indicate its plan. the angles of the octagon are found as in Fig. intersecting the axis of the spire in m. are best placed by drawing lines edges meeting arris is : am. 15 by the method of overlapping squares. for they are symmetrically set.

by the first construction. h. and drawing its FD. But profile in perspective. on which are to be found the points of the mitre profile. and many mouldings miss their intended effect from not having been studied from this point of view. Aa to V 2i\\A V give the Dd it is out of reach. in them two sets of horizontal lines meet. 134 are two elevations and the perspective of a console to the same scale. 133 shows the base mouldings of a pedestal in perspective : the base at the scale of the perspective. the conjugate vanishing points are within reach. vanishing in V. and the points of the mitre profiles projected up from them. e. g. shown by heights. the angle between the wall and the console in the perspective serves for a scale of The projections. and transferred to the mitre lines Aa and Dd. and the mitre line Dd is ADEF. and if the vanishing point conjugate to 8 were within reach. give the same points that were found. which Bb found by completing the perspective square is produced in Dd. they must be first measured on a right section and transferred mouldings directly Here they are measured on a line Dk. Having placed the corner A we lay off from A on Ax the heights of the different mouldLines drawn from these points to 8 will be horizontals in the mitre The horizontal Aa on plane.f. ^8. In Fig. The diagonal of a in like manner. They are drawn first. the measuring lines being mostly erased to avoid crowding the drawing. apt to change their effect greatly. 2. for scale. the profile shows the projections on the mitre line. and the widths on the face are measured on the line of meas- ures ab. 1-2. however. The projections m-i. It may be. . AB and AD. If the measuring point for the mitre lines that vanish in 8 is within reach. and a plan and elevation at one founh that The mitre profiles give the best opportunity of constructing the perspective. or Then D m would have been found. rectangular in plan though off the sheet . etc. and mislead the designer. Ax is the scale of heights. the mitre lines Bb and could be drawn toward it. is : The console the ordinates i. will give the points of the mitre M" Lines drawn from these points and from the division points of perspectives and the plan of the base and mouldings. 3. which is the horizontal to Aa. Any want of : The accuracy is the object. measured on Dk. diagonal similarsquare constructed on ^Z? gives measuring point for 8 is not at hand. etc. these projections can be measured off at once on Aa. which are ruled off directly from the elevations. or misrepresent The profiling is seen chiefly at the corners of mitres.MOULDINGS — BASE OF A PEDESTAL AND CONSOLE drawing of architectural mouldings in perspective requires peculiar care the representations are of no value to the architect unless they are precise. from which verticals intersecting <:8. 2-j. beginning with the front corner. The point is referred to the front line of measures at from the measuring point M. the measuring points and 8 are only indicated by their directions. where the vertical and the ings at lines c. that the instead of measuring the projections of the on Aa. trace of a right section plane. which sufficiently explains the construction. below is a profile of Fig.

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drawn give the points of the perspective Ab. scale of heights is taken on The in dotted lines above. etc. of the two upper fillets of its crown moulding and the corona can The rise of the pediment being laid off at Ac. are pro- It must be jected on dd' from (/"(at their true height on Aa) by lines vanishing in F'. taken from the elevation. however. The projections of the ridge profile are found spective being on d' Fin the plan. and the ridge appears only in plan its perhidden by the pediment. The Aa in the extreme front corner. 13S is the perspective of a pediment. while the other members. borne in mind. for that also is out of reach. The figure gives the showing both cornices at the scale of the perspective. which do not The lines of the upward intersect the horizontal ones. it would have been necessary to construct an intermediate profile. The points i. If the point F" had been out of reach. which they intersect obliquely. J. The lines on the soffit of the upward raking corona are out of sight. V produce it to the accidental measuring point m. and then draw from the other points The points thus found on ab' projected down on horizontals J. in which the difference between the raking cornices and the horizontal somewhat complicates the problem. and we construct the mitre profile at the farther corner which is measured off on cF' like ^and plumbed down on AF'. 6 directly to m. are free to correspond to them. The plane of the ridge profile passes through d. and are to be taken from the vertical section at ac in the elevation. that the heights of the crown mouldings are not the same as those of their horizontal counterparts. and being in the vertical plane of the ridge . vertically over F' and determined as usual by a^slope line from the measuring point at the S. and then transfer each measurement to ab' by lines which vanished in . the vertex is found at d. . its the line d' horizontals vanish at F. and the perspective plan members of the horizontal and raking cornices meet in the We might measure off the projections of the mitre profile for the mitre plane at ab.PERSPECTIVE OF A PEDIMENT Fig. and transferring it to b' on rtS. rake can be drawn through the angles of the ridge profile from the vanishing point F". but we shall save transferring if. on ad' vanishing at V. cornice might be drawn directly from the ridge In this case it is out of that were accessible. proper heights on AC and vanishing in M'. e. Then the lines be drawn in at once. projected by lines from the angle profile ab' to F'. we draw 7b' and front elevation of one half. after finding the extreme point 7 on ad'./. parallel to the ridge profile. being perspectively symmetrical about the line d' F{which is in the same horizontal plane with them. 4. and those of the two fillets should coincide with those which are already drawn. The lines of the downward raking if profile to their vanishing point F'". and its heights on — F— the scale of heights at (/". The mitre line for the profile at e" in the But the mitre plan cannot be drawn to its vanishing point. reach. The lines of the upward raking cornice converge to the vanishing point profile y". and the half width at cc'. 2. lines at a and e" in the plan. plan at ab' by the measuring point M'.

Therefore we extend ab' till it meets which must contain the mitre line at e". profile in the picture. Upon this mitre line we project the dividing lines of the profiles at ab' and hd' . then the points of division are projected vertically on the lines of the horizontal cornice already drawn toward V\ and draw ^'h. d'Vm must intersect on it.88 is at APPLIED PERSPECTIVE right angles with ae") h. making the points of the .

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. give the . for the chance of accumulated errors is so great as to make perspective enlargement hazardous. The corresponding heights are set off on ab in the picture at i'. and then projecting these points from Fupon jT'. as in h.3.ENTABLATURE IN PERSPECTIVE Fig.s are first found. The perspective plan is displayed by its angle a well above the picture. and prolonging an accidental measuring point. and 6. and 8 are assumed to be determined. where it interferes less with the picture than it would at the angle of the frieze. dentils. projected back from Mupon the measuring line ax at 6'. M. etc. and dentil-band. to rand The yi. front side is found on the plan by producstands in line with the band to the right . will serve for The principal points 2. and will cut off dentil band. 2. corner/ of the point n. For a problem as complex as this it is well to make a detached perspective plan. <rFand of the cornice are found full cV are the lines of the frieze. is used The lines of the modilas a starting point for measuring off the rest at/'. on them from the plan. /. and to show it from beneath. with the plan and elevation at The perspective could be made from geometric drawings the scale of the perspective. 136 is the corner of a modillioned entablature. with the arrangement of the modillions and dentils. modillions and dentils might be constructed directly on the picture. setting off it Horizon Line at m. mitres of the moulding which crowns them and the band between them. and also the extreme height above the Horizon Line. and drawing adV.. the modillions. representing the overhangs of the corona. and use the accidental measuring Mitre lines to 8 through the front corners of the modillions. on a smaller scale. For those on the right face the measuring point M' is out of reach. 25 and overhang. but in constructing architectural detail it is best to make the neces- sary enlargement beforehand in the geometric drawings. joining ec. are projected members in the picture. representing their edges. Fig. 35. 4. etc. The scale of heights aab is taken at the projecting angle a of the upper moulding. V. etc. /. one centring with each modillion. This fixes the corners of the principal from which lines are drawn. but it will be That on the left at the angle clearer and safer to construct them first on the plan. They are found by projection from those on the left. though it slightly reduces the scale of the picture. its ing V'j to 6 . 31. The overhangs to the members ae on the scale ax for the by the method of p. g'. V. and three between but to avoid confusion of lines we start from the . 2'. 8'. and lines drawn to Kand represent these members in the plan on the two faces of the entablature. continuing the sides till they intersect aS in k. etc. the points V . The dentils are laid out as is shown by the scale on the right of a. and mitre lines being drawn to 8. which I. The corners of the frieze in the plan is found setting on the mitre line aS by measuring off the overhang at d from the horizontal scale ax by means of the of M. For want of room to continue on the left the measures beyond 8 are transferred to a second line lower down as in Fig. projecting 5' on Jllf. lions drawn in by means of these points are projected down directly upon the picture. modillion-band.

The drawing of the intermediate lines of the mouldings requires no new construction. the face of the cornice without referring to the perspective plan. Eggs and darts and the leaves of the bed-mould at the base of the cornice may be sketched in. one egg or one leaf over or under each dentil their positions may be determined by carrying profile lines .go APPLIED PERSPECTIVE squares at the ends of them by which counter diagonals can be drawn to give the mitres at the alternate corners. In the same way the mouldings of the panels between the modillions can be drawn with their mitres. The transference of these details to the picture is a simple matter of vertical projection. down .

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The means perspective plan being constructed in the usual way. common . It is to A by which the curves c"k'" and b"h". answering exactly to the rear curve of the The arch in Fig. and b'. Fand A HH PP V are both off the sheet. pass alternately through 0. like the joints arch and its successive portions. the axis of the shaft attached to the front of the first pier. etc. The abaci and the plinths repeat the outline of the in the piers. upon this vertical give corresponding points further projection back of the sub-arch. and 0'. the impost being on the horizontal a V. 137 a Romanesque arcade is shown in perspective. and the Centre is opposite the centre of the first arch. The section of the arches is shown in con- on one nection with the perspective plan. lies in a plane that passes through the axis of the soffits. by lines that vanish in V. whose abaci and plinths are The imposts square. f". It is these imposts that are constructed in the for by them are determined the positions of the arches. 63. h'". and constructed in the same way. V. showing a main arch and a sub-arch carried by piers and columns in alternation. most important elements of the problem. is the centre of the front curves of the sub-arch. are fixed. The tangents are fixed by projecting their intersections/ and n with the vertical at/upon that at/' in/' and «'.. backward gives r'". projected from s\ r'. b'^'. with the help of the auxiliary quadrants be. prolonged. plumbed up from the plan. c'. the partial elevation on half that scale. The arches are semicircles recessed in two orders. and the piers are subdivided to match the imposts of the arches. Then j". The geometric plan is on the scale of the picture. but not in the columns. the inner and and s' outer curves of the main arch may be drawn. k' and k". picture plane passes through which axis is in the plane of the wall. and b". The outer curve of the sub-arch. etc. in the angle of the recess. the perspective chart fifth. are vertical tangents to the arch curves at the springing. The point 0'. and dg. which are the perspective plan.A ROMANESQUE ARCADE In Fig. and the central vertical ot' on which we project. The middle point in the plan gives the perspective centre of the first arch. and the upright o's" contains its vertical diameter. is geometrically equal and parallel to the inner curve of the main arch. and making a recess whose section is the broken line k"k"'h". the tangent intersections t' and the crown points d' and c'. this line can be continued round the of Fig. to determine the curve at the in the be remembered that the broken line l"k"k'"h"h"'. displaying the under surface or soffit of the main arch. as appears at in the geometric plan. the arches are drawn by of tangents at 45°. plumbed up from the plan. face of the sub-arch recedes from that of the wall. and upon that at /" in/" and «". The angle of the picture plane and the wall plane is shown by in the geometric plan.• and when / and k are also projected in /' and /". They are lifted on low stilts whose upright edges. and is the scale of heights in the picture. r". The height of the Horizon Line is shown at in the elevation. Therefore when the tangents are fixed and the point /" found.cf. 63.

it is safer to construct the points inde- pendently than to follow round from one to another. in a matter so delicate as the deiermination of the arch curves. horizon of sub distance points above and below V. and better to use this last method It will be seen. The rest of the construction offers nothing new. the vertical that passes through being the all such planes.ines. too. will be parallels which vanish in the vertical for a verificat'on. Nevertheless. that the tangents. being 45° lines in the plane of the wall face or parallel vertical pl. V .9i APPLIED PERSPECTIVE arches without projecting the successive points from At.

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let us imagine a tangent plane to the cylinder of one vault \ it will contain all the tangents to sections of the cylinder Thus in Fig. to determine their centres. and laying out these squares we find the axes of as many columns as will appear in the picture. say. broad The picture plane passed through the axis of column^. the perspective chart may be constructed. The axes in both directions will prove useful. while the shafts stand The counter diagonals of the bays should be drawn. their diameter being one fourth the span of the vaults. C is the Centre. say at the By the angle is EBA scale of the plan. at a convenient distance ' We Taking GG we project A upon determined on these lines by drawing through their centres diagonals to the mitre point A wall runs behind the third range of columns 8. A. for convenience of measurement. It is well to verify their for the intersections of the groins come over these centres. T^/Jf To provide intermediate tangents. which must pass through the centres of all the bays. and its vanishing sides being continued indefinitely toward f^'and F'. along einl represents a right section of the 139 vault and abed a tangent plane at. two corners of each of the other bases are begin with a perspective plan. covering two series of aisles at right angles. as well as the use of tangents for perspective curves. the line of contact. as usual. of uniform semicircular section. positions by drawing an axial line down the middle of each aisle. below HH. Having fixed a suitable height for the springing of the vault. and is tangent to the near corner of the plinth B. free. the horizontal tangents at the crowns are the sponding to those diagonals of a series of squares correin the plan. plumbing up their vertical necessary lines to requires Fand F' for their upper and much care. and SC the Axis. The vaults are The on columns.GROINED VAULTING groined vault shown in Fig. it. The vaults spring from cubical stilt blocks. which are as as the plinths of the bases. and draw AA the axis of column so that the plan may open well. The columns stand at the corners of adjoining squares. and the plans of all are easily found. The upright edges of the edges from the plan below and drawing the lower edges.. The drawing of the groins stilt blocks provide vertical tangents at the springing points yjyj etc. and the points transferred with due enlargement of distances to the Horizon Line. touching also the stilt blocks. we next construct the stilt blocks. 138 illustrates some of the devices which special problems suggest. against the plinths of the bases. The square plan of the first base being constructed in the usual way at A. . and card id The arrangement of the plan and elevation are given at one third the scale of the perspective.

ftn/imf and enhne may be drawn in. 140. therefore. and gk the vertical through the centre of a bay. the axis of the column. the centre line of the back jected of the plinth of column F. which are right sections of the vaults. We have to construct such a pyramid over each bay. Then c' horizontally projected on the real axis a/^' gives the point of intersection c. The plane of the springing of the vault is bae. The intersection h of the groins at the repeated m crown of the vault is already determined the tangents here may be found by repeating the horizontal square at the level of h and drawing its diagonals. and the heights are carried along is the usual one. as here shown. by which the gxo\x\s. column A. matter to extend the construction to all the other bays by horizontal projecting lines. we falls . The scale of heights ach'k' is proback on the plane of the wall on the vertical from/. . and a'c' have the tangent to that groin of the first bay which springs from column A at/ behind the impost. the vertical fp will be the edge of a stilt block. b for instance. and draw the 45° tangent bk'. and forming the / edges a square pyramid whose base will be in a horizontal plane. the plane of the springing The four tangent points will all be at the same height in bae.94 45°. as appears in Fig. In Fig. we **" set up against the the level of the springing. There will be four groin of tangents for each bay. Now the vault springs from the face of the stilt block. 138 at a. h' the points where they intersect the axes of the columns. which will give k and h. intersected in c' by the tangent. which will give us tangents to each of the groins. intersecting in k. In constructing the pyramid of tangents it will be convenient to use. The point c mny be projected on the other three axes by horizontal lines which will form a square AD add directly over the square of the bay in the plan. and m' of the tangent point m. lifmh is a w groin. giving the points from which the tangents that complete the pyramid may be drawn to k. making the scale a"c"h"k". of which hh'. a horizontal plane at the level of mn. Let the vertical plane of this tangent be egbk. which will contain the points and g. plumbed up from^. Drawing ck. gives the height m' of the tangent point. while the point h will give the intersection of the groins. : We It is a simple bay. section of the cylinder. because these points are each common to four tangents in adjoining bays. by diagonals vanishing in the mitre point 8. to be again projected on the tangent at w by a mitre line to 8. where the tangents are horizontal. is one. corresponding to bk. already have now five points and five tangents for each of the groin curves drawn. In the same way m" projected on ak'. If APPLIED PERSPECTIVE mn its is cylinder at dind some point fmh the line of contact. Then h' marks the height of the crown of the vault. any oblique tangent bk in the plane will touch the of this line. represented in the quadrant by/' (which in the drawing accidentally on one of the lines of the vaulting) fa' represents half the thickness of the block. The heights of and k' may be measured off on the axis of the first bay. The tangent point may be in the same way on the square mnmn. The construction of the arches at the back wall. in axis of the column the auxiliary quadrant a/h\ representing half the section of the vault. the axis of the bay we may call it. instead of the feet of the tangents. of the first all the lines being in one plane. k' of the vertex k. of which gh is a vertical diameter.

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may where the half the diagonals are almost front lines. to show the intersection of the groins on the left of A. . by visual projection./'. the choice of the limits of an interior view being always arbitrary. The capitals may be constructed by means already known. and being determined for A be projected from column to column. The bases are omitted in order The column E is included that the perspective plan in the picture.GROINED VAULTING 95 the wall in horizontals vanishing at V. as at E' in the plan. The plan of a base at the scale of the perspective is shown at K. this gives at once the position and the diameter of the shaft. etc. at the height of c". . where. and determined by the artist's idea of a desirable effect. The meeting points of the tangents and the crowns of the arches are in the verticals from q.. although it front of the picture plane. It is sometimes convenient to place a column. may be measured geometrically on each base with less danger of error than it can be projected. or even a series of columns. etc. as is obvious.. or they the shaft may be sketched. the centre lines of the bays of the lower ends of the tangents are in the verticals from/. The diameter of the wall is half the diagonal of the plinth or stilt block. the axes of the columns. q'. or in a drawing to so small a scale as this. displayed. as may be more clearly is in here. if the scale of the drawing calls for it. in line with .

some numbers which would duplicate others symmetrically placed are left oil the drawing for the sake of clearness. cut by the plane N3-3 in a line c'cN which intersects 3-3 in c. the a horizontal line which A plane passing through this line NN' and touching would be tangent to every lunette at the crown. and the points j'. If the vaults of the lunettes were cylindrical. If c' is the plane intersection of Nc with the section-curve. as elsewhere. the vault springs is constructed as in a previous problem by the help of the mitre-point. V is somewhat recessed from the springing line. Here. lie in main vault in F'.j' in which it cuts the lines j-j'. They are projected. Assuming we construct aA. etc. and these points will be points of the groin. a series of horizontal planes through i-r.A VAULT WITH LUNETTES Fig. intersect it at right angles. on NB'. may be found by the same tion. N'. i-i. etc. like the main vault. are taken on the quadrant A'B. y is that of the lunettes. the point a on the springing line £Vlo\ the foot of one groin. and the line of the groin drawn through them. 45° tangent tj. and the other axes of the lunette vaults. drawn to the crown of the lunette. as we saw. 2'-2'. i^Fis the axis of the main vault. 4. taking for the angle at the base of the the lunettes being the radius of the lunette. etc. 3-3' will be points in both main vault and lunette vault. and contain the highest elements of all the cones. is The main the perspective of a vault with lunettes. and therefore in their intersecThe other pairs of points. the cone of the first lunette is N. 5. whose vaults. intermediate points i. The entablature from which process. vanishes in V. is drawn The principal point in the problem is the construction of the groins. The same will hold for the other pairs of points. and would OVK will be the highest element of its vault. cutting the plane of the lunette in the horizontal j-j. vanishing. to give relief to the pendents of the groins. all of which are of semicircular vault is a cylinder of which x is the radius . would contain corresponding horizontal right-lined elements of all the vaults the intersections of corresponding elements would be points of the groins. the horizontal c'VwiW be an element of the through is main vault lying in the plane N3-3. both horizontally and vertically. we construct a right section F'P of the vault made by a vertical plane passing This Ot'. i'-t'. 2-2. 141 section. is the conjuThe plane of gate point in which vanish ON. The vertex of right angles to the axis of the main vault. its A A A' or AB and JSA' the auxiliary quadrant with constructed in their proper perspective position.3-3. It would cut the main vault in a line VF' which would contain the crown points of all 3. and JSFihe line of its springing. All the vertices N. To find the element j'-j' of the main vault. 2-2. . But these vaults are cones with horizontal axes at easily fix their curves. etc.j' A NN' one horizontal element. To construct the curve of the lunette with precision. springing at the same level. and will penetrate the crowning point of the groin. and At for the scale of heights. which shall contain the axis CA^and be perpendicular to the lunette. the depth of the recess. the groin. will contain two elements jA^ jiV^ which will pierce the main vault in two points j'. the curve of the lunette through them. both vanishing at F. and being lunette. like the tangent point j. . 2.3 on of B the groins and vanish in ^^ and through the points plane that passes through the curve of the lunette. at V.

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CAMBRIDGE MASSACHUSETTS U S A

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i XXAD JUN 2 2 1966 2 APR 24 1558 2^^^ & H^ \ 5t^ ' Ac. "^ University of California Berkeley t . due on the ^'^ \^ 7pr c|: . Renewed books are subject to immediate recall.. KO -Ed'. or on the date to which renewed. last This book date stamped below.14 DAY USE RETURN TODESK FROM WHICH BORROWED LOAN is >>» DEPT. '3"»Beff'6 tt''^ __^.pi 1974 e^ « i^^ ' ncao LD 0EC2 2'63-4.

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