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INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11

AGITATION The dimensionless number that describes the effect of wave motion on
the surface of a liquid especially in agitation and mixing is expressed in
A 6-blade turbine agitator with a diameter of 1.5ft is used to mix a terms of Froude number.
solution with a viscosity of 10cP and a density of 95lb/ft 3. N=120rpm. The velocity components induced by the rotation of the impeller in the
Calculate the theo horsepower required if the tank is provided with mixing process tends to induce the formation of vortex and swirling.
4baffles. 2hp. These velocity components are tangential and radial.
A double-flight helix impeller 3ft diameter and 3ft high is operating at Using the data given in prob.15 and referring to Fig.18-17 Perry 8/ed,
30rpm in a 3.2ft diameter tank. 85% full, 1000poise and 65lb/ft 3. determine the power requirement if the mixing system is described by
Estimate hp requirement. 7hp curve. 5. 5 hp.
A mixing tank set-up that follows curve 2 of Fig. 18-17 Perry, 8/ed. Is What will be the recommended volume of the solution to be charged in
using vertical blades of H=3in. Width of each baffle. 6inches. the mixing tank given in prob.18. Neglect the volume occupied by the
A three-blade propeller is used to mix a fluid in the laminar region. mixer and baffles. 170ft3
Da=0.3m; N=1.5Hz. If flat two-bladed paddle Da=0.75m. What is N. When blending two or more flammable liquids in a tank, it is appropriate
24rpm to use jet mixers.
An agitation vessel is equipped with a turbine impeller having a When strong vertical currents in the mixing tank is desired, it is best to
diameter of 30cm. density=1000kg/m3; viscosity=1x10-3 Pa-s; use propellers
N=100rpm. What is NRe. 150,000 When the NRe in a mixing tank is less than 10, the flow is considered
An agitator with a diameter of 2ft and a speed of 100rpm is mixing laminar. In this range, the property that becomes unimportant in
rubber-latex compound with a viscosity of 1250 poise and a density of determining the power requirement is density of fluid.
70lb/ft3. The NRe for the mixing operation is 5.56
An industrial mixing tank uses a 1.5ft diameter impeller operating at a CPI
speed of 120rpm. If 1000rpm, Da is 6inches..
Decreasing the shape factor, S1, the ratio of the impeller to the tank 20% Oleum means that in 100lb, there are 20lb of SO3 and 80lb of
diameter Da/Dt, when the baffles are few and narrow will increase the H2SO4.
power requirement. 90% of the NH3 entering an NH3-oxidation unit is converted to HNH3
Following the “standard” proportions in the design of a 6-blade turbine and 10% loss of NH3 is due to conversion losses, NO in the stack gases
agitator, if an impeller has a diameter of 20cm, what would be the and miscellaneous losses. Kg of NH3 necessary to produce 60,000 kg of
recommended tank diameter and the depth of the liquid in the tank, in 62 wt% HNO3 is 12,000.
cm. 60cm, 60cm. A 20% aqueous sol’n of Na2CO3 and 25% aqueous sol’n of Ca(OH)2
For a pitched-blade turbine agitator, increasing the shape factor, S2 were reacted to produce caustic soda sol’n. Precipitate contains 5% H2O,
defined as the clearance from the bottom of the tank, E/ Dt, the power 1% NaOH, 94% CaCO3. The conc. Of NaOH sol’n produced is 10.97%.
requirement will decrease. A cement clinker with the ff analysis: Cao=64%, SiO2=21%, Fe2O3 and
If the set-up given in prob. 18 is to mix a solution with a viscosity of 5 Al2O3. The MT of silica required for a 300-day operation per year is
cP and a density of 65lb/ft3, what will be the hp requirement if the speed 20,000.
of the impeller is 60rpm. 3.3hp. A cement company uses 3000MT of gypsum a month. Portland cement,
If the tank in Prob. 9 is unbaffled, what will be the power requirement. the MT clinker produced monthly by the cement plant is 75,000.
0.42hp. A plant near Maria Cristina Falls is to manufacture NH3 by using a
If the viscosity of the liquid is reduced by ½ due to heating of the liquid stoichiometric mixture of N2 and H2. The moles of H2 present in the
inside the tank, what will be the percentage reduction in the power mixture if 100mol of pure electrolytic H2 is used is 84.95 moles.
requirement. 54%. A water solution of molasses contains 10% by weight sucrose
In agitation, for NRe of 1000, the power requirement in a baffled tank is (C12H22O11). The weight percent of C2H6O in the sol’n after 90% of the
approx. 55% per cent higher/lower than in unbaffled tank. sucrose has been converted to C2H6O by fermentation is 5.1%.
In the motion of the impeller blades against the liquid in the mixing tank, An analysis of the gases entering the converter of an ammonia oxidation
the force acting perpendicular to the surface of the impeller is referred nitric acid plant indicates that the gases contain 0.066lb of NH3 and
to as drag force. 0.934lb of air per pound of gas. 1lb of the gas leaving the converter
In the use of turbines for low-viscosity liquids, rapid currents that contains 0.00361lbmol of NO (no NO2). % NH3 converted to NO is
destroys stagnant pockets occur. Near the impeller. 93%.
It is desired to agitate a liquid having a viscosity of 1.5x10-3Pa-s and a At a plant which produces H2SO4 by the contact process, a large storage
density of 969 kg/m3 in a tank having a diameter of 0.91m. W= 0.0381. tank currently holds 100,000kg of 20% oleum, where 20% oleum means
Calculate the required kW. 0.190kW that in 100kg of material there is 20kg of SO3 dissolved in 80kg of pure
One effective method of preventing vortex formation in a mixing tank H2SO4. The weight percent H2SO4 in the final mixture in the tank is
where the shaft of the impeller is vertical, is to install baffles. 80.4%.
Referring to prob.18, what will be the power requirement if the speed is Bauxite containing 61% Al2O3 and 8% SiO2 is roasted and dissolved in
increased to 80rpm. 7.8 hp caustic soda to form a solution from which iron present is precipitated
Referring to prob.18, what will be the power requirement if the speed is and filtered out. The cost of caustic soda needed to produce 1000kg of
reduced to 10rpm. 2.3hp pure Al2O3 assuming 10% more than the theo amount of NaOH needed
Relatively, the shape of the mixing tank, say cylindrical compared to a is used. P 6065.
square or rectangular tank, has practically no effect on the power Bio-degradable detergents can be readily oxidized.
requirement. True. Builders are added to soap to boost cleaning power.

INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11

Catalyst used in hydrogenation of oil is Nickel. Unsaturated oils compared to saturated oils have lower melting point
Catalysts used in the manufacture of sulfuric acid by chamber and and higher reactivity to oxygen.
contact processes are respectively oxides of nitrogen and V2O5 on a Using the data given below, the metric tons of rock phosphate
porous carrier. (CaFCa4(PO4)3) needed to produce 6000MT of 90% purity
Cement mainly contains Cao, SiO2, Al2O3. superphosphate is 9530.
Coefficient of thermal expansion of glass is decreased by the addition Varnish does not contain pigment.
of ZnO during its manufacture. Wax is a mixture of esters of polyhydric alcohols except glycerin.
Contact process yields acid of higher concentration than chamber Which is the main reducing agent during the production of iron from
process. iron ore in a blast furnace. CO
Cumene is the starting material for the production of phenol and acetone Which of the ff is the common pollutant emitted from metallurgical
Economics of “Solvay Process” depends upon the efficiency of smelters, thermal power plant and cement plants. SO2
ammonia recovery and size of plant. Which of the following is a detergent. Alkyl benzene sulfonate.
Enamels give good glossy finish Which oil is preferred for paint manufacture. Drying oil
Essential oils are usually obtained using steam distillation. Widely used method for conditioning of boiler feed water is hot-lime
Fat splitting catalyst is ZnO. soda process.
Free alkali in toilet soap is less than that in a laundry soap. Yellow glycerin is made into white, using activated carbon.
Function of thinner in a paint is to suspend pigments and dissolve film- Zeolite removes both temporary as well as permanent hardness of water
forming materials. by precipitating calcium and magnesium present in water as insoluble
Fusion of bauxite and Limestone produces high alumina cement. zeolites. Sodium chloride.
Glauber’s salt is sodium sulfate decahydrate.
Gypsum is calcium sulfate. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
Hydrazine is largely used as rocket fuel.
In a liquid Cl2 plant, chlorine gas with some H2 gas is liquefied, with part A continuous re-circulating aerobic biochemical process that keeps cells
of the Cl2 made to form HCl, according to the ff diagram. The Cl2 sent in suspended growth activated sludge process.
to synthesis plant in MT is 22.7. A global treaty that aims to diminish and eventually phase out CFCs.
In contact process, SO3, is absorbed in 97% H2SO4 and not in water Montreal protocol
because water forms an acid mist which is difficult to absorb. A global treaty that aims to protect human health and the environment
In the lime soda process for caustic soda manufacture, lime is made to from the persistent organic pollutants. Stockholm Convention
react with water and then with soda ash. The metric tons of lime that A global treaty that aims to regulate emissions of greenhouse gases.
will be needed to produce 100MT of 25% liquid NaOH is 31.21 MT. Kyoto Protocol
In the Lurgi coal gasifier large quantity of coal can be processed. A neurological disease characterized by trembling, inability to walk and
Metallic soap is aluminum or calcium salt of fatty acids. speak and even serious convulsions that can lead to death due to
Oil is a mixture of glycerides of fatty acids. ingestion of mercury minimata.
Oxygen is produced by fraction of air using both Linde’s and Claude’s A phenomenon where a cold layer of air becomes trapped by a layer of
process. warmer air above due to a lack of wind circulation or the presence of
Permanent hardness of water is due to the presence of calcium and certain topographical features, such as mountains, resulting to air
magnesium sulfates and chlorides. pollution being trapped in the lower, cooler layers of the troposphere.
Plasticizers are added to paints to give elasticity and prevent cracking of Thermal inversion
the film A stack in an urban area is emitting 80g/s of NO. It has an effective stack
Producer gas consists mainly of CO, CO2, N2, H2. height of 100m. Estimate the ground level conc. At 2km downwind on
Rancidity of oil can be reduced by hydrogenation. the centerline. 63.7 microgram/m3
Raw materials for “Solvay Process” for manufacture of the soda ash are A trace metal which causes Itai-itai disease is cadmium.
salt, limestone, ammonia, and coke oven gas. A wastewater with a BOD/COD = 1 indicates that biological treatment
SO2 is bubbled through hot sugar-cane juice to act as an acidifying agent is most practical.
Soap cannot be used with hard water because they form insoluble A water sample was analyzed to contain 150mg-L-1CO3-2 and 100 -L-
1
calcium soaps which precipitate. HCO3-2 at a pH of 8.00 at 25OC. Total alkalinity in terms of CaCO3 is
Solvent used for extraction of oil is methyl ethyl ketone. 332ppm.
The catalyst used in the manufacture of DDT from chloral and Aeration of water is done to remove dissolved gases.
chlorobenzene is oleum. An electrochemical process used in the removal of colloidal matter in
The electrolytic reaction for the production of aluminum may be written wastewater through reduction of electrostatic charges surrounding the
as Al2O3 + 3/2 C  2Al + 3/2 CO2, 235,000cal of energy (in the form solids is called coagulation.
of electricity) is consumed for the production of 2gmol of Al. Amount Biomes are distinguished or identified by its dominant plant life.
to be paid for elec. power per lb Al produced is P 0.066/lb Al. Calculate the theo oxygen demand (ThOD) of 150ppm glucose. 160ppm
The main use of HCl is in the drilling of petroleum wells and pickling Class of water intended for primary contact recreation such as bathing,
of steel sheets. swimming, skin diving, etc. Class B
The MT of CaCO3 needed to produce 100MT of soda ash daily by the Component of CFC’s that causes destruction of 100,000 molecules of
Solvay process is 93.34. ozone. chlorine
Trinitro-toluene is an explosive. Denitrification is carried out when bacteria break down nitrates and
release nitrogen gas. What are these bacteria. Anaerobic bacteria.

INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11

During which of the ff operating conditions of an automobile CO Process whereby coarse matter (suspended or floating) of a certain size
content in the exhaust gas is maximum idle running. can be strained out of flowing water with the aid of bars, fine wires or
Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 is otherwise known rocks. Screening.
as RA 9003 Recyclable material labeled as no. 3 PVC.
For a given temperature profiles, determine which profile is neutrally Removal of all settleable particles rendered settleable under the
influence of gravity, basically the theory of gravity under the influence
of which all particles heavier than water tend to settle down.
Sedimentation.
Temporary hardness is a substance in water is removed by Lime Soda
Process.
stable.1 The alkalinity of wastewater is due to the presence of the following
From question no. 15, estimate the ground level conc. At 2km except dissolved CO2.
downwind, 0.1 km off the centerline. 60microgram/m3 The amount of chlorine available in water after the disinfection is called
Gas responsible for the rotten egg of waste water.Hydrogen sulfide. residual chlorine.
Generic term used to describe the particulate matter carried in the The liquid produced when water percolates through any permeable
effluent gases from furnaces burning fossil fuels fly ash. material. leachate
Hardness of water is usually expressed as parts per million of CaCO3. The permissible color for domestic water supply in ppm is 20.
If the three-day BOD (BOD3 ) of a raw sewage is 55ppm (k=0.55/day), The pH of a water sample was found to be 6.3. The bicarbonate was
what is the ultimate BOD. 68ppm measured to be 2.1x10-3 M. Calculate the total carbonate if pKa1 and pka2
Insufficient washing of sand grains in a rapid sand filter causes mud are 3.3 and 10.33, respectively. 2.8x10-3
balls. The process of killing infective bacteria in water is called sterilization.
Involves the accumulation of trace metals through each species of the The process where more harmful substances are produced from less
food chain. Biomagnification. harmful ones. Synergism.
It is a phenomenon that results in the overabundance in the algae growth The red brownish color of water is due to the presence of dissolved
in bodies of water. It is also the natural process of nutrient enrichment impurities of iron and manganese.
that occurs over time in a body of water. Eutrophication. The resistance of water to the passage of light through it is a measure of
It is a very unstable gas used for disinfection, a very powerful oxidant the turbidity.
capable of oxidizing 200 to 300 times more than chlorine and can reduce The total solids in water are due to the presence of suspended and
complex taste, odor and color ozone. dissolved solids.
It is defined as the controlled decomposition of organic materials, such These are accumulated solids removed from separation equipment such
as leaves, grass, and food scraps. composting as settling tanks and clarifiers. sludge.
It is defined as the role of the organisms in the community. Niche. These are closed compartments that use gravitational force to extract
It is described as the cloud of air pollution trapped by thermal inversion. dust and mist and typically used only for larger particles. Settling
smog chamber
It is used as bonding agents in building and furniture construction which These organisms feed on the waste of the ecosystem. Detritivores.
may cause drowsiness, nausea and headaches when exposed to low level These reddish brown oxides in concentrated form may produce an
concentration. formaldehyde abnormal accumulation of fluids in the lungs. NOx
Legislation that presents the revised water usage and classification. This provides the blueprint for action towards sustainable development
DENR AO no. 34. Agenda 21
Maximum allowable concentration of CO2 in air for safe working is Total uptake of chemicals by an organism from food items as well as via
5000 ppm. mass transport of dissolved chemicals. Bioaccumulation.
Most aquatic organisms can survive in pH range of about 6 to 9. Type of recycling that involves recovery of chemicals or energy from
Most commonly used coagulating agent. Aluminum sulfate. post-consumer waste materials. tertiary
Nitrates more than 50ppm in water leads to a disease called Type of wastewater treatment that employs biological methods to
mathenoglobenemia. remove fine suspended, colloidal and dissolved organics by biochemical
Organisms that belong to the second trophic level. Herbivores. oxidation. Secondary treatment.
PAN is a powerful lachrymator or tear producer formed from unburned Type of wastewater treatment that employs physical and chemical
hydrocarbons, aldehydes, nitrogen oxides and oxygen. PAN stands for treatment methods to remove or reduce a high percentage of suspend
peroxyacetyl nitrate. solids and toxic materials. Primary treatment.
Part of the atmosphere where most of the photochemical reactions take Water treatment that destroys disease-causing bacteria, nuisance
place. Mesosphere. bacteria, parasites and other organisms and remove soluble iron,
Particulates (< 1micrometer) remaining suspended in air indefinitely manganese and hydrogen sulfide from water. Chlorination.
and transported by wind currents are called aerosols What is the atmospheric condition when the lapse rate is >10OC/km.
Superadiabatic.
Problem Solving When a sample of water is added to a medium of agar and incubated at
37OC for 24hours, colonies of bacteria formed are countered. This test
Process of converting nitrogen gas to ammonia is called nitrogen is called Total Count Test.
fixation. Which of the ff is NOT classified as heavy industry in the list of
Process where decomposers return back the nitrogen to the soils through environmentally critical projects.. Forestry projects
the remains and waste of plants and animals. Ammonification.

INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11

Which of the following is NOT a physical characteristic of wastewater.
Hardness.
Which of the following is not use for the disinfection of water. Sulfuric
acid.
Which of the following is not used as adsorbent material. Water.
Which of the following maybe used to measure the assimilative capacity
of a stream. BOD.

INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11

4 kg of water is placed in an enclosed volume of 1m3 heated until 150C.
Mass vapor is 2.542 kg.

A heat pump provides 75MJ/hr to a house. Compressors require 4kW of
energy. COP is 5.21

A steel casting 40kg at 450C is quenched in 150kg oil. Entropy is 9.8kJ/kg.

Air undergoes isentropic compression from 14.7 psia, 68F to 180.6psia and
621.5F. -94.8Btu/lbm
An ice-making machine operates cyclically between 0-25C. The work done
to freeze 100kg water at 0C to ice is 733.94kcal.
An ideal Otto engine operating at the end of compression (840F) and
expansion (2540F) with compression ratio of 7.5. Efficiency is 55.3%
An Otto cycle compression ratio of 7.5 operates at 14.2psia and 85F. The
pressure and temperature at the end are 238psia, 759F.

From above. at what In a Carnot cycle operating on N2. How many TOR required to produce 10MT of ice at -10C to 22C if losses are 15% of the chilling and freezing load. heat rejected is 13. work done is 27Btu. work input is 3. The work required to compress a gas reversibly according to pV1.15 ft3 is 5150ft-lb.2Btu The work required to compress a gas reversibly according to pV1. From above.200 psia.3Btu. Entropy is 8.3% Steam generated in a power plant at 8600kPa and 500C fed to a turbine. P1. What is the actual efficiency. Efficiency is 67%.23 Btu/lbm . 17TOR If 150 L of N2 gas expands adiabatically at 1 atm to final volume of 250 L.6. 1ft3 to 150 psia and 0.7psia. 1.16 50000ft-lb. 63% quality is heated isentropically. if COP is ¾ of Carnot.6.4. In an isentropic compression.1 Btu There are removed 500Btu/min of heat from 440R to 550R. Change in internal energy is 48.3 is Calculate the entropy of steam at 60psia with a quality 0.7%. 0.100 psia. P2. heat rejected is 667Btu/min. 2585 psia ratio is 15. 10lb H2 changes to 150F and 10ft3. From 80F and 6ft3. heat supplied is 40Btu and expansion pressure.9985m3. Heat loss is -16. Steam is expanded from 700F and 200psia to 5psia in an 87% efficient turbine.10in3 and y- 1.49 atm If 1lbm of steam at 14. 11. Exhaust at 10kPa is saturated liquid. work done is -719btu/lb air From above.1in3 Steam engine is operating at 220-35C and delivers 8hp and efficiency of 30%. V1.95hp.6 at 60F.1Btu/R From above find volume of vapor 0. Find V2. The efficiency of Rankine cycle is 39. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 The work polytropic compression pf air from 15psia.3 is 50000ft-lb. Final enthalpy is 1105. From above.

INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 .

INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 .

000 gram of M combines with an excess oxygen to form 2.INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 experiment that 1. The element M is manganese .019 grams of oxide.

INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 .

if at equilibrium.70 [NH3] = 0. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 mass Fe3O4 = 23g.13g .931.2.256M [NH3] = 1.12 another 1-L vessel ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY is used and contains SO2 mass SO2 = 96g .100M Ka HCN = 7.7E- 12M [HCl] = 0. 20.00267M. Calculate the concentration of I2 in equilibrium 0.45% carbon 9. 0.1M % dissociation = 9. Calculate the average Be 11H  ___ 12H 9 8 atomic mass of Ga 69. mass O2 = 10. 62%.4g of 89.80g.9091N volume HCl = 110ml. Calculate the pH of a solution necessary to just begin the precipitation of Mg(OH)2 10 [NaOH] = 0.518g .36% oxygen . Since the solution of the OH of the metal is normal.95g .5%. the sand is practically pure quartz 110. If the ore is composed of Cu2S and CuS with 11% inert impurity.865.1 combusted mass yield P4O10 = 17.5.0 [HCl] = 0.89 oxygen gives mass H2O = 0.0ml [NaOH] = 0.2E-11 .000g mass Cu = 0. What is the pH of the resulting solution 13 a compound containing only phosphorus and hydrogen was fully [HCN] = 0. Naturally occurring Ga is composed of 60% Ga-69 and 40% Ga-71 atomic mass Ga-69 = 68.0500M Kb NH3 = 1. [I2]0 = 0.20M. Calculate the Ka for HF empirical formula of the compound PH2.0224M . buffer pH= 4. What is the pH of a buffer prepared by adding NaOH to acetic acid 5.742g.2. The atomic weight of the metal 224.0E-3. [HBr] = 0. Calculate the pH after the volume of base has been added to 50 ml of HBr 3.1M Vbase = 49mL. the number of moles of carbon required to convert Fe3O4 to product 0. when fully combusted in . Which of the following solutions results in a the given buffer 0. .8E-5 .0 Ka benzoic acid = 6. What is the concentration of OH in water solution 6. [H2]0 = 0.911 atomic mass Ga-71 = 70. What is the equilibrium concentration of CO. C2H4O.2% H = 15.5M mass compound sample with C. equilibrium concentration of CO2 = 0. What is its empirical formula C4H. What is the pH of NH4Cl 4. What is the pH of a solution 5.7% chlorine) volume OH solution = 1L [HCl]= 0.8E-5 .16M benzoate and 0.92 A metal reacts with water with the evolution of hydrogen and formation of its hydroxide.5 E-3%.9g mass yield H2O = 4.11 mol O2 = 0. What is the concentration of chloride ion in percent in a solution that contains chloride 3.100M V NaOH = 180 ml [HAcetic] = 0.H.0g.4 lb/ft3.09% hydrogen. volume NaOH = 100ml .1 V HBr = 50 ml [KOH]titrant = 0.6. the valency of the metal is 1. wt % sand = 70. How much O2 (in grams) must be added. mass metal = 1 g atom (the chloride of metal was found GENERAL CHEMISTRY to contain 13.2E-10 . C5H6O2.O = 0.0015M . The mass of Cu2O in the original sample of the mixture must have been 0.7 [Mg2+] = 0. What is the pH the a solution 2. calculate the percentage of Cu2S in the ore .5E-5. What is the empirical the density of the mud. 1.00623M or empirical formula. 36.0g . 4 Be roasting of 100g of copper ore yields 75. [hydronium ion] = 2E-3M . wt % water = 30 density pure quartz = 165 lb/ft3 .100.001M Ksp Mg(OH)2 = 1. What is the [HF solution] = 0.25M benzoic acid.72amu.00414M [HI]0 = 0. C(s) + CO2 = CO(g) Kc = 1. What is the pH of a solution 11. mass CO2 = 2.34.0 [NH4Cl] = 0. one half of SO2 will be converted to SO3 13.05 mol SO3 = 0. What is the simplest H2 + I2 = HI Kc for HI equilibrium@425C = 54. What is 54. formula. The volume of hydrogen gas liberated at STP 11. mass mixture (Cu2O and CuO) = 1. mass fraction solute = 35 ppm .8E-5 . In the reaction of Fe3O4 with carbon to form carbon dioxide and iron. a 1-L vessel established equilibrium with the following reaction: 2SO2 + O2 = 2SO3 mol SO2 = 0.5% pure copper . V acetic = 200 ml Ka acetic acid = 1. % composition HC C = 84.8% .10M volume HCl = 50. What is the theoretical yield of SO2 for the reaction of 27 13 Al  24He  30 15P X the given mass O2 with sufficient S for complete reaction.

C 0. Ksp AgCN = 1. one half of SO2 will be converted to SO3 13.56kg.56 mass hydrogen= 0. The maximum number of kilograms of CaO excess O2 to give water. What is the C8H16.2g .1N NaOH= 10ml volume of 0.2E-10 .5 N/cm2.0079g mass bulb with CO and CO2 at same T&P = pH buffer = 5 . How old is a 10. calculate the percent purity of the Na2CO3. produced on heating 0. The half life of 0. with a CaCl2 solution) mass of resulting precipitate CaCO3 = 1.243g volume = 31.40A. pH of the solution 4.2g mass bromine = 3. sample for which the rate is 0. present in each milliliter solution. What is the % Na2CO3 in the sample.1193M V NaOH = 26.9% Cl.33. 1.7 mass vinegar = 3g titrated acid = 0. 0. E = 75. iodide. How solubility barium sulphate = 0. volume acid = 20.825 MeV. How many grams of HCl are 15 hours.72 cm3 of 0.143 bar. inert) = 1.72%. . Express the result of analysis in terms of %Al 27%. t1/2 of mass sample mixture (NaOH. The alkane could be hexane.5C mass H2O at calorimeter = 2000g What are the percentages by mass of each element in CaCl2.5C . the aluminum in the sample was precipitated as Al(OH)3 and ignited at PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY 1100C to yield Al2O3mass Al2O3 = 387.1923N. The molecular formula of A mass acid = 1.2598.08 frequency: 5. What (H+) is needed to dissolve completely AgCN 0.34.00g 0. What is the pH of a solution deposit Fe(s) from a solution of Fe3+ (aq) 2. mass isotope = 1 g t1/2 isotope = 15 hours .89ml of 0. What is the freezing expressed as acetic acid in a sample of vinegar for an end point with the point of a solution -3. mass sample = 253. indicator = phenolphthalein . If 150g of mass alkali = 25.7483g (divided 0.0362g . Ammonium iodide dissociates reversibly to ammonia and hydrogen mass of KHP = 1. precipitate. an alkane reacts with mass CaCO3 = 1. 0. using methyl red as indicator.5M indicator = phenolphthalein . Find the heat of reaction at 18C for CO(g) + 2H2(g) = CH3OH(l) -30. equivalent weight of an acid of standard base for neutralization.14 mass alkane = 2. saponification number of triglyceride = 200 .0kg . HCl volume acid = 24ml. the %NBr in a sample 49%. volume glass vessel @ 25C = 500 cm3 .05 mol SO3 = 0.91 disintegrations per minute per gram 4120 Methyl orange is then added and 5ml more of the acid are needed to color years. titration Case 2: portion 2.1%Ca and @20C Tf = 21.215.953mg .25ml of the acid for color change.00910amu.92 face-centered cubic crystal density = 21.588g total pressure = 1.87E-4 m. 0. 1 atm = 30. What is the specific heat of the metal in cal/g. 15. What is the solubility product constant of barium sulphate. Calculate viscosity of the fluid.34C given indicator 6.46 atm.4 kcl/mol AgNO3 = 45.8E-5 .43%.500g was dissolved in water and heat of combustion methanol = -173. Calculate the %NH3 in the sample 41.75 NaOH). is the molarity of the NaOH solution 0.11 mol O2 = 0. 22. moles alkane = I mole. @40C.2g [HCl]titer= radioactive isotope C-14 = 5720 years mass of sample carbon = 1.5ml mass acidrun back = 8. HCl)= 1.32ml .097cP.81%wt. equilibrium. Calculate the % AlCl3 in the 2 SO3 mol SO2 = 0. if at mass sample (Na2CO3. Na2CO3. What is the value of Kp. 204 moles alkane = I mole.50ml kcal.0010 volume = 1L K HCN = 4E-10.00g (treated with hot KOH decomposition at 650C than at 500C.523E-9.6 kcal/mol @ 18Cn heat of formation of H2O(l) = -68. 2795 times faster. How much O2 (in grams) must be added. moles water = 7 moles . Determine the % of CO in the mixture 29.0091g/L @ 25C MW barium sulphate = many grams of copper can be liberated by the same current flowing for 233g/mol . What is the percentage of the total acid mass calcium nitrate = 11. 36.025M mass Fe(s) = 1. the same time in a copper sulfate solution. 14 . NH4(s)↔NH3(g) + HI(g) Kp @ 400C = 0. heat of combustion treated with AgNO3 using Mohr method [AgNO3]titrant = 0. .33 g/mol) 13.74 inches.431g necessary in standardizing a solution of NaOH.25% in 1 hour in the electrolysis of molten aluminum sulfate 3. inert impurity) = 1.50g sample 7.5 g/ml .67g t = 1.27 mass isotope = 1g t1/2 = 15 hours .9.02mg containing NaBr and KBr was dissolved in volume fluid = 0. Average MW of Assuming that the impurities do not contribute to the weight of the triglyceride 840. The half-life of 0.179g.12 mL for electrical current = 10 amperes . What is the ratio of the concentration of acetic acid to 29.9332g .85mg. into two equal portions) Case 1: portion [AgNO3]titrant = 0. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 Ka HCN = 7. How much faster is the mass sample crude ammonium salt = 1. titrated acid= 0. mass N2O4 = 1. change. What is the % NaHCO3 deposited from a solution of FeCl2 2.2048g (is dissolved and allowed to react from the same alkane 6. indicator = phenolphthalein. C% mass of impure ammonium aluminum sulfate = 759.000 cal/mol (pyrolysis of ethane).gr HCl solution (23. D tube = 3mm Length tube = 78.70%. the solution turns colorless after the undergoes 15 disintegrations per minute per gram. moles of CO2 generated mass impure sample Na2CO3 = 1. mass metal = 400g heated to =96.0133 bar. 1L mass SO2 = 96g initially. mass defect for the triton (tritium nucleus) = 0.5E3coulombs .2N.1000M V CO = -67.115N KOH. Determine its purity AlCl3 (133.04 m3 passes through the tube every 1 minute.7. What = 50mL excess was titrated back with 28.50g sample sp.36g.9. AlCl3. What is the ratio of acid concentration to anion ORGANIC CHEMISTRY concentration needed to produce a buffer of pH 10.0g addition of 30ml of the acid as a required for the color change to pink. sodium acetate 0.11E+11 Hz .25ml (1ml=10. binding energy per nucleon 2.5 volume of 0.08mg. How many grams of iron (Fe) could be required 50. [NaOH]titrant = 0. It charge = 8. 0.00 hour .6E. NaHCO3.12 @volume vessel 2 = sample 10.1002 M KSCN for is its atomic weight 195.1M V AgNO3 angstrom = 3. What is the water and treated with AgNO3 mass precipitate = 429. calculate the partial pressure of ammonia when equilibrium is reached.3215g mass bulb with CO2 gas solution 11. Pressure head = 6. 18.504g time the current is liberated= 2 hours.46. Another Calculate the root mean square speed of a helium atom at 298K 1363 m/s duplicate sample was titrated with HCl. prepared from ammonia dissolved in sufficient water to make 1L mass gas density bulbevacuated/empty = 29.12.3g mass water = 115g .0 using HCN and NaCN. 3. What ammonium iodide is placed into a 3-L vessel and heated to 400C. mass sample (containing Al(NO3)3. and inert) = 1.25 mol Kb = 1.7 kcal/mol @18C.02 ml At volume vessel 1 = 1L established equilibrium with the rxn: 2SO2 + O2 = to completely precipitate as Al(OH)3 . moles water = 7 moles .57. What is the mass of aluminum produced neutralization .5N V acid= 50mL [NaOH] = 0. Calculate the mole AgCN = 0.1N. What current would be necessary to n ammonia = 0. solution) [acid] = 0. What is the wavelength of radiation 5.10 63. mass sample of impure AlCl3 = 1. in the sample.1N HAc= 25ml Calculate the hours.

Calculate mass of flask after filling with gas @ given P and T = 137. T = 38C (heat engine the liquid water forms. kJ. and reversibly Pfinal = 1. dissociates.4 btu/lb.50 cal.0 atm.7. rejects heat) .27.gr of gasoline = 0. Assuming ideal gas equation mass of oxygen gas = 8 grams @ 27C. heat of combustion benzoic acid = -770. What is the electrical work P1 = 1 bar (initial condition air is compressed) @ 25C.8 heat combustion = 11. mass of ice = 100g.76 BTU. The change in equation 31. 128. Calculate the work done by the 0.00g N2). moles of electrons = 3.41 kg/s.28eu.0 atm. coefficient of performance of the refrigerator is 4. What is the entropy change of the system.74 V. What is the partial pressure of CO2(g) in the system in which 1 kmole of water evaporated 3060 kJ. -1192. cal/mol.200 calories per gram T = 1200C.2 cal.0 atm n gas = 2. PT = T = 100C (water evaporates) @ 1 atm .111K T2 What is the molar weight of the unknown solid.1252 atm mass unknown HC= 6. Calculate T if = 121.26E6 cal. mixture. (rejects). equilibrium is established.22E-8cm.50 + 3. the second engine receives the heat at the intermediate VP pure ethyl alcohol @ 30C = 71.00 mol V = 1. T1 = 0C (ice) T2 = 100 C @ 1 atm (steam) . INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 mass of flask evacuated = 134. of the carnot engine is closest to 496. mmHg .755.00 potential = 1. The work done in kJ by the engine if its efficiency is 50% T1 = 20C T2 = 100C electric current = 10A. Determine the change in entropy of the gas in BTU/lb-F - 0.4g mass.0 the data above. how much heat must be removed to maintain a final product temperature of 100F.456g mass of the change in entropy in converting ice to steam 205. The work done in kJ by the viscosity coeff of gaseous Cl = 147.00L T = 200K. surrounding air = 80F latent heat of fusion of water = 143.0 micropoise @ 20C. internal energy of the process is 3210. 2. The minimum work 70. 10 atm and expands adiabatically applies.00L P = 65.K. For an ideal gas. what is the specific molar density = 4. V gas = 1. The difference between the heat of combustion of methane at Psat steam= 350 kPa mixed with water at 15C Thot water = (produced from constant pressure and at constant volume when liquid water forms -1257.0 atm . Find the engine if its efficiency is 50% of the Carnot efficiency is closest to 293. The difference between the heat of combustion of methane at 0.0 btu. 4. a=0. T = 25C . the efficiencies of the two engines are equal.6 torr mass ethyl alcohol = 20g mass carbon tetrachloride = 60g .0167 BTU/R. heated at constant b=0. Find delta U 2. 577K Required 2: From Calculate the pressure above a solution assuming ideal behavior 95. heat content of 70% NaOH liquor @ 160F = 325 btu/lb is diluted with 20% NaOH liquor @ 80F heat content 20% NaOH liquor = 40 btu/lb heat content final solution.2. Find the heat of combustion of benzoic acid in kcal/mol at 25C in a stream of oxygen assuming complete condensation of water vapor to liquid -771. The work done in the process -752 J. heat P1 = 200kPa P2 = 150 kPa . constant pressure and at constant volume at the given temperature when Q = 1055kJ T = 427C (heat engine absorbs heat). Twater = 70F heat losses = 2000 Btu VP pure benzene @ 25C = 0. 0. . Treject = 38C .5622 L/mol . . VP acetic acid @ 90C = 293 mmHg VP acetic acid @ 100C = 417 What is the temperature of this gas 158K. pure benzene (MW=78) = 78g VP benzene in solution = 0. PCl3(g)   PCl3(g) + Cl2(g).07E5J. Find the final temperature 74. Qabsorb = 1055kJ @ T =427C. heat engine absorbs heat from the combustion of gasoline @ T=2200C.4 mixing) 80C rate mixing = 4 kg/s internal diameter = 50mm (inlet and cal. calculate T if the work done by the two engines are equal. mass ice cubes = 5 lbs (manufacture from water initially at 32F) T. sp. Calculate the mass of water in grams that could be heated 10.1192 atm. What is the pressure calculated by van der waals pressure Tfinal = 80C Cv = 7. volume gas mixture (N2 and CO2) = 10. 25C .750atm\ T = 273K . two carnot engines are operating in series. voltage = 10V t = 10 hours. Z = 2. calculate the molar mass of the unknown gas 79. T1 (absorbs) = 1. P2 = 5 bars @ done 5. 705K.50 @ 65.7 psia.689. The maximum work in calories that can be obtained from the combustion of 1L gasoline 3. Tsteam = 212F mass water = 400lb. 0.39 J/mol-K. T = 68 F compression ratio = 4 .3K. THERMODYNAMICS a closed gaseous system undergoes a reversible process Qrejected = 25 BTU V1 = 5ft3 V2 = 2ft3 P = (constant) 50psia.6kJ. torr.2 torr VP pure carbon tetrachloride temperature T and rejects it to Treservoir Treservoir = 300K .3 molecular diameter of the chlorine molecule.103. volume 1 methane= 200ml Temperature= -42C. Find the amount of steam to make the TF of water to be 212F 60. Assume air is ideal gas. flask filled with water@31C = 1067. 40% NaOH = 94 btu/lb . Calculate the normal boiling point of acetic acid 391. T = 250C P = 1 atm Calculate the heat required in J/mol -3990. volume 2 methane= refrigerator capacity = 3140 watts input rating = 735 watts. entropy change during an isothermal process. The fraction of PCl5 dissociated is 0. mole Cl2 = 1.567g pressure gas = 735torr @ 310C. engine rejects heat . helium is compressed isothermally P= 14.00 moles. Copper is submerged in water and after a period of time. The 100ml . calculate the work done in J/mol 3990.9 kcal/mol (measured in bomb calorimeter) @ 25C .4g/L at equilibrium .2E-2T. mass Cu = 5lb T = 200F mass water = 10lbm .0 L (with 3. 6000 btu. For every 100lb product.493L2-atm/mol2 moles of ideal gas= 3 @ P = 1 atm @ T = 20C. outlet lines to the mixing device) . At what rate must steam be supplied T = 27C .510 atm.6 lb.9g .

INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 .

6K to 344.664 4. Outside ambient temperature at 70°F.025. Twater in= 120°F. LMTD= 140°F.INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 HEAT TRANSFER A fixture containing an ordinary incandescent light bulb is connected to a dimmer switch. T= 360K to 340K. Outside air film heat transfer coefficient is 2BTU/hr-ft2-°F. 2.1BTU/hr-ft-°F. Tout= 225°F. 12 and 10 inches. Tcooling water= 288. OHTC= 653 W/m2-K. OD = 4. Rate an exchanger A popular type of heat exchanger for cooling large quantities of fluid. flow rate= 4536kg/hr. Low thermal conductivity Benzene at 100°F and 1 atm flows at 100ft3/min in a smooth 1” ID tube.8 and 0.Calculate the outlet water temperature. Inside surface temperature= 40°F. 51. 21100 Air Tin=75°C. Calculate the gpm of water cooled.2600K. 320°F An insulator should have. 3.8K. Tgas out= 355°F. Increase 16x A heat exchanger is required to cool 20kg/s of water. 118. Heat loss through the composite wall in BTU/hr-ft2 is.5 lb gas per lb water.2 and 0. The horizontal pipe in a large room with ambient temperature= 78°F at standard barometer. 0. The heat transfer coefficient for the system in BTU/ sec-ft2-°F Calculate the inside area of the coil in ft2. Overall coefficient of heat transfer= 2 kW/m2-K.3K.0. 12. Inside heat transfer is negligible.41 . outside temp=78°F. outer surface temperature= 300°F. Find the exit temperature of the water if the flow is parallel.4. The heat total (natural convection and radiation) for 25ft of length in Btu/hr. Tentering water = 300K. 325°F An economizer receives hot gas (Cp=0. What is the heat flux through the wall in BTU/hr-ft2. Thermal conductivities: 0. m=25kg/s. Low thermal conductivity A reaction mixture. to be cooled from 377.27 BTU/lb-°R) and water in the ratio of 1. Hot gas: Tout= 265°F. Tgas in= 850°C.0.380 Composite wall at 2000°F.Calculate the surface area required in a counter concentric tube exchanger.5 inch. flowing at a rate= 7260kg/hr. Temperature of the tungsten filament inside the bulb increases from 1300K. Thermal conductivities= 0.95°C A single 4-in steel pipe. Total Power radiated by the bulb.065 BTU/ hr-ft-°F. 6” concrete and 3” wool on the outside.2 Composite wall composed of 2” cork on the inside. Three layers composite wall.Cp= 2.85 kJ/kg-K. 20m2 A method where engineers assure the existence of an exchanger and make calculations to determine if the exchanger would handle the process. Find the temperature of the hot gas entering.

1825 If a man touches two metals which were kept together at room Water cooler uses 50lb/hr of melting ice to cool running water from 80°F temperature. thermal conductivity= 1.50 being 160°F. Ti= 550K. and 4inches common brick (k=0.Calculate the heat loss per linear foot the. One has to 42°F. why would one metal feel colder than the other. In a heat transfer equipment.46m2 Heat loss (W/m2) by radiation & convection from an unlagged The area assuming it’s counter current. the inner surface is 5. And enter a masonry chimney. od. dirt or scale may be accounted by Because it contains many tiny air pockets of air introducing a resistance called. The distillate is to temperature. 50mm. What is the rate of heat and the insulating brick. Condensation 1 atm. Thermal the. outer layer thickness= Determine the temperature (in °F) at the junction between the firebrick 40mm with thermal conductivity= 0. Freight cost Methyl alcohol flowing in the inner pipe of a double pipe exchanger is is P45/ton. Diameter= 2mm.0375 Temperature of 1420K exposed to black furnace walls at 1500K. What is the overall heat transfer A mixing tank mixes two inlet streams containing salt. To surface temp= 330K.033 W/m-°C. Find the LMTD. 10% Emissivities: 0. Conduction surface. the mechanism of heat transfer where the 2000kg/h of a mixture consisting of 60%wt benzene and 40%wt fluid moves due to the decrease in its density caused by increased in toluene is to be separated in a distillation column.78o Be is equivalent to 42. The thermal conductivity is. 0.1587 The inside and outside surfaces of window glass are 20°C and -5°C.24 °F higher thermal conductivity What is the reason why Styrofoam is a good insulating material.40 at 1500K and 0. 4. Inner pipe= 1-inch(25mm). Outside surface coating= 100°F. average thermal conductivity= 0. rate of gain of heat by radiation per unit area in Kw/m2. 1163kg/h lateral area of the tubes 41.81 W/m2-K 0. Radiation Hollow metal sphere. Inner layer thickness= end. 5529BTU/hr horizontal steram pipe of 50mm diameter at 415K at air= 290K. 877 BTU/hr temperature= 1800°F. Firewall Calculate the heat loss per foot of pipe length.375 in outside diameter). from 2in nominal pipe (2.035 in diameter The main trunk duct of an air conditioning system is rectangular in at 1700°F) to air is equal to 6 BTU/ hr-ft2-°F. LMTD. A dehumidifier sprays 50lb/min of cold water into a stream of air. Hollow sphere. The BTU/hr-ft-°F.05lbwater/lb d. 62.3 120BTU/hr-ft Stack gases leave a boiler. Ave.°C). Is constant throughout the series of CALCULATIONS 1 materials In convection heat transfer. 6. The Find the thermal conductivity of a 0.15m. the air and container through it with velocity of 1400 fpm.6 & 0.6 W/m-K the buyer pay for 1 ton of paper with 8% moisture content. 5. Air at 283K. 230°F A contract was made between a buyer and a paper manufacturer for Metal rod= 10cm long. Horizontal pipe diameter= Glass: 100cm by 50cm in size and 1. For fluids in turbulent flow coefficient (in BTU/hr-ft2-°F) in the duct if the gases are at 900°F and Film and drop are the terms associated with. One end is in contact with steam paper containing 5% moisture at P450/ton on specification that price at 100°C while the other end is in contact with ice at 0°C. 4inches + 5E-4T in °F.5m thick material with an area of gas velocity is 50ft/sec. Outside radius= 1m made up of polystyrene foam. Heat transfer area for a natural convection. hi = 180 BTU/hr-ft2-°F(1020 W/m2-°C).8). P434.1°F through the wall in BTU/hr-ft2. Temperatures of the insulation= 390°F and 80°F. k in BTU/hr-ft-°F.43m2 horizontal steam pipe. The absolute W/m.81 500 BTU/hr-ft2-°F(2840 W/m2-°C). pass through a square steel duct 3ft by 3ft and Dittus-Boelter equation for the determination of heat transfer coeff. Inverse of the total resistance conductivity of metal= 8BTU/hr-ft-°F. The salt coefficient based on the outside area of the inner pipe in BTU/hr-ft2-°F). reflects 80% and 10% respectively.8. 129. Surface temperature of 400K to air at 294K. Thermal conductivity= 0. Sched 40 steel pipe. Fouling factors In a steady state heat transfer through a series of materials with varying resistance. Heat loss through the glass at 2hrs.7W/m Determine the temperature (in °F) at the junction between the insulating Ratio of the molecular diffusivity and momentum in liquid is known as brick and common brick. Inside wall temperature= 300°F. 328 6.20°C hotter than the outside The transfer of heat through and by means of matter. Pipe diameter= 50mm with circular section with walls 3mm thick Length= 150 mm.5cm thick. Thermal conductivity of polystyrene foam= 0.04 W/m-K. Internal The overall conductance for a composite material in series is equal to diameter= 6 inches and 2inch thick. The view factor F21 of a sphere(1) of diameter D inside a cubical The power produced by the heat source. Prandtl no. 24. outer surface temperature= 120°F. Thermal conductivity: k= 0. 24. Estimate the heat transfer valid. diameter= 2cm. What is the total of ft2-°F (5680 W/m2-°C). Outer surface= 212°F. 7890W 25mm with thermal conductivity= 0.95BTU/ hr-ft-°F). Find hi in BTU/ hr-ft2-°F. Consider the stack gases to have the same properties as air.14). humidity of the entering air is 0. 384W/m Thickness= 1cm. 53. hdo= the liquid water leaving the chamber per minute.36E6 J/s-m-K. How much heat is lost by cross-section(16in x 30in) and has air at 15psia and 40°F flowing 1ft of wire inside an oxidized copper container. of an insulating material. How much should melted after 20 mins.524 How much part of the light is absorbed by the body that transmits and Two very large walls at constant temperatures (800°F and 1000°F). 506 The area assuming it’s co-current. 6. hdi= 1000 BTU/ hr.43 at1420K. insulating brick (k=0.5 Flat wall with 6inch layer firebrick( k=0.78 W/m-K 350°F. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 Determine the rate of conduction of copper rod.30kWh Convection coefficient of heat transfer of nickel wire(0. Steel thermal conductivity= 26 BTU/hr-ft-°F(45 100lb/min of wet air enters the dehumidifying chamber. The total as distillate. ho= 600 BTU/ hr-ft2-°F(3402 W/m2-°C). what is the flow rate of the distillate. 283.16 cooled with water flowing in the jacket. 5m2 and a temperature difference of 10K if the heat transmitted during Steam pipe. The heat loss Surface temperature is. Natural convection contain 98%wt benzene and 95% of the feed benzene is to be recovered In heat exchanger the area of heat transfer is calculated from. concentration in stream 1 is 5% by weight and in stream 2 15% by 80. Net exchange heat in BTU/hr-ft2. 320g of ice adjustment will be made if the quality is different. Ui= 110 BTU/hr-ft2-°F. Temperatures: 300°C at one end and 20°C at the other covered with two concentric layers of lagging. Inside surface temperature= 2hrs of test is 2000kJ.08 W/m-K. 1533 per meter length of pipe. Covered with 1 inch Refractory material… Emissivity of 0. 1.214 W box(2) of length L which is equal to D is.12 oAPI.9 . What is the heat loss from the The total heat loss by radiation and convection from unlagged sphere. pipe coating material= 2inch thick.a. Outside diameter= 2inches. 2. At 377K. is 16ft long. 85BTU/hr The mode of heat transfer that can take place in a vacuum. the heat transfer.78 W/m-K.

Lb solute A/lb A&B to obtain 95% A is 1. lb/ft3. 44.39% N2. percent yield. 0. 2294. %CO= 1. Determine the moles of theo air required for the complete combustion of 1kg of oil. reduced to give a final product weighing 1000kg. Sodium nitrate at 60C contains 45% sodium nitrate. 60. Calculate the mixed with the bypassed fresh juice to achieve the desired final %excess air if all the fuel is burned. If the H2SO4 LEACHING available contains 7%H2O and the HNO2 contains 10% water.9 solids. 28C and 765mmhg per mole fuel. how many lbs of the waste acid is needed to produce 1000lb of the product. 110. Initially a single evaporation If the test study on the combustion of the cetane-methyl naphthalene process was used for the concentration to 45%wt but volatile mixture gave a product analysing 7. If 20g of each reactant From the data above. 8% of the product of combustion shows 9. Collective drained solids is 2806lbs. 3.9% CO2.28% CO 8. % saturation is The equivalent of 45oTw in the Baume scale is 26. 837kg/h 100 lb of sodium carbonate in water at 10C to 30C. It is specified that the concentrated acid product contains 27%HNO2.08%CO. degrees Baume.684g/ml. 69. % yield is 10.08%CO2.8% methane and 100g oxygen is ignited is 68.91%O2 and 83. 8. Density of cetane with a flat taste. 20g of alcohol is produced. 580lb. is used. 185lb H2 gas can be prepared by the reaction of zinc metal with HCl solution 100lb Sodium sulphate at 40C cooled to 5C. there is only one exit A pure saturated hydrocarbon is burned with excess air. From above. calculate the %benzene in the bottom. molality of the solution is 9.8g water from both driers is 800 kg.96%. Orsat analysis A typical mud is 70 wt% sand and 30% wt water. The waste acid from a nitration plant operation contains 23% HNO2. 57% H2SO4 and 20%H2O.038% Percent CuSO4 underflow 0. 3%S. %KCl from collective= 28. Drained solids after 418. Calculate the fraction of the feed that bypassed the evaporator. A fuel containing 75% ethane and 25% propane is burned with dry air. 272 tons temperature to 10C.39%N2. 1%N and 3%O. 15% excess air current extraction of NaOH of feed of 80lb NaOH. 5. d) m3 dry air at Roasted copper ore with 10%CuSO4 85% gangue and 5% moisture. How many pounds/day of CaF2 is needed to produce 3000lb of a 60% 92% HF acid/day if the yield is 90% and the rock contains 95% pure CaF2.38%. The analysis of the dry stack gas is given as follows: 4. 80% contains 83% ferric oxide.47%. –. b) Orsat 100lbCaCO3. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 weight.2 9. the juice that The analysis of flue gas from a fuel gas is containing no nitrogen is enters the evaporator is concentrated to 58% solids and the product is 4. Pig iron is prepared in a blast furnace from a hematite ore. Drained solids after 2nd leach is 253. CALCULATIONS 2 A solvent extraction will be performed on a solid B that contains a soluble component A (Xa= 0. Ammonium chloride at 70C cooled to crystallize 45% of the solution. d.67%. c) complete analysis of stack gas. concentration of NaNO3 per 100g water. a.75). 4. of the stack gas shows 7. 7. 49. product is 1%. c.25 Xb=0. weight sodium nitrate cooled to 0C.3lb 1st leach is 1206lb. From here. %KCl= 27% or 21%.62%CO2.8g.28%O2 A solution of gravity of 100o Twadell.71 bypassing the evaporator with a fraction of the fresh juice. From above %yield is 95%. The present process overcomes this problem by is 0.43% N2. the material enters another drier where the water content is further From above.75 moles. The ore From above. 81. weight NaNO3 from 1000lbs by reducing is produced for every 500tons of ore. What is the percent yield.08%CO. S1 flows at 25kg/s while S2 at 10kg/s. 4105. What is its density.91% O2 and 83.14% CO2 4. N2= 85. 103.8%. 1.4ft3.14~4stages. Calculate the specific gravity in and no free H2.2% From the data above. O2=3.5g Zn was water. Determine the %excess air. The analysis stream.24% H2 and 85. The sand is practically pure quartz (SiO2) for which its density is 165 Air is substantially dry.521m3/mol A fuel containing methane and ethane is burned with excess air. The pig iron produced is 96% Fe and the Fe From above.63%CO. molarity of the solution is 7M. 50 concentration of solids. Calculate a) mole stack gas/ 100 mole fuel.62%CO2.63 66%. leaving the concentration the rest N2. 3.81% A furnace is fired with petroleum containing 80%C. Determine the hydrocarbon C3H8. 8. 1000lb pile of mixture of 20% sand and 80%KCl.5lb according to the equation: Zn + 2HCl  ZnCl2 + H2 How many liters 13% K2Cr2O7 from 1000 lb soln cooled to 20C with 640 evaporated of H2 gas will be formed at 762mmHg and 15oC if 25. what is the cetane number of the diesel. 10% CRYSTALLIZATION From data above. the moisture content (wb) of the final From above. Find the salt concentration in the exit. calculate the flow rate of the bottom product.11%. %CO2=10. How much pig iron From problem above. %Recovery is 97.24%O2 and constituents of the juice escaped with water. 9.84g in the ore slag contains 10% of the iron in the ore.6lb allowed to react with HCl.13%.775g/ml and n-heptane is 0.33 A pure saturated hydrocarbon is burnt with excess air.18%CO. 0. if the total evaporated From above.4lb/ft3 Dry air required for the burning of 1ft3 of CO is 2.400lb water and is supplied. 60% H2SO4 and 13% water. b. analysis of stack gas. determine the mole percent of ethane in the fuel. 472 . 48. 3. 1. 16.5% One dried will dry a material from 45% (wb) to 20% (db).37%. The stack gases leaves at 750mmHg. How many stages and how much water is needed for the counter- All the H2 burns to water and CO2 to CO ratio is 10:1. 13%H. Ethylene reacts with water to form ethyl alcohol.64m.57% Fresh orange juice contains 12%wt solids.44L A solution of NaNO3 in water at 40C contains 49% NaNO3 by weight. 82 The CO2 that will theoretically be formed when a mixture of 50g of Percent yield of the process above.9% 18.

INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 .

INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 .

INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 .

INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 .

2. and that the coefficient for the condensing vapor is 2. Initially there is no scale on the walls.INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 MOMENTUM.75x10-4 .7m/s.8 power. rate of condensation = 4 kg/s.5m.5K a shell-and-tube heat exchanger consists of 120 tubes of internal diameter 22mm and length 2. water velocity = 0. It is operated as a single pass condenser with benzene condensing at 350K on the outside of the tubes and water of inlet temperature 290K passing through the tubes.06m/s a shell-and-tube heat exchanger is used for preheating the feed to an evaporator. Toutlet cooling water = 320K. is provided in a reaction vessel. To what value must the water velocity be increased in order to maintain the same rate of condensation on assumption that the transfer coefficient on the water side is proportional to the velocity raised to the 0. based on the inside area. Tsteam condensing= 395K on the outside The exchanger heats liquid at 295K to an outlet temperature of 375K when the flowrate is 1. consisting of a single length of tubing through which water is circulated. liquid specific heat = 4. scale resisitance = 0.0kJ/kg-K. latent heat of vaporization benzene = 400kJ/kg. HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER a cooling coil.52 kW/m2-K. the contents of which are ket uniformly at 360K by means of a stirrer. density liquid = 1100 kg/m3. 357.0002m2-K/W (formed on the inner surface of the tubes). Assume the overall heat transfer coefficient to be constant over the length of the tube and independent of the water temperature. Tinlet cooling water = 280K. What would be the outlet water temperature if the length of the cooling coil were increased by 5 times.

conductivity metal = 85 W/m-K.75x10-4 m3/s. emissivity 1 = 0. Tpipe surface = 400K.7 W/m2 reduced by lengthening the cooler. coefficient temperatures of HC and water. T1 water = 293 K. 24. If the heat transfer coefficient from the passage of liquid over the bulb of the thermometer is required if the error cylindrical walls and the base of the tank is 10 W/m2-K and from the in the thermometer reading after 600s is to be no more than 1 deg K. benzene is cooled using water. the process is modified so that the liquid at 293K is its mass transfer in air is equivalent to that of a 1mm layer for continuously fed to the vessel at the rate of 0. T2 oil = 350K.38x10E5s or 0. inlet refractory material = 0. brickwork is stacked against it. 526m After plant modifications. Calculate the heat transfer coefficient based on the inside area of the tube. diameter helix = 0. What is the . emissivity 2 = 0.318 kW/m2-K be required if the minimum quantity of water is to be used and its in a shell-and-tube type of heat exchanger with horizontal tubes 25mm temperature is not to be allowed to rise above 320K.8 @ 350K.23 W/m U=6. What are the new outlet m. heat loss from the extreme edge of the fin may be neglected. 9.8m external diameter and 22mm internal diameter. rate cooling water = 1. *vessels are well frequency propeller = 2 Hz.25x10E-4 m3/s. 000. = 295K. fed with steam at Take the water equivalent of the thermometer as 30g.8K = 800 kJ/kg. coefficient of heat transfer from the surface = 10 W/m2. mass flow rate circulating cooling water = lagged on the outside. film metal = 6mm. 458. G=0. Uto the bulb = 735 u 0.68 kW/m2-K.2 K. What is the conditions of molecular diffusion. *it takes atmosphere). inside diameter steel coil of vaporization of oxygen = 215kJ/kg. 1.70 = 850 W/m2-K. what is the rate of condensation of vapor.235 kg/s diameter cast-iron vessel = 1m. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 m3/s and to 370K when the flowrate is 3. What total length of tube will K or 0. hi=11. What thickness of magnesia lagging must the overall heat transfer coefficient.40 @ 1500K.0 and 1. heat transfer HC = 0. length tube = 10 so that the two streams are in co-current flow. mass of liquid in the vessel = 1000kg. specific heat of gas @ constant countercurrent-flow heat exchanger. internal diameter spherical insulated vessel = 2m. *scale resistance is neglected.09m2 diameter open cylindrical tank = 500mm.57 kW/m2.4 W/m2-K specific heat benzene = 1. *the oil and water flowrates.. What total length of tubing will be required.8 W/m2-K.5 kJ/kg.6mm. If the capacity = 3 kJ/kg-k. outside diameter steel coil = 25mm. If the air currents are sufficiently half an hour to heat the contents from 293 to 368K if the coil is supplies strong to remove the water vapor as it is formed and if the resistance to with steam at 373K.2 mg/m3.67 kJ/kg-K.28 kg/s.1h) net rate of heat exchange by radiation per square meter taking the Stefan- co-current flow cooler. thickness heat exchanger = 22mm. thermal 50mm of 85% magnesia.86m flow rate gas = 2. What is the required flowrate of water. flowrate rate = 0.4 @ 300K. Twater = heat is transferred from one fluid to a second fluid across a heat transfer 290K. Twater leaves = 300K. it may be assumed for single pass of the cooling water. length bar = 0. film coefficient benzene = 1. internal diameter surface.026 deg K/s rate is 1. mass water = 10 kg. except that the distant face is not perfectly lagged but a are negligible.000 W/m2-K. what will be the rate of cooling due heat transfer area and the value of the overall coefficient when the flow to evaporation.liquid density = 980 kg/m3. T = 1500K (black furnace wall). external diameter heat exchanger = 25mm. overall heat transfer coefficient for the coil = 100 thermometer and the liquid are both initially at 290K. emissivity of Twater leaving = 310K (original cooler).01m2.5kW/m2-K.5W/m2- kW/m2-K.226 Ms (62.238 Ms (66. = 363 K. 324. specific heat 0. thickness fin = 3mm. T1 HC the outside of the tubes by means of water flowing through the tubes. countercurrently. What will be the heat transfer coefficient be. tube wall thickness = 1. T steam = 444K *lagged with 295K. pressure drop over the length of the tube = 2x10E4 N/m2. 90% by the addition of 50mm of lagging W liquid is heated in a vessel by means of steam which is supplied to an Diameter open bowl = 0. rate dimension rectangular ingot = 15cm x 15cm x 30cm. t=2. Calculate the t=2. Tinitial of ingot = 290K. h=13. *temperature is Boltzmann constant as 5. emissivity of refractory material = 0. 200s very large thickness of material of the same thermal properties as the distance between two large parallel plates (gray body) = 75mm. latent heat of vaporization unchanged. 6. *the conditions are such that the reacting material may be considered heat transfer coefficient from the outside surface of the lagging surface to have the same physical properties as 75% sulphuric acid/ What is to atmosphere = 4.5 kg/s.8h. Tcooling water enter T = 1400K (silica brick).3 m. surface is 20 W/m2-K. thermal 293K at inlet to 333K at outlet. What will be the heat loss to the air at 294K. 315.0.26x10E5 s or 0. mass flow rate benzene = 1..50 kJ/kg- Calculate the number of tubes required if the heat exchanger is arranged K.3 mm. a journey of 10ks (2. 0. specific heat capacity of iron = 0. thermal conductivity metal = 20 W/m-K.07 W/m-K. the heat exchanger is incorrectly connected internal diameter smooth tube in a condenser = 25mm. is required to heat the contents from 288K to 368K in half hour. 143. Twater enter = 285K. convection effects conditions as.. *water passes through the tubes. T1 = 350K. Tbar = 375K. = 1. the total contents of the vessel are always being maintained at 1000kg.85kW/m2-K. film coefficients for two fluids = 1. 60 tubes are required that the furnace is large compared with the ingot.25kg/s. what is the value of the overall heat conductivity fin = 50W/m-K. If vapor at a temperature of 353K is condensing on the depth longitudinal fin = 75mm. 12.81 m.9 kJ/kg-K. T2HC = 313 K.3kW/m2 If the original length is 1m. and that the ingot is Calculate the time for the distant face to reach 470K under the same always at uniform temperature throughout its volume.67x10E-8 W/m2-K.5 W/m2-K. = 22mm. outside of the tube and the temperature of the cooling water rises from coefficient of heat transfersurface = 5W/m2(constant). what is the film dissipated per meter length from the fin to the atmosphere at 290K.K.56 kg/s.43 @ 1420K. *vapor condenses on the outside of the tubes.05 m/s. diameter propeller agitator = 0.5 132 W/m. T1 oil = 370K. atmospheric temperature=288K.56 kg/s HC is cooled in heat exchanger with water coefficient = 850W/m2-K.03m3/s. benzene is condensed on Density HC = 950 kg/m3. what rate of W/m2-K. area of the bulb = 0. scale coefficient coefficient water = 0.05K/s. T=350K (evaporating water into the internal coil in the vessel. Tbase of the fin = 400K. Re = 20.78h) if the vessel is initially 80% full. emissivitytotal =0. temperatures and other dimensions of the cooler will remain constant. mean water temperature = 290K density pf liquid oxygen = 1140 kg/m3. T2 water = 323 K. thermal conductivity = 0.136kW/m2. pressure = 1. What is the rate of gain of heat by radiation per unit area.82 m/s 383K. density of iron = 7. Twater enter = 290K.0m2 exchanger fitted with tubes of 25mm outside diameter and 2. 0. what area of heating coil. What is the rate of loss of heat. Toil enter = 420K. What is the overall heat transfer coefficient.78 (oxidized iron surface). boiling point oxygen = 90K. latent heat 0. benzene is to be condensed in a vertical shell and tube type of heat 5.5 kg/m2-s. density benzene = 880 kg/m3.3m.25m *heat is dissipated from the whole length of the bar to surroundings at internal diameter steam pipe = 150mm.5 long. if the overall heat transfer coefficient is for the condensing vapor = 15.7 W/m2-K be used so that no more than 1% of the liquid oxygen evaporates during diameter one end of metal bar = 25mm. 0. 317. T2 = 300K.depth tank = 1 m (three a thermometer is immersed in a liquid which is heated at the rate of quarters filled with a liquid).25kg/s. Specific heat capacity = 2. the coefficient for the water. Tsurrounding = 288K. How long will it take to heat the ingot to 600K. 0. what must be the new length. 165.

Tinlet water = 301K. Q = 196W/m.2m.03 W/m-K as a thick layer to thermal conductivity plaster = 0. 62.0005m2-K/W.5 m2. P = atmospheric .16 kmol/m4 rate bottom product = 29.24. wall = 2.65m. free flow mass velocity flue gas = 10 kg/m2s. If the outside of the pipe in order to cut heat losses by 90%. 77 W/m2-K.7K (0. Calculate the total =290K.5mm thermal diffusivity. area of steam coil = 2. in both directions. approximate radius m3/kmol-s earth = 700. 1578s coefficient remains constant.30 m/s. 1. length = 3. density air @ 301K = 1. x=52. T1 = 295K. What will the outlet temperature be if the immersed coil. coefficient for heat loss by radiation and convection from wall. Assume that the ideal gas law is applicable.120 Ms (33. thermal Tsteam reaction vessel = 393K.K @ body. If the heat a temperature difference of 30K is maintained between the two outer transfer from the outside surface of the lagging is 5 W/m2-K. T2 = 330K. at some intermediate point where 19mm. distance between sun and earth = 150. Tinitial outside diameter unlagged horizontal pipe = 50mm. How heat losses to the surroundings are neglected and the overall heat transfer long will it take when the steam temperature is raised to 393K.05 perfectly insulated. proportion of the absorbed carbon dioxide will have accumulated in thermal conductivity of the pipe wall = 20 W/m-K. T distillation column = 350K. = 40 m2. 62. 163.5 W/m-K. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 equilibrium temperature which the contents of the vessel will reach. scale resistance = 0. diffusivity in the vapor mixture = 2x10E-5 m2/s *the gases = 1.5h) outside surface vessel = 10 W/m2-K.5 times that of the of 20 rows with 20 pipes in each row.25 K. Neglecting gas radiation.7K (condensed liquid interface. outer layer thickness = 40mm. two components.0 W/m-K. calculate the reaction How long should the individual tubes be. T1 = 420K. 0.043 mm Order of reaction = 2nd order. calculate the time taken for the distant face of a brick W/m-K.08 W/m-K.598.24 cm2/s. Calculate the mol fractions and 1. When the outside and and the outside surface temperature is 330K. 129W thickness of lagging. T2 air = 313K *warming the air by passing it through a absorption at the interface = 4x10E-6 kmol/m2-s. 000km.234m2-K/kW regarded as lying within a thin laminar film on the gas side of the gas- mass of pure iso-butane = 7. inner A (more volatile) = 0. overall heat transfer coefficient from the coil to the liquid in the thermal conductivity outer layer = 0. What is the 1. =293K (ambient air adjacent to the furnace exterior). t=0.5 kg/s . 5710K 288K.0T E 0.0 kJ/kg-K. T2 = 380K. Xa = 0.s. 9. dissolves and reacts. what Twater = 293K. to add lagging of thermal conductivity 0. area external surface conductivity inner layer = 0.1m. T2 = 323K. to reduce the heat loss to 400 W/m2. of its value in the liquid over a distance of 1mm. square pitch = 25mm *supported the ammonia concentration is reduced to 5%. equal to twice the pipe considered to lie in a stagnant film of thickness 0. It takes 1800s to heat the contents from 293 to loss per meter length of pipe if the temperature inside the pipe is 550K 373K when the outside temperature is 293K. it takes 2700s to heat the contents to t = 100s.7 W/m initial temperatures are 278K. Values R = 8314 J/kmol-K. If the whole of the resistance to mass transfer may be exchanger be suitable. P distillation column = 500 mmHg. mass flow film. Tsteam = 373K. if the coefficient of heat transfer to the transfer coefficient from the steam coil to the tank is 10 times the .0042 cm2/s. conductivity insulating brick = 0. Would this kmol/m2. how long should the pipes be.4 W/m-K. the sun may be assumed to behave as black transfer (from its outer surface to the surroundings) = 10 W/m2.2 m2.9kg/s . overall heat transfer coefficient for steam coil=300 W/m2. T1 = 283K.04 W/m-K. number of tubes = 324. x=1. Assume that all the heat pipe at 415K to air at 290K.5% air is 0. 8.19 kg/m3.60m (tubular exchanger). Outside diameter pipe = 50mm.73m concentration gradients of the two components at the midpoint of the mass flow rate crude oil = 37. 0.1 % after scrubbing with water.24 cm2/s. length coil = 6. the gas concentration in the liquid falls to one half k (convection) = 45. transfer rate = 10E-3 by baffles with a 25% cut. wall thickness = 1mm thick layer of ethanol closest to the surface. inner layer thickness = 25mm.95 rate constant on the assumption that the liquid is semi-finite in extent the radiation received by the earth’s surface on a clear day with the sun and that mass transfer resistance in the gas phase is negligible. 000km. water velocity in t =1800s (0. diffusivity of CO2 in ethanol = 4x10E-9 m2/s. spaced at 230mm intervals.45m.. T1 = 293K. triangular pitch = 25mm. 212 overhead is 1kW/m2 and an additional 0.7 (at the interface with the liquid) = 0.5 (in the and outer diameter pipe = 12mm. mol Tflue gas leaving = 366K. internal diameter pipe = 25mm. T2 = 470K . are given below. 0. 0. what is the heat flow per unit area of wall. diffusivity of gas = 10E-8 m2/s. outside diameter tube = 19mm. thickness brick = 230mm.6mm. Tflue gas entering = 700K. Toutlet = 309K. [ammonia-air mixture]initial = 0. Coefficient of heat The temperature of the sun. coil thickness firebrick furnace = 0. state reactor. diameter. What is the rate of heat vessel = 400 W/m2-K. rate of T1 air = 289K. if the near face is suddenly raised to a temperature heat loss by radiation and convection from unlagged horizontal steam of 870K and maintained at that temperature. T2 = 366K. ho =3. T area = 0.83 or 83% 3. inner diameter tubes = 50mm @ 373K. passes on the tube side. What is the thickness of insulating brick necessary pipe diameter=50mm (covered with two concentric layers of lagging).2mm. the arrangement is in-line with less volatile *the resistance to mass transfer in the vapor may be center to center spacing. thickness of the hypothetical gas film if the diffusivity af ammonia in Determine the number and arrangement of the tubes in the shell. The heat loss through a it takes one hour to heat the liquid from 293 to 373K. thermal conductivity of firebrick = 1.5mm at the interface. DH = 0.4W/m-K. [ammonia-air mixture]final = 0.7 W/m flow is perpendicular to the faces of the wall and that the distant face is outside temperature = 293K. governed by Fick’s law. The contents of a reaction vessel are heated by means of steam at W/m2-K (natural convection heat transfer coefficient at the exterior 393K supplied to a heating coil which is totally immersed in the liquid. thickness ID = 0. T steam = 413K. It is desired thermal conductivity brick=1. show that the overall coefficient for transfer from the vessel to ethanol is suddenly exposed to an atmosphere consisting of pure carbon the surroundings is about 5W/m2-K.7 W/m. T=360. 5 W/m2-K dioxide and unsteady state mass transfer. outside area of vessel = 8m.87H) brick to the outside. T = 1573K (inside furnace wall). having one pass on the shell side and two = 10%. velocity @ 301K = 20. shell diameter T packed column = 295K. outside diameter = partial pressure ammonia = 660 N/m2. Calculate the mass transfer rates kmol/m2-s of the of k and which may be used for both air and flue gases.44h) mass flow rate air = 0.1mm. if coefficient from the tank to surroundings at a temperature of 293K.3 m/s. surface). What is the heat loss per unit length. 000.5 kg/s. A deep pool of 373K. How long will it firebrick furnace wall is to be reduced by addition of a layer of insulating take if the thickness of lagging is doubled.6 kg/s. Tsteam = 383K *the overall heat velocity is increased to 1. T = 331. thermal conductivity of lagging D = 0. 3147s(0. a slightly soluble gas is absorbed into a liquid in which it pressure drop = not exceed 250 N/m2. specific heat capacity of air and flue bulk of the vapor). film coefficient = 8 kW/m2-K.3kW/m2 . In a continuous steady number of parallel metal tubes. derive from first principles an expression for the rate of temperature). what is the faces..18m thickness pipe wall = 3mm. thermal When the vessel has a layer of lagging 50mm thick on its outer surfaces. wall= absorption at any position in the column. *air passing through the pipes of a bank consisting molar latent heat of the more volatile component is 1. 344.5h) to heat a tank of liquid using steam supplied to an pipe = 1 m/s. thickness plaster = 10mm.

5kg/s… evaporation in 1st in kg/min? 52. estimated heating surface in m2… 0. at 98oF… the number of BTU required to evap.8K volume liquid = 0. 10-mol%MgCl2 and 18- K=976. external surface vessel = The concentration of glycerine from water solution… evaporation 2. Tinlet = 290K. heat transfer coefficient to Referring to prob. If the heat transfer coefficient is 250W/m2-K. the feedforward flow 420K and an air temperature of 310K. k=0. 2. is boiling a solution… after 4hrs and 10min… coefficient at the start of operation… 652 A P&FFP is used to filter a certain sludge for 2hrs at constant pressure.7 W/m-K.2 N/m2 per meter area in ft2 … 38 velocity water = 1.3 kJ/kg-K. inside film coefficient = 1. how long will it take to heat the liquid. How long will it take to heat the liquid from 293K to 368K. x insulating brick = 120mm. heat transfer area of the 2nd? 68. is heated w/ steam at 250oF. of external area 20m2 is losing heat to the Sat.7K mol% CaCl2… 140oF Velocity air = 12. 2381s (40min) volume liquid = 0. Tsteam supplied = 383K. 1. Estimate the boiling point… 15-mol% NaCl. Tsteam feed= 383K. 803.58h).1 m3. inside diameter = 25mm. each 1 in thick … the capacity of the press is? 936 ft3/day A certain evap. steam… the area of the 125 ft3 of filtrate per minute… the volume of filtrate delivered per hour first effect in ft2… 3300 is? 10. To what temperature will the system fall in 1800s lb/hr? 4130 is the steam is turned off. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 water in the tube is proportional to the velocity raised to the 0. 306. density air @ 310K = 1.06K volume jacketed reaction vessel = 0.1 kg/m3. what heat Water enters the bottom of a vertical evaporator tube 20ft long… exchange area is required. economy of evap… 0.80 to the two-thirds power of the speed of rotation.1kJ/kg-K. heat transfer area of the 1 st? 66. 115. What will be the corresponding pressure drop for a pipe temperature of For the same duty and heat transfer area. 589K Which of the two evaporator…needs fluid motive devices to transfer EVAPORATION solutions… backward feed A 10%wt NaOH sol’n at 80oF… the heating surface required in ft2… 91 FILTRATION A 7wt% NaOH sol’n enters an evap.45) at 50 psifor 2 hrs… the washing time is? 127 min A heat transfer device that is normally used to liquefy vapors… condenser A P&FFP with 10 frames is used to filter a slurry at a constant pressure… the time to produce 400lb of filtrate. is determined as difference between system of heating is to be replaced by a continuous countercurrent heat condensing steam and… boiling point of the sol’n exchanger in which the heating medium is a liquid entering at 388K and leaving at 333K. Neglecting the effects of temperature variation.6 consumption in kg/hr… 11.4K. k=0.43h). steam at 25psia enters a surface… the required cooling water in surroundings at 293K.18m3.5 kW/m2-K. 21.5Hz and proportional Referring to prob 13.7 kW/m2. T2 = 377K. 101. is supplied with 250 oF sat. Heat losses may be neglected.5 rpm… estimated area of the filter cloth in m2? 1. At what temperature would it If the sol’n to be evaporated tends to strongly scale… forced circulation leave.8K.8 power. The feed rate is min 2. density liquid inside vessel = In a country where capital is scarce and energy cost is low… single effect 900 kg/m3. for a stirrer speed of 1. tank wall = In evaporation operation.0217 x firebrick = 225mm.44m2 fraction of the liquid water entering the bottom? 0.2 W/m-K.5lb H2O… 1670 BTU A P&FFP contains 24 frames. k (convection) = 60 W/m2-K. T=307. estimate If the OHTC of the evap.. of prob 10 is 200 BTU/hr-ft2-oF… the heating the pressure drop per meter length of pipe.5m. overall heat transfer coefficient = (constant) 0. density = 950 Referring to prob. 21. Time of washing is? 96 mins A double effect evap.25 m3. the valuable product is… thick liquor 10mm.8 (N/m2)/m evaporator is ___ compared to backward feed… less efficient velocity air thru pipe = 12 m/s. x building brick = 225mm. When the pressure of the evaporator chamber is decreased. specific heat = 3. The 2nd effect is under vacuum… Boiling Point in 1st… 208oF A P&FFP is used to filter a compressible sludge (s=0. *the contents of the tank are evaporator agitated by a stirrer rotating at 3 Hz. coefficient for heat transfer to the surroundings = 5W/m 2-K @ 293K. Tinside = 1200K.5 A rotary drum filter with 35% of its filtering area submerged in the A sol’n of organic colloids is concentrated from 20 to 65%. specific heat capacity = 3kJ/kg-K. 311. specific heat liquid The BPR of 30%wt NaCl at 1 atm… 20oF = 2. driving force in an evap..4 W/m-K. 2085s (0.14 kg/m3. Neglecting heat losses and the heat capacity of the tank.2 m/s.620 ft3 . heat transfer area =2. k=1. assuming Rm=0 is? 7. The batch The temp. T air = 66 K. Tsteam = 380K. how long will it take to raise the Referring to prob 13.400 A rotary vacuum filter w/ negligible filter medium resistance delivers A triple effect evap. Find the heat loss per unit area and the temperature at point inside will decrease the junction of the firebrick and insulating brick.2 m/s (through series of 25mm diameter tubes 5m long maintained at 320K). 306. heat transfer area = 1m2.0 W/m-K. the boiling Toutside = 330K. if the tank. thermal conductivity tank wall = 6.5 A liquor containing 15% solids is concentrated to 55%.1kW/m2-K. 1559 s(0.. the steam slurry turns at 0.70 temperature of the liquid from 295 to 375K. T1 = 293K.5 m2..3 W/m2. outside film heat transfer coefficient = 1. overall heat transfer coefficient in coil = 2000 W/m2-K. density liquid = 900kg/m3.8 surroundings = 311.

sugar=0. if the drum has diameter of 1. the particle size influences the extraction rate. the filtration will start to fall once the pressure 0.293 salt… inerts=70%.5x103(θf +0. the tie slant to the right indicating that the solute is more highly concentrated in the underflow because… In filtration operation. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 A small leaf filter is run at constant rate… the filtrate collected in 20 A multiple contact extraction system is to treat 1.25 tons (2.112 sol’n? 16 .8 The capacity of a rotary vacuum filter will change by a factor of 1. the coarser the filtration medium… the longer the size… greater interfacial area and smaller the distance (both a and b) In P&FFP.1 In a Plate&Frame filter press.0m. Raw gypsum from a fertilizer plant is being leached out of its salt (NaCl)… raw gypsum = 10MT/day. pulp=0. in which a soluble component is removed from an inert solid During filtration on a rotary filter.7% Composition of salt in weight percent in the final underflow is? 0.1 if the submerged area is increased by 20%. capacity is attained when the filtration time is… equal Coconut oil is to be produced from dry copra in two stages… dry copra cake contains 20% residual oil… number of ideal stages required is? 5 If a duplicate pump were installed in parallel with the present pump in stages prob 15.40. the new filtration is? 24.5 gallons of dry black ash containing 40% Na2CO3… the number of ideal stage req’d is? 2 stages A standard leaf filter gives 20 ft3 of filtrate in 2 hrs of filtration time per cycle… the capacity of leaf filter in ft3/hr is? 4. the percent reduction in filtration time is? 7.5 porous medium… Kozeny-Karman Eqn.9% filtrate output during 24 hr is? 12 hrs Roasted copper ore containing the copper as CuSO4 is to be extracted in The equation that is applied to describe the flowof a fluid through a a countercurrent stage extractor… 10 tons gangue.2 tons CuSO4. the rate of filtration is directly proportional to… cross section of the filter press In ideal leaching conditions. moisture=5%.48.11)… the total cycle time for maximum rate=90m3/day… the % of the salt removed is? 99. quantity of salts recovered in MT/day is? 12. The most effective way is? to use LEACHING countercurrent operation A countercurrent multiple contact extraction system is to treat 50 tons/hr The rate of leaching increases with increasing… temperature of wet sliced sugar beets… water=0. the width in cm? 51 Powdered limestone (CaCO3) containing 10. tons of water… the number of stages req’d is? 10 The filter fabric (or filter medium) to use in which strong breaking Stage efficiency in a leaching process depends on the… both a and b tenacity and strong abrasion resistance are req’d is? Nylon Tea percolation employs? Leaching The operation by which solids are separated from liquids due to difference in densities… sedimentation The major problem in leaching is to promote diffusion of the solute out of the solidand into the liquid.500 lbs)/hr minutes is? 41. the flow rate is directly proportional to … equilibrium solubility/incomplete leaching pressure applied In leaching.3 mins Number of extraction cells req’d if each ton of dry pulp retains 3 tons of water? 17 Referring to prob. 9.12… number of extraction cells req’d if each ton of dry pulp retains 3 tons of The resulting salt content in the overflow in weight % is? 0. Agitation of solvent For a non-washing constant pressure filtration where the resistance of is important because… it increases the transfer material… the medium is negligible. Salt content=1%wt. 1.4 min Extraction of coffee from its seed is done by… leaching In a constant rate filtration test.8 … becomes constant A unit op.. the smaller In filtration.4 a slurry of flaked soybeans weighing 100kg contains 75kg inert solids and 25kg solution… composition of underflow leaving the extraction? During filtration of slurry. rock salt is being leached to produce industrial mins collecting 3 ft3 of filtrate… the equivalent resistance in ft3 is? 0. soluble salts=25%. the precipitate is continuously by solvent which dissolves the soluble matter is known as… leaching removed by scrapper in order to … keep the filter clean Agitation in liquid influences the rate of extraction.000ppm NaOH… the NaOH content of the washed and dried limestone in ppm is? 0. the pressure rises from 4 to 45 psi in 10 In a salt recovery plant.89% If only ½ of the original filtrate volume of prob 15 were to be collected.. the rate of washing is equal to? ¼ Leaching of sugar from sugar beets is done using… hot water In the filtration of Al(OH)3. max. water feed The eq’n: Vf2=22. the following data were obtained: the pump is operated at 50 psia… the total filtration time is? 38. 0.

of the solid subjected… nearly equal to the wet bulb w/ bound moisture. the temp. 2 The portion of water in the wet solid that cannot removed by the air in Co. varies directly with the quantity… There are two underflow-overflow leaching conditions namely ideal and therefore.2 m/s. of the gas low temperature drying. the mechanism is considered to be… simultaneous mass and heat transfer In the constant rate period.b.current gas. Rc. it means… the solid still contains very small amount of moisture In the drying at the falling rate period.9 hours placed inside a batch dryer. the material is usually subjected… under constant drying conditions Drum driers are used for drying… pastes Wet solids are to be dried from 40% to 10% in 5 hours under constant Given a solid material containing 120% moisture on a dry basis. to? Both ChE since… the quality of the solid product is affected by moisture a and b The value of constant drying rate. Moisture content of 3% (d. increasing the humidity… decreases the rate of drying non-ideal.000 kg/hr pressure of the liquid at the prevailing conditions… unbound moisture using n-hexane… theoretical number of stages is? 4 stages This type of drier is used for drying pasty materials such as wet filter Which of the following operations does not involve leaching? Removing cakes and lumpy soils… tray drier nicotine from water sol’n by kerosene Unbound moisture in granular and porous solid moves through the DRYING interstices of a solid by a mechanism involving… moisture diffusivity A wet material having a critical moisture content of 15% (d. In most cases.b. when a solid material to be dried is equil.03lb water/lb dry air… R=0.5% conditions… 1.0373 The first point of the falling rate period corresponds to… critical A wetted wall column is usually preffered over a packed column to moisture drying determine mass transfer coefficient experimentally because for a wetted wall column The mass transfer area the free moisture content of the solids does not depend upon… the Assuming that the penetration theory applies in an interfacial mass nature by which heat is supplied transfer contact.01155 When drying a banana chips under the sun. the rate at which moisture is removed from the solid material… decreases with time when a wet granular solid material contained in a metal tray w/ insulated edges… the heat transfer mechanism involved in the drying operation It is a unit operations which involves the mass transfer of soluble is… by convection and radiation materials from the liquid phase to gaseous phase… desorption When a wet solid is brought in contact with air. also affects the rate of extraction. the removal of moisture from the solid is initiated temp of drying medium by pendular state followed by funicular state… false In the absence of radiation and heat conduction through the solid during when a solid material is being dried in a continuous tunnel drier under the constant drying rate period… wet bulb temp. if Dv= 0. the rate of drying is established by… a balance of heat requirements… When a solid material is said to be “dry”. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 The temp.)… 4. of the solid H2O/hr-ft2… equilibrium moisture content of material… 0.) and an under normal operating conditions.5-e-60X lb corresponding to the moisture cont. Ideal leaching condition exist if? All of these This is the moisture in the solid that exerts the equilibrium vapor Tung meal containing 55% oil is to be extracted at a rate of 4.6 hours If there’s no heat transfer by radiation and conduction from adjoining When a porous solid is subjected to constant drying conditions starting surfaces. the gas film coeff… 0. the rate of drying is faster the choice of equipment to be used for drying of solids can be classified on a… hot and windy day according… all of these When the solid is non porous… liquid diffusion The critical moisture content of a solid depends on the drying history and the thickness of the material… true the equipment is operated immediately under unsteady state conditions… batch drying GAS ABSORPTION The estimated mass transfer coefficient for the above drying conditions A 25 mm ID wetted wall column is used to absorb dilute SO2 in air at is… 50lb H2O/hr-ft2-ΔH 293 K with a velocity of 2. the liquid phase mass transfer coeff will increase by a factor…. the solubility The topic of drying and driers is taken up as part of Unit Operations in of the material which is being extracted will increase with temp.455 ft2/hr.liquid up flow contacting device is highly characterized direct contact with the solid is called… equilibrium moisture content by dispense bubble flow regime . the solids tends to lose It is the rate of drying under constant drying conditions with air at 140 oF moisture if the humidity in air is… lower than the humidity and absolute humidity of 0. the drying conditions… The time needed to dry 15% to 5% under same equivalent moisture in % moisture is… 54.

the most economical gas velocity is 𝑽 is not applicable 𝑯𝑳 = 𝑺𝒌𝒚 𝒂 considered to be about half In a gas absorption tower. The final straight or concave upward equilibrium line. the overall In gas absorption.0. ft3mole fraction and x*=0. the absolute humidity at this The interfacial concentration yl in a gas absorber corresponding to y= condition is 0.. one of thw following In a gas absorption packed tower.. then the mole fraction of the solute packed column False leaving…. the 1. The total weight of a 13 mm ceramic raschig rings that can be contained 103 in a cylindrical gas absorption tower 5m high and 0. kya=15 mol/hr. the limiting flow rate In an absorption tower packings are placed inside to provide a bigger to give ifinitely tall tower becomes the minimum flow rate of the vapor mass transfer area When the two film theory is applied to gas absorption.85 ft and 15 respectively. when the conditions at the bottom of the tower are fixed and the gas flow rate is given. the dry bulb temperature is convective flus or phase drift is involved 1000F and wet bulb temperature of 90 0F. another method may be used. 0. Hy when the liquid phase resistance is For moderately soluble gas with relatively little interaction between the very small compared with the gas phase gas and liquid molecules. This is by measuring It has been determined that the equivalent HTU and NTU of a packed the dew point of the air absorption tower are 0. the law which applies most to establish The pressure drop along a packed tower is directly proportional to the equilibrium relationship is Henry’s Law square of the mass flow rate Given the individual mass transfer coeff and equilibrium eqn at 250C .3. 8. 63. increasing the diameter of the column In a stripping or desorption operation. The estimated…. a transfer unit means that the concentration range is Air conditioning involves dehumidification equal to the average driving force Air supplied at the rate of 1200 cfm to a refrigerated coil. the Lewis relation hy/kyc3 takes a value mixture of gases due to their differences in solubility I a liquid phase is of essentially equal to unity absorption Given a counter flow induced-draft cooling tower with the following operating data: hot water temperature= 1150F. if the column diameter that can be used for a specified gas absorption in a percentage recovery is 75% .52 0.3226y….1 dry packing is greater An air-carbon tertrachloride-vapor mixture at 1000F dry bulb and 600F In the case of a straight or concave downward operating line and a wet bulb is heated until the temperature reaches 180 0F. 0. the estimated make-up water is 110 gpm slightly over designed anyway For a dehumidifier. air enters the dehumidifier at 800F db and 780F wb while water two phase concurrent bed because all of these leaves at 760F. the slope of the tie line is 2.05 mole fraction is _ mole fraction. since the height calculated will be drift loss. when the top liquid flow rate is fixed and the top The mechanism of mass transfer in a gas absorber is best described by conditions of water temperature and air enthalpy..02 temperature of the cold water is 800F using air with temperature of 900F The mass transfer rate of a material from one phase to another across an dry bulb and 700F wet bulb. mass transfer occurs primarily from the gas When the gas flow rate induces flooding in a packed column gas phase to the liquid phase absorber. this is best remedied…. one of the properties to be Besides measuring the dry bulb and wet bulb temperature in determining considered is solvent should have a low vapour pressure the humidity of air. respectively and 0.5 for a liquid to gas ratio Pressure drop is one of the most important parameters in the design of of 1. 1. wet . has a relative In packed columns. The slope of the operating line is For an air flow rate of 5000 lb/hr and a water flow rate of 7500 lb/hr. The mass flow rate of dry greater than the pressure drop for dry packings because the flow area of air entering per minute is 74. maximum air flow the Two-Film Theory rate The method of separating a particular gaseous component from a For the air-water vapor system.25.10 mole ratio of the controlling resistance is that of the gas phase solute entering the plate absorber at 1 atm.50F The analogy between mass and heat transfer is complete when no For air-benzene vapor mixture at 1 atm.275 Fogging is a result of a condition whereby the gas becomes It is a unit operation which involves the mass transfer of soluble supersaturated with vapor materials from the solid phase to the liquid phase leaching For a cooling tower with a circulating water flow of 5000 gpm.55m in diameter …. The rate eqn in terms of the gas phase mass transfer coefficient is used kxa=60. the pressure drop for irrigated packings is always humidity of 20% and dry bulb temp of 1500F. the minimum liquid rate is percentage relative humidity is about 5% that at which the operating line just touches the equil line at the bottom An indication of the moisture content of ambient air is its wet bulb of the tower temperature In the choice of a solvent for gas absorption. the slope of the equil curve near between the gas and the liquid the tie line is linear In gas absorption. what is the minimum water.45 in design calculations instead of that in terms of the liquid phase when if the solute free gas flow rate is 500 kg-mole/hr of 0.5% encountered during gas absorption. the equilibrium curve is above the When the liquid flow rate is fixed and the composition of the liquid and operating line gas at the bottom of the absorption tower are fixed. the pressure of the lean gas is expected to 1045 be lower than When dilute sol’ns are involved in gas absorption. Estimate the interfacial temperature at a point ….0769 For an absorber (mass transfer from gas gas to liquid) the operating line The overall height of a transfer unit based on the gas phase will equal always lies above the equilibrium solubility curve the gas phase individual HTU. 880F interface is increased by increasing For dehumidification. If the same …. packings are used to increase the area of contact resistance can be expressed in terms…. cooling range= 300F. the limiting flow rate based on equil A sling psychrometer is whirled on a fast spin when measuring the wet conditions that will require infinitely tall tower is maximum liquid flow bulb temperature of ambient air to minimize the effect of radiation on rate the temperature reading In mass transfer. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 Flooding condition is the only consideration that dictates the minimum The mole fraction of solute entering a gas absorber is 0. the use of a liquid rate far above the minimum value will result in fewer number of plates HUMIDIFICATION In gas absorption. In a gas absorption column. an inlet It is not very necessary to correct the rate eqn for the phase drift and outlet water temperature of 1000F and 800F.

. as in the water vapor air mixture. the saturated solution at 900C. The wet bulb temperature of the resulting mixture for the mixed air for 950F the previous problem is 750F If the air flow rate is 1000 lb/hr. the exit temperature of the air is estimated to be dry bulb temperature 120C and relative humidity 47%) passing through (use Mickley’s graphical method) 1050F water spray washer (temp of water being constant at 400C).76kPa. If the inlet and outlet water temperature are 1200F A solution of MgSO4 at 2200F containing 43g of MgSO4 per 100 g H2O and 1000F.4% sodium sulfate. respectively. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 bulb temperature= 700F. water flow rate= 500 gal/min.vapour mixture is.4% wt… 400g since temperature profiles of air and water can cross each other A diluent is added to the mixture... The process which illustrates the principles of adiabatic humidification Compounds whose solubility increase with increasing temperature is spray chamber results in absorption of heat when the compound dissolves The ratio between partial pressure of water vapour in air and the vapor Cooling water required is.. In terms of heat transfer. 52 gpm pressure of the water at the air temperature multiplied by 100 is Crystals of Na2CO3-10H2O are dropped into a saturated solution of percentage relative humidity Na2CO3 in water at 1000C. formation of crystal can occur in __ solution only greater than supersaturated The temperature at which the moisture in humid air exerts a partial Equilibrium in crystallization process is reached when the solution is pressure equal to its vapor pressure is called the dew point saturated Glaubers salt is made by crystallization from a water solution at 20 0C. it is possible to maintain the temperature of and humid water constant since the system can be well insulated from the Without adding or removing any water vapor. the mixture is unsaturated by immersion of a thermometer in the mixture dry bulb temperature If the temperature of the air entering the tower of the previous problem Which of the following processes is followed by unsaturated air (with (problem 24) is 1000F. The aqueous solution at 200C contains 8. the individual gas phase mass transfer humidity coefficient is equal to the over-all mass transfer coefficient since the mass transfer resistance in the liquid phase is small CRYSTALLIZATION In an air-water contact operation. 2387 %.32 kPa and crystallizing process sulphate brine at 00C. Assuming…. Yields of 95% and 90% in contains water vapor with a partial pressure Pa=2. dew point temperature reason. What percent of the Na2CO3 in the Na2CO3- The relative humidity of air at a given temperature is the the ratio of the H2O is recovered in the precipitated solid? The precipitated solid is…. If the solution. then the bulb temperature MTC in lb water/hr-ft3-absolute humidity is 370. 962. Assuming that 5% of the weight of the operating line on the gas-enthalpy-liquid temperature graph is above original solution is lost through evaporation.70C and a pressure of 101.3 air at 1100F db and 800F wb.1 grams of water vapor per cubic foot at indirectly cooled and/or solvent is evaporated to effect crystallization a temperature of 300C. calculate the the crystallization and calcination operations are obtained..0 and 75 lbs per hour BTU/lb. Assuming ideal growth.. where the Lewis number is equal to one. The seeds are 80-mesh.000 MT of anhydrous sodium sulphate annually by The air in the room is at 26. The solution and its crystalline crop are The enthalpy transfer equation as proposed by Merkel is applicable to cooled to 400F.. respectively. 3. a sample of air surroundings experiencing an increase in temperature will have lower relative In an air water contact equipment. the resulting mixture will have a dry bulb. The vacuum in the content will start to condense crystallizer corresponds to a water boiling temperature of 43 0C… 5235 The enthalpy entering and leaving a cooling tower is 52. partial pressure of the water-vapor and the vapor pressure of water 25% The relative humidity of unsaturated air-water vapor mixture is always During crystallization. both heating In adiabatic humidification.4lbs In order for the gas to be dehumidified. 0..…. when the temperature and humidity of the air both decrease the process is dehumidification 1200 lb of barium nitrate is dissolved in sufficient water to form a In dehumidification. 78. the solution is then directly or Moist air is found to contain 8. the maximum water rate needed for the This is a steady-state temperature reached by a small amount of liquid tower in the previous problem is about 3400 lb/hr evaporating into a large amount of unsaturated vapor-gas mixture wet- If the mass transfer coefficient. The slurry leaving the crystallizer will be at 800C.76 is fed to a cooling crystallizer operating at 50 0F. the use of a cooling tower is said to be more The solution is cooled to 293K at which temperature the solubility is efficient and more economical compared to an ordinary heat exchanger 25.28 heat A Swenson-Walker crystallizer is to be used to produce 1 ton/hr of The height to diameter ratio of a cooling tower is much less compared copperas crystals by cooling a saturated solution which enters the to that of a gas absorber because the gas flow rate is larger crystallizer at 1200F. calculate the crop of the equilibrium curve crystals obtained.3% A solution of magnesium sulphate containing 43g solids per 100g watter The dew point of air indicates the temperature at which its water is to be fed to a vacuum crystallizes at 2200F.6 This is the temperature at which a vapour gas mixture becomes saturated If the partial pressure of the vapour in a gas. 7 The tons refrigeration needed to supply air in a room 20 ft by 20 ft by hp 10 ft charged every 5 min at 700F dry bulb and 650F wet bulb by cooling If 100 lb of dry air at 500F db and 500F wb is mixed with 300 lb of dry outside air at 1200F db and 1000wb is 14. for any when cooled at constant humidity. How many . kyMB is equal to the humid size of the . A batch of 1000 kg of KCl is dissolved in sufficient water to make a the humidity of the gas must be greater than the gas-liquid interface saturated solution at 363K. Calculate the temp to which it must be solution crystallization heated…570C A plant produces 30.. less than the equil vapor pressure of the liquid at the same This is the temperature of a vapour-gas mixture as ordinarily determined temperature.71 The enthalpy transfer eqn based on Merkel’s procedure of determining tons/h the volume of a cooling tower is a convenient way of eliminating the A Swenson-Walker crystallizer is fed with a saturated solution of determination of interfacial temperature and humidity magnesium sulphate at 1100F. KGa= 230 lbs water/hr-ft3-atm. The inlet solution contains 1 g of seed crystals per 100g air-water system only because the ratio of he convective heat transfer of solution. where the solubility is 35% wt \k\cl in water. the mesh coefficient and the mass transfer coefficient. the estimated overall….

What is the specific rate This crystallizer uses the method of supersaturation by evaporation of constant for this reaction? 0.04 mol/L.6g/100g of water at A liquid polymerization of a certain monomer at constant temperature 200C and 16. If the residence time or space time is 4 sec. and the inlet The solubility of sal ammoniac at 700C in g/100g water is 60. 7. Using pure A.6% size of PFR operating at 1200 F and 4.2% S.43% CO. throughout the reactor A flue gas from a certain furnace burning a fuel of negligible nitrogen The homogenous gas decomposition of phosphine 4PH3 (g) → P4 (g) → content is found by analysis to contain 12% CO2. 59. the difference between the potential energy of the products and the potential energy of the reactants is equal CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS to the. 0. How much factor will it react at 1000 K The formation of a new solid phase either on an inert particle in the than it does at 300 K. In a batch reactor. 1.52 feed and the refuse? Ash How much CaCl26H2O must be dissolve in 100 kg of water at 200C to In ultimate analysis.9% conversion? 57. the Analysis mother liquor concentration will be _ %wt MgSO4 18 It is the portion of the coal which when heated in the absence of air under In industrial crystallization from a solution. calculate percent O. The slag contains 10% of iron Most modern crystallizers fall in the category of__ units in which present in the ore. 7 (A) and methylamine takes place in a PFR at 10 C and 101 kPa.7%.9% (400K) = 0. which occupies the crystallizer Pig iron is produced in a blast furnace from hematite ore containing 80% and is withdrawn as product is called magma Fe2O3.605 with a rate constant of 1000 cm3/mol-s. and 85.5% sodium thiosulfate to 300C in a Swenson.3 of bromine cyanide at the outlet of the reactor.2 concentration of each reactant is 0. 39.52% What is the reaction rate constant for the third order reaction? L2/mol2-s Calculate the percentage conversion. 2. What N2. with KA = 2.45 MJ/kg.52% anhydrous salt (CaCl2) per kg of water 535 kg It is normally used to determine the quality of combustion gases. What is the order of the reaction if the graph C vs t gives a straight line? 7.55% moisture. The pig iron produced is 96% Fe. zero order Calculate percent net H. The product is to be N2. 41. Orsat If an aqueous solution of 25% wt MgSO4 at 1400F is cooled to 300F. 54. FTo = 40 mol/min.5% 6H2 (g) proceeds at 1200 F with first-order rate.9 mol/L. K 52.4g/100g of water at 600C. Lowering the The enthalpy of saturated MgSO4 at 1500F in BTU/lb solution is -25 activation energy of the reaction The equation relating the solubility of the substance to its particle size A certain temperature dependent reaction proceeds 10 times faster at is called Kelvin 500 K than it does at 300 K. Calculate the relative saturation and the % saturation of the The irreversible reaction takes place in a CSTR under the following mixture at a temperature of 20 C and pressure of 745 mmHg. calculate percent H. Constant 80g of F2 is reacted with 40g P4 to form 90 g of product PF3.8% acetone by conversion of a feed consisting of 2.4 min and evaporation Sodium Nitrate In a potential energy diagram.66% CO2. How much longer would it take to reach evaporation.077 so that when the residue solution after evaporation is In the combustion of solid fuels. 6.5% 0. When the initial concentration used is crystallizes. following Orsat analysis: 5.75 lbmol phosphine per hour? 160ft3 volume.23 times faster solution or in the solution itself is called nucleation A gas decomposes at 900 C according to the reaction 2A → 2R + 5 The heat of solution of hydroxybenzene in g-cal/gmol is -2. evaporation without cooling or a combination of cooling 99. the time it will The heat of solution of saltpeter in kg-cal/gmol is -8. the two phase mixture of prescribed conditions is liberated as gases or vapour. 7. 30% sized…. 0.5% O2. Volatile matter mother liquor and crystals of all sizes. 22.7 gmol In ultimate analysis. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 grams is 1.6 atm can produce 80% A mixture of acetone vapor and nitrogen contains 14. If a saturated solution of NaHCO3 showed that after 34 minutes conversion is 20% when the initial at 600C is cooled to 200C.1/min and V = 600 dm3. The The solubility of Epsom Salt in equilibrium with the saturated solution reaction is first order with respect to each reactant. determine the concentration The solubility of soda ash at 300C in g/100g water is 38. How many tons of pig iron is produced per 500 tons adiabatic evaporative cooling is used to create supersaturation Vacuum of ore? 272 One ton of Na2S2O3-5H2O is to be crystallized per hour by cooling a The flue gas from the combustion of a hydrocarbon fuel has the solution containing 56.0066/min solvent Oslo A substance A decomposes by first order kinetics.1138. Dulong’s Formula 2H2O Which of these is not a form of hydrogen present in solid fuels? None The concentration difference between that of the supersaturated solution of the above in which the crystal is growing and that of a solution in equilibrium with the crystal is called supersaturation CHEMICAL REACTION KINETICS The enthalpy of a 25% wt of MgSO4 at 82. Cao = 2 mol/dm3. Calculate conversion of A. Which of the following solute may be crystallized by cooling without 70% A is converted in 10 min. 5.670C in BTU/lb solution is -150 A catalyst increases the rate of a chemical reaction by. 56.4% Walker crystallizer. what is the key component between the cooled at 20 degrees Celsius… 801. hydrogen in a given solid fuel. Evaporation is negligible. composition is not.57% N with a calorific value of 16.90 L/mol-s. the percentage of the dissolved salt that concentration used is 0. 79% Which even must always occur for a chemical reaction to take place? Hydrogen in fuel that needs oxygen from air for its combustion is known Effect collisions bet.2% ash. reacting particles as.20C in BTU/lb solution is 40 The enthalpy of MgSO4-7H2O at 26.. 92% What plot generates a straight line for a zero order reaction? [A] vs time Determine the percentage yield.5 This is the empirical relation which allows one to compute for the net Referring to (previous problem). The percent excess air supplied is. and 0. Heat of reaction In steady-state backmix flow reactor. rA= (10/hr) CA. the type of crystals formed is MgSO4. conditions. The feed is 40% A. Net Hydrogen . Calculate the percent excess air. and 80.4% O2.93% FC. 0.46% form a saturated solution? The solubility of CaCl2 at 200C is 6.633 take to react 74.22 at 100C in g/100g water is 30.053mol/L The solubility of sodium bicarbonate in water is 9.1 mol/L.87 A sample of lignite was found to contain 34.25% of A in a constant volume batch reactor at 900 C The latent heat evolved when solid forms from solution which varies and 1 atm in minutes is __.43 with both temperature and concentration is called heat of crystallization A liquid phase double-replacement reaction between bromide cyanide The number of crystallizer units to be used is. conversion is 20% after 34 minutes.

. The solid component of the sludge has a specific gravity of 1. i.0109 atmosphere.17 m3h-1 Ultimate BOD Estimate the mass flow rate of the soyabean oil. A Production of wet-processed phosphoric acid which uses HCL to cooling tower at 70 F and 1 atm is to be designed to operate with acidulate raw phosphate rock then an organic solvent is used to extract entering air of 40% RH.25 The microorganism utilized in the production of pickles is. Equal to the heat Vodka transfer coefficient of the steam In the Philippines. sulfite pulping The boiling temperature of ethylbenzene is 136 C.4 mm/s A centrifuge with a 20-in diameter bowl.2 and a viscosity of 2. Lactic acid bacteria If the air leaves the dryer 50% saturated and if the dryer operation is Which of the following vitamins is lethal in high doses? Vitamin D adiabatic. 1. Determine the theoretical oxygen demand of 150 mg/L of glutamic acid. Assume the following reactions apply. Joseph Priestly Oil flows under laminar conditions inside a steam heated copper pipe. 0. What an equilibrium moisture content of 0. 153 kg h-1 Glutamic acid (C5H9NO4) is used as one of the reagents for standard to check the BOD test. The falling rate of 1.5 cp. The overall heat transfer coefficient is approximately. 69. Estimate the The name “rubber” was apparently given by ______. Endothermic A solution of sodium sulfate in water is saturate at a temperature of 40 C. The particular pipe is 15 cm in diameter.7. obtain with the use of the relative humidity chart the following: ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Dew point in F of fresh air. Transportation facilities An engineer designed an engine that has an efficiency of 25% and will The hierarchy of solid waste management is.01 M.5% (or 69.e. is an a/an. If the cut size of Production of potassium. Estimate the volumetric flow rate of the soyabean oil. The KM for this substrate is Consider the frying operations with critical moisture content of 0. Transcription A mixture containing 60 mols of n-pentane and 40 mols n-heptane is The chemical messenger released by the endocrine gland into subjected to differential distillation at 1 atm until 40 mols are distilled.97x10-4ft/s The gasification reaction represented by C + H2O = CO + H2. (C6H10O5)n gallons per minute? 843 Kraft process is a common name for. 59. 200 openings/in2 _______ industry. bloodstream and transported there to reach its target cell is called Assuming the relative volatility is 8. what is the capacity of the centrifuge in Starch has the formula. Critical An enzyme catalyses a reaction at a velocity of 20 mol/min when the moisture content concentration of substrate [S] is 0.10 and 1x10-5 M. sulfur for sulfuric acid manufacturing is sourced from 200 mesh screens means. BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING Calculate the weight of crystals obtained by cooling 100 lb of this Which of the following is an essential amino acid? Methionine solution to a temperature of 5 C.005 and for a solid loading (db) of will the reaction velocity be when the concentration of [S] is 1x10 -6 M? 50 kg/m2 with a constant drying rate of 5 kg/m2-hr. Oils 2% is ____. How many cubic feet per minute of entering air the phosphoric acid. Compute the temperature at the – Treatment – Disposal exhaust considering that this is an ideal engine. 58% The source that fives the highest %CO and NOx emissions to the Humidity in lb water vapor per pound dry air of fresh air. named after a place in US. Hormones distillate? 0. 3. The drying time (hrs) required to These are mixtures of triglycerides containing high proportion of long reduce an initial moisture content of 25% to a final moisture content of chain. Trona process the particles is 35 microns. Haifa must be supplied? 1. Reduce – Reuse – Recycle absorb heat at a temperature of 267C. saturated fatty acids. 14-in deep operates at 1200 rpm giving a 2-in thick liquid layer when used with a sludge whose CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES liquid has a specific gravity of 1. 90% Process in central dogma wherein DNA is replicated in the form of The distillation process involves. This is the total amount of oxygen required to oxidize any organic matter present in water.82%) There is DNA or RNA coated protein that may or may not be considered Calculate the percentage yield obtained by cooling 100 lb of this as living things.6 What is quickest to become rancid? Butter Percent relative humidity of fresh air. Closure 65 C in a pipe. unsaturated fatty acids or short chain. Paper We must cool 2500 gallons per minute of water from 120 F to 80 F.61x105cfm Which of the following is also known as black diamond? Carbonado Estimate the terminal free settling velocity in air at 20 C if a dust sphere What is the other for blue gas? Water gas with a diameter of 1 micron and specific gravity of 2. 132C The act of preparing a landfill for long-term inactivity. who first observed enthalpy of vaporization of ethylbenzene at this temperature. Virus solution to a temperature of 5 C.925 What is the enzyme present in cheese? Rennin Moisture content at which the drying rate first begins to drop. what is the concentration of the ________. including placement of a cover over the landfill to prevent infiltration of surface A Venturi meter is being used to determine the flow of soyabean oil at water.0. after an extended period such as 20 or 30 days. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 A bed consists of uniform spherical particles of diameter 3 mm and UNIT OPERATIONS density of 4200 kg/m3. which Which of the following are the major components of photochemical decreases to 6 cm in the throat of the Venturi. Produced by fermenting potatoes and then by distillation (Russia).82x10-6 mol/min drying is linear with moisture content. What will be the minimum fluidizing velocity in a liquid of viscosity 3 mPa-s and density of 1100 kg/m3? 36. The differential pressure smog? Ozone and oxygen is measured as 14 cm of water. Heat and mass transfer mRNA. 35KJ/mol the ability of the material to “rub out” a pencil mark. 0. assuming that Michaelis-Menten kinetics is followed.

.non-metallic? Oxygen A liquid generated in landfills is called..... (But if Pilando is not in the choices choose Florentino Doble or go to the proctor) Minimum wavelength of light. excessive wear in the final control element. solids) at a solids concentration of 20 mg/L (20 mg solids per liter of 23415 flow..... P. Calculate.. 2.electron. Kp for the reaction..90 eV)..mass.. etc... What is the BOD of this sample? 300 It refers to the process of making a product of higher-quality that it needs Equivalent to the rate of disintegration of 1 gram of radium.5O2 → 5CO2 + 3H2 O + NH3 A sample of radioactive material. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 C5 H9 NO4 + 4. Integral action Brackett series (m=4)..hydrogen bonding is..2014 A section of the patent application containing detailed descriptions of Oxalic acid + sodium hydroxide. Curie to be to meet specifications...27 x109 years. standard BOD test. December 9... Accredited Professional Organization Osmotic pressure of a dilute aqueous ethyl alcohol solution at 25°C is The new chairman and new commissioner of PRC were both sworn into 38 mmHg. Padding Half-life of 90Sr is 29 years. 2. What. which undergoes alpha decay.. Which of the following flow sensors that causes to rotate with an angular Which..molecules. Electron Affinity A device that translates the control signal action of the final control Compound. Bond Order Chemicals The new PRC commissioner is ______.00 eV).05 moles of Br2(g).D.. device in the process..decay product? 22286Rn Radium-226.solution. Integral Control Consider the reaction: PCl5(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) ΔHθrxn = 87.. Balmer constant as 7...Chalcogen Family. which.. Disturbances Change in energy.09 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LAWS AND ETHICS If 23892U..allowable value of 0.not associated...same atomic but different mass number.9 kJ/mol. Na2C2O4 the benefits obtained from using the invention is called. Sodium chlorite Regulations Commission is referred to as.... 223 nm Ge(ϕ=5.half-life. Integrity Quantum number.will result..5 and 2. RA 9297 is also known as... Isotopes INSTRUMENTATION AND PROCESS CONTROL It is used to convert one signal or energy form into another..0..material. 27434 cm-1 It eliminates the offset describe by the proportional controller output. 6859 cm-1 It is a signal which tends to adversely affect the value of the output of the system. 428 Professional Regulations Commission as created under.fundamental number of hydrogen is. How many alpha particles are emitted in 10 min by 10 mg sample of radium-226? Assume 1 year to have 365 days..5 and 2..age of the rock. Initial and fifth day dissolved oxygen was measured Constant.Cl-35 and Cl37..... 8.dissociation. Initial and fifth day dissolved oxygen was measured Percentage abundance of Cl-35. None of these Ra-226. Calculate.9 x109 years The keystone of professional conduct is...boiling point elevation. 2.2 x 1011 GENERAL CHEMISTRY Region in space.5% as 7. triple bond. When 1.01% disintegrated after 50 years.45.. 77... Actuator (CH3)3COCH3 A controller whose output is a function of the duration of error.work functions.5 respectively.2 L continuous cycling of the controlled variable and thus produces flask.5 respectively..produce 23490Bi. How much solids is the plant discharging each day? 2600kg Arrange.mass ratio of 40Ar to 40K is 4..increasing Ionization energy: C(1) Na(2) Mg(3) B(4) N(5)..2. Architect Yolanda Reyes Potassium-40 decays to argon-40 with half-life of 1. No.7 yrs 212mg/L Among.would remain 100 years later? 0.particle was emitted? Alpha Who is the new chairman of PRC? Teofilo Pilando Jr.. Angular Momentum The members of the Board of the Chemical Engineering are empowered Quantum Number to decide on which of the following cases brought before them.isotope. Leachate A wastewater treatment plant discharges a flow of 1.....electron is accepted by a gaseous atom to form an The use of binary (1’s and 0’s). Between single and order to practive the profession must be authorized by: Board of double bonds.. Chemical engineering Law of 2004 What. Claims The design of the dry seal that is required of chemical engineering in Pertains to single bond.E<P<N A 5 mL wastewater sample was analyzed for its BOD content using the Atomic weight of chlorine is 35. On-off control 0...020689 A 5mL wastewater sample was analyzed for its BOD content using the standard BOD test.alpha emission. what.1. What fraction. etc.. 248 nm An integrated national professional organization that is duly accredited and recognized by the corresponding Board and the Professional NaClO2 is. NH3 + 2O2 → NO3 − + H+ + H2 O What.electron is most likely to be found... What is the BOD of this sample? 300 Atoms.5 m3/s (water plus Arrange. Li(ϕ = 2.1600°C: Br2(g) 2Br(g). Transducer Balmer series (m=2). has a half-life of 1600 years..neutron..concentration of Cl2 gas? Add PCl5 velocity? Turbine An inherent disadvantage of this control system is that its results in Consider. solids plus water).0011°C office on _____.proton....50% of Br2.increase.. Digital anion. double bond.decay.. Orbital . 0...

urea (60 g/mol) when 200 grams. 0.activity... A debutanizer is a. 93 A liquid mixture.quantum numbers.initial activity of Sr-90 in Ci? 1 Curie(Ci) = 3.max number of electrons.003355 amu) in MeV? 7 For a non-azeotropic solution being distilled.atom. The bottom of a distillation column grams.. Sub cooled liquid statement is.freezing point of a 0..neutrons and electrons. Stripping 10 What.. (NH2)2CO solution in water? - 13. then the latent heat of vaporization of the component at 4 200°F is.Rb(ϕ = 2.its Kp equal to its Kc? H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g) compared to residue is.. where there are two components and both components DISTILLATION are found in both phases. is 400 BTU/lb. Higher in B Starting.l=0.7 x 10 disintegration/atom-sec).. 11th States. 5A Desorption is another tem for.. Tiller-Tour Equation What.vacuum.acidic oxide? SO2 If the HETP of the column of previous problem is 2 ft the the height of Which.following sets.. mCi? (1Ci = 3.250 grams of water? -0.. ms= -1/2... 26 ft ms=-1/2 In a distilling column. Reflux In distillation........36 grams of water.isoelectronic... Decreases What.. This and 1 atm.will have the highest boiling point elevation? Na2SO4 In distillation.... when the operating pressure is specified. the concentration of m/s the distillate will be. Flash distillation process. Vacuum pump Which. 18. Homogeneous equilibria mol/hr is..45% benzene and 55% toluene by weight is to be fed to a fractionating column at a rate of 5000 kg/hr... the theoretical number of plates may be estimated using the.74 Vapor pressure of water at 25°C is 23.. only one variable such as liquid phase concentration can be changed independently if the pressure is fixed and A 50% by weight benzene-toluene mixture is fed to a column at 180°F the remperature and vapor phase concentration will follow. Make 102°C separation difficult .70 x 10 10 disintegration/sec.913 A reboiler provides heat to the....953 gram will remain after 2 years.particles cannot be accelerated in a particle accelerator? Neutron In a vacuum distillation column the vacuum is usually created by a. 7. What is the molecular weight of the solute? 56 At minimun reflux ratio. the solution to be open steam distilled should be.properties do not depend.... Concentration gradient What..30% wt urea. the temperature in the distillation column.. Lower Which.vapor pressure of 20.. the highest pressure will be at. The atom is almost an empty space.00 x 10 concentration in A less than the azeotropic point. If the feed has a 5 Speed of an electron.. Mass transfer equipment Calculate. which is true...similar phases is called. 932 BTU/lb Which.. The operating temperature is decreased Which.. Zn+2. Infinite 2 10 3 What group. If the overall plate effeciency is 60%. where A is a low boiler exhibting a maximum boiling point.freezing point. 99 mCi For a mass tranfer to take place. the concentration of the distillate may be Which. A solution...non-volatile. n=1. The condition of this feed is.205 molal solution. A binary solution. 140 A distillation column with a partial condenser is composed of 7 theoretical stages in the rectifying section and 8 theoretical stages in the stripping section..electron configuration?[Ar] 4s 3d 4p . S-2 and Cl-1 In a simple batch distillation.binding energy per nucleon for C-13 (13..ml=-1..quantum number: n=2. there must be.. Pauli’s Exclusion Principle A heat transfer equipment to convert vapor to liquid is an/a.atoms.. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 Rutherford’s experiment. the boiling point of the distillate product Which.most electronegative? F improved in the more volatile component if.756 torr.zinc ion. True A binary mixture of 2 moles benzene and 8 moles toluene will boit at... from bottom to top..000 gram of Sr-90. 58.. Completely immiscible in water Which.. is subjected to flash distillation. Condenser Sum of # of protons... the bottom Which... Increasing the operating pressure of a distillation column. The feed rate in kg Type of equilibrium.. Nuclear In batch open distillation. an equivalent packed column is...... the number of plates is...no two atoms will have the same set of quantum #s..29°C If the enthalpy os saturated vapor at 200°F reffered to 32°F 1300 BTU/lb while the enthaply os saturated liquid (Cp = 1) referred to 0°F What...16 eV) when 350 nm. the the actual feed plate is..168°C For nearly pure products in a stage operationg..molecules/compounds is formed by covalent bonds? NO2 In a two-component.incorrect..electronic configuration...234 torr. the cooled liquid stream returned to the column to cool a plate or stage is called. 1.

540 1. Suitable.85 pressure Open steam binary rectification may be applied with the success if the Using Antoine’s equation... The maximum height of the water another through heat and mass transfer is. 48....03 ft .. Vertical The approximate minimun number of stages for a binary system with When the molal latent heat of vaporization of the binary system is very relative volatility of 2... 4’ x 8’ sheets.5 m.000 psi.diameter of 30 ft.35. Normal. gasoline. Avoid high feed and is. Which A reactor will operate at 300 psi and 600°F. When the relative volatility of two miscible components close to 1. the chemical distillate.3/8 inch thick. Distillation One hundred moles per hour of solution contating 80 moles of A.80%.72 moles A is obtained. of these Allowable tensile strength of material is 12.32 The primary reason why close steam is used in an open batch steam A major classification group of stainless steels 6% to 22% nickel in distillation is to. 3 the components can be separated by.000 The percentage change in the boiling point of a 20-mole benzene- A horizontal cylindrical tank is used for the storage of motor toluene solution when the pressure is increased from 1 atm to 2 atm is.5% increase 10m. Ponchon-Savarit Method The degrees of freedom associated with a ternary distillation process.simple continuous distillation.700 psi. The tank roof has a 10% incline. Relative volatility water on the base of the tank is most nearly.30 cm. 63.. the system follow Trouton’s multicomponent solution of a volatile liquids are separated from the Rule heavier components is called.. Constant efficiency... Distillation tank is. the most appropriate method to use 0. if the column has. An infinite number of plates the electric resistance of the stressed wire with respect to the electric resistance of the unstressed wire will.045 in the bottom is.inside diameter of 3m. The distribution coefficient of n-hexane at 10 atm abs and 200°C is. The tank.4 A cylindrical water tank with a hemispherical dome has the dimensions The ease or difficulty of separating components by distillation is shown below. without changing the other variables.. Extractive distillation The difference between stage operation (A) and a continuous phase PLANT DESIGN contact operation (B) is that. 8... Water 80°C is estimated to be at ___ torrs. The temperature of the solution in problem 2 as distillation progresses estimate.. Provide a The unit operation by which miscible liquid are separated from on corrosion allowance of 1/16 inch. D moles of from the less volatile component through distillation.00.. All joints. (A) yields discreet concentration changes while (B) yields infinitesimal concentration changes A chemical engineer was commisioned to design vertical cylindrial with a flat bottom and a conical roof.backing strip. The working capacity of the simultaneous evaporation and condensation is. 0..Pandacan. If the tank. in lbf..000 psi and a joint efficiency of 80%. 1-3/16” The relative volatility of the mixture at the azeotropic point where the solution exhibits minimum boiling point is. If the temperature is constant. The suction. the To improve the degree of separation of thee more volatile component rest B is subjected.. 80°F. Increase The total actual number of plates of the distillation column of the previous problem is. The number of sheets needed is. according to the Gibbs’ phase rule..tank The distillation process involves. This group differs from the other two major groupings in that steels. The tank.wall thickness. Reduce the column B. To prevent overfilling.. If A is five times more volatile than engineer may. The total force. Height = 12 ft. Slightly affected by temperature reboiler temperatures The activity coefficient of a component in a non-ideal liquid solution When the feed to the rectifying column is a saturated liquid. the maximum The physical separation of components in a miscible mixture by height. crown radius of the items below is a source of analytical method for K-values? All = 66 in.. The thickness of the shell is.1 to determine the number of ideal stages is.. 1173 Strictly speacking.. efficiency = 80%.13.. extered by the determined by the. the concentration of A in the distillate is.. at constant operating pressure. 590. fractionally distilled to yield compositions of much dependent on concentration.98 in the distillate and 0.. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 McCabe-Thiele method to determine the theoritical number of stages The unit operation by which the lighter components in a may be applied with acceptable result if. double welded butt joint. 7/16 in The theoritical minimum reflux ratio in a distillation column is attained A thin wire is subject to a tensile stress. Assume no corrosion is necessary.. Heat and mass transfer cylinder. is. the relative volatility of most ideal binary solutions Vacuum distillation is resorted to in order to.. in diameter. Distillation tank in kiloliters is.. diamter = 6ft..inside length of 25.. Are non-magnetic The recent availability of digital computer resulted in the development of many analytical expressions for the evaluation of K-values.pressure of 50 psig.... Equal to 1 A spherical carbon steel storage tank for ammonia..height of 16. 22 A water tank 30 ft... the feed at low pressure is approximated to be equal to.(pic) the tank is full..tensile strength. None of these line is.sludge. the vapor pressure of tetrahydrofuran at less volatile component is.90% of the total tank volume. Assume the allowable stress of steel is 15..exceed 90% of the vertical height.. Increase the number of degrees of freedom addition to 16% to 26% chromium.

Ultimate strength Determine the number of moles of aluminum in 2. What is the density of the The intermittent welds generally used to hold material in place mud? The sand is pure quartz which density is 165 lb/ft3. the pressure must be. The ratio of the diamter and height that will require the minimum amount of metal to make in each can is.5 M The stress in an elastic material is. The safe Tyndall effect is shown by. 60Ni2+ calculations.1g of Na2SO4 to determined without breaking the piece is. In boiler neutrons. less than that of the hole in Write the symbol of the species with 28 protons.8 liters. CH3CH2OCH2CH2CH3 is an ether kp= 0. 4%O2. 0.46 atm CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH is an alcohol . Thick walled vertical vessels Absolute zero maybe regarded as the temperature at which. the number of moles of carbon required to convert 23g of Fe3O4 to product is. the pipes can handle is. 0. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 Bracket supports are most suitable for. How many grams of silicon must be reacted with excess chlorine in order to The thickness of the head is. Yield point Aluminum oxide The only strength of stress grade lumber that can be precisely The molarity of a solution prepared by adding 7.984 mol is not recommended.1 kg/cm2. If the pressure is increased by reducing the volume members under steady load. 3/2” obtain 17g SiCl4? 2. 32 which it is to fit.0 inch) shedule 40 steel pipes are to be used to transport high pressure steam. Stress grade lumber What is the name of the compound ? 1-propoxycyclohexane or Cyclohexylpropyl ether GENERAL CHEMISTRY Which of the following contains sp-hybridized carbon? C5H8 An endothermic reaction is one in which. the yield of SiCl4 is 50%.28 What is the concentration of Cl. Stiffness enough water to make 100 mL of solution is.154x10-1 kg of Al. which one would be the limiting in the The offset method is used to find a property of metals that do not have reaction? NaCN a well-defined stress-strain curve such as steel. 2%CO. This property is called Which of the following compounds are correctly named? Al2O3 – the. 0. D/h = 1. the factor of safety is a ratio based on of the flask.4 lb/m3 temporarily are called. Tall horizontal vessel Na<Mg<Al The Brinell Number of a material is a measure of. the rivet is assumed to.9% plywood is. In the construction of a vinegar tank.2 Four inch (4. The maximum steam pressure in. 110. Factor of safety If two moles of an ideal gas at 546K occupies a volume of 44. one of these metals of construction 7. 82%N2.0 In the reaction of Fe3O4 with C to form CO2 and Fe. Molecular Circular cylindrical cans of volume Vo are to be manufactured with both motion in a gas would cease ends closed. Colloidal solution working fiber stress for butt welded pipes is 457.in a solution that contains 35ppm kg/cm2 chloride? 3. Hardness A volumetric analysis of a gaseous mixture is as follows: 12%CO2. wane and checks are all factors that help determine the quality of. Skirt support is most suitable for. What is the percentage of CO in mass basis? The chief difference between exterior grade plywood and interior grade 1. The pipe joints are to be butt-welded. This is to ensure easy entrance of a hot rivet. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2NH2 is an amine calculate the partial pressure of ammonia when equilibrium is reached. Brass Normally the diamter of a rivet is 1/16 in.215. Double vee Given 6 mol of each reactant. Proportional to the displacement of the material acted on by the force In the direct reaction of silicon with Cl2. kg/cm2. 18.3 kJ It is the bond formed in the head-on overlap of two orbitals? Sigma Which of the following species is not isoelectronic with any other? V3+ Which of the following alkenes is gas at room temperature? Propane Ammonium iodide dissociates reversibly to ammonia and hydrogen Choose the incorrect statement iodide.8g The ultimate strength divided by the allowable stress is. Poisson’s Ratio ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Warp. The amount of HI will remain the same working stress and. That different types of glue are used A typical mud is 70%wt and 30%wt water. Fill the hole after driving Arrange the following according to increasing ionization energy. 2 atm The unit lateral deformation of a body under stress divided by the unit longitudinal deformation is known as. If 150g of NH4I is placed into a 3-L vessel and heated to 400C.5x10-3% If an engineering structure is to be designed against rupture of any of its H2 + I2  2HI. 26electrons. Heat is absorbed Which of the following is the ester formed from a two carbon alcohol and a five carbon acid? Ethyl pentanoate Which of the following has the largest radius? C Data: -890.

5%.00910 amu.0259 mol/L. Isoprene Consider the titration of 50mL of 0. Ag2CrO4.100 M NaOH to 200 mL of 0.825 MeV What is the pH of a buffer prepared by adding 180 mL of 0. kspMg(OH)2=1.000g mixture of Cu2O and CuO is quantitatively reduced to 0. 5. is soluble to the extent of 0. Bright green Calculate the pH of a solution necessary to just begin the precipitation of Mg(OH)2 when [Mg2+]=0. 3-pentanol The color of Cu in the flame. (2R.8x10-5). calculate ka. If the ore is composed of Cu2S and CuS with 11% inert impurity.25 Calculate the mass of water in grams that could be heated from 20C to M benzoic acid 100C by the energy generated by an electric current of 10A across a With the presence of Pb2+ ion. 10 Which of the is not a correct analytical method-titrant pair? Volhard- Which of the following will distinguish 1-propanol from 2-propanol.3S) – of the metal is normal. the valency of metal is.9x10-5 Oxidation of isopropyl alcohol with potassium permanganate yields.9091 N HCl for neutralization.755 Yellow The rate of decay of 79Au195 is such that 79.7% chlorine.1 M HF solution. calculate the % purity of Na2CO3. 2. One mole of the metal was allowed to react completely Butane with water.53 copper. Calculate the What is the pH of a 0. 0.2 L The atomic weight of the metal is. the percent dissociation is determined to be nuclide remains as 79Au195 after 60 days have elapsed. Which of the following alkynes contain acidic hydrogen? Propyne 2.5% pure K/molal? 2.1M KOH. What is the half- 9.09 contact angle. 83. 62% PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A proton donor is.742g Which compounds are isomers? 1 – propanol and 2 – propanol Silver chromate.4 N/m in a 3mm diameter vertical tube if the liquid rises 6 mm above the liquid outside the tube. Both 2 – bromopentene and 3 – bromopentene filtration.7x10-4 6. The chloride of the metal was found to contain 13. 49% ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY When 5.0? Assume that the ka value of benzoic acid is 6. Alkanes using of Cu.8% of a sample of this In a 0.31 days . 3. 1 2 – bromo – 3 – chlorobutane A 1.1% How many isomers does xylene have? 3 2-methyl.4 g of 89. give. What is the kb of benzene in The roasting of 100 g of a copper ore yielded 75.0 alcohol with LiAlH8? Ketone If 1.903C. calculate the energy per nucleon. after precipitation.208-g sample of impure Na2CO3 is dissolved and allowed to react According to Markovnikov’s rule. Zwitterion Natural rubber is a polymer of.5x10-5.10 M solution of (HNO2)? 2. Bronsted-Lowry Acid Given the mass defect for the triton (tritium nucleus) to be 0.1M HBr with 0. The volume of hydrogen gas liberated at STP is.6x10-5 Compounds with general formula (C5H8)n. addition of HBr to 2-pentene will with solution of CaCl2.2x10-11. 91. the product is. calculate the percentage of Cu2S in the ore. 0.001 M. The Acetone sample was dissolved in water and treated with AgNO3.7 Which of the following solutions results in a buffer pH = 4. The hydroxide solution formed was made up to one liter. what is the color of its precipitate? voltage of 10V for 10 hours.70 Water has surface tension of 0. The resulting CaCO3. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2O is ketone A metal reacts with water with the evolution of hydrogen and formation When ethyl bromide is treated with sodium in dry ether. AgNO3 Lucas Test It is an ion that bears both positive and negative charge.865g Williamson Synthesis is the procedure for producing. the boiling point increases by 0. Calculate the %NaBr in the Calcium carbide on interaction with water gives..03mg. Calculate the solubility product constant.16 M benzoate and 0.85 mg. The mass of Cu2O in the original sample of the mixture must sodium metal have been. One hundred mL of this solution require 110 mL of 0. 224 Since the solution of the hydroxide What is the correct name of the molecule . 10. 11. A sample containing NaBr and KBr only weighs 253.50g of biphenyl (C12H10) is dissolved in 10g benzene. of its hydroxide. Calculate Which of the following carbonyl compounds produce a secondary the pH of 49mL of the base that has been added to 50mL of HBr. The precipitate formed was found to weigh 429.5x10-4 9. Acetylene sample.100 M acetic acid (ka=1. 1x10-3 life of 79Au195? 184. Terpenes 6. and drying was found to weigh of the precipitate.

82 kJ melts over a wide range of temperature For an ideal gas what is the specific molar entropy change during an What is the lowest possible temperature of matter? Absolute zero isothermal process in which the pressure changes from 200 kPa to 150 kPa? 2. how much energy is given off if 20 grams of silver are condensed to liquid at its boiling point? 46 kJ What is the electrical work done by 3.00 A for 2 min? (F=96. 705 K The difference between the heat of combustion of methane at constant A heat engine absorbs heat from the combustion at 2200C. how many grams of Cu could be plated out of a CuSO4 solution at a current of 5. A spontaneous reactions is possible The net work accomplished by an engine undergoing adiabatic compression is equal to.2 kJ/kgK) is heated by 300 BTU energy.4”. How old is a compression.0g sample for which the rate is 0. What is 34.500 C/mol). The maximum work is in -2314. then.5 kg H2O which is THERMODYNAMICS originally at 24C and 1 atm? 1287.65 atm.40A How is conservation of internal energy expressed from system during an adiabatic process? Q = 0. -0. liquid. The atomic number has emitted.19x108 cm at 300K and pressure of 100mmHg. what is the heat of formation of All of the following are true about crystals except.763V or 0.111 K and rejects heat to the second engine at temperature T.0167 BTU/R Benzene boils at 80C under normal conditions and diethyl ether at 1 kg of water (C=4. approximates a constant value of 6. As a result of the natural abundance of C-14. –ΔU .07x105 J The Carnot engine are operating in series. Determine the change in entropy of the gas in BTU/lbF.83K At standard temperature and pressure. Zero 324.473V pressure remains constant at 50psia.76 BTU 0.00 moles of electrons at a potential of 1. equilibrium is established. At what temperature does the benzene have the same vapor the change in temperature in K? 75.75V? 5. If one mole of silver weighs 108 grams and its heat of vaporization is 0. The This states that “For solid element (with few exceptions). INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 The radioactive isotope C-14 has a half life of 5720 years.67 atm-L2/mol2 and During the adiabatic reversible expansion of an ideal gas. Diffusion insulated what is the entropy change of the system? 0. The first one absorbs heat at 1.39 J/mol-K What current would be necessary to deposit 1. the product second engine received the heat at the intermediate temperature T and of atomic weight multiplied by specific heat (atomic heat) rejects it to a reservoir at 300 K. β particle compression ratio is 4. What is the mean free path of the gas in cm? 6. gaseous phases co-exist What is the wavelength of radiation that has a frequency of 5. 3.01M//Ag+(0. a 1g sample of carbon from a living A total of 165 J of work is done on a gaseous refrigerant as it undergoes organism undergoes 15 disintegrations/minutegram.263V (dilimaklaro HAHAHA) 25 BTU are rejected.4 pressure as does the ether at 25C? 69C Which of the following thermodynamic quantities gives a finite Which of the following completely fills the blank in this nuclear quantity when integrated? Heat reaction? 8Be How much energy in (kJ) is required to vaporize 0. 2.62 x106 cal -1257.7 psia and 68F. of heat absorbed by the gas is equal to. If the container is another. So U = -W What is the potential cell for Zn/Zn2+ (0. A crystal softens and water vapor? -241.4 cal is.67g of Fe(s) from a solution of Fe3+(aq) in 1 hour? 2.749V 1.6C.689 In an electrolytic cell. 577 K The molecular diameter of CO is 3.87 x10-4 m A 5-lb block of copper at 200F is submerged in 10 lbm of H2O at 50F The ability of gas that tends to expand indefinitely into a vacuum or and after a period of time.5 cal calories that can be obtained from the combustion of 1 liter of gasoline 1257.80 and heat combustion of 11200 -1192. the volume changing from 5 ft 3 to 2ft3 and the 1.91 disintegrations/minutegram? the process. Find the critical constants of the substance.198g 250 kJ/mol. The pressure and at constant volume at 27C when the liquid water forms is gasoline has a specific gravity of 0.4 cal The Van der Waals constants for HCl are a=3. Dulong and Petit’s Law Calculate T if the efficiencies of the two engine are equal. 81. The engine rejects heat at 1200C. if the internal energy of the gas increased by 123 J during 10.562V? A closed gaseous system undergoes a reversible process during which 0. what is the total amount of energy transformed as heat? - 4120 years 42 J An atom which undergoes a nuclear reaction resulting in an increase in Helium is compressed isothermally from 14.8 mL/mol.1M)/Ag? The standard cell potential is 1.11x10 11 in equilibrium? Triple point Hz? 5.6V What is the unique state at which solid. Find U.57 If ΔG < 0.86x10-6 Calculate T if the work done by the two engines are equal. the amount b=40.2 cal cal/gal.

True Compositions or forms giving distinct appearance pattern in a product The ChE can work only in Unit Operations. Copyright works are protected during the life of the author and 50 years after his death. Provided he is given exemption by PRC.. equipment and other aspects. upon convivtion. with volume of 0. False can be protected as industrial design ChE are guided by RA 9297. False Two countries can allow their professionals to practice even without a license provided there is a reciprocity agreement. True Mortgage .5 kJ/kg the permission of the inventor especially if he refuses to license the invention for a reasonable royalty. a foreign ChE can practice his profession in Phil. 90 % in Gen. Fail the exam To publicly criticize work of another ChE is allowed or ethical. at least one ChE shall be included in the personnel of . A foreign ChE can practice ChE in Phil. False A chemical engineer who violates the provisions of ChE Law. If requested by the Phil.s property is given as a security for his debt. False The ChE shall report any infraction PRC Exchange of information among ChEare allowed except for confidential New Intellectual Property Code.5L. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 It is unethical to undervalue ones professional services compared with A diesel engine has a compression ratio of 20:1 with an inlet of 95 kPa. state 1. False It is the meeting of the mind between two persons Contract. 50 % in Phy. True The BoChE may inspect the facilities. Engineering. False previously ratified by the contracting parties A BochE Examiner should not be connected with a school where he has Contract wherby the debtor. PIChE A chemical engineer must be guided in his profession and relationship with others by The highest standard of honor and integrity. RA 9297 Organization of ChE accredited by PRC. Declaration of third party Changing the process of a patented invention without the inventor’s Not cause of inexistence and nullity of contracts. Approved patents are published in IPO Gazette To be a ChE board examiner. 5 years. All of these 55 % ChE. CHED A ChE can review the work of another ChE without his permission for the same client. False Doctorate degree can secure license without examination.A. 6511 had been Government. False A foreign ChE is allowed to practice in Phil. According to ChE Law of 2004.All of these The life of patent is 17 years. True Not essential element of contract. 1998 information. The PRC has supervisory power in BOChE. RA 8293. faculty. A chemical engineer who designed and built a new reactor and for three years sold many units to the public can still patent his reactor. and Chem. As a general rule. True An employee can claim exclusive ownership of an invention produced during his employment in a company. Those are which permission is an act of infringement. It is right to compete with another ChE provide ed inadequate compensation is made. 6298 kPa. one must be at least 30 years of age. False The New Code of Ethics for the Practice of ChE was approved by BoChE in 2009. The maximum cycle temperature is 1800 K. Find the net specific An invention that is for public good could be developed even without work. True practicing chemical engineering law are exempt from the registration. False No one can practice ChE unless licensed by BoChE. 220.True A document issued by DENR. True Specifications means. EIA. True 290 K. Term duty of BoChE is 3 years only. True A chemical engineer can do work of a chemist. Foreigners who on the date of the approval R. True It is a juridical necessity to give Obligation The PRC formulates the examination questions. January 1. others just to get a given contract. True LAWS and ETHICS The act regulating the practice of ChE in Phil. a pecuniary interest. Find the maximum pressure.

the area of heterogeneity. the product is. Decreases Which of the following will distinguish 1-propanol from 2- propanol. extraction solvent has no selectivity when the ratio of Which of the following is the ester formed from a two carbon alcohol the two component. 2 stage= 79 % Which of the following alkynes contain acidic hydrogen? Propyne Compounds with general formula (C5H8)n. Cyclohexylpropyl ether one has to know The distribution coefficient. poor in B. addition of HBr to 2-pentenewill In liquid extraction. benzoic acid =10 %. 1. Terpenes . Alkanes using sodium metal Extract benzoic acid from toluene using water.000 kg/hr. Mass solute= 27 kg Williamson Synthesis is the procedure for producing. Why we support the Code of Ethics? All of these S= 30. Butane LLE is based on Solubility. E= 8% acetic # of stages = 8 When there’s an engineer’s conference and an engineer was asked to Solvent to feed ratio= 1. as the temperature increases. >1 According to Markovnikov’s rule. Compete with another engineer much as chloroform= 5. (2R. % benzoic will remain . Single stage= 59%.000 kg/hr of 28 % acetic acid. Employs 2 solvent Selectivity of solvent. extract Rich S. K=4 mass solute=2. X/Z= 3% M that will remain . chlorobutane Fractional solvent extraction.125 Which compounds are isomers? 1 – propanol and 2 – propanol % of the acid extracted.0 and a five carbon acid? Ethyl pentanoate In an extraction process the greater the weight of solute. toluene = 90 % Rate of feed= 120 gpm. two successive= 16. rich in A Natural rubber is a polymer of.6 % Serves as a collective recognition by members of a profession of its responsibilities. 9 kg of S . Lucas Test Solution of solute A in diluent B mixed in solvent S. M in water. 100 L water.3 %. Both 2 – bromopentene and 3 – bromopentene When the solvent dissolves very little of the solute then. Solvent extraction When ethyl bromide is treated with sodium in dry ether. Code of Ethics Benzoic acid is 9 times more soluble in chloroform than water. No separation will occur give. what is the right thing to do? He should voice out his knowledge about the topic and make suggestions ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Liquid. alcohol with LiAlH8? Ketone stage counter current extraction.3S) – 2 – bromo – 3 – extraction. RA 8981. Isoprene Which of the following carbonyl compounds produce a secondary Problem 30 kg solute. Heat sensitive materials with high heat of vaporization Liquid What is the correct name of the molecule.Liquid Extraction Concepts What is the name of the compound? 1-propoxycyclohexane or To determine the minimum ratio of extraction solvent to feed solvent. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 The PRC Modernization Act of 2000. twice as Unethical for a chemical engineers do. Which of the following contains sp-hybridized carbon? C5H8 In LLE process. Single batch= 25%. 35 L ether. F= 10. Each quantity of chloroform= 10 %. It is the bond formed in the head-on overlap of two orbitals? Sigma Which of the following alkenes is gas at room temperature? Propane Unit operation by which soluble components of a liquid mixture are dissolved in another liquid. if followed by two extraction= 0. Large quantity How many isomers does xylene have? 3 of solvent is required to extract the solute 2-methyl. rate of solvent= 20gpm K=0. Centrifugal extractor In extraction. The more is.75 give additional information and suggestions.35 % unfairly Acetic acid by isopropyl alcohol.45 kg If 3. 3-pentanol Most suitable for extraction having very low density difference. if selectivity is unity.

INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 Oxidation of isopropyl alcohol with potassium permanganate yields. “In the addition of HX to alkenes. which of the Which is NOT a physical property of alcohols or phenols? The hydroxyl following is not an elimination reaction? Hydrogenation of alkynes group of an alcohol is non-polar . methylpropene can be Acid-catalyzed ring opening of an epoxide will result in the formation obtained from 2-methyl-2-propanol of a/an dihydric alcohol Alkenes are commonly prepared via elimination reaction.3. the enol formed is found to transform into a Which of the following alkanes is gas at room temperature? propane ketone. the Which of the following alcohols will undergo bimolecular nucleophilic dominant product is substitution? 1-propanol In Williamson synthesis of methyl isopropyl ether. This form of isomerism is known as keto-enol tautomerism When ethyl bromide is treated with sodium in dry ether. The following reagents will yield an alkyl halide from an alkene except Acetone Br2/UV or light Calcium carbide on interaction with water gives. sigma Starting with 2-methyl-2-butene. the halogen REVIEWER attaches to the doubly bonded carbon with more alkyl substituent. Which of the following alkynes contain acidic hydrogen? propyne Among the molecules. 2. the main product is acetic acid In hydration of alkynes. which of the following processes must Part of a molecule where most of its chemical reactions occur. the one with the lowest boiling point is 3.” Which of the following contains sp-hybridized carbon? C5H8 Markovnikoff’s Rule Bond formed in the head-on overlap of two orbitals. which is not aromatic? The following reagents will produce an alkane from an alkyl halide except alcoholic KOH How many possible monochlorinated product is expected from the chlorination of propane? 2 All of the following are ortho and para directing substituents except – Name the alkene: 2-methyl-2-butene NO2 How many isomers does xylene have? 3 Vinylbenzene is also known as styrene Which of the following carbonyl compounds produce a secondary The name of the saturated hydrocarbon isomer of cis-3-hexene is alcohol with LiAlH4? ketone cyclohexane Addition of methyl magnesium bromide to acetaldehyde produces 2- For which of the compounds below are cis-trans isomers possible? Both propanol 2 and 3 Oxidation of isopropyl alcohol with KMnO4 will yield acetone When 1-bromo-2-methylcyclobutane is treated with alcoholic KOH. be used to produce a secondary alcohol? Hydroboration-oxidation Functional group Which of the following reagents will yield a diol from a given alkene? Which of the following molecule is unsaturated? C5H10 OsO4 in NaHSO4 Name the alkane. the alcohol used is isopropyl alcohol Among the following alcohols. Acetylene The acid-catalyzed addition of water to 1-butene will form 2-butanol The rule which states that. the product is Name the alkyne: 4-methyl-2-butyne butane For the following alkanes.4-trimethylhexane Hydrogenation of alkynes in the presence of a poisoned palladium catalyst produces alkene Addition of HBr to alkynes results in the formation of germinal dihalide When 2-butyne undergoes ozonolysis.

Name the ester: ethyl propanoate Aldol Condensation It is the reaction of sodium alkoxides with alkyl halides producing an ether. epoxides NaCl The acidic ingredient in vinegar and the pure acid is useful solvent and Which among the following is a ketone? CH3COCH3 manufacturing intermediate. Addition of ammonia to acid anhydrides produces amide remaining un-ionized aldehyde is attacked by the formed enolate ion. Acid halide. tautomerism The reaction of carboxylic acids in their conversion into esters by reaction with an alcohol (the substitution of an –OH group with an – Addition of an alcohol to acyl halides produces ester OR). a carboxylic acid will have a/an higher The most acidic hydrogen in an alpha carbon occurs in alkyne boiling point than an alcohol. Ozonolysis of the alcohol produced acetaldehyde. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 Hydrocarbon derivatives used as a main ingredient in automobile It was first used as an anesthetic in 1824. Y. Ethylene glycol and insensitivity to pain by inhibiting activity of the central nervous Which of the following will distinguish 1-propanol from 2-propanol? system. Acetic acid Which of the following processes will yield an aldehyde? Ozonolysis of These are different compounds that have the same molecular formula alkenes but different structural formula. what product would you An unknown ester was hydrolyzed with water and acid to produce an get? Octanethiol acid. Cis-isomer except amide Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the reaction Addition of hydrazine to carbonyl compounds produces a/an hydrazone between Cl2 and C2H6? The reaction will give a single product of C2H5Cl Reduction of alkyl phenyl ketones to aromatic hydrocarbons done by What is the expected product formed from the reaction between 2- Wolf-Kishner Reduction uses NH2NH2. Fischer esterification Name the acidic anhydride: acetic propionic anhydride Ethers can also exists as cyclic molecules. Oxidation of the alcohol with hot KMnO4 How would you prepare pentanal from pentanol? Oxidation using PCC yielded acid X. Hydrogen bonding Hexanedioic acid is also known as adipic acid Which of the following alcohols will undergo a 1.3-dichlorobutane With the same molecular weight. Diethyl ether Lucas test They are a class of cyclic ethers in which the ether oxygen is included The following reagents will give an alkyl halide from alcohol except in a three-membered ring. Name Name the organic compound. It produces unconsciousness antifreeze. acyl phosphate EXAM Name the organic compound. epoxides The addition of alcohols (in excess) to aldehydes yields this product. ester. acide anhydride. 3-(Ethylthio)cyclohexanone . amide thioester.2-methyl shift when it Reaction of alcohol and a carboxylic acid is known as esterification is heated with acid? 3-methyl-2-butanol Name the acyl halide: butanoyl chloride The interconversion between the keto and enol forms is a special kind of isomerism. A carbonyl group occurs in all of the following except ether Acid anhydride upon hydrolysis yield carboxylic acid The reason why some alcohols are soluble in water. trans-2-Methylcyclohexanecarbaldehyde the ester. Ethyl ethanoate When an ethyl acetate is reduced by LiAlH4 the product is acetaldehyde Cyclic esters are known as lactones The scent of a banana is due to the ester i-pentyl acetate Derivatives of carboxylic acid.KOH butene and Cl2? 2. Williamson synthesis In the reaction of 1-bromooctane with thiourea. acetals It is the reaction when an enolate ion is prepared from an aldehyde. X and alcohol. isomers A tertiary alcohol is produced using Grignard Reagent using a/an ketone This geometric isomer indicate that a particular group are on the same Carbonyl compounds can be obtained by reduction using the following side of the molecules.

Calculate the new manometer reading (in inches) if the pressure in Tap A is increased by 2. If the manometer reading is 15 in. secondary. the manometer reads 5 inches along the inclined tube.5 A horizontal annulus is 27 ft. a process called Friedel- What product would you obtain from hydration reaction of 2. The oil has a specific gravity observing the differences in the reaction rates.1 in. The product of the reaction CH3CH=CH2 + H2 is CH3CH2CH3 determine the volumetric flow rate. one electrons are ortho.3 lb/ft3 and its viscosity How would you prepare ethyl phenyl ether? Either a or b is 136. para. inside diameter. At this temperature the fluid density is 80. 30 s reaction of the alkyl halide? Major: 2.7 A cylindrical tank 1 ft in diameter discharges through a nozzle Predict the major product of the sulfonation of toluene. although it does not possess a pair of non-bonded p In the catalytic hydrogenation of alkyne to produce an alkene. The diameter of the nozzle What major and minor products would you expect from elimination is 1 inch and its discharge coefficient may be taken as unity. connected to the base. Find the time needed for the water level in the toluenesulfonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid tank to drop from 4 ft to 2 ft above the nozzle.and para. hydroxylamine An alkyl group is attached to an aromatic ring on reaction with an alkyl chloride. the nucleophile is weakly basic.0336 lb/ft-sec.. the inside radius of the outer cylinder is 1. hyperconjugation Predict whether the substitution reaction undergoes SN1 or SN2. Lucas test of 0. long. in the presence of AlCl3 catalyst. 77 Which of the following is the most reactive? 2-pentanone A pump delivers 40 gpm of water with a total head of 40 ft.5-trimethyl-2-hexene.4-dimethyl-2-pentanol by oxymercuration using A compound whose molecular structure rotates polarized light mercury (II) acetate followed by sodium borohydride counterclockwise: is designated as being levoratatory What alkyne would you start to prepare the compound by Which of the following characteristics of chirality is not true? The chiral hydroboration/oxidation reaction? C6H5C≡CH carbon atom is said to be unsaturated The following are ortho-. Identify whether this is an R or S configuration.8 lbm/ft-hr. The pitot This test determines a primary.directing because they undergo a special should used Lindlar’s catalyst type of resonance. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 The reagent needed to convert a ketone or an aldehyde into an oxime.3.5-trimethyl-3-hexene and 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-1-pentene A fluid flowing at a rate of 25 cubic meters per hour in a 60-mm inside diameter pipe has an average velocity in meters/second equals to 2.directors except -CN Methyl groups. The efficiency of the pump is 65%.11 ft3/s What is the major product formed from the reaction of benzene with A pitot tube with a U-tube water manometer is attached to a horizontal isobutyl chloride and AlCl3? isobutylbenzene oil pipe of 4 in.495 in.84 and a viscosity of 0. and the solvent is protic. S When the pressure in Tap B is 6 psi. 20. what is the volume rate of flow when the impressed Claisen rearrangement is specific to allyl aryl ethers pressure drop is 5.0 psi. Minor: A device for measuring differential pressure is a manometer 2. SN1 reaction because the substrate is secondary and benzylic. A How would you synthesize a secondary alcohol? By reduction of a 60% aqueous solution of sucrose is to be pumped though the annulus at ketone using NaBH4 or LiAlH4 20C. in gpm of oil in the pipe.3. o. What is its BHP? 0. Tap B is 4 ft vertically higher than Tap A.39 psi? 0. The outside radius of the inner cylinder is 0.62 . and tertiary alcohols by reading is placed at the center of the pipe. FLUID FLOW A 15 inclined manometer containing mercury is connected to two taps A and B containing water.4- Crafts alkylation reaction dimethyl-2-pentene? 2. RCl..

A sharp edged orifice meter is to be fabricated to measure water flowing In a reciprocating pump. What is the monthly operating Natural gas at 70F is flowing at a steady mass rate through a steel pipe cost of the pump. the net heat input is 24 350kPa. Kinematic viscosity = 0.3 maintenance. the average air Newton’s law of viscosity relates shear stress and velocity.8 tower is pumped continuously from the bottom of the lye storage tank inches. If the height of the water in the weir is 7.75 The dimensionless number that characterizes the flow of fluids in a Cavitation occurs in a centrifugal pump when suction is lost.0) is calibrated to handle the scrubber.1 kg/cm2. 16. Its hydraulic diameter is 2. flanged joints are used. M = 17. Calculate the maximum steam pressure. The safe working the flow is streamline fiber stress for butt-welded pipes is 457. Php5000 to 15 atm in 400 miles of horizontal pipe. The maximum head that this pump can deliver in temperature and pressure are 325C and 700 kPa. conduit is Reynolds number Dimension of kinematic viscosity is L2T-1. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 A rectangular duct 4 m x 1. velocity at the inlet is 20 ft/s. mass flow rate = 0.0 m3/min of water.000043 m2/s. the carbonate solution used in the absorption flowing in an open channel. the flow rate of water is 380 gal/min.003 kg/s. with an inside diameter of 12 inches.73/kWh. The Air is flowing at a constant mass rate through a horizontally arranged volumetric flow rate per hour at 70F and normal barometric pressure is pipe heater and heated from 70F to 170F. Calculate the efficiency of the pump. Hg. transferred is the potential head pressure drop = 4.77 atm.3 . What is the maximum flow In a high pressure piping systems where joints are regularly broken. length of tube = The differential height between two points where a fluid has to be 50. Absolute pressure drops from 30 The pump is 65% efficient and operates for 12 hours a day.25 hp.200 cu. gr = 8. 0. and velocity is 30m/s. The higher the BWG rating of a tube is. the energy requirement air.ft per hour.24 and perfect gas. 44% a maximum flow of 3.000 ft3 the inlet and the outlet pressure dropped by 1 inch H2O. the ratio of the quantity of liquid actually at a rate no to exceed 1. The pipe joints are to be butt-welded. for 3 rate of CCl4 can it handle in m /min? 2. 40 steel pipes are to be used to transport high- The inside surface of the a pipe has no effect on the friction factor when pressure steam.18 m becomes approximately 8 times the original energy requirement.5 m in a cross-section carries conditioned If the speed of a centrifugal pump is doubled. Determine the velocity in ft/s below which Air is to be delivered at a rate of 200 cfm and a pressure of 10 kPa. if electric power cost on the average is Php3. 18. The pressure is normal at 520. What is the velocity of the steam at the nozzle exit? 578 m/s BTU/lbm The absolute pressure exerted by water 2 m below the surface of a At a given flow rate through an orifice meter the differential pressure swimming pool is 120 kPa. the at a rate of 3000 gpm. The flow is steady and the cross-section is unchaged theoretical pump horsepower is 3.) Sch. A right angled triangular weir is used to measure the flow rate of water In a certain chemical plant.90 appropriate equipment to use is blower Steam flows at a steady through a converging insulated nozzle. Oil with a viscosity of 30 cP and a density of 60 lb/ft3 flows through a ½ inch inside diameter pipe. the lower is the strength Four-inch (4 inch. the steam temperature and pressure are 240C and Assuming that Cp = 0. in kg/cm2 the pipes can handle. feet of water is 36 At the nozzle exit. The flow will be laminar. unimportant The bursting pressure of a pipe is directly proportional to its schedule Calculate the radius of the capillary tube in mm.2 cm. density of fluid = 955 kg/m3.01 cP. 25 cm An axial flow pump operating at a speed of 880 rpm can supply water long and with an inlet diameter of 5 cm at the nozzle entrance.5 Machine which need electricity to run are motors A water storage tank supplies water into a factory. such that it is a flow of number a viscous fluid. Water is supplied to Mass velocity is the independent of temperature and pressure when the the tank through a booster pump installed in the water line. What orifice diameter in inches is required if D2/D1 is made 1/5? volumetric efficiency 1. μ = 0. across the orifice will increase when the orifice flow area is decreased The absolute pressure of water one meter below the surface of a lake is At low Reynolds number viscous forces control and inertial forces are 105 Pa. through a standard 4” pipe and then through sprays head at the top of A rotameter having a stainless float (sp. with a differential head of 30 pumped to that which corresponds to the piston displacement is called in.

it means that the two bodies have the same volume. the conducting water is 20 psia. the velocity at 3 the outlet end is more than the velocity at the inlet. volumetric flow rate of the discharge is increased by a factor of 2.0 if the efficiency of the compressor is 66%. horizontal pipe. by viscosity When two reciprocating pumps are connected in parallel. 16 ft When two centrifugal pumps are connected in series. The downstream point is ½ inch ID and 40 ft below screening surface and is usually given in inches or millimeters. 500 m /hr at a total discharge pressure of 05 psia is 0. 40 steel The wire diameter of a 14-mesh screen (Tyler Standard) is 0. Another name for revolving screen is trommel screen.1 larger than 48-mesh.000.8 ft. Gyratory screen pipe carrying 1600 gpm of water? Assume mercury to be the fluid in the The removal of a small amount of oversize from a feed which are pitot tube. Calculate the rate of discharge of water in ft /s 3. a head of 40 ft of water? 248 The power requirement of a fan in kW in order to supply air at a rate of When a fluid flows through a reducer in a piping system. 76% surface is called intermediate material. losses are equivalent to 3.000 Box-like machines. Water at 80F flows at 10 ft. If the Reynolds number is 353. 40 pipe if the Reynolds Removal of free water from a solids-water mixture and is generally number is 1800? 17 ft limited to 4 mesh and above. the discharge The resistance of a layer of fluid to flow over the next layer ismeasured changes by a factor of 1. What is the entrance length in a 2-inch Sch. The water is discharged at an open tank 100 pressure loss due to friction per unit length of pipe and for the same 3 volumetric flow rate is changed by approximately a factor of 1/32 ft from the pump. If the pump characteristics of both represented by Fig.0 The prime mover of a jet pump is a/an fluid momentum When the movement of a gas vapor is effected at a low pressure say. the equipment used is a blower allowable vertical distance above (or below) the pump axis from a When two bodies lost the same amount of weight when immersed in a vented surface of water (25C) in a supply tank if suction side friction fluid. pipe with length of 1000 ft. vibrating screen Water at 60F is flowing through a 3-inch inside diameter smooth When the object is to recover an oversize product from the screen.025 in.58 The pressure drop in a pipeline changes by a factor of 4 when the When the impeller speed of an ideal centrifugal pump is doubled.1 kg/cm2. aperture the upstream point where the water discharges at 30 gpm to the The screen used in making size separation smaller than 4-mesh and atmosphere. the velocity of the flowing fluid is doubled. 10-38 Perry 8/ed. determine the overall The material passing one screening surface and retained on a subsequent efficiency of the pump set. 1. a 5-in delivering 129 gpm and a 4-1/2 in SCREENING delivering 140 gpm are connected in parallel. What is the friction in ft of water? 28. Dewatering What type of pump would you recommend if the capacity is 5000 Making a size separation smaller than 48-mesh is called ultrafine gal/min at a head of 15 ft of water? Axial flow pump separation. . stream Turbulent flow generally occurs for cases involving none of these Two centrifugal pumps. Determine the to 0. either round or square with a series of screen clothes What is the differential reading in pitot tube inserted in an 8-in nominal nested atop one another. The pressure after the pump in a 6-inch inside diameter smooth pipe When the ID of the pipe through which a fluid flows is doubled. Water at 20C enters an inclined 1-inch ID pipe where the upstream The minimum clear space between the edges of the opening in the point is at 10 psig.22 to the amount of true oversize.10 in Hg predominantly fines is called scalping. the volumetric The schedule number of the pipe is an indicator of the pipe’s thickness capacity of the system changes by a factor of 2 The weight rate of floe of a fluid stream per unit of cross section Which of the following is not true? The power loss due to friction in a perpendicular to the direction of flow is the mean mass velocity of the venturi meter is greater than in an orifice meter. calculate the ratio efficiency may be expressed as ratio of the amount of oversize obtained of maximum velocity to average velocity. 2.46 kW. the Reynolds number is 500. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 The power requirement of a 4-stage compressor (in kW) in order to What will be the rated capacity (in gpm) of a 4-1/2 inch impeller supply air at 25C at a rate of 500 cu m per hour at a total discharge centrifugal pump operating at a speed of 3450 rpm capable of generating pressure of 200 psig is 63. per second through a 6-inch Sch. up The required NPSH of a pump is specified to be 8 ft.

5% SIZE REDUCTION Granular feldspar is produced by beneficiation of high alumina river sand. Which of the ff is a hard material. Bond Crushing Law. the effectiveness of the screen is 88. Hardness of a mineral is a criterion of its resistance to crushing. The wire diameter of a 10-mesh screen whose aperture is 0. sapphire The Cumulative Screen Analysis for determining the surface area of particles is more precise than the differential screen analysis because of Hp required by the ball mill when loaded is. 1.88.coarse=0.88kW/(kg/s) the 65 mesh screen. Ball Mill The Tyler Standard screen series is characterized by twice the area ratio Crushing efficiency is the ratio of. 89% and 3% respectively. The total load to the crusher is 6320 lbs/hour MRII 2nd EDITION The effectiveness of the screen 62.065 in is The screen efficiency is none of these. Trommels separate a mixture of particles depending on their size. the power required to crush a certain The capacity in MT/day-ft2-mm on the basis of the actual performance material will change by ___ % if the diameter of the product is made smaller by 50%. The total only 21%.fine=0. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 The mesh number of a screen denotes the number of openings per linear the assumption that all particles in a single fraction are equal in size is inch of screen. Screen capacity is expressed in terms of tons/h-ft2 The efficiency of screen operation is 52. The Rittinger number of the material is 163 sq in. and undersize are 36%.4hp be beneficiated is 12. After screening. Feed=0. 0. Compression opening of the next smaller screen is none of these.0074 cm the same. (17-18) 1800 lbs of dolomite per hour is produced by crushing and then screening through a 14-mesh screen. Practical Energy Efficiency The clear opening of a 200-mesh screen in the Tyler Standard screen Equivalent diameter of a particle is the diameter of the sphere having series is 0. use. A material is crushed in a Blake Jaw Crusher and the average size of the particles reduced from 50 mm to 10 mm. The MT of river sand with 10% moisture that would have to powr to be delivered to the set of equipment is. 8.32. effective dimension=6ft by 20ft.7% needed to crush the same material of an average size 25 mm assuming If the screens measure 5ft x 8ft each. 41% of the 48 mesh screen. The capacity of each screen in lb/24 hour per sq. Materials which remain on a screen surface are called oversize.035 in. 5. and a fine fraction passing A screen is said to be blinded when the screen is plugged with solid through it. ft is 5750.000 lb of a material. a more difficult. 50tons/hour. laboratory crushing experiments. Screen analysis shows a surface area of product of 500 sq ft. A fluid energy mill is used for. 38. drying and magnetic separation.2 MT. the capacity in MT/day-ft2-mm of Kick’s Law applies is.09 If the percentage of particles larger that the screen opening in the feed.. the overall effectiveness particles is 45%. crushing to the energy absorbed by the solid The ratio of the clear opening corresponding to a mesh size in the Tyler Defined as the efficiency of technical grinding compared with Standard screen series to that of the next screen is sqrt(2). not needed.901 Based on Bond’s Crushing Law. Surface energy created by the between successive screens. Increasing the capacity of a screen decreases the screen effectiveness. coarse fraction retained on an 8-mesh screen. Size measurement of ultrafine particles can be best expressed in terms (15-16) Limestone is crushed by six units operating in parallel and the of surface area per unit mass. 0.8%. Ultragrinding (20-22) Fine silica is fed at 1500 lbs/hour to a double-deck vibrating screen combination to obtain a 48/65 mesh (Tyler) product. products separated by six 35-mesh. The consumption of energy The effectiveness of the screening equipment is 48. Calls for relatively less energy for the smaller product particle than does the Rittinger Law product.46. As the particle size is reduced screening becomes more progressively It is desired to separate a mixture of sugar crystals into two fractions.4hp . Ratio of surface to volume as the actual volume The ratio of the area of the opening in one screen (Tyler Series) to the For coarse reduction of hard solids.5 Cement clinker is commonly reduced to fine size using a. the recovery is A 6.

One face is at 1500F and 0. 4. 6” concrete and 3” wood. The temp of the outer layer is 500F while that of 89. 464 BTU/hr Work index is defined as.7ft thick of fireclay brick having k – A 6 in thick wall is 12 ft high and 16 ft long. The power required is W2 are both 5 in thick.87 A thick walled copper cylinder has an inside radius of 1 cm and outside States that energy required for crushing is proportional to the new radius of 1. 2847. density of 165 lb/cu ft and a shape kg/hr.5 inch thick. grinding balls pipe diameter of ½ in. the energy plate. For this case. Calculate the area assuming flow factor of 20 is.4 BTU/hr Shape factors are important in characterizing. If the mean thermal Problems 12-14. Find qtotal in BTU/ hr ft2. The thermal conductivity of the material is 0. How thick must the insulator be to maintain a maximum the other at 300F.8cm.7F. 1. 218 that 80% is less than 3. A 2-4 shell and tube heat exchanger means that there are. ft2 What is the work index of gypsum rock? 6.. What is the rate specific surface of 90. 2240 100 micron screen Determine the steady state heat transfer per unit area through a in thick HEAT TRANSFER homogenous slab with its two faces maintained at uniform temp of 100 and 70.7kW A furnace wall is constructed of firebrick 6 in thick. a 0. 20F The term applied to all ways in which particles of solids are cut or broken into smaller pieces.20ft . Energy effectiveness is 7.120 BTU/hr allowable heat transfer rate of 300 BTU/hrft2? 0.11 BTU/hrft F. The specific surface in sq A reaction mixture having a Cp = 2. Wavelength over the spectral region of the irradiation. The specific surface of the product is. the U in the heat transfer equation should be based on. Determine the heat flow per unit area.Gross energy (kWh/ton of feed) needed to coefficient for water flowing inside a 2 in ID smooth horizontal pipe at reduce very large feed to such a size that 80% of the product passes a a velocity of 4 fps and andave temp of 78F. Based on Bond eqn.1 ft thick layer of insulating material. Calculate the steady heat transfer per square foot.25cm thick layer of sheet asbestos.. The total heat loss in BTU/hr is.18 mm is. regardless of wavelength and direction and is also considered to be a perfect emitter Theoretical horse power requirement to grind the calcite.5%.6 BTU/hrft F. Given a table for values of required in kW to process 1 ton/hr is.34 sq cm/g. Assume k varies linearly with temperature.73 Assuming Reynold’s Number analogy applies.5 inch is insulated with a 2 inch Rittinger’s Crushing Law states that. Increases capacity compared to dry An industrial furnace wall is constructed of 0. the ration of Air flowing inside the annular space of a double pipe heat exchanger is specific surfaces is. Given of heat loss through 10 sqft of wall surface? 3825 BTU/hr table. 179. The overall Uo is 653 W/m2 K. power required using the same feed so the inner is 1500F. 64. Black Body Wet grinding in revolving mill.8mm in size A composite wall consists of W1(outer layer) and W2 (inner). size reduction An ideal surface that absorbs all incident radiation. 146. 4 being heated by steam inside the inner pipe. What are the temperatures between the cork and concrete and between The initial and final sizes of the particles the concrete and wood? 62. Attrition A theoretical body where the absorptivity and emissivity are. 40 kW The average diameter of sphalerite is 1000 microns. Gray Body Sphericity for a cylinder whose length equal its diameter is.35mm.6.5 kW. Rittinger’s Law the heat loss per unit length. 69. A ball mill is to grind 250 tons/day of calcite having a conductivity under these condition is 0.Work required in crushing is layer of asbestos followed by a layer of cork 1.40 BTU/hr ft2 4 tubes For a furnace constructed with 0.85kJ/kg K flowing at a rate of 7260 cm/g for quartz with diameter of 2 in.It prepares raw materials of the A semi-infinite solid in heat conduction is one where. 80 Air is cooled in a double pipe counter current heat exchanger from 120 The operating speed of a ball mill should be. 1085 W/m2 A composite wall consists of 2” corkboard. W1 and and the product size is 80% less than 6.6BTU/hrft F. estimate the heat transfer Work index is defined as. 80% of product passes a 100 microns screen.5cm thick aluminum retained by a 150 mesh screen from original 35 mesh.. 80% is less than 50. Only the desired sizes prior to processing conduction on one side affects the temp distribution Soft and non-abrasive materials can be made into fines by. Outer surface with a 0. 2 baffles and 26. In comminution. 5.25 temp and k. Determine surface area. The largest temperature range in the heat exchanger is. the energy requirement is determined theoretically by. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 If 20% of pulverized limestone with a work index of 12. The outside area of the inner The critical speed of a ball mill with 12 in diameter. 0.Less than the critical speed F to 100 F with water entering at 60 F and leaving 75 F.74 kWh ton is A composite three layered wall is formed of a 0.47 is countercurrent.17 BTU/h ft F.43m2 Size reduction is important since.38hp is referred to as a.2sq cm/g A pipe with an outside diameter of 2.9F In crushing a certain ore. the feed is. Calculate proportional to the new surface created the heat lost per 100 ft of insulated pipe.7ft thick fireclay having k grinding = 0.

. They settle readily from a given solution transport by diffusion in the velocity and thermal boundary layers is given by. Natural Convection It is a method of developing the design for a heat exchanger wherein the Which among the gases listed is transparent to gas radiation. For a system where air is tube is 120 the value of Uo is. Fourier’s Law loss EXCEPT. if the currents are set in motion by the action of a mechanical The triangular center to center distance of a bank of 2 in OD tubes in a device. Increase increasing temperature. Estimate the total view factor. the heat transfer spectral emissive power is displaced to shorter wavelengths with coefficient will.Prandtl Number Which of the ff does not describe the correct way to wash precipitates? For very soluble precipitates. If k of the In using the design equation of heat transfer. is perpendicular to the isothermal surface through the point. the furnace is 6 inches. 40F temperature. The maximum If the thermal conductivity of the fluid increases. Same for all radiating bodies Process by which an agglomerated colloid return to its dispersed state in a confined. This mode Decreases of conduction is characteristic of. or between a In a 1 shell pass 1 tube pass heat exchanger with horizontal tubes 25 mm fluid and a solid or another fluid. Thermal Diffusivity Analytical methods classified as micro analyses use sample mass ranging from.5F The following describes colloidal suspensions formed during The measure of the relative effectiveness of momentum and energy precipitation except. Convection What will be the total length of the tubing required? 526m In a fluid. 42. Biot Number Which of the ff statements is not correct? In general. This is a statement of. Based on the inside area mechanism of heat transfer through the water is considered to be.1-10mg The range of wavelengths of electromagnetic waves that is associated with thermal radiation is from. Decrease The term hD/k is known as. The heat transferred by radiation between the two walls. ionic salts containing common ion must The property of the solid that provides a measure of the rate of heat be added to the washing liquid transfer relative to the energy storage is referred to as. Assume atmospheric pressure. the heat transfer coefficient in a turbulent flow system. H2SO4 the absolute temp of the emitter. 0.. Nusselt Number The transfer of heat from a point to another within a fluid. What grade of water as defined by the British Standard is suitable for Decreases from pipe to the thermal conductivity the determination of trace quantities which can be prepared by the distillation of deionized water? Grade 2 The LMTD for the heat exchanger of Prob 42 is. Wien’s Law If the viscosity of the fluid will increase. Stefan- Boltzman Law Chemicals which are tested by the manufacturers showing the actual percentages of impurities and labeled on the containers are called. The conductive resistance referred to as. Forced Convection The view factor F21 of a sphere of diameter D inside a cubical box if L In boiling the stage when the rate of bubble formation increases so that = D. 0. 0.524 the velocity of circulation increases and the heat flux also increase is Thermal lumped analysis may be applied if. alkaline buffering capacity is maximum over a pH range of pKb +-1 . Oxygen engineer assures the existence of an exchanger and makes calculation to determine if the heat exchanger would handle the process requirements. All of The driving force in heat transfer is.72 phenomenon is called. why would one metal feel colder than the other? One has a high thermal conductivity The spectral distribution of a perfect emitter has a maximum and that the corresponding wavelength depends on temperature. This is the statement of.1 to 100 micrometer It is expressed as the volume of a solution chemically equivalent to a mass of a solid reagent. Peptization The ration of the internal thermal resistance of a solid to the boundary layer thermal resistance is described by.Rating a heat exchanger ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY The amount of radiation emitted in all directions and over all All of the following is used as a hygroscopic material in desiccators wavelengths by a perfect emitter is proportional to the fourth power of EXCEPT. due to symmetry the heat flow at a point each other. These statements refer to. Isotropic Solids Water is flowing inside a ¾ inch 14 BWG condenser tube (hi = 20 kW/m2 C) and saturated steam (ho = 35) condensing outside. and the flow is independent of density gradients. 10.Kirchoff’s Law during washing due to leaching of electrolyte responsible for its coagulation. fluids involves. Nucleate Boiling is very small compared with the convective resistance Two parallel infinite walls at diff temperatures are radiating energy to In heat transfer by conduction. Titer The ratio of the emissive power of a body. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 If a man touches two metals which were kept together at room The smallest temp approach in the heat exchanger of Prob 42 is.8 flowing inside a pipe while being heated by condensing steam outside When water inside a beaker is being heated over a hot plate. the the pipe. Heating with sulfides The heat transferred radially across an insulated pipe per unit area. by the movement or mixing of the external diameter and 22 mm internal. the proper U and A to be used is. Temperature gradient these Platinum crucibles can be used for the ff processes without significant The equation q/A = -k dT/dx is called.

Which A mixture containing FeCl3 and AlCl3 only weighs 750.0956 M solution? To prevent precipitation of iron as hydrated oxide NH3 to produce a solution of pH = 9?9. carbonate. why is it necessary to carry out titration in acidic What volume of 0.64% of mercuric chloride. HPO4 Which of the ff situations will result in a solution with the lowest value In the standardization of an acid solution with primary standard sodium of pH? A high concentration of an acid with a high value of Ka.18 mL of 0.5M H2SO4 at 25C?2% Which of the ff is not used as primary standard for the standardization of alkali solutions? HgO What weight of Mn ore should be taken si that the percentage of MnO2 Which of the ff is not a correct analytical method-titrant pair? Volhard.2055g sample of calcite is treated with 27. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 The conjugate base of H2PO4 is.6. Iodide Kjeldahl Method. Dumas Method A 1. The resulting solution was titrated with 37.96 mixing the sample with powdered copper oxide and ignited to a Molality. One of the metallic reductors is zinc soaked in a dilute solution Calculate the purity of the sample containing NaHCO3 only.25mL of 0.1025M HCl must be added to 15.64mL of 0.3 mL Approximately how many grams of NH4Cl should be dissolved in a liter With the presence of Pb2+ ion.3122M HCl using mixed indicator.5176 g sample of CaCO3 was dissolved in acidic solution. Determine the % Ni in the alloy. 10. 13.0.53% Which of the ff acid base pairs will result in the formation of a buffer What proportion by weight of Na2C2O4 to that of KHCO4 etc that must solution when titration is done before the equivalence point? NH3 .955 M HCl solution?92.98% Which of the ff is used as pre-oxidant? All of these .431 grams KHP.HBr be mixed in a solution so that the normality of the resulting solution as a reducing agent is three times the normality as an acid? 0.41.125 F NH3 to reduce the concentration of hydroxide ions to one- Yellow thousandth of its original value?79. Table is given. What is the percentage of CaO in the sample?23.1045 Which of the ff ions is best titrated with EDTA at minimum pH less than In standardizing a solution of NaOH against 1.1g A solution has a pH of 6 will give ___ color if added with a drop of Calculate the molarity of NaOH solution if 12. which of the ff is added to decompose organic matrices present in the sample? HgO What is the extent of ionization of the second proton of 0.5mL 7? Fe3+ alkali.82% Iodine is very soluble in water and losses are minimal A 7.8 mg.25 mL was used to titrate methyl red. the analyte in a sample is present in two different oxidation states. This reductor is known as..2615 gram of primary standard KHP.8% A 500 mg sample of each mixture was analyzed for its alkaline content using 0.25 as factor for meat products. than Mg-EDTA complex. in the ore would be twice the mass of Mn3O4 precipitate obtained in AgNO3 milligram?57 mg In Volhard Method.1025 M HCl via double indicator method. Yellow 0.145 g/mL. Determine the % protein in the Which of the ff metal is not reduced by Walden reductor? Cr sample using 6.65 What is the best basis for choosing the right indicator for a given acid- base titration from among the following? pH at equivalence point What volume of water must be added to concentrated HCL solution to prepare 100 mL 0. which of the following is the best indicator to be used? Phenolphthalein A 20% wt/wt aqueous soln of NaCl at 25C has a density of 1. Jones Reductor What is the %wt of NaOH for the sample containing a mixture of NaOH- Which of the ff is false about iodine as an oxiding agent in titration? Na2CO3? 1. Calculate of the following mixture contains NaHCO3? Mixtures 1 and 2 the percentage Al in the sample.01 M A 750. 10.25 gram alloy of nickel was dissolved and treated to remove NH4Cl impurities.2% In the analysis of nitrogen using Kjeldahl Method.6% Commonly.1mL In the titration of a weak acid with a strong base. 35. H2O N2 and small amounts of nitrogen oxides.2598M Which of the ff statements is true? Ca-EDTA complex is more stable A 0.84 combustion tube giving CO2. why is it necessary to boil the solution before completing the What effect will the addition of pure water to a water solution of an acid titration? All of these have on the pH of this acid solution? The pH level will increase Which of the ff aqueous solutions of the same concentration will have Which of the ff will form a basic solution when dissolved in water? The the largest pH value at 25? NH3 salt of a weak acid and a strong base Which of the ff solutions at 25C will have the lowest pH value? 0. What is the molarity of the NaOH solution?0. Calculate the percentage purity of calcite in terms of % wt/wt CaCO3. 35.0712 N HCl.279 gram sample of meat was analyzed for its nitrogen content using All of the following is used in redox titrations except. what is the color of the precipitate? of 0.1. Express the amount of solute in this solution as %wt/vol. 23 Process of determining the nitrogen content of organic materials by Molarity.

82. Calculate the concentration solution? 11. Express the analysis in %AlCl3.67% What is the pH of a solution of 0.5g A 0.30% The concentration of LiOH is 0. the potential for the half reaction 2H was titrated with the EDTA. Calculate the final H+ ion concentration. 316ppm method. 3.7535 g sample of wheat flour was analysed by the Kjeldahl method. Determine the % silver in the coin. the solution At pH = 7 and a pressure of 1 bar.1mL of the solution in acidic medium? method.20M NH3 and 0. Kelvin 100 mL of NaOH solution is added to 150 mL of 0.3 A 100 mL water sample was analyzed by Winkler Method. An EDTA solution was prepared by dissolving the disodium salt in 1L 11 of water. 7.6% The 300 mg sample of impure Na2SO4 was dissolved in sufficient water and the sulfate was precipitated by the addition of 35 mL of 0. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 A 1.54% What is the pH of a solution composed of 0.5 solution? 1. Calculate %Fe3O4 in the ore sample.7x10-5M The amount of heat absorbed when CO2 gas reacts with a solid CaO to form solid CaCO3 is measured in a bomb calorimeter.52 mL of 0.16 of the temperature of the triple point of water.5 gram sample of impure aluminum chloride was dissolved in water What volume of a 1M solution HCl is required to neutralize 80 mL of and treated with 45. 9.10mol/L NH3 and 0. -0. 1. After adding calmagite as an indicator.250 M HF to make a buffer of pH = 3.6% ionized. 13.82 gram silver is dissolved in nitric acid. Calculate the % MnO2 in the sample. Express the result of this acid? 0.1022 M The concentration of a solution of EDTA was determined by BaCl2. filtered and the resulting solution containing dissolved potassium nitrite was acidified.5M NaOH? 40 mL indicator. BTU Which of the following physical quantities is not conserved in a given process? Entropy .1 g/mol) should be added to What is the concentration of the Ag+ ion in a saturated solution of AgCl? 1.2M HAc solution. what is the new pH of the dissolved and diluted to 50 mL.0124M Na2S2O3 was used for titration. If 25mL of LiOH is needed to A sample of pyrolusite weighing 0.2% 90.356 A 0.5 mL of 0.1% 1ºF.7x-10. all the silver is precipitated as AgCl.50M.93% 0.4855N analysis as % CN. 39. Heat required to raise the temperature of one pound mass of a substance by 93.050M HCl is to be titrated with 0. Calculate the purity of the sample. Calculate the amount of nitrite.8 of Co in the solution in ppm. Given table.43% A 1 gram sample of a mixture contains only NaCl and KCl gave a A mixture of LiBr and BaBr2 weighing 800 mg is treated with 50 mL precipitate of AgCl which weighed 2 g. What is the value of Ka for this acid? 7.1105M Na2SO3 solution.32mL of 0.95% In standardizing a solution of HCl.53E-3 What is the molality of a KMnO4 solution standardized against 1. it is found that 47. A mixture containing only KCl and NaBr is analyzed by the Mohr Express the analysis in terms of ppm CaCO3.10M NaOH.2M solution of weak acid HA is 0.1255 M are equivalent to 1.3x10-5 M x 10-4. The data obtained give a A 5. 14. 92. 3. Before the addition of any titrant what is the pH of the solution? 1.143? Ka for HF = 7.38 A 10 gram sample of cooked ham was pureed with 200mL of water. If 7.7% nitrogen by mass. 9 It is defined as the fraction 1/273.917 g sample of canned tuna was analyzed by modified Kjeldahl gram Na2C2O4 requiring 25. 2343ppm How many grams of solid KF (MW = 58. What is the percentage of BaBr2 in the sample? 45% 67. When sodium chloride is direct measure of. 90% standardizing against a solution of Ca2+ prepared using a primary standard of CaCO3. The standard solution was used to determine the hardness of a 2L sample of mineral water which required 35.00 L of 0. passed through a Jones reductor.8E-5.1879 M AgNO3. what is the new pH of the in the water sample.6 A 500 mg sample of a solution containing cobalt and nickel was After the addition of 30 ml of NaOH. 30. Given that proteins A sample of iron ore weighing 385.63mL to reach the end point.24 gram was treated with excess KI.2x10-6 THERMODYNAMICS Calculate the pH of an aqueous buffer solution which contains 0.7mL of EDTA solution. titrate 40 mL of HNO3 what is the concentration of the acid? 0. A blank titration requires 0. What is the normality of the AgNO3 to obtain a permanent faint turbidity. Report the %w/w KCl in the sample. Calculate the percentage of nitrogen in the sample.6mg was dissolved in acid and are 5. 900 A 50mL of 0. requiring 42. + 2e = H2 is.414V Molar concentration of EDTA in the titrant.1000M AgNO3 using K2CrO4 as 0. What is the %K in the mixture? of 0.161M A 0. determine the ppm of O2 After the addition of 10 ml of NaOH.0500 M NH3? Kb for NH3= 1.15M NH4Cl? 9.3125M The iodine liberated required 46.71mL of titrant to reach the same end point.24 mL of 0. calculate the percentage protein in the flour.20 Ksp = 1.216 g of pure Na2CO3. Calculate mass of nitrogen in the sample in grams.26 mL of the acid A 500 mg sample containing NaCN required 23.2 mol/L NH4Cl. ΔU added to the solution.

55. which of the following pressure. The atmospheric temperature is 80ºF. If the outlet temperature was measured to be 225ºC at the same outlet If a forward reaction is observed to be spontaneous. Assume pump and turbine to operate isentropically. What is the entropy change (J/K) accompanying this process? 7. calculate the (18)A refrigerant whose molecular formula is CBrF2CBrF2 is labeled as R. a= 0. 0. the condition of steam leaving the turbine could be any air at constant volume.2L at 0ºC according to the following conditions: determine the following: against a constant external pressure of 0. Calculate the molar heat of combustion of water at 70ºC.4. 0. 151 its internal energy decreases Twenty grams of oxygen gas at 25ºC expands adiabatically and reversibly All of the following have standard enthalpy of formation values equal to zero from an initial pressure of 0. calculate the work (J) done by the gas. Quality of steam produced from the turbine.86). cut-off ratio. against a variable pressure which varies with volume according to the expression PVn=k and with the Quality of the vapor from the throttling valve. work is done by the system and obeys van der Waals equation of state(a=0. calculate the following: Refer to the following data for two moles of nitrogen gas which obey the van der Waals equation of state: T1= 250K. Using the data below.6923 kJ-kg-1-K-1) using the following data at temperature in the cycle is 2000ºC. following: thermal efficiency. calculate the steam quality leaving the turbine.9 atm. T2= 100K. (d) all of these rejects heat to the atmosphere. (𝜕P/𝜕T)V well insulated and operates at steady state.0. μ (K-MPa-1) of a of the compression process. what is the final volume (L) of the gas? cycle is 25%. ƞ.1408. increase the efficiency and reduces the moisture content of the steam. 1428 The work that may be performed on a system ___ when the opposing pressure differs only infinitesimally in magnitude from the internal pressure Steam at 300ºC and 2MPa enters a nozzle with inlet diameter of 5cm at a of the gas itself.(c)For a closed system operating adiabatically. calculate the COP of the .80 107. calculate the following: Which of the following reaction will result to an increase in entropy?I2(s)↔ I2(l) Calculate the work obtained from the turbine if the process is isentropic.21..8 MPa uses refrigerant-134a as working fluid..31.8J/mol The ratio of coefficient of thermal expansion. work is obtained from energy is then transferred as heat to a fluid in a heat engine which in turn the direct conversion of internal energy of the fluid to work.10 mole Ne gas that expands 0. Assume air behaves like an ideal gas and its one of the following except. isothermally from 0.913x10-5.1 MPa and Calculate the work (J) done by a sample of 0. Using the following data. 930. There is an available is greatly influenced by the compression ratio and the specific heat ratio of refrigerator with a power requirement of 40kW.3. Ice cube initially at -5ºC weighs 20g and dropped into an insulated vessel conta8ining 100g of water at 90ºC. Final temperature (ºC) of the at 25ºC except.60. α and isothermal Steam at 300ºC and 1MPa enters a turbine at a rate of 5kg/s. what is the isentropic efficiency of the turbine? 98.8 An ideal vapor-compression refrigerant cycle operates between 0.5 kg-sec-1.1 atm to 3 atm. The turbine is compressibility. Na gas. If expansion was done against a constant external pressure of 1atm.6L to 1. mean effective pressure (kPa). V1= 5L. If 200BTU/hr-ft2 of energy can be collected when the plate is operating at 190ºF.8 812. net work (kJ) produced.(b)thermal energy with some effort. COP 3.4 MPa.005 kJ/kg-K and ϒ=1. determine the outlet Which of the following statements is true?(a)work or mechanical energy can diameter of the nozzle.86ºC. Minimum steady state flow rate og 0. mean effective pressure (kPa). 0. If the compression ratio is 15 and the maximum chlorofluorocarbon (Cp=0. reversibly assuming gas During adiabatic expansion of an ideal gas.2cm spontaneously be converted completely to heat or thermal energy. determine the:. b= 3. 157.65. saturated liquid properties remain constant with Cp= 1.7 Calculate the change in molar Gibbs free energy of liquid water treated as A sample of an ideal gas is allowed to escape reversibly and isothermally incompressible fluid when pressure is increased from 1 bar to 2 bar at 298K. Cv= 28 J-mol-1. Using the following steam table.92ft2 A Carnot cycle operates on the following processes. Air at 100kPa and 25ºC undergoes isentropic compression and 1000kJ/kg of heat was transferred to In a Rankine cycle. қTis equivalent to.74 Thermal efficiency of the K-1.Can this refrigerator…no the working fluid. 442kW. into a vacuum. If heat is lost is lost at a rate of 10kJ/s and steam leaves the nozzle at 200ºC and 1. If the throttling valve is replaced by an expansion turbine. 2. What is the change in the internal energy (kJ) cycle. Is the thermal efficiency of the -8. Which statement is correct? W=Q=ΔU=0 1. 25ºC.5% is possible if its reverse reaction is spontaneous at high temperature?ΔH(-) and ΔS(-) An ideal Otto cycle has a compression ratio of 10. two isothermal and two isentropic processes What is the minimum work (BTU) required to produce 10lbs of ice from water initially at 32ºF assuming that the surrounding air is at 85ºF…155 The natural flow of heat is described in the statement of Clausius A certain process requires cooling of a brine solution continuously from 70ºF Which of the following is true about the Otto cycle? The thermal efficiency to 30ºF. Water is compressed to 5MPa and heated in the boiler to ethanol at constant pressure…-1367 kJ-mol-1 produce saturated steam. 28. 781 114B2 An ideal Diesel engine uses air initially at 20ºC and 90 kPa at the beginning Calculate the Joule-Thomson coefficient. What is the mass flow rate (kg/s) of steam required to produce accompanying the reversible expansion of this gas to a final volume of 80L? 500 kW net power using this cycle? 0. -85. If the expansion was adiabatic. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 given data: 7 reversibly assuming gas is ideal. The steam outlet pressure is 0. 0. What is the final temperature of the water Which of the following statements is false in terms of increasing the efficiency of the ideal Rankine cycle? Increasing the boiler pressure will after the ice melted and a constant temperature has been reached? 61.36.1.7 MPa.6 A 400 mg sample of liquid ethanol was burned in a bomb calorimeter A simple Rankine cycle operates such that the condenser produces saturated resulting to a rise of 2. The collected energy. can only be partially converted to mechanical It is proposed to warm a collector plate with solar energy.3ºC.

Evaluate the expansion coefficient. α for an ideal gas at STP.65 The molecular diffusion flux of A is 4. What will be the bulk velocity in cm/s if the diffusion flux relative to a negligible and the liquid surface corresponds to the filter cake surface and stationary observer is 8. (d) None of these The final cake is washed with water under such conditions that the radius of The molar diffusion flux of A relative to a stationary plane is a combination the inner surface of the liquid is 200mm. then the What thickness of wall is required in the basket? The density of phosphor centrifugal force is doubled bronze is 8900kg/m3 and the maximum safe stress for phosphor bronze is 87. Assuming that the rate of flow of of phase drift + molecular diffusion wash water equals the final rate of flow of filtrate.0 ftper ft The enrichment of ethyl alcohol in the vapor phase from an aqueous ethyl alcohol solution during rectification is an example of Determine the filtration rate that can be expected from a basket centrifugal equimolalcounterdiffusion filter using the data below: Basket height= 12in The diffusivity of a binary system as given in the equation of Fick’s Law is Inside basket diam.52x1011/lb. (c)Schmidt No. the speed of laboratory Moisture can be removed from lubricating oil using tubular centrifuge centrifuge of 6 in. Conc.015? 0.25. the most suitable separator is disc In a test conducted using a laboratory centrifuge. 15. 0. we use centrifugal Cut size of particles= 30μm filter If a centrifuge is 3ft diameter and rotates at 1000rpm.2 Specific gravity of solid= 1.= 26 in usually measured relative to the volume-mean velocity of components A and Rotation rate= 2000rpm B Material to be filtered: gypsum slurry. has a physical height of 450mm is used to filter a suspension having the following meaning and can be measured properties: The Reynolds Analogy is applied when the Prandtl Number is unity Temperature: liquid.6610x10-3/K 50.65 A batch centrifugal filter having a bowl diameter of 750 mm and a bowl The diffusivity of a component A relative to itself. 380 mm in diameter. 4.1mm Where the difference in density of the two liquid phases to be separated is very small (as in milk cream separator). and the discharge weir is adjusted so that the depth of liquid at the bowl wall is 38. it was found that the bond centrifuge optimum recovery of protein from coconut oil was achieved with an rpm of 2.5x1010ft/lb mass transfer area Filter medium resistance= 2.α= 2. If the radius of a basket centrifuge is halved and the rpm is doubled.000 rpm. 3.34m/s. the centrifuge size you will recommend is.500. 156% moving .5 mm is to be used to separate crystals from a dilute aqueous mother liquor.6 MN/m2. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 cycle4.0. Porosity of cake= 0.60gpm 0. and 5. water= 25ºC. is to be run at 67 Hz with a 75 mm layer of liquid of density 1200kg/m3 in the basket.054 under these conditions is 210m3/h A centrifuge with a radius of 76. A centrifuge with a bowl which is 500mm long and has an inside radius of 3.60 The Fick’s Law of Diffusion gives the rate of diffusion based on concentration driving force The capacity of a Sharples centrifuge is estimated to increase/decrease by ___% if its speed is doubled and the cut size of the particles is reduced by Equimolar counter-diffusion means that the bulk in terms of moles is not 20%.5.5 mm.5.6 Viscosity of liquid= 2cp For the separation of sugar solution from settled out mud.0x10-7 gmole/s-cm2 and the mole fraction of A is the thickness of the cake is 1in.0 ft diameter with warranty if the centrifuge is operated not over 1000 rpm. Industrial size centrifuge comes in 3. The radius of Specific gravity of liquid= 1.0x10-7 gmoles/s-cm2 at 298 K and 1 Assume that the cake is incompressible. 3. For Diffusion optimum commercial operations. The optimum speed of rotation for the centrifuge is 60. The centrifugal force developed compared to gravitational force Thickness of liquid layer= 75mm in the bowl centrifuge is 3800g Depth of the bowl= 400mm Speed= 1200rpm A centrifuge bowl is spinning at a constant speed of 2000 rpm.Ɛ= 0. (a)Sherwood No.2 bowl in cm needed to create a force of 455g is 10. The maximum volumetric flow rate in m3/s of the mother liquor that can be processed by this centrifuge if all the crystals have The capacity in cubic meters per hour of a clarifying centrifuge operating to be removed is 0.2 mm rotates at a peripheral velocity of Diameter of the bowl= 600mm 53.diameter be ran if it is to duplicate plant conditions is 2449rpm Which of the following can be most effectively used for clarification of lube oil and printing ink? Sharpless supercentrifuge A centrifuge with a phosphor bronze basket. The crystals are approximately spherical and none are smaller that Centrifugation 2x10-6 m in diameter. the rate of washing in m3/hr?0.0.5 Specific gravity of CaSO4•2H2O = 2.435 Final thickness of cake= 150mm The molar flux of component A in molecular diffusion is independent of Specific cake resistance= 9. 3. that is DAA.6x1010 per ft Speed of centrifuge=2000 rpm A dimensionless number that represents the ratio of the mass transferred by Density of dry solid in cake= 2000kg/m3 molecular diffusion to the total mass transferred.of solids in feed= 60g/L (b)Reynolds No. filter medium resistance is atm.

93 x 10-8 The part of the deviation of the response which approaches zero as time approaches infinity. The vapor Ammonia (A) being absorbed from air (B) into water is an example of steady pressure at 25ºC is 180 mm Hg. The diffusivity at 318 K and 1 atm is For a binary unicomponent diffusion.051 gmole/cm3. the equimolal MTC is ___ kgmole/s-m2-mole. Closed-loop control system concentration of alcohol in the bulk of the solution is negligible. It is a measure of the diffusive mobility of individual molecules in solution.934 ft 2/hr at 30ºC and 2 manner as to command. heat and momentum transfers is The unicomponent mass transfer coefficient is 3.9 x 10-9 The transport analogy among mass. 4. the concentration profile of the 6. Steady state response A 4mm diameter tube.1834 A frequency response measure of how well the system responds to variations in the input signal. or of interest at.135cm2/s.6hr In steady-state equimolalcounterdiffusion. system 3 It is the actual response obtained from the control system. Based input.Kinetic Theory of Gases Based on the penetration theory. 8.01. Output diffusivity of benzene in air at 22ºC and 1atm is. Unit ramp function top. MW = 60) in a 5-m diameter circular tank is ___hr. Open-loop system Diffusion coefficient An arrangement of physical components connected or related in such a The volumetric diffusivity of a binary mixture is 0. the following are true: NA=- NB. A gentle stream of air is flowing across the top of the tube.555 mm Hg. Sherwood Number The simplest mode of control which is characteristic of a two-position control commonly utilized in a thermostat for controlling the temperature of The flux of A in unicomponenrt diffusion is different from that of heaters.12g/cc.5773 The method of solute transfer which involves rapid movement of large chunks of fluid in turbulent motion eddy diffusion The time it will take to evaporate a 10 mm unknown liquid at 25ºC (density= 40 lb/ft3. on-off control equimolalcounterdiffusion because of the bulk motion of the phase It is a control system in which the control action is independent of the output. a digital signal air-water system in a wetted wall column where Nre=25 000.299ft 2/hr.688x10.NA+NB is zero Process Control It represents the total mass transferred to mass transferred by molecular diffusion.0329 state unicomponent diffusion ft2/hr. The output. It may or may not The diffusivity of benzene in air at 0ºC and 1 atm is 0.1744 A signal defined at. is partially filled with a liquid up to 18mm from the open The integral of a unit step function is also known as. If YA1=0. Nsc=1.92 X 10-6 m2/s and its vapor pressure at 318 K is 0.2 ft/s. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 For a gas phase diffusion. only discrete (distinct) instants of the Using the appropriate transport analogy. 40cm long. 6 lb to some other internally situated component or subsystem) so that the appropriate control action may be formed as some fraction of the output and The diffusivity of ethyl alcohol in air at 25ºC and 1atm is 0. 31. 0. direct or regulate itself or another system. 0. analog-to digital (A/D) converter Acetic acid is diffusing in aqueous solution at 298K inside a 2-cm diameter tube 100cm long. The molal diffusivity for a similar mixture is ___lbmole/ft-hr. unicomponent diffusion through gas-liquid temperature of the liquid remains constant at 17ºC. The film thickness is 0. The surface temperature of the naphthalene can be assumed to 318 K. in cm2/s is.25 x 10-5kgmole/s-m2-mole complete when no convective flux or phase drift is involved at 300 K and 2 atm. Determine the total diffusion rate of acetic acid in gmole/s It is used to convert one signal or energy form into another. 0. Stagnant air film is 10 mm.089 cm2/s A control system in which the control action is somehow dependent on the Ethyl alcohol is diffusing into an alcohol-water solution at 18ºC.0205 It provides the basis for the quantitative description of the diffusional phenomena of molecules.125 and on the other end 0. Bandwidth The diffusivity of the air in ethyl alcohol at 25ºC and 3 atm in ft2/hr is 0.792 x 10-5 A wetted-wall column is usually used to determine mass transfer coefficient experimentally because the mass transfer are can be measured accurately The equivalent equimolal MTC for the above problem in lbmole/hr-ft2-atm is 0.15cm and A property of a closed-loop system which permits the output (or some other the diffusivity is 1x10-5 cm2/s. variable (upon which it depends).91 x 10-5m2/s The rate of mass transfer of component A through an interface in a turbulent A sphere of naphthalene having a radius of 2 mm is suspended in a large flow system is less affected by the flow rate of gas and liquid volume of still air at 318 K and 1 atm.26 and YA2=0. estimate the MTC in ft/hr for NH3. pressure is atmospheric and DV=0. Control atm.904 A device that converts an analog or continuous signal into a discrete or digital signal.etc. air-conditioners. the MTC will increase/decrease by a factor of __ if the contact time of the diffusing phases is tripled. closed at one end and standing vertically on its closed end. The mass of alcohol diffusing through 100 ft2 controlled variable) to be compared with the input to the system (or the input of interface per hour is. 2. 2. Feedback control system on Chen and Othmer diffusivity empirical correlation. Diffusion takes interface will likely to occur if one component is soluble and the other is not place…1. Transducer if the concentration at one end is 0. the diffusivity at 80ºC and 1atm.8 and the average velocity of the gas is 1. The . while that at the surface of the solution is 0. refrigerators. The rate diffusing component along the diffusion path is logarithmic evaporation of naphthalene in gmole/s is. The be equal to the specified response implied by the input. 4.

Is the system stable or not? Stable The phase margin of the system in the Problem is___ degrees. Cascade control and at -1±2j and zeroes -2±j. Decrease the overshoot A pneumatic proportional controller is used to control the temperature within the range of 60ºF to 100ºF. Overdamped A PI controller of a first order process is subjected to a unit step input. 2(s2 + 4s + 5)/ s(s+3)( s2 + 2s +5) A type of advanced control system that identifies continuously online the The amplitude ratio for the transfer function 2/(s + 2) for ω=2 is.0 min is.20º . adding an integral control If a step function is applied to the input of a system and the output is of the form Y=etsint. the system is. is the system stable or unstable? Unstable s4 + 6s3 + 11s2 + 6s + K = 0 is. and after the thermometer comes to equilibrium with the bath.5328 A control structure with two feedback controllers with the output of the primary controller changing the set-point of the secondary controller whose Write the transfer function of a system with a gain factor of 2. -45 A sensor usually made of a semiconductor that utilizes the effect of temperature on the resistance to current is called a. INTRODUCTION TO WASTE MANAGEMENT AND REGULATORY OVERVIEW 22-11 When the total number of variables in a process is greater than the number of independent equations that can be set-up. Derivative control The integral of a Dirac function is a. poles at 0. as the measured temperature goes from 71ºF to 75ºF with the set point held constant. 0.2 min is placed in a temperature bath. 0. The range of K so that system is stable is. Unstable A spring motion is described by the differential equation x’’(t) + 5x(t) + 6x(t) = 0. The steady state output as a function of t is.707 parameters of the process as they change and returns the controller appropriately. with the valve fully closed. to 15 psi. The gain of the control element in psi/ºF is. increasing the proportional gain will. 2s3+4s2 Y= 0. Adaptive control The phase angle for the transfer function given in the Problem is__degrees. there is no need to include. Underspecified S3 + 3S2 + ( K + 2)S + 4 = 0. thermistor A sinusoidal input X= 2sin2t is applied to a system with the transfer function G(s) = 2/s (s + 2). This offset can be eliminated without altering the proportional constant KC by. K>0. -3 output goes to the final controller. Increase the overshoot In the control of pressure in a distillation column. The motion of the spring is. is the system necessarily stable? False Is the system with a transfer function Y(s) = (s-1)/(s+2) (s2+4) stable or unstable? Stable A proportional controller exhibits a large offset. with the valve fully open.707 sin (2t – 135) +4s+12= 0. Decreasing proportional gain. Step function A PID controlled process has a highly oscillating response. A PI controller of a first order process is subjected to a unit step input. The difference between the indicated temperature and the bath temperature after 1. The system is. If the integral constant is fixed. the process is said to be. If the integral constant is fixed. Consider the characteristic equation of a certain closed-loop control system. The controller is adjusted so that the output pressure goes from 3 psi. The process can be stabilized by. 3 The proportional band of the above controller is. -180 If a step function is applied to the input of a system and the output is of the The range of value of K for a system with characteristics equation given by form Y=t. -5 and zeroes at 1 and -2. Unstable The gain margin of a system with a transfer function of 1/(s +1)3 is. 10% A thermometer with a time constant of 0. 0<K<10 If a step function is applied to the input of a system and the output remains below a certain level for all time. the temperature of the bath is increased linearly with the time at a rate of 1 degree per min. decreasing the proportional gain will. Given the characteristics equation of a closed loop transfer function. 8 A system has poles at -1.