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TECHNICAL BULLETIN

RUPTURE DISC SIZING

The objective of this bulletin is to provide detailed guidance for sizing rupture discs using standard methodologies found in ASME Section VIII
Div. 1, API RP520, and Crane TP-410. To assist in the sizing process, Fike offers DisCalc™, a web based sizing program. See www.fike.com.

OVERPRESSURE ALLOWANCE
When sizing pressure relief devices, the ASME Code defines the maximum pressure that may build up in the pressure vessel while the device
is relieving. This pressure varies depending on the application of the device. The following table defines the various overpressure allowances.
See technical bulletin TB8100 for ASME application requirements.

External Fire
Primary Secondary External Fire
(Unexpected Source
(Sole Relieving Device) (Multiple Devices) (Storage Vessels Only)
of External Heat)

Ref. UG-125(c) Ref. UG-125(c)(1) Ref. UG-125(c)(2) Ref. UG-125(c)(3)


10% or 3 PSIG, 16% or 4 PSIG,
21% above the 20% above the vessel
whichever is greater, above the whicever is greater, or above the
vessel MAWP MAWP
vessel MAWP vessel MAWP

RUPTURE DISC SIZING METHODOLOGIES


Three basic methodologies for sizing rupture disc devices are described below. These methods assume single phase, non-reactive fluid flow.
Resources such as API RP520 Part 1, the DIERS Project Manual, and CCPS Guidelines for Pressure Relief and Effluent Handling Systems provide
other methods for two-phase, flashing, reactive, and otherwise non-steady state conditions.

Coefficient of discharge method (KD) - The KD is the coefficient of discharge that is applied to the theoretical flow rate to arrive at a rated flow
rate for simple systems.

Resistant to flow method (KR) - The KR represents the velocity head loss due to the rupture disc device. This head loss is included in the overall
system loss calculations to determine the size of the relief system.

Combination capacity method - When a rupture disc device is installed in combination with a pressure relief valve (PRV), the valve capacity
is derated by a default value of 0.9 or a tested value for the disc/valve combination. See technical bulletin TB8105 for specific application
requirements when using rupture disc devices in combination with PRV’s. A listing of Fike certified combination factors can be found in
technical bulletin TB8103.

COEFFICIENT OF DISCHARGE METHOD (KD)


Use this method for simple systems where the following conditions are true (8 & 5 Rule). This method takes into account the vessel entrance
effects, 8 pipe diameters of inlet piping, 5 pipe diameters of discharge piping, and effects of discharging to atmosphere.

The rupture disc device


discharges directly to
The inlet and outlet piping the atmosphere
is at least the same nominal pipe
sizes as the rupture disc device

The discharge piping


does not exceed 5
pipe diameters

The rupture disc is


installed within 8 pipe
diameters of the vessel

Form No. TB8102-3

704 SW 10th Street  P.O. Box 610  Blue Springs, Missouri 64013-0610 U.S.A.
Phone: 8162293405  www.fike.com
Pcf  P 
 k  1  A = minimum net flow area, (sq. in.)
C = constant based on the ratio of specific heats k
k = cp/cv
If Pe  Pcf use critical flow equations KD = coefficient of discharge 0.62 for rupture disc devices
Page 2: /k
 k  2 / k 1  r
 k 1 

GAS/VAPOR SIZING Page 2: F2 =   r   


 k 1  1  r 
Page 2: Page 2:
Determination of Critical vs. Subcritical k /( k 1)
Flow per API RP520 M W = rated flow capacity, (lb/hr)
 2 W Pe capacity, (SCFM)
Pcf  P  k /(k K1) D  C  A  P T  Z V = rated
W = rated r =flow flow
capacity, (lb/hr)
Critical Pressure:
 2 
k /( k 1)
P P



k
2
 1
 2   k /( k

1 ) W = rated flow capacity, (lb/hr) V = rated flowPcapacity,
W = A
rated =
flow minimum
capacity,
P
(lb/hr) net flow area, (sq. in.)
(SCFM)
Pcf  P Pcfcf  P  k 1 
 V = rated flow capacity, (SCFM) C = constant based
V = rated flow capacity, = set
(SCFM) pressure plus
the overpressure
onarea, ratio allowance
of specific heats k
plus
 A = minimum net flow (sq. (psia)
in.)
 k  1   k  1 
  A W= minimum A (sq. in.)k
= minimum net flow area, atmospheric
(sq. in.) pressure
T  Z net flow area, C = c /c k
If Pe  Pcf use critical = constant based on the ratio of specific heats
p v
A  flow C = equations C = constant based Pek = exit pressure,
on the ratio of specific heats k
kKv D == cpcoefficient
constant based on the ratio of specific heats of discharge(psia) 0.62 for rupture disc devices
K D  C=  Pcp/cv M k = cp/c /cv = molecular
IfIf PP
If P  P use critical flow equations e e PcfPuse critical flow kequations
cf use critical flow equations
M weight
1 / krupture disc devices
K = coefficient of discharge disc
K = coefficient = k specific  of gas at standard
 kdevices  conditions,
/k 1 r
KD =
coefficient of discharge 0.62 for Drupture disc of discharge
SGdevices 0.62 for rupture 0.62 for
e cf D
 2gravity
 k  2 / k 1F2 r =
 k 1 / k F2 k = 2 / k1  rSG=1.00
k

 k 1 / kr forair at
 1  r 1 / k psia
 k 14.7  and 60°F
 2k =1  r T =k  1  atr inlet
 
1 r 2/ ktemperature
Calculations per ASME Section VIII (assumesFcritical 2 = 
flow)  r  
 k  1  T  Z  1  r 
F
Z k 1  
absolute
r  
  (R=°F + 460°F)
M W  = 1compressibility
 
 1  r
factor for corresponding

to P and T.
M W W KK  C
C AA 
P A M
P P P use 1.0 if unknown. 
Critical
W  K D Flow:
C  A P  D   
T T735M F  KPDe M  PP  Pre  = r = P e
r Z =2
D e
Z
T  Z W  KD  C  A P Pr = eP
T  ZV P T  Z  M P = setP pressure P
plus overpressureplus allowance plus
A  P = set pressure plus overpressureatmospheric = plus pressure
allowance pressureset overpressure allowance plus
 K D PPpressure
 Pe  (psia) P = set
(psia)
W T  Z 4645  F2 atmospheric pressure
atmospheric plus overpressure
pressure (psia) allowance plus
A
W T Z A W T Z Pe = exit pressure,atmospheric (psia) pressure (psia)
KD  C  P M A  K D  CW P M T  ZPe V= exit pressure, (psia) M = molecular
T  Z  SG Pe = weight exit pressure, (psia)
A K  C  P A M M = molecular weight SG = specific P e =
M conditions,exit
gravity of pressure,
gas
= molecular weight at standard (psia)conditions,
Calculation per API RP520 DK  C  P SG F
M864 =2  K
specific
D P  Peof gas at standard
Pgravity M
SG=1.00 ==formolecular
air at 14.7 psia weight and 60°F
D
SG=1.00 for air at 14.7T psia and SG specific gravity of+ gas at standard conditions,
= absolute SG60°F =temperature
specific
SG=1.00
atgravity
inlet (R=°F
for of at
air
460°F)
gas14.7
at standard andconditions,
Subcritical Flow: Critical
T Flow:
= absolute temperatureZ at inlet (R=°F + 460°F)
= compressibility factor for corresponding to Ppsia
and
andT.60°F
60°F
W TZ  Z= compressibility factor for corresponding T
SG=1.00
P and T.for air at 14.7 psia
W A
T Z  W T  Z use
T
1.0 =
if toabsolute
unknown. temperature at inlet (R=°F + 460°F)
A 735  F2  K D AM  PP  Pe use  1.0 if unknown. = absolute temperature at
Z = compressibility factor for corresponding to P and T.
inlet (R=°F + 460°F)
735  F2  K D M  PP  Pe  WW K T C  PZ M Z = compressibility factor for corresponding to P and T.
A A  V T  ZD  MT  Z use1.0
1.0if ifunknown.
unknown.
V T  Z AM735735 F 2F K D PM
 F2 2 K K M
D  P
V P
PTP
PZPMPPee use
A 4645 DA e
4645  F2  K D PP  Pe  6.32  K D  C  P
VVV T  ZT T
SG ZZ M M
V T  Z ASG
A
A864  F  K PP V P T  Z  SG
A 4645 2F 
4645  2F2  KD KAD  P PP  Pe 
 Pe  P
864  F2  K D PP  Pe  D
1.175  K D eC  P
VV TT ZZ SG
SG
A
A W
A 864
864 F  TKDDZ PPP
 2F2 K  PPPee
TABLE 1W
T Z KD  C  P M TABLE 2
A  Constants
Gas Gas Flow Constant C for Sonic Flow STEAM SIZING
K C  P M
D V T Z M
A
V T Z M 6.32 WKD  C  PT  Z
A  W k = cTp/c vZ
Molecular k C k C
A  Gas or Vapor
6.32  K D  C  P AWeight

A K K DC C
V T  ZP
 P SG
28.971.D175  K  C
MM 1.00 315 1.40 356
V Air
T  Z  SG P
1.40 1.02 318 1.42 358
A  Acetic Acid 60 V T  Z1.15 M
D

175  K D  C  P
1.Acetylene A  V T  Z 1.26
A26.04

M 1.04 320 1.44 360
6.32  K D  C  P
Ammonia 6.32
17.03  K D  1.33
CP 1.06 322 1.46 361
Argon 40 V T  Z1.67 SG
A  V T  Z  SG 1.08 325 1.48 363
Benzene A 78.1
 1.175  K D1.12 C  P
N-Butane 1.175  K D1.094
58.12 C  P 1.10 327 1.50 365
ISO- Butane 58.12 1.094
1.12 329 1.52 366
Butane 56.1 1.10
Carbon Monoxide 28 1.40 1.14 331 1.54 368
Carbon Disulfide 76 1.21
1.16 333 1.56 369
Carbon Dioxide 44.01 1.30
Chlorine 70.9 1.36 1.18 335 1.58 371
Cyclohexane 84.16 1.09 1.20 337 1.60 373
Ethane 30.07 1.22
Ethyl Alcohol 46.07 1.13 1.22 339 1.62 374
Ethyl Chloride 64.5 1.19 1.24 341 1.64 376
Ethylene 28.05 1.26
Helium 4 1.66 1.26 343 1.66 377
Hydrochloric Acid 36.5 1.41 1.28 345 1.68 379
Hydrogen 2.016 1.41
1.30 347 1.70 380
Hydrogen Sulfide 34.07 1.32
Methane 16.04 1.31 1.32 349 2.00 400
Methyl Alcohol 32.04 1.20 1.34 351 2.10 406
Methyl Chloride 50.48 1.20
Natural Gas (Avg.) 19 1.27 1.36 352 2.20 412
Nitric Acid 30 1.40 1.38 354
Nitrogen 28 1.404
Oxygen 32 1.40
Pentane 72.15 1.07
Propane 44.09 1.13
Sulfur Dioxide 64.06 1.29
Water Vapor 18.02 1.324

2 of 9
W
A=
51.5 ⋅ P ⋅ K D ⋅ K N

W
A=
STEAM SIZING 51.5 ⋅ P ⋅ K D ⋅ K N ⋅ K SH
Calculation per
PageASME
3: Section VIII
Steam:
W = 51
Page 3: .5 ⋅ A ⋅ P ⋅ K D ⋅ K N KN = Correction factor for steam
W K N = when P ≤ 1500 psia
W
A == 51.5 ⋅ A ⋅ P ⋅ K D ⋅ K N
51.5 ⋅ P ⋅ K D ⋅ K N ⎛ 0.1906 P − 1000 ⎞
W KN = ⎜ ⎟ when P > 1500 psia and P ≤ 3200 psia
A= ⎝ 0.2292 P − 1061 ⎠
Calculation per API 5 ⋅ P ⋅ KWD ⋅ K N
51.RP520
A= K SH = See Table 3 for superheat steam correction factors. For saturated steam use 1.0.
Steam: 51.5 ⋅ P ⋅ K D ⋅ K N ⋅ K SH
W
A=
51.5 ⋅ P ⋅ K D ⋅ K N ⋅ K SH
K N = Correction factor for steam
K = when P ≤ 1500 psia
K NN = Correction factor for steam
TABLE 3 ⎛ 0.1906 P − 1000 ⎞
K NN = Factors,
Superheat Correction ⎜
when P K≤SH1500
(API RP520 Part P
psia⎟ when > 15009)psia and P ≤ 3200 psia
1 Table
⎝ 0.2292 P − 1061 ⎠
Burst K 19063Pfor
⎛ 0.Table − 1000 ⎞ steam correction factors.
Temperature °F
Pressure N
= See
SH = ⎜ ⎟ when P > 1500 psia and PFor
superheat ≤ 3200
saturated
psia steam use 1.0.
⎝ 0.2292 P − 1061 ⎠
(psig) 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
K SH = See Table 3 for superheat steam correction factors. For saturated steam use 1.0.
15 1.00 .98 .93 .88 .84 .80 .77 .74 .72 .70
20 1.00 .98 .93 .88 .84 .80 .77 .74 .72 .70
40 1.00 .99 .93 .88 .84 .81 .77 .74 .72 .70
60 1.00 .99 .93 .88 .84 .81 .77 .75 .72 .70
80 1.00 .99 .93 .88 .84 .81 .77 .75 .72 .70
100 1.00 .99 .94 .89 .84 .81 .77 .75 .72 .70
120 1.00 .99 .94 .89 .84 .81 .78 .75 .72 .70
140 1.00 .99 .94 .89 .85 .81 .78 .75 .72 .70
160 1.00 .99 .94 .89 .85 .81 .78 .75 .72 .70
180 1.00 .99 .94 .89 .85 .81 .78 .75 .72 .70
200 1.00 .99 .95 .89 .85 .81 .78 .75 .72 .70
220 1.00 .99 .95 .89 .85 .81 .78 .75 .72 .70
240 - 1.00 .95 .90 .85 .81 .78 .75 .72 .70
260 - 1.00 .95 .90 .85 .81 .78 .75 .72 .70
280 - 1.00 .96 .90 .85 .81 .78 .75 .72 .70
300 - 1.00 .96 .90 .85 .81 .78 .75 .72 .70
350 - 1.00 .96 .90 .86 .82 .78 .75 .72 .70
400 - 1.00 .96 .91 .86 .82 .78 .75 .72 .70
500 - 1.00 .96 .92 .86 .82 .78 .75 .73 .70
600 - 1.00 .97 .92 .87 .82 .79 .75 .73 .70
800 - - 1.00 .95 .88 .83 .79 .76 .73 .70
1000 - - 1.00 .96 .89 .84 .78 .76 .73 .71
1250 - - 1.00 .97 .91 .85 .80 .77 .74 .71
1500 - - - 1.00 .93 .86 .81 .77 .74 .71
1750 - - - 1.00 .94 .86 .81 .77 .73 .70
2000 - - - 1.00 .95 .86 .80 .76 .72 .69
2500 - - - 1.00 .95 .85 .78 .73 .69 .66
3000 - - - - 1.00 .82 .74 .69 .65 .62

3 of 9
AR
Page 4:
Page 4: AV =
KV
W 2407⋅⋅AA⋅⋅KKDD ((PP−−PP
W == 2407 e e)w
)w
LIQUID SIZING
Page 4: W
W Q = rated capacity, (gal.min)
Calculation per ASME SectionA
AVIII
==
2407⋅⋅KK
2407 ((PP−−PPe e)w)w AR = required Area without viscosity corrections (in2)
Water:
DD
W = 2407 ⋅ A ⋅ K D (P − P )we
Av = required Area with viscosity corrections (in2)
W
A= W = Specific weight of water, (lb/ft3)
2407 ⋅ K D (P − Pe )w −1.0
Calculation per API RP520 ⎛ 2.878 342.75 ⎞
Kv = ⎜ 0.9935 + + ⎟ , viscosity correction factor
⎝ R 0.5 R1.5 ⎠
Non-viscous liquid: QQ SG
AAR == SG
38 ⋅ K D ⋅ KV P −PP
38 ⋅ K ⋅ K P −
R
D V e
e Q(2800 ⋅ SG )
Q SG Re = Reynolds Number (u is in centipoises)
Viscous liquid: AR = AAR u A
AAV ==38 ⋅RK D ⋅ KV P − Pe
V KKV or
A V 12700 ⋅ Q
AV = R Re = (U is in Saybolt Universal Seconds, SSU)
KV A using K of 1.0.
For viscous liquid sizing, first calculate U A
R V
Apply the area A of the next larger
Q = size disccapacity,
rated to the Reynolds
(gal.min)
number calculations to arriveQat K= rated
. Then capacity, (gal.min)
re-calculate
A
required area AV using the derived =V
required Area without viscosity corrections (in2)
AR ==KVrated
.
R
Q required Area
capacity, without viscosity corrections (in2)
(gal.min)
A
AARv == required =
Area required Area with viscosity corrections (in
without 2
2
)
v
RESISTANCE TO FLOW METHOD (Krequired
) Area withviscosity
viscositycorrections (in )(in 2)
corrections
W == required
R SpecificArea
weight
with of
3
(lb/ft )3 (in2)
water,corrections
Use this method when the 8 A& Wv 5 Rule
= Specific
does notweight
apply viscosity
of water,
and (lb/ft )disc is not installed in combination with a pressure relief valve.
the rupture
−1.0
This type of calculation is theWresponsibility
= Specific
⎛ of the2system
weight .of878 (lb/ft.375
342
water,designer. ) ⎞DisCalc−1.0
TM
does not perform this type of calculation.
Kv = ⎜⎛0.9935 + 2.0878 + 342 . 75 ⎟ ⎞ , viscosity correction factor
R 0.5 342 R ⎞1.5 ⎠ ⎟ , viscosity correction factor
−1 .0
Kv to ⎝⎜ 0.9935 2+.878 + .75
.5 1.5
Characteristics of the Resistance = ⎛Flow Method
Kv = ⎜ 0⎝.9935 + R+ R⎟ ,⎠
viscosity correction factor
not by R R individual
0.5 1.5

• Sizing is done on a relief system basis capacity of ⎠ components
• Rupture disc is treated as another component in the relief system
• Each device or family of devices has Q(a2800
unit-less ) Reynoldsvalue
⋅ SGresistance (KR) that represents the expected resistance to flow that is independent
of the fluid flowing Re = QQ
RRee ==
( u
(
2800
2800 ⋅ SG
A
⋅ SG
) )
Reynolds
Reynolds
Number
NumberNumber
(u is in centipoises)
(u is in(u is in centipoises)
centipoises)
• System relief capacity must be multipliedu uAby Aa factor of 0.90
or
Types of KR or
or
12700Q⋅ Q
12700 ⋅opening
Because many rupture discs have R
R e ==different ⋅Q
12700values characteristics
(U in
is Saybolt
in Saybolt depending
Universal on whether
Seconds, SSU) they are opened with a compressed vapor or
= UUKA RA
incompressible liquid, there are e (U isthat Universal
bySeconds, SSU) service media. The K values for different media
Re certified areSaybolt
(U is in denoted the applicable
Universal Seconds, SSU) R
are a result of differences in how the ruptureU Adisc opens with different media and test methods that have been standardized in ASME
PTC25. A list of Fike certified KR factors can be found in technical bulletin TB8104.

• Air or gas service – KRG


Use KRG when the media is a gas or vapor, or when the media is liquid but there is a significant vapor volume directly in contact with
the disc at the time of rupture
• Liquid service – KRL
Use KRL when the media is liquid and the liquid is against the disc at the time of rupture
• Air or gas and liquid service – KRGL
KRGL can be used for any service conditions

The following examples will illustrate how KR values are used to establish the flow capacity of a pressure relief piping system.

Vapor Sizing
The following example, see Figure 1, assumes that k = cp/cv = 1.4
which results in a conservative calculation. The example shown is 
based on Crane TP-410 methods. It also assumes a steady state 

relieving condition where the vessel volume is large relative to the 
relieving capacity.
 
Given information:  

• Pressure vessel MAWP = 1000 psig


• Relieving pressure as allowed by ASME Section VIII 


Div. 1 = 110% x MAWP = 1114.7 psia = P’1
• Back pressure (outlet pressure) = 14.7 psia
• Working fluid - air (k = cp/cv = 1.4)
• Air temperature at disc rupture = 500°F = 960R = T1 

• Maximum flow rate into the vessel = 20,000 SCFM
• Rupture Disc - Fike 3” SRX-GI g KRG = 0.99

Figure 1

4 of 9
DETERMINE THE TOTAL PIPING SYSTEM RESISTANCE FACTOR:
Piping Component or Feature Flow Resistance Value (K) Reference

Entrance - Sharp Edged K1 = .50 Crane 410 pg A-29

K=fL/D: f = .018 (Crane 410 Pg A-26


1 ft of 3” Sch. 40 Pipe K2 = .07
L= 1 ft. ID = 3.068/12 ft

Fike 3” SRX-GI Rupture Disc KRG = 0.99 National Board Cert. No. FIK-M80277
K=fL/D: f = .018 (Crane 410 Pg A-26
20 ft or 3” Sch. 40 Pipe K3 = 1.41
L= 1 ft. ID = 3.068/12 ft
3” Sch. 40 Standard 90° Elbow K4 = 0.54 Crane 410 Pg A-29
Page 5:
K=fL/D: f = .018 (Crane 410 Pg A-26
40 ft of 3” Sch. 40 Pipe K5 = 2.82
L= 1 ft. ID = 3.068/12 ft
Pipe exit - Sharp Edged K6 = 1.00 ΔP ⋅ PCrane '1 410 Pg A-29
q' = 678 ⋅ Y ⋅ d 2
= 7.33 m
Total System Flow Resistance KT KK⋅T T=1K⋅1 +SGK2 + KRG+ K3 + K4 + K5 + K6

The Darcy Equation defines the discharge of compressible fluids through valves, fittings and pipes. Since the flow rate into the example
vessel is defined in SCFM, the following form of the Darcy equation is used:
Page 5:
Crane Equation 3-20

ΔP ⋅ P'1 q’m = rate of flow in cubic feet per minute at standard


q'm = 678 ⋅ Y ⋅ d 2
K ⋅ T1 ⋅ SG conditions, (SCFM) (14.7 psia and 60°F)
Y = net expansion factor for compressible flow through
orifices, nozzles and pipes (Crane 410 Pg A-22)
d = internal diameter of pipe, (in)
ΔP = change in pressure entrance to exit, (psia)
q’m = P’1 = pressure at entrance, (psia)
rate of flow in cubic feet per minute at standard
conditions, (SCFM) (14.7 psia and 60°F)K = loss coefficient
Y = net expansion factor for compressible flow T1through
= absolute temperature at entrance, (R)
orifices, nozzles and pipes (Crane 410 Pg A-22)
d = internal diameter of pipe, (in)
ΔP = change in pressure entrance to exit, (psia)
P’1 = pressure at entrance, (psia)
K = loss coefficient
T1 = absolute temperature at entrance, (R)

5 of 9
To determine Y, first it must be determined if the flow will be sonic or subsonic. This is determined by comparing the actual DP/P’1
to the limiting DP/P’1 for sonic flow. Crane Table A-22 shows limiting factors for k=1.4 for sonic flow at the known value of KT.
If (DP/P’1)sonic < (DP/P’1)actual, then the flow will be sonic.

K DP/P’1 Y
1.2 .552 .588
1.5 .576 .606
2.0 .612 .622
3 .662 .639
Limiting Factors for Sonic Velocity (k=1.4) Excerpt
4 .697 .649 from Crane 410, Pg A-22
6 .737 .671
8 .762 .685
10 .784 .695
Page 6
15 .818 .702
Page 6
20 .839 .710
40 .883 ⎛ ΔP ⎞
.710Page 1114.7 − 14.7

Page 66⎞' ⎟ = = 0.9868
⎛⎝ΔP P ⎠ actual=
1114 .7 − 14
1114 .7.7 = 0.9868
100 .926 .710⎜ '⎟
1
⎝ P1 ⎠ actual 1114.7
For this example:
⎛⎛⎜ΔΔPP '⎞⎞⎟ 1114..77−−14
1114 14..77
⎜K =P7' .⎟33 == 1114.7 ==00..9868 9868
⎝⎝ T P11 ⎠⎠actual
actual 1114.7
KT = 7.33
⎛ ΔP ⎞
From table A-22 at KT=7.33 ⎛⎜ΔP P⎞' ⎟ = 0.754
⎜⎝ ' 1⎟ ⎠ sonic= 0.754
33 P1 ⎠ sonic
KKT == 77.⎝.33
T

⎛⎛ΔΔPP' ⎞⎞
(( )
Since Δ⎜P⎜ P ' '⎟⎟ = 7=.62 0.754 = 0.754
, then ΔP = 0.754 ⋅ P = 0.754 ⋅ 1114.7 = 840.5 psi
Pactual
'
'1 P
Since ΔP⎝⎝ P1 actual )
11 ⎠⎠sonic
= 7.62, then ΔP = 0.754 ⋅ P1' =1 0.754 ⋅ 1114.7 = 840.5 psi
sonic

Since (DP/P’1)sonic = 0.754, then DP = 0.754 * P’1 = 0.754 * 1114.7 = 840.5 psig
Calculating the system capacity is completed by substituting the known values into Crane 410 Equation 3-20.
Since
Since
q ' = 678((
ΔΔPP⋅P
P' actual '
))⋅ P, 'then ΔP = 0.754 ⋅ P' = 0.754 ⋅ 1114.7 = 840.5 psi
=Δ7P.62 '
P,' 1then ΔP = 0.754 ⋅ P11 = 0.754 ⋅ 1114.7 = 840.5 psi
d 2 =Δ7P.⋅62
Y11⋅actual
q = 678 ⋅ Y ⋅ d
'm 2

KK⋅ T⋅1T⋅1 SG
⋅ SG
1
m

2 840.5 ⋅ 1114.7
qqm''m' ==678
'
.680⋅ (⋅3(.3068
678⋅ ⋅00.680 ΔPP)⋅2⋅)PP11' ' 7.33 ⋅ 960 ⋅ 1
.068 840.5 ⋅ 1114.7
Δ
qqmm' ==678678⋅⋅YY ⋅⋅dd 2
2
7.33 ⋅ 960 ⋅ 1
qq' m ==50 50,074 SCFM
,074SCFM KK ⋅⋅TT11⋅⋅SG SG
m
840..55⋅⋅1114
840 1114..77
qm' m ==678 VIII,⋅⋅((Division
068))2 1, paragraph UG-127(a)(2), also requires that the calculated system capacity using
' 2
The ASME Pressure Vessel qCode, 678 ⋅⋅00..680
Section 680 33..068
the resistance to flow method must also be multiplied by77a..33 33 960
⋅⋅960
factor 1 or less to account for uncertainties inherent with this method.
of⋅⋅10.90
qq' m ==50
'
50,,074 SCFM
074SCFM
qqm'mm−−ASME
'
50,074
ASME ==50 ,074⋅ 0⋅ .090
.90= =4545 ,066
,066 SCFM
SCFM
Thus, the system capacity is greater than the required process capacity (20,000 SCFM)

Subsonic Flow Case qqmm−−ASME


'' 50,,074
=50
ASME = 074⋅⋅00..90
90==45
45,,066
066SCFM
SCFM
In the case where the flow is subsonic, or (DP/P’1)sonic > (DP/P’1)actual , simply read the value of
Yactual from Crane 410 chart A-22, Substitute (DP/P’1)actual and Yactual into the calculations

6 of 9
LIQUID SIZING
For this example Figure 2 is assumed, water will be considered the flow media. The example shown is based on Crane TP-410 methods. It
also assumes a steady state relieving condition where the vessel volume is large relative to the relieving capacity.

Given information: 


• Pressure vessel MAWP = 500 psig 
• Relieving pressure as allowed by

ASME Section VIII Div. 1 = 110% x MAWP = 550 psig = P1 

• Back pressure (outlet pressure) = 1 psig = P2
• Working fluid - water
• Temperature = 70°F 
• Maximum flow rate into the vessel = 50 ft3/min 
 
• Rupture disc - Fike 2” SRL-GI → KRGL = 0.59

From Crane 410:  



“Bernoulli’s Theorem is a means of expressing the application of
the law of conservation of energy to the flow of fluids in a conduit
(piping). The total energy at any particular point, above some
arbitrary horizontal datum plane, is equal to the sum of the 
elevation head (Z), the pressure head (P), the velocity head (V). 

In real applications, there are energy losses in piping systems


between states (or location) 1 and 2. Those losses are accounted Page 7
for in the term Page
hL, which
77 are predominately frictional head losses.
Page
The energy balance is then expressed:
144 ⋅ P1 V12 144 ⋅ P2 V22
Z1 + + = Z2 + + + hL
144
144 ⋅⋅PP1 VV122 144
144⋅ ⋅PP VV22 2 ρ1 2⋅ g Figureρ22 2⋅ g
ZZ1 ++ 1+ 1 = Z + 2 2+
+2 ⋅ g2 ++hhL L
1 ρρ1 +22⋅ ⋅gg = Z2 2 + ρρ2 2⋅ g
Crane Equation
Page 71-3 1 2

Z1 and Z2 = elevation head at states 1 and 2 (ft)


144 ⋅ P V12 144 ⋅ P2 V22
Z1 + Z and1 Z + ==Z 2 + elevation hL 1 and P21(ft)
+ head at+ states and P2 = pressure at states 1 and 2 (psig)
Z1ρ1 1and Z222 ⋅ g = ρ2
elevation ⋅ g at states 1 andV12and
2head (ft) V2 = velocity at states 1 and 2 (ft/sec)
PP1 and P2 == pressure
pressureatatstates
states11andand22(psig)
1 and P2 (psig)
ρ1 and ρ2 = fluid density at states 1 and 2 (lb/ft3)
VV1 and V = velocity
velocity at states 1 and22(ft/sec)
at states 1 and
1 and V2 = (ft/sec)
2
g 3 = acceleration due to gravity (32.2 ft/sec2)
ρρ1 and ρ2 == fluid
fluiddensity
densityatatstates
states11and
and22h(lb/ft )3
1 and ρ2 L(lb/ft ) 2 = frictional head loss (ft)
g = acceleration due to gravity (32.2 ft/sec )2)
Z1 and h g
ZL2 = =
elevation acceleration
head at states due
1 and to gravity
2 (ft) (32.2 ft/sec
= frictional head loss (ft)
P1 and Ph2L = = at frictional
pressure states 1 andhead loss (ft)
2 (psig)
1 and V2 example,
As in theVprevious = velocity
head at states
losses 1 and
due to 2 (ft/sec)
friction in the piping and the head losses due to fittings are proportional to the sum of
1 and ρ2
the flow ρresistances: = fluid density at states 1 and 2 (lb/ft3) hL = ∑ K
g hhL ==∑∑=KK acceleration due to gravity (32.2 ft/sec2)
hL L = frictional head loss (ft)
Since the acutal head loss is velocity dependent, ⎛ V2 ⎞
hL = ∑ K ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
hL = ∑ K ⎛ V 22 ⎞ ⎝ 2⋅ g ⎠
hL = ∑ K ⎜⎜⎛ V ⎟⎟⎞
hL = ∑ K⎝⎜⎜2 ⋅ g ⎠⎟⎟
⎝ 2⋅ g ⎠
⎛ V2 ⎞
hL = ∑ K ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎝ 2⋅ g ⎠

7 of 9
Frictional loss coefficients and fitting loss coefficients for the example are as follows:

Piping Component or Feature Flow Resistance Value (K) Reference


Piping Frictional Losses
K=fL/D; f = .019 (Crane 410 Pg A-26)
1 ft of 2” Sch. 40 Pipe K1’ pipe = 0.11
L = 1 ft, ID = 2.067/12 ft
K=fL/D; f = .019 (Crane 410 Pg A-26)
20 ft of 2: Sch. 40 Pipe K20’ pipe = 2.21
L = 20 ft, ID = 2.067/12 ft
K=fL/D; f = .019 (Crane 410 Pg A-26)
40 ft of 2” Sch. 40 Pipe K40’ pipe = 4.41
L = 40 ft, ID = 2.067/12 ft
Fitting Losses
Entrance - r/d = 0.10 Kent - 0.09 Crane 410 Pg A-29
Fike 2” SRL - GI Rupture Disc KRGL = 0.59 National Board Cert. No. FIK-M80031
2” Sch. 40 Standard 90° Elbow Kel = 0.57 Crane 410 Pg A-29
Pipe Page 8 Edged
exit - Sharp Kexit = 1.00 Crane 410 Pg A-29
Page 8
Total Losses KT = 8.98
Page 8
Thus, Page 8
⎛ V2 ⎞
hL = 8.98⎜⎜ ⎛ V 2⎟⎟ ⎞
hL = 8.98 ⎛⎝ ⎜2V⋅ 2g ⎞⎠ ⎟⎟
hL = 8.98⎜⎜⎛⎜⎝ V2 ⋅2 g⎟⎟ ⎞⎠
⋅ g ⎠⎟
= =8.98⎝0⎜2ft/sec
Vh conditions:
Other known L
vessel ⎜ ⎟
Zvessel = 0⎝ft2 ⋅ g ⎠
Vvessel = 0 ft/sec
ZVvessel = 01 ft/sec
ft + 20 ft = 21 ft = elevation change of piping
P Z vessel ==
ZVvessel 000ft ft
ft/sec
vessel =
exit ft/sec
ρZZ vessel ==
Z1vessel
vessel =
1ρ021ft=ftft + 20
+62.3
20 =ft21
ftlb/ft 3= 21 ft = elevation change of piping
ft =water
for elevation change
at room of piping
temperature
PP exit ==
Zvessel
exit = 010ft/secft/sec
ft + 20 ft =3 213 ft = elevation change of piping
ρρ11 == ρ2ρ=2 = 62.3
62.3 lb/ftlb/ft
for for water
water at room
at room temperature
temperature
Pexit = 0 ft/sec
ρ1 = ρ2 = 62.3 lb/ft3 for water2 at room
⎡ temperature
⎛ V22 ⎞⎤
144
Substituting0 values 550Equation 1-3,
⋅into V2
+ + 0 = 21 + 0 + + ⎢8.98 ⋅ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟⎟⎥
62⋅ .550
144 3 2 ⋅V322 .2
2 ⎡⎣ ⎛⎝ 2 ⋅V32
2 .2 ⎠
⎞ ⎤⎦2
00++ 144 ⋅ 550+ + 0 =0 21 + 0++0 + 2 V2+ ⎢8.+98 8⎡ ⋅ ⎜⎜.98 ⋅2⎛⎜ ⎟⎟V⎥2 ⎞⎟⎤
= 21 ⎢
V =144
62
8962
.82
. 3
⋅ 550
.3ft/sec 2 ⋅
2V⋅232.⎣2 ⎡ ⎝ ⎛ ⎜⎝ V
32 . 2
2 2 ⋅ 32 . 2 2
⎦ ⎞.2⎤ ⎟⎠⎥
22⋅⎠32
02 + + 0 = 21 + 0 + + ⎢8⎣.98 ⋅ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎥ ⎦
62.3 2 ⋅ 32.2 ⎣ ⎝ 2 ⋅ 32.2 ⎠⎦
Solving for VV22 (exit
= 89.velocity),
82 ft/sec
V2 = 89.82 ft/sec
V2 = 89.82 ft/sec

The friction factor used earlier in the calculations for pipingPage 9 losses assumed that the flow in the pipes was fully turbulent flow.
frictional
The value of the friction factor is related to the Reynolds Number (Re) of the resulting flow (Ref: Crane 410 pg 1-1). For Re< 2000, the flow

( 12)
is laminar and the friction factor is a function of Reynolds Number, only. For Re >4000, the flow is fully turbulent and the friction factor is
also a function of the character of the piping wall (relative roughness). 89.82 ⋅ 2.067 1
V ⋅d
Page Re the
9 used earlier must be verified. First calculate = Reynolds
= Number:
The friction factor v .000011

Re =
V ⋅ d 89.82 ⋅ 2.067 112
=
( ) V = fluid velocity = 89.82 ft/sec
v .000011 d = pipe diameter = 2.067 in/12 in/ft
v = kinematic viscosity = 0.000011 ft2/sec
V = fluid velocity = 89.82 ft/sec
d = pipe diameter = 2.067 in/12 in/ft
v = kinematic viscosity = 0.000011 ft2/sec
Q = A ⋅V

Q = A ⋅V
Q = volumetric flow rate (ft3/sec)
A = area of pipe (ft2) - πd2/4
Q = volumetric flow rate (ft3/sec) V = fluid velocity (ft/sec)
A = area of pipe (ft2) - πd2/4
V = fluid velocity (ft/sec)
Q = ⋅
4
(
π 2.067
12
) ⋅ 89.82
2

Q =
4
(
π 2.067

12
) ⋅ 89.82
2
Qcalc = 2.09 ft3/sec = 125.6 ft3/min
Qcalc = 2.09 ft3/sec = 125.6 ft3/min

8 of 9
If the flow had been laminar, Re < 2000 the friction factor is calculated as:
If the flow had been laminar, Re < 2000 the friction factor is calculated as:
A = area of pipe (ft2) - πd2/4
VPage
= 9fluid velocity (ft/sec)

Q
Page =V (
π .067
⋅ d ⋅ 289
9 4 = is >4000,
Re = Number
)
.82 ⋅ 22.⋅067 1
89.8212 ( )
12 the flow is turbulent, and the friction factor is now a function of the relative roughness of the pipe.
Since the Reynolds
From Crane Q 410 =
v2.09
Figure A-23,ft 3the .friction
/sec 000011
= 125.6factor, f, for 2” commercial steel pipe in fully turbulent flow is 0.019. This verifies the original
ft3/min
calc
assumption for friction factor.
V = Vfluid
dR =
= pipe =
89.82
⋅ d velocity
diameter =
⋅ 2.067
= 89.82
2.067
( )
ft/sec 1 Page 9
12
in/12 in/ft
Pagee 9
v been laminar,
LaminarIfvFlow
the =
Considerations
flow kinematic
had .000011
viscosityR=e <
0.000011
2000 the ft2friction
( )
/sec factor is calculated as:1
V ⋅ d 89.82 ⋅ 2.067
If the flow had been laminar, Re <2000
V V ⋅ d 89velocity
Re == fluid
.82 ⋅ 2.067 e
12 ft/sec
= 89.82
1 ( )
, the
v
R = factor= is calculated as: 12
friction
.000011
= f = 64
dQ = =A ⋅vVpipe diameter
.000011= 2.067 in/12 in/ft Re
v =factor
If this friction had not been
kinematic close =
viscosity theVsame
to0.000011 = value
ftfluid
2 velocity
/secused = 89.82 ft/sec
to determine frictional loss coefficients used earlier, the
V must
calculation be repeated
= fluid velocity =and iteratively
89.82 ft/sec d = until
solved pipethediameter
assumed= 2.067 in/12
friction in/ftequals the calculted friction factor.
factor
dQ == pipe
3
volumetric
diameter flow rate (ft
= 2.067 in/12 in/ftv = kinematic
/sec) viscosity = 0.000011 ft2/sec
QArated = = area
Qcalc ⋅ (0viscosity
(ft))=- 125
3
v = kinematic of pipe .90 2
πd 2 .6 ⋅ (0.90ft)2/sec
/4
= 0.000011 = 113.04 ft /min
Now that theVQ = A ⋅V
fluid= fluid
velocityvelocity
is known, (ft/sec)
the volumetric flow rate can be calculated.
Q = A ⋅V
Where: Q = A=⋅ V
Q
4
⋅ (
π 2.067
12
) ⋅ 89.82
2

Q = volumetric
3 flow rate (ft33/sec)
Qcalc = 2.09 ft /sec = 2125.6 Q =
2ft /min volumetric flow rate (ft3/sec)
QA == volumetric
area of pipe (ft )(ft- 3πd
flow rate /sec)/4 A = area of pipe (ft2) - πd2/4
AV == area
fluid velocity
of pipe 2 (ft/sec)
(ft ) - πd 2
/4 V = fluid velocity (ft/sec)
V = fluid velocity (ft/sec)

(( ) )
Substituting values,
If the flow hadπbeen2laminar,
Q
Q
= π 2⋅.067
=
.0672 Re ⋅<89
⋅4
2

12
.82
Q
⋅ 89.82
=
π factor
2000 the friction
4 12
(
is calculated
⋅ 2.067
2 as:
⋅ 89.82 )
4 12 3 3
Qcalc 2.09
= = 2.09
3
ft /sec = 125.6 3
ft3/minft /min f ==64125.6 ft /min
Qcalc = 2.09 ft /sec
Q calc ft3/sec = 125.6 Re

Per the ASME Code, the rated system capacity is,


laminar, R < 2000 the friction factor is calculated as:
Qrated
the flow= hadQbeen (
0.90 = R
calc ⋅ laminar, )
125
e <.6 ⋅ (0If.90
2000
the flow had been
the) friction
= 113.04 ft3/min
is calculatedeas:
If the flow had been laminar, Re < 2000 the friction factor is calculated as:
If factor

Therefore, the relief system can flow the required 50 ft3/min.


f = 64 f = 64
Re f = 64 Re
References:
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII, Division 1 Re
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, PTC25
American Petroleum Institute, RP520
Qrated Paper
Crane Valves, Technical = Q410 ( ) Qrated
calc ⋅ 0.90 = 125.6 ⋅ (0.90) = 113.04 ft /min
( )
= Qcalc3 ⋅ 0.90 = 125.6 ⋅ (0.90) 3
= 113.04 ft /min
Crane Valves, Crane Companion Computer Program
Qrated TB8100
Fike Technical Bulletin Qcalc Code
= ASME (
⋅ 0.and
90 Rupture )
= 125Discs
.6 ⋅ (0.90) = 113.04 ft /min
Fike Technical Bulletin TB8103 Certified Combination Capacity Factors
3

Fike Technical Bulletin TB8104 Certified KR and MNFA Values


Fike Technical Bulletin TB8105 Best Practices for RD & PRV Combinations
DIERS Project Manual
CCPS Guidelines for Pressure Relief Effluent Handling Systems

Copyright © Fike Corporation All Rights Reserved. 9 of 9


Form No. TB8102-3, September 2013. Specifications are subject to change without notice.