# NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

ME3122 – 1 LAB REPORT
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

2007/08 Semester 5

Submitted By:
Eng Guoren Christopher (U058767M)

53 2.20 633.40 3.00 40.25 80. the temperature sensors are used to observe and measure the temperature distribution along a rod and surface temperature. For thermocouple with ice-point.00 751.12 69. we obtain.68 1. S Sensitivity of RTD = = = 24 / 24 1 mV/ ºC 1 mV/ ºC From the Graph of Voltage (mV) Vs Temperature (ºC) for Thermistor.17 50.50 60. S = = Sensitivity of Thermistor 420 / 33 12.00 50. After calibrating the temperature sensors. Through these means.3C1 Aims & Objectives The aim of this experiment is to allow students to appreciate the calibration of different types of temperature sensors.00 (RTD) Vout/ mV 21.06 0.78 0.94 40.38 1.96 2.75 (Thermistor ) Vout/ mV 0.80 Thermocouple w/o icewith icepoint point Vout/ mV Vout/ mV -0.12 1.96 1. The sensitivity of a temperature measuring system is S = dV dT From the Graph of Voltage (mV) Vs Temperature (ºC) for RTD.73 mV/ ºC From the Graph of Voltage (mV) Vs Temperature (ºC) for Thermistor.25 Calculations Sensitivity of Temperature Sensors.49 60.53 1. .00 217. students are then able to better appreciate how to measure temperature in heat transfer analysis.07 362. Experimental Results Table 1 for experiment set Temp/ ºC 22.82 2.25 70.73 mV/ ºC = 12.00 499. we obtain.97 79. we obtain.

63 x 10-3 /ºC whereas the temperature coefficient of the resistance thermometer is 4.S = = 0.76 x 10-3 /ºC.50 2.5 x 30x103 x 7599)] x 12.92 / 24.52 61. we see that the temperature generally decreases as we move further away from the rod.00 Channel 1 at 0 mm apart from the hot end Channel 2 at 10mm apart from the hot end Channel 3 at 20mm apart from the hot end Channel 4 at 30mm apart from the hot end Channel 5 at 40mm apart from the hot end Channel 12 at 50mm apart from the hot end (Embedded thermocouple wire) Channel 7 for surface thermocouple wire Channel 8 for surface RTD Channel 9 for surface thermistor From the values.50 1.01 26.51 0.50 26.[[(30 x 103 + 7599)2] / (1.00 29.33 33.00 24.50 1.91 0.12 28.50 24. However. S = = Calculation of temperature coefficient of resistance of thermistor. β = 1 dRo Ro dT = = = = (1 x 10-3) / (2.90 26.76 x 10-3 /ºC From the above calculations.25 1. we observe that the temperature coefficient of thermistor is -52.74 42.08 75.9 / 20.92 24.00 1.00 72.80 32.5 0.00 29.75 24.1 x 10-3 x 100) 4.50 3.50 1.73 x 10-3 = -52.0375 mV/ ºC 0.89 27.00 1. b) Using the Graph of Voltage (mV) Vs Temperature (ºC) for thermocouple with ice point.25 26. closer inspection of the values show that the .32 58. Transient Readings for Temperature Along Perspex Rod Clock Time 0 min 15 min mV ºC mV ºC 3.044 mV/ ºC ( Rt + R3 ) 2 ∆V E o Rt R3 ∆T ( Rt + R3 ) 2 S E o Rt R3 For thermocouple without ice-point.25 0.88 47.75 1.25 0. β = 1 dRt Rt dT = − = − = .30 32.63 x 10-3 /ºC 1 dV iRo dT S iRo Calculation of temperature coefficient of resistance of resistance thermometer.06 1. We obtain the transient readings for temperature along a Perspex rod.50 26.

00 0. in real life situations.00 33.00 5.615% % error for surface thermocouple % error for surface RTD % error for surface thermistor = 4. Using the relationship that % error = Ts − Te ×100% Te .25 27.45 Then average. I will not expect a linear relationship.25 28. y and z direction. the extrapolated temperature. a linear relationship should not be expected.50 24.30 14. and heat travels in the x.25 24.50 26. it is common to assume that heat transfer is 1dimensional.50 26.50 32. Ts is surface temperature. if heat is conducted through the Perspex rod we should observe a linear relationship between distance and temperature.5 °C.50 26.875% = 10.00 3. % error for embedded thermocouple = 1. instances linearity is usually not observed in large temperature changes. the experiment setup only observes a small change in .temperature decrease increases as the distance from the wall is further.25°C. Therefore.00 29. c) From graph 4. Tsurface (15 mins) = 27. the sensors placed measures the temperature in 1 direction only.75 58.00 24.25 26.64% = 4. From our study of heat transfer.45 7.23 4.50 47. Since. Since. Tsurface (0 min) = 23. however in real life.50 24. this is not so. temperature is transfer in a 3-dimensional model. In many.34% In theory.23 75.50 42. However.00 3. Clock Time 0 min 15 min ºC %error ºC %error Channel 1 at 0 mm apart from the hot end Channel 2 at 10mm apart from the hot end Channel 3 at 20mm apart from the hot end Channel 4 at 30mm apart from the hot end Channel 5 at 40mm apart from the hot end Channel 12 at 50mm apart from the hot end (Embedded thermocouple wire) Channel 7 for surface thermocouple wire Channel 8 for surface RTD Channel 9 for surface thermistor 72.27 5. we usually assume linear relations for temperature sensors. Therefore.

Temperature sensors also have varying characteristics and it is important that we understand their differences. The sensitivity of the sensors may also cause the varying discrepancies in the % deviations from the true temperature. it is safe to assume that the temperature of the sensors vary linearly with temperature. As we see from the sensitivity of the sensors derived earlier. Other possible discrepancies can be due to the followings:  readings are taken before steady state is reached. As for the RTD. the surface of contact is large. In the experiment. Conclusion From the experiment. the thermocouple is least sensitive and thermistors are most sensitive. so as to get the most accurate results from the temperatures that we would like to measure. For the thermocouple. thus the response time is much slower since time is needed to heat up the whole surface to the same temperature before the temperature change can be detected. . Hence. Hence. response is the most crucial to decide which sensor is better. the heater tries to maintain the temperature of water at 80 ºC. but small fluctuations are expected.  insulation is not constant throughout the rod. the point of contact with the rod is only at a point which makes it response to a slight temperature change almost instantaneously. the methods of calibration of temperature sensors are introduced. thermistors are more likely to give a more accurate value of a changing temperature since they are most sensitive compared to the rest of the sensors.  Concentrated strain on the rod which result in higher resistance.temperature. It is difficult to ascertain the best sensor among all the rest because of this reason. Although.