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rupture disc calculation

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You are on page 1of 9

The objective of this bulletin is to provide detailed guidance for sizing rupture discs using standard methodologies found in ASME Section VIII

Div. 1, API RP520, and Crane TP-410. To assist in the sizing process, Fike offers DisCalc™, a web based sizing program. See www.fike.com.

OVERPRESSURE ALLOWANCE

When sizing pressure relief devices, the ASME Code defines the maximum pressure that may build up in the pressure vessel while the device

is relieving. This pressure varies depending on the application of the device. The following table defines the various overpressure allowances.

See technical bulletin TB8100 for ASME application requirements.

External Fire

Primary Secondary External Fire

(Unexpected Source

(Sole Relieving Device) (Multiple Devices) (Storage Vessels Only)

of External Heat)

10% or 3 PSIG, 16% or 4 PSIG,

21% above the 20% above the vessel

whichever is greater, above the whicever is greater, or above the

vessel MAWP MAWP

vessel MAWP vessel MAWP

Three basic methodologies for sizing rupture disc devices are described below. These methods assume single phase, non-reactive fluid flow.

Resources such as API RP520 Part 1, the DIERS Project Manual, and CCPS Guidelines for Pressure Relief and Effluent Handling Systems provide

other methods for two-phase, flashing, reactive, and otherwise non-steady state conditions.

Coefficient of discharge method (KD) - The KD is the coefficient of discharge that is applied to the theoretical flow rate to arrive at a rated flow

rate for simple systems.

Resistant to flow method (KR) - The KR represents the velocity head loss due to the rupture disc device. This head loss is included in the overall

system loss calculations to determine the size of the relief system.

Combination capacity method - When a rupture disc device is installed in combination with a pressure relief valve (PRV), the valve capacity

is derated by a default value of 0.9 or a tested value for the disc/valve combination. See technical bulletin TB8105 for specific application

requirements when using rupture disc devices in combination with PRV’s. A listing of Fike certified combination factors can be found in

technical bulletin TB8103.

Use this method for simple systems where the following conditions are true (8 & 5 Rule). This method takes into account the vessel entrance

effects, 8 pipe diameters of inlet piping, 5 pipe diameters of discharge piping, and effects of discharging to atmosphere.

discharges directly to

The inlet and outlet piping the atmosphere

is at least the same nominal pipe

sizes as the rupture disc device

does not exceed 5

pipe diameters

installed within 8 pipe

diameters of the vessel

704 SW 10th Street P.O. Box 610 Blue Springs, Missouri 64013-0610 U.S.A.

Phone: 8162293405 www.fike.com

Pcf P

k 1 A = minimum net flow area, (sq. in.)

C = constant based on the ratio of specific heats k

k = cp/cv

If Pe Pcf use critical flow equations KD = coefficient of discharge 0.62 for rupture disc devices

Page 2: /k

k 2 / k 1 r

k 1

k 1 1 r

Page 2: Page 2:

Determination of Critical vs. Subcritical k /( k 1)

Flow per API RP520 M W = rated flow capacity, (lb/hr)

2 W Pe capacity, (SCFM)

Pcf P k /(k K1) D C A P T Z V = rated

W = rated r =flow flow

capacity, (lb/hr)

Critical Pressure:

2

k /( k 1)

P P

k

2

1

2 k /( k

1 ) W = rated flow capacity, (lb/hr) V = rated flowPcapacity,

W = A

rated =

flow minimum

capacity,

P

(lb/hr) net flow area, (sq. in.)

(SCFM)

Pcf P Pcfcf P k 1

V = rated flow capacity, (SCFM) C = constant based

V = rated flow capacity, = set

(SCFM) pressure plus

the overpressure

onarea, ratio allowance

of specific heats k

plus

A = minimum net flow (sq. (psia)

in.)

k 1 k 1

A W= minimum A (sq. in.)k

= minimum net flow area, atmospheric

(sq. in.) pressure

T Z net flow area, C = c /c k

If Pe Pcf use critical = constant based on the ratio of specific heats

p v

A flow C = equations C = constant based Pek = exit pressure,

on the ratio of specific heats k

kKv D == cpcoefficient

constant based on the ratio of specific heats of discharge(psia) 0.62 for rupture disc devices

K D C= Pcp/cv M k = cp/c /cv = molecular

IfIf PP

If P P use critical flow equations e e PcfPuse critical flow kequations

cf use critical flow equations

M weight

1 / krupture disc devices

K = coefficient of discharge disc

K = coefficient = k specific of gas at standard

kdevices conditions,

/k 1 r

KD =

coefficient of discharge 0.62 for Drupture disc of discharge

SGdevices 0.62 for rupture 0.62 for

e cf D

2gravity

k 2 / k 1F2 r =

k 1 / k F2 k = 2 / k1 rSG=1.00

k

k 1 / kr forair at

1 r 1 / k psia

k 14.7 and 60°F

2k =1 r T =k 1 atr inlet

1 r 2/ ktemperature

Calculations per ASME Section VIII (assumesFcritical 2 =

flow) r

k 1 T Z 1 r

F

Z k 1

absolute

r

(R=°F + 460°F)

M W = 1compressibility

1 r

factor for corresponding

to P and T.

M W W KK C

C AA

P A M

P P P use 1.0 if unknown.

Critical

W K D Flow:

C A P D

T T735M F KPDe M PP Pre = r = P e

r Z =2

D e

Z

T Z W KD C A P Pr = eP

T ZV P T Z M P = setP pressure P

plus overpressureplus allowance plus

A P = set pressure plus overpressureatmospheric = plus pressure

allowance pressureset overpressure allowance plus

K D PPpressure

Pe (psia) P = set

(psia)

W T Z 4645 F2 atmospheric pressure

atmospheric plus overpressure

pressure (psia) allowance plus

A

W T Z A W T Z Pe = exit pressure,atmospheric (psia) pressure (psia)

KD C P M A K D CW P M T ZPe V= exit pressure, (psia) M = molecular

T Z SG Pe = weight exit pressure, (psia)

A K C P A M M = molecular weight SG = specific P e =

M conditions,exit

gravity of pressure,

gas

= molecular weight at standard (psia)conditions,

Calculation per API RP520 DK C P SG F

M864 =2 K

specific

D P Peof gas at standard

Pgravity M

SG=1.00 ==formolecular

air at 14.7 psia weight and 60°F

D

SG=1.00 for air at 14.7T psia and SG specific gravity of+ gas at standard conditions,

= absolute SG60°F =temperature

specific

SG=1.00

atgravity

inlet (R=°F

for of at

air

460°F)

gas14.7

at standard andconditions,

Subcritical Flow: Critical

T Flow:

= absolute temperatureZ at inlet (R=°F + 460°F)

= compressibility factor for corresponding to Ppsia

and

andT.60°F

60°F

W TZ Z= compressibility factor for corresponding T

SG=1.00

P and T.for air at 14.7 psia

W A

T Z W T Z use

T

1.0 =

if toabsolute

unknown. temperature at inlet (R=°F + 460°F)

A 735 F2 K D AM PP Pe use 1.0 if unknown. = absolute temperature at

Z = compressibility factor for corresponding to P and T.

inlet (R=°F + 460°F)

735 F2 K D M PP Pe WW K T C PZ M Z = compressibility factor for corresponding to P and T.

A A V T ZD MT Z use1.0

1.0if ifunknown.

unknown.

V T Z AM735735 F 2F K D PM

F2 2 K K M

D P

V P

PTP

PZPMPPee use

A 4645 DA e

4645 F2 K D PP Pe 6.32 K D C P

VVV T ZT T

SG ZZ M M

V T Z ASG

A

A864 F K PP V P T Z SG

A 4645 2F

4645 2F2 KD KAD P PP Pe

Pe P

864 F2 K D PP Pe D

1.175 K D eC P

VV TT ZZ SG

SG

A

A W

A 864

864 F TKDDZ PPP

2F2 K PPPee

TABLE 1W

T Z KD C P M TABLE 2

A Constants

Gas Gas Flow Constant C for Sonic Flow STEAM SIZING

K C P M

D V T Z M

A

V T Z M 6.32 WKD C PT Z

A W k = cTp/c vZ

Molecular k C k C

A Gas or Vapor

6.32 K D C P AWeight

A K K DC C

V T ZP

P SG

28.971.D175 K C

MM 1.00 315 1.40 356

V Air

T Z SG P

1.40 1.02 318 1.42 358

A Acetic Acid 60 V T Z1.15 M

D

175 K D C P

1.Acetylene A V T Z 1.26

A26.04

M 1.04 320 1.44 360

6.32 K D C P

Ammonia 6.32

17.03 K D 1.33

CP 1.06 322 1.46 361

Argon 40 V T Z1.67 SG

A V T Z SG 1.08 325 1.48 363

Benzene A 78.1

1.175 K D1.12 C P

N-Butane 1.175 K D1.094

58.12 C P 1.10 327 1.50 365

ISO- Butane 58.12 1.094

1.12 329 1.52 366

Butane 56.1 1.10

Carbon Monoxide 28 1.40 1.14 331 1.54 368

Carbon Disulfide 76 1.21

1.16 333 1.56 369

Carbon Dioxide 44.01 1.30

Chlorine 70.9 1.36 1.18 335 1.58 371

Cyclohexane 84.16 1.09 1.20 337 1.60 373

Ethane 30.07 1.22

Ethyl Alcohol 46.07 1.13 1.22 339 1.62 374

Ethyl Chloride 64.5 1.19 1.24 341 1.64 376

Ethylene 28.05 1.26

Helium 4 1.66 1.26 343 1.66 377

Hydrochloric Acid 36.5 1.41 1.28 345 1.68 379

Hydrogen 2.016 1.41

1.30 347 1.70 380

Hydrogen Sulfide 34.07 1.32

Methane 16.04 1.31 1.32 349 2.00 400

Methyl Alcohol 32.04 1.20 1.34 351 2.10 406

Methyl Chloride 50.48 1.20

Natural Gas (Avg.) 19 1.27 1.36 352 2.20 412

Nitric Acid 30 1.40 1.38 354

Nitrogen 28 1.404

Oxygen 32 1.40

Pentane 72.15 1.07

Propane 44.09 1.13

Sulfur Dioxide 64.06 1.29

Water Vapor 18.02 1.324

2 of 9

W

A=

51.5 ⋅ P ⋅ K D ⋅ K N

W

A=

STEAM SIZING 51.5 ⋅ P ⋅ K D ⋅ K N ⋅ K SH

Calculation per

PageASME

3: Section VIII

Steam:

W = 51

Page 3: .5 ⋅ A ⋅ P ⋅ K D ⋅ K N KN = Correction factor for steam

W K N = when P ≤ 1500 psia

W

A == 51.5 ⋅ A ⋅ P ⋅ K D ⋅ K N

51.5 ⋅ P ⋅ K D ⋅ K N ⎛ 0.1906 P − 1000 ⎞

W KN = ⎜ ⎟ when P > 1500 psia and P ≤ 3200 psia

A= ⎝ 0.2292 P − 1061 ⎠

Calculation per API 5 ⋅ P ⋅ KWD ⋅ K N

51.RP520

A= K SH = See Table 3 for superheat steam correction factors. For saturated steam use 1.0.

Steam: 51.5 ⋅ P ⋅ K D ⋅ K N ⋅ K SH

W

A=

51.5 ⋅ P ⋅ K D ⋅ K N ⋅ K SH

K N = Correction factor for steam

K = when P ≤ 1500 psia

K NN = Correction factor for steam

TABLE 3 ⎛ 0.1906 P − 1000 ⎞

K NN = Factors,

Superheat Correction ⎜

when P K≤SH1500

(API RP520 Part P

psia⎟ when > 15009)psia and P ≤ 3200 psia

1 Table

⎝ 0.2292 P − 1061 ⎠

Burst K 19063Pfor

⎛ 0.Table − 1000 ⎞ steam correction factors.

Temperature °F

Pressure N

= See

SH = ⎜ ⎟ when P > 1500 psia and PFor

superheat ≤ 3200

saturated

psia steam use 1.0.

⎝ 0.2292 P − 1061 ⎠

(psig) 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200

K SH = See Table 3 for superheat steam correction factors. For saturated steam use 1.0.

15 1.00 .98 .93 .88 .84 .80 .77 .74 .72 .70

20 1.00 .98 .93 .88 .84 .80 .77 .74 .72 .70

40 1.00 .99 .93 .88 .84 .81 .77 .74 .72 .70

60 1.00 .99 .93 .88 .84 .81 .77 .75 .72 .70

80 1.00 .99 .93 .88 .84 .81 .77 .75 .72 .70

100 1.00 .99 .94 .89 .84 .81 .77 .75 .72 .70

120 1.00 .99 .94 .89 .84 .81 .78 .75 .72 .70

140 1.00 .99 .94 .89 .85 .81 .78 .75 .72 .70

160 1.00 .99 .94 .89 .85 .81 .78 .75 .72 .70

180 1.00 .99 .94 .89 .85 .81 .78 .75 .72 .70

200 1.00 .99 .95 .89 .85 .81 .78 .75 .72 .70

220 1.00 .99 .95 .89 .85 .81 .78 .75 .72 .70

240 - 1.00 .95 .90 .85 .81 .78 .75 .72 .70

260 - 1.00 .95 .90 .85 .81 .78 .75 .72 .70

280 - 1.00 .96 .90 .85 .81 .78 .75 .72 .70

300 - 1.00 .96 .90 .85 .81 .78 .75 .72 .70

350 - 1.00 .96 .90 .86 .82 .78 .75 .72 .70

400 - 1.00 .96 .91 .86 .82 .78 .75 .72 .70

500 - 1.00 .96 .92 .86 .82 .78 .75 .73 .70

600 - 1.00 .97 .92 .87 .82 .79 .75 .73 .70

800 - - 1.00 .95 .88 .83 .79 .76 .73 .70

1000 - - 1.00 .96 .89 .84 .78 .76 .73 .71

1250 - - 1.00 .97 .91 .85 .80 .77 .74 .71

1500 - - - 1.00 .93 .86 .81 .77 .74 .71

1750 - - - 1.00 .94 .86 .81 .77 .73 .70

2000 - - - 1.00 .95 .86 .80 .76 .72 .69

2500 - - - 1.00 .95 .85 .78 .73 .69 .66

3000 - - - - 1.00 .82 .74 .69 .65 .62

3 of 9

AR

Page 4:

Page 4: AV =

KV

W 2407⋅⋅AA⋅⋅KKDD ((PP−−PP

W == 2407 e e)w

)w

LIQUID SIZING

Page 4: W

W Q = rated capacity, (gal.min)

Calculation per ASME SectionA

AVIII

==

2407⋅⋅KK

2407 ((PP−−PPe e)w)w AR = required Area without viscosity corrections (in2)

Water:

DD

W = 2407 ⋅ A ⋅ K D (P − P )we

Av = required Area with viscosity corrections (in2)

W

A= W = Specific weight of water, (lb/ft3)

2407 ⋅ K D (P − Pe )w −1.0

Calculation per API RP520 ⎛ 2.878 342.75 ⎞

Kv = ⎜ 0.9935 + + ⎟ , viscosity correction factor

⎝ R 0.5 R1.5 ⎠

Non-viscous liquid: QQ SG

AAR == SG

38 ⋅ K D ⋅ KV P −PP

38 ⋅ K ⋅ K P −

R

D V e

e Q(2800 ⋅ SG )

Q SG Re = Reynolds Number (u is in centipoises)

Viscous liquid: AR = AAR u A

AAV ==38 ⋅RK D ⋅ KV P − Pe

V KKV or

A V 12700 ⋅ Q

AV = R Re = (U is in Saybolt Universal Seconds, SSU)

KV A using K of 1.0.

For viscous liquid sizing, first calculate U A

R V

Apply the area A of the next larger

Q = size disccapacity,

rated to the Reynolds

(gal.min)

number calculations to arriveQat K= rated

. Then capacity, (gal.min)

re-calculate

A

required area AV using the derived =V

required Area without viscosity corrections (in2)

AR ==KVrated

.

R

Q required Area

capacity, without viscosity corrections (in2)

(gal.min)

A

AARv == required =

Area required Area with viscosity corrections (in

without 2

2

)

v

RESISTANCE TO FLOW METHOD (Krequired

) Area withviscosity

viscositycorrections (in )(in 2)

corrections

W == required

R SpecificArea

weight

with of

3

(lb/ft )3 (in2)

water,corrections

Use this method when the 8 A& Wv 5 Rule

= Specific

does notweight

apply viscosity

of water,

and (lb/ft )disc is not installed in combination with a pressure relief valve.

the rupture

−1.0

This type of calculation is theWresponsibility

= Specific

⎛ of the2system

weight .of878 (lb/ft.375

342

water,designer. ) ⎞DisCalc−1.0

TM

does not perform this type of calculation.

Kv = ⎜⎛0.9935 + 2.0878 + 342 . 75 ⎟ ⎞ , viscosity correction factor

R 0.5 342 R ⎞1.5 ⎠ ⎟ , viscosity correction factor

−1 .0

Kv to ⎝⎜ 0.9935 2+.878 + .75

.5 1.5

Characteristics of the Resistance = ⎛Flow Method

Kv = ⎜ 0⎝.9935 + R+ R⎟ ,⎠

viscosity correction factor

not by R R individual

0.5 1.5

⎝

• Sizing is done on a relief system basis capacity of ⎠ components

• Rupture disc is treated as another component in the relief system

• Each device or family of devices has Q(a2800

unit-less ) Reynoldsvalue

⋅ SGresistance (KR) that represents the expected resistance to flow that is independent

of the fluid flowing Re = QQ

RRee ==

( u

(

2800

2800 ⋅ SG

A

⋅ SG

) )

Reynolds

Reynolds

Number

NumberNumber

(u is in centipoises)

(u is in(u is in centipoises)

centipoises)

• System relief capacity must be multipliedu uAby Aa factor of 0.90

or

Types of KR or

or

12700Q⋅ Q

12700 ⋅opening

Because many rupture discs have R

R e ==different ⋅Q

12700values characteristics

(U in

is Saybolt

in Saybolt depending

Universal on whether

Seconds, SSU) they are opened with a compressed vapor or

= UUKA RA

incompressible liquid, there are e (U isthat Universal

bySeconds, SSU) service media. The K values for different media

Re certified areSaybolt

(U is in denoted the applicable

Universal Seconds, SSU) R

are a result of differences in how the ruptureU Adisc opens with different media and test methods that have been standardized in ASME

PTC25. A list of Fike certified KR factors can be found in technical bulletin TB8104.

Use KRG when the media is a gas or vapor, or when the media is liquid but there is a significant vapor volume directly in contact with

the disc at the time of rupture

• Liquid service – KRL

Use KRL when the media is liquid and the liquid is against the disc at the time of rupture

• Air or gas and liquid service – KRGL

KRGL can be used for any service conditions

The following examples will illustrate how KR values are used to establish the flow capacity of a pressure relief piping system.

Vapor Sizing

The following example, see Figure 1, assumes that k = cp/cv = 1.4

which results in a conservative calculation. The example shown is

based on Crane TP-410 methods. It also assumes a steady state

relieving condition where the vessel volume is large relative to the

relieving capacity.

Given information:

• Relieving pressure as allowed by ASME Section VIII

Div. 1 = 110% x MAWP = 1114.7 psia = P’1

• Back pressure (outlet pressure) = 14.7 psia

• Working fluid - air (k = cp/cv = 1.4)

• Air temperature at disc rupture = 500°F = 960R = T1

• Maximum flow rate into the vessel = 20,000 SCFM

• Rupture Disc - Fike 3” SRX-GI g KRG = 0.99

Figure 1

4 of 9

DETERMINE THE TOTAL PIPING SYSTEM RESISTANCE FACTOR:

Piping Component or Feature Flow Resistance Value (K) Reference

1 ft of 3” Sch. 40 Pipe K2 = .07

L= 1 ft. ID = 3.068/12 ft

Fike 3” SRX-GI Rupture Disc KRG = 0.99 National Board Cert. No. FIK-M80277

K=fL/D: f = .018 (Crane 410 Pg A-26

20 ft or 3” Sch. 40 Pipe K3 = 1.41

L= 1 ft. ID = 3.068/12 ft

3” Sch. 40 Standard 90° Elbow K4 = 0.54 Crane 410 Pg A-29

Page 5:

K=fL/D: f = .018 (Crane 410 Pg A-26

40 ft of 3” Sch. 40 Pipe K5 = 2.82

L= 1 ft. ID = 3.068/12 ft

Pipe exit - Sharp Edged K6 = 1.00 ΔP ⋅ PCrane '1 410 Pg A-29

q' = 678 ⋅ Y ⋅ d 2

= 7.33 m

Total System Flow Resistance KT KK⋅T T=1K⋅1 +SGK2 + KRG+ K3 + K4 + K5 + K6

The Darcy Equation defines the discharge of compressible fluids through valves, fittings and pipes. Since the flow rate into the example

vessel is defined in SCFM, the following form of the Darcy equation is used:

Page 5:

Crane Equation 3-20

q'm = 678 ⋅ Y ⋅ d 2

K ⋅ T1 ⋅ SG conditions, (SCFM) (14.7 psia and 60°F)

Y = net expansion factor for compressible flow through

orifices, nozzles and pipes (Crane 410 Pg A-22)

d = internal diameter of pipe, (in)

ΔP = change in pressure entrance to exit, (psia)

q’m = P’1 = pressure at entrance, (psia)

rate of flow in cubic feet per minute at standard

conditions, (SCFM) (14.7 psia and 60°F)K = loss coefficient

Y = net expansion factor for compressible flow T1through

= absolute temperature at entrance, (R)

orifices, nozzles and pipes (Crane 410 Pg A-22)

d = internal diameter of pipe, (in)

ΔP = change in pressure entrance to exit, (psia)

P’1 = pressure at entrance, (psia)

K = loss coefficient

T1 = absolute temperature at entrance, (R)

5 of 9

To determine Y, first it must be determined if the flow will be sonic or subsonic. This is determined by comparing the actual DP/P’1

to the limiting DP/P’1 for sonic flow. Crane Table A-22 shows limiting factors for k=1.4 for sonic flow at the known value of KT.

If (DP/P’1)sonic < (DP/P’1)actual, then the flow will be sonic.

K DP/P’1 Y

1.2 .552 .588

1.5 .576 .606

2.0 .612 .622

3 .662 .639

Limiting Factors for Sonic Velocity (k=1.4) Excerpt

4 .697 .649 from Crane 410, Pg A-22

6 .737 .671

8 .762 .685

10 .784 .695

Page 6

15 .818 .702

Page 6

20 .839 .710

40 .883 ⎛ ΔP ⎞

.710Page 1114.7 − 14.7

⎜

Page 66⎞' ⎟ = = 0.9868

⎛⎝ΔP P ⎠ actual=

1114 .7 − 14

1114 .7.7 = 0.9868

100 .926 .710⎜ '⎟

1

⎝ P1 ⎠ actual 1114.7

For this example:

⎛⎛⎜ΔΔPP '⎞⎞⎟ 1114..77−−14

1114 14..77

⎜K =P7' .⎟33 == 1114.7 ==00..9868 9868

⎝⎝ T P11 ⎠⎠actual

actual 1114.7

KT = 7.33

⎛ ΔP ⎞

From table A-22 at KT=7.33 ⎛⎜ΔP P⎞' ⎟ = 0.754

⎜⎝ ' 1⎟ ⎠ sonic= 0.754

33 P1 ⎠ sonic

KKT == 77.⎝.33

T

⎛⎛ΔΔPP' ⎞⎞

(( )

Since Δ⎜P⎜ P ' '⎟⎟ = 7=.62 0.754 = 0.754

, then ΔP = 0.754 ⋅ P = 0.754 ⋅ 1114.7 = 840.5 psi

Pactual

'

'1 P

Since ΔP⎝⎝ P1 actual )

11 ⎠⎠sonic

= 7.62, then ΔP = 0.754 ⋅ P1' =1 0.754 ⋅ 1114.7 = 840.5 psi

sonic

Since (DP/P’1)sonic = 0.754, then DP = 0.754 * P’1 = 0.754 * 1114.7 = 840.5 psig

Calculating the system capacity is completed by substituting the known values into Crane 410 Equation 3-20.

Since

Since

q ' = 678((

ΔΔPP⋅P

P' actual '

))⋅ P, 'then ΔP = 0.754 ⋅ P' = 0.754 ⋅ 1114.7 = 840.5 psi

=Δ7P.62 '

P,' 1then ΔP = 0.754 ⋅ P11 = 0.754 ⋅ 1114.7 = 840.5 psi

d 2 =Δ7P.⋅62

Y11⋅actual

q = 678 ⋅ Y ⋅ d

'm 2

KK⋅ T⋅1T⋅1 SG

⋅ SG

1

m

2 840.5 ⋅ 1114.7

qqm''m' ==678

'

.680⋅ (⋅3(.3068

678⋅ ⋅00.680 ΔPP)⋅2⋅)PP11' ' 7.33 ⋅ 960 ⋅ 1

.068 840.5 ⋅ 1114.7

Δ

qqmm' ==678678⋅⋅YY ⋅⋅dd 2

2

7.33 ⋅ 960 ⋅ 1

qq' m ==50 50,074 SCFM

,074SCFM KK ⋅⋅TT11⋅⋅SG SG

m

840..55⋅⋅1114

840 1114..77

qm' m ==678 VIII,⋅⋅((Division

068))2 1, paragraph UG-127(a)(2), also requires that the calculated system capacity using

' 2

The ASME Pressure Vessel qCode, 678 ⋅⋅00..680

Section 680 33..068

the resistance to flow method must also be multiplied by77a..33 33 960

⋅⋅960

factor 1 or less to account for uncertainties inherent with this method.

of⋅⋅10.90

qq' m ==50

'

50,,074 SCFM

074SCFM

qqm'mm−−ASME

'

50,074

ASME ==50 ,074⋅ 0⋅ .090

.90= =4545 ,066

,066 SCFM

SCFM

Thus, the system capacity is greater than the required process capacity (20,000 SCFM)

'' 50,,074

=50

ASME = 074⋅⋅00..90

90==45

45,,066

066SCFM

SCFM

In the case where the flow is subsonic, or (DP/P’1)sonic > (DP/P’1)actual , simply read the value of

Yactual from Crane 410 chart A-22, Substitute (DP/P’1)actual and Yactual into the calculations

6 of 9

LIQUID SIZING

For this example Figure 2 is assumed, water will be considered the flow media. The example shown is based on Crane TP-410 methods. It

also assumes a steady state relieving condition where the vessel volume is large relative to the relieving capacity.

• Pressure vessel MAWP = 500 psig

• Relieving pressure as allowed by

ASME Section VIII Div. 1 = 110% x MAWP = 550 psig = P1

• Back pressure (outlet pressure) = 1 psig = P2

• Working fluid - water

• Temperature = 70°F

• Maximum flow rate into the vessel = 50 ft3/min

• Rupture disc - Fike 2” SRL-GI → KRGL = 0.59

“Bernoulli’s Theorem is a means of expressing the application of

the law of conservation of energy to the flow of fluids in a conduit

(piping). The total energy at any particular point, above some

arbitrary horizontal datum plane, is equal to the sum of the

elevation head (Z), the pressure head (P), the velocity head (V).

between states (or location) 1 and 2. Those losses are accounted Page 7

for in the term Page

hL, which

77 are predominately frictional head losses.

Page

The energy balance is then expressed:

144 ⋅ P1 V12 144 ⋅ P2 V22

Z1 + + = Z2 + + + hL

144

144 ⋅⋅PP1 VV122 144

144⋅ ⋅PP VV22 2 ρ1 2⋅ g Figureρ22 2⋅ g

ZZ1 ++ 1+ 1 = Z + 2 2+

+2 ⋅ g2 ++hhL L

1 ρρ1 +22⋅ ⋅gg = Z2 2 + ρρ2 2⋅ g

Crane Equation

Page 71-3 1 2

144 ⋅ P V12 144 ⋅ P2 V22

Z1 + Z and1 Z + ==Z 2 + elevation hL 1 and P21(ft)

+ head at+ states and P2 = pressure at states 1 and 2 (psig)

Z1ρ1 1and Z222 ⋅ g = ρ2

elevation ⋅ g at states 1 andV12and

2head (ft) V2 = velocity at states 1 and 2 (ft/sec)

PP1 and P2 == pressure

pressureatatstates

states11andand22(psig)

1 and P2 (psig)

ρ1 and ρ2 = fluid density at states 1 and 2 (lb/ft3)

VV1 and V = velocity

velocity at states 1 and22(ft/sec)

at states 1 and

1 and V2 = (ft/sec)

2

g 3 = acceleration due to gravity (32.2 ft/sec2)

ρρ1 and ρ2 == fluid

fluiddensity

densityatatstates

states11and

and22h(lb/ft )3

1 and ρ2 L(lb/ft ) 2 = frictional head loss (ft)

g = acceleration due to gravity (32.2 ft/sec )2)

Z1 and h g

ZL2 = =

elevation acceleration

head at states due

1 and to gravity

2 (ft) (32.2 ft/sec

= frictional head loss (ft)

P1 and Ph2L = = at frictional

pressure states 1 andhead loss (ft)

2 (psig)

1 and V2 example,

As in theVprevious = velocity

head at states

losses 1 and

due to 2 (ft/sec)

friction in the piping and the head losses due to fittings are proportional to the sum of

1 and ρ2

the flow ρresistances: = fluid density at states 1 and 2 (lb/ft3) hL = ∑ K

g hhL ==∑∑=KK acceleration due to gravity (32.2 ft/sec2)

hL L = frictional head loss (ft)

Since the acutal head loss is velocity dependent, ⎛ V2 ⎞

hL = ∑ K ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

hL = ∑ K ⎛ V 22 ⎞ ⎝ 2⋅ g ⎠

hL = ∑ K ⎜⎜⎛ V ⎟⎟⎞

hL = ∑ K⎝⎜⎜2 ⋅ g ⎠⎟⎟

⎝ 2⋅ g ⎠

⎛ V2 ⎞

hL = ∑ K ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟

⎝ 2⋅ g ⎠

7 of 9

Frictional loss coefficients and fitting loss coefficients for the example are as follows:

Piping Frictional Losses

K=fL/D; f = .019 (Crane 410 Pg A-26)

1 ft of 2” Sch. 40 Pipe K1’ pipe = 0.11

L = 1 ft, ID = 2.067/12 ft

K=fL/D; f = .019 (Crane 410 Pg A-26)

20 ft of 2: Sch. 40 Pipe K20’ pipe = 2.21

L = 20 ft, ID = 2.067/12 ft

K=fL/D; f = .019 (Crane 410 Pg A-26)

40 ft of 2” Sch. 40 Pipe K40’ pipe = 4.41

L = 40 ft, ID = 2.067/12 ft

Fitting Losses

Entrance - r/d = 0.10 Kent - 0.09 Crane 410 Pg A-29

Fike 2” SRL - GI Rupture Disc KRGL = 0.59 National Board Cert. No. FIK-M80031

2” Sch. 40 Standard 90° Elbow Kel = 0.57 Crane 410 Pg A-29

Pipe Page 8 Edged

exit - Sharp Kexit = 1.00 Crane 410 Pg A-29

Page 8

Total Losses KT = 8.98

Page 8

Thus, Page 8

⎛ V2 ⎞

hL = 8.98⎜⎜ ⎛ V 2⎟⎟ ⎞

hL = 8.98 ⎛⎝ ⎜2V⋅ 2g ⎞⎠ ⎟⎟

hL = 8.98⎜⎜⎛⎜⎝ V2 ⋅2 g⎟⎟ ⎞⎠

⋅ g ⎠⎟

= =8.98⎝0⎜2ft/sec

Vh conditions:

Other known L

vessel ⎜ ⎟

Zvessel = 0⎝ft2 ⋅ g ⎠

Vvessel = 0 ft/sec

ZVvessel = 01 ft/sec

ft + 20 ft = 21 ft = elevation change of piping

P Z vessel ==

ZVvessel 000ft ft

ft/sec

vessel =

exit ft/sec

ρZZ vessel ==

Z1vessel

vessel =

1ρ021ft=ftft + 20

+62.3

20 =ft21

ftlb/ft 3= 21 ft = elevation change of piping

ft =water

for elevation change

at room of piping

temperature

PP exit ==

Zvessel

exit = 010ft/secft/sec

ft + 20 ft =3 213 ft = elevation change of piping

ρρ11 == ρ2ρ=2 = 62.3

62.3 lb/ftlb/ft

for for water

water at room

at room temperature

temperature

Pexit = 0 ft/sec

ρ1 = ρ2 = 62.3 lb/ft3 for water2 at room

⎡ temperature

⎛ V22 ⎞⎤

144

Substituting0 values 550Equation 1-3,

⋅into V2

+ + 0 = 21 + 0 + + ⎢8.98 ⋅ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟⎟⎥

62⋅ .550

144 3 2 ⋅V322 .2

2 ⎡⎣ ⎛⎝ 2 ⋅V32

2 .2 ⎠

⎞ ⎤⎦2

00++ 144 ⋅ 550+ + 0 =0 21 + 0++0 + 2 V2+ ⎢8.+98 8⎡ ⋅ ⎜⎜.98 ⋅2⎛⎜ ⎟⎟V⎥2 ⎞⎟⎤

= 21 ⎢

V =144

62

8962

.82

. 3

⋅ 550

.3ft/sec 2 ⋅

2V⋅232.⎣2 ⎡ ⎝ ⎛ ⎜⎝ V

32 . 2

2 2 ⋅ 32 . 2 2

⎦ ⎞.2⎤ ⎟⎠⎥

22⋅⎠32

02 + + 0 = 21 + 0 + + ⎢8⎣.98 ⋅ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎥ ⎦

62.3 2 ⋅ 32.2 ⎣ ⎝ 2 ⋅ 32.2 ⎠⎦

Solving for VV22 (exit

= 89.velocity),

82 ft/sec

V2 = 89.82 ft/sec

V2 = 89.82 ft/sec

The friction factor used earlier in the calculations for pipingPage 9 losses assumed that the flow in the pipes was fully turbulent flow.

frictional

The value of the friction factor is related to the Reynolds Number (Re) of the resulting flow (Ref: Crane 410 pg 1-1). For Re< 2000, the flow

( 12)

is laminar and the friction factor is a function of Reynolds Number, only. For Re >4000, the flow is fully turbulent and the friction factor is

also a function of the character of the piping wall (relative roughness). 89.82 ⋅ 2.067 1

V ⋅d

Page Re the

9 used earlier must be verified. First calculate = Reynolds

= Number:

The friction factor v .000011

Re =

V ⋅ d 89.82 ⋅ 2.067 112

=

( ) V = fluid velocity = 89.82 ft/sec

v .000011 d = pipe diameter = 2.067 in/12 in/ft

v = kinematic viscosity = 0.000011 ft2/sec

V = fluid velocity = 89.82 ft/sec

d = pipe diameter = 2.067 in/12 in/ft

v = kinematic viscosity = 0.000011 ft2/sec

Q = A ⋅V

Q = A ⋅V

Q = volumetric flow rate (ft3/sec)

A = area of pipe (ft2) - πd2/4

Q = volumetric flow rate (ft3/sec) V = fluid velocity (ft/sec)

A = area of pipe (ft2) - πd2/4

V = fluid velocity (ft/sec)

Q = ⋅

4

(

π 2.067

12

) ⋅ 89.82

2

Q =

4

(

π 2.067

⋅

12

) ⋅ 89.82

2

Qcalc = 2.09 ft3/sec = 125.6 ft3/min

Qcalc = 2.09 ft3/sec = 125.6 ft3/min

8 of 9

If the flow had been laminar, Re < 2000 the friction factor is calculated as:

If the flow had been laminar, Re < 2000 the friction factor is calculated as:

A = area of pipe (ft2) - πd2/4

VPage

= 9fluid velocity (ft/sec)

Q

Page =V (

π .067

⋅ d ⋅ 289

9 4 = is >4000,

Re = Number

)

.82 ⋅ 22.⋅067 1

89.8212 ( )

12 the flow is turbulent, and the friction factor is now a function of the relative roughness of the pipe.

Since the Reynolds

From Crane Q 410 =

v2.09

Figure A-23,ft 3the .friction

/sec 000011

= 125.6factor, f, for 2” commercial steel pipe in fully turbulent flow is 0.019. This verifies the original

ft3/min

calc

assumption for friction factor.

V = Vfluid

dR =

= pipe =

89.82

⋅ d velocity

diameter =

⋅ 2.067

= 89.82

2.067

( )

ft/sec 1 Page 9

12

in/12 in/ft

Pagee 9

v been laminar,

LaminarIfvFlow

the =

Considerations

flow kinematic

had .000011

viscosityR=e <

0.000011

2000 the ft2friction

( )

/sec factor is calculated as:1

V ⋅ d 89.82 ⋅ 2.067

If the flow had been laminar, Re <2000

V V ⋅ d 89velocity

Re == fluid

.82 ⋅ 2.067 e

12 ft/sec

= 89.82

1 ( )

, the

v

R = factor= is calculated as: 12

friction

.000011

= f = 64

dQ = =A ⋅vVpipe diameter

.000011= 2.067 in/12 in/ft Re

v =factor

If this friction had not been

kinematic close =

viscosity theVsame

to0.000011 = value

ftfluid

2 velocity

/secused = 89.82 ft/sec

to determine frictional loss coefficients used earlier, the

V must

calculation be repeated

= fluid velocity =and iteratively

89.82 ft/sec d = until

solved pipethediameter

assumed= 2.067 in/12

friction in/ftequals the calculted friction factor.

factor

dQ == pipe

3

volumetric

diameter flow rate (ft

= 2.067 in/12 in/ftv = kinematic

/sec) viscosity = 0.000011 ft2/sec

QArated = = area

Qcalc ⋅ (0viscosity

(ft))=- 125

3

v = kinematic of pipe .90 2

πd 2 .6 ⋅ (0.90ft)2/sec

/4

= 0.000011 = 113.04 ft /min

Now that theVQ = A ⋅V

fluid= fluid

velocityvelocity

is known, (ft/sec)

the volumetric flow rate can be calculated.

Q = A ⋅V

Where: Q = A=⋅ V

Q

4

⋅ (

π 2.067

12

) ⋅ 89.82

2

Q = volumetric

3 flow rate (ft33/sec)

Qcalc = 2.09 ft /sec = 2125.6 Q =

2ft /min volumetric flow rate (ft3/sec)

QA == volumetric

area of pipe (ft )(ft- 3πd

flow rate /sec)/4 A = area of pipe (ft2) - πd2/4

AV == area

fluid velocity

of pipe 2 (ft/sec)

(ft ) - πd 2

/4 V = fluid velocity (ft/sec)

V = fluid velocity (ft/sec)

(( ) )

Substituting values,

If the flow hadπbeen2laminar,

Q

Q

= π 2⋅.067

=

.0672 Re ⋅<89

⋅4

2

12

.82

Q

⋅ 89.82

=

π factor

2000 the friction

4 12

(

is calculated

⋅ 2.067

2 as:

⋅ 89.82 )

4 12 3 3

Qcalc 2.09

= = 2.09

3

ft /sec = 125.6 3

ft3/minft /min f ==64125.6 ft /min

Qcalc = 2.09 ft /sec

Q calc ft3/sec = 125.6 Re

laminar, R < 2000 the friction factor is calculated as:

Qrated

the flow= hadQbeen (

0.90 = R

calc ⋅ laminar, )

125

e <.6 ⋅ (0If.90

2000

the flow had been

the) friction

= 113.04 ft3/min

is calculatedeas:

If the flow had been laminar, Re < 2000 the friction factor is calculated as:

If factor

f = 64 f = 64

Re f = 64 Re

References:

American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII, Division 1 Re

American Society of Mechanical Engineers, PTC25

American Petroleum Institute, RP520

Qrated Paper

Crane Valves, Technical = Q410 ( ) Qrated

calc ⋅ 0.90 = 125.6 ⋅ (0.90) = 113.04 ft /min

( )

= Qcalc3 ⋅ 0.90 = 125.6 ⋅ (0.90) 3

= 113.04 ft /min

Crane Valves, Crane Companion Computer Program

Qrated TB8100

Fike Technical Bulletin Qcalc Code

= ASME (

⋅ 0.and

90 Rupture )

= 125Discs

.6 ⋅ (0.90) = 113.04 ft /min

Fike Technical Bulletin TB8103 Certified Combination Capacity Factors

3

Fike Technical Bulletin TB8105 Best Practices for RD & PRV Combinations

DIERS Project Manual

CCPS Guidelines for Pressure Relief Effluent Handling Systems

Form No. TB8102-3, September 2013. Specifications are subject to change without notice.

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