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COURSE OUTCOME

Integrate relevant principles of nursing informatics and its


influence in today’s practice.
Adhere to ethical principles of using computer.
Report and document data gathered honestly and accurately
using computer.
Apply principles of coordination, partnership with significant
agencies and personnel thru the use of computer.
COURSE OUTCOME
Analyze research problems with the use of modern software
intended for research.
Utilize techno-intelligent tools in conducting nursing research,
electronic charting, and electronic presentation of data.
Apply entrepreneurial abilities with the use of
technologies/informatics.
Improve competence in health informatics to help develop
technological programs in health that can facilitate attainment of
sustainable community practices, harmony and peace.
What is Information Technology?

It is thestudy, design, development, implementation,


support or management of computer-based information
systems, particularly software applications and computer
hardware.
It deals with the use of electronic computers and
computer software to convert, store, protect, process,
transmit and retrieve information securely.
Impact of IT
in the Society
Business & Economy

Education

Workplace & Labor Government


Market

Health Services
Private Life &
Society
BUSINESS & ECONOMY

Promote market like forms of production and


distributions.
Workplace & Labor Market

Allow individuals to communicate with one another in


ways complementary to traditional face-to-face, and
telephonic mode.
EDUCATION
The integration of information technology in classroom
learning and teaching define how the students are
motivated and given importance in their learned
knowledge and skills.
Internet portrays a significant role in delivering quality
learning and instructions through distance education.
GOVERNMENT
It promotes transparency, increase civic awareness
as well as accountability and efficiency of
government leaders and officials.
Private Life & Society
Increasing representation of a wide variety of content
in digital form results in an easier and cheaper
duplication and distribution of information.
HEALTH SERVICES
Through information technology, the level of healthcare as
compared to before elevates. It allows patients to be given
quality health services with the implementation of Electronic
Health Record, Telemedicine and medical equipment
technology.
Electronic Health Record
It helps in maintaining the patient’s medical history for better
diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
Telemedicine
It implies shorter waiting time for patients, improve access to rural
areas and improved efficiency leading to savings.
Medical Equipment Technology
The idea of non-invasive procedure which allows diagnosis of
disease internally as well as the minimal-invasive surgery through
robotics which leaves less scars and allows faster treatment to the
patients.
What is Nursing Informatics?

It is the integration of nursing science,


computer science, cognitive science and
information science designed to assist in the
management and processing of nursing data,
information, and knowledge to support
nursing practice, education, research,
and administration.
WHAT IS THE GOAL OF NURSING INFORMATICS?
“The goal of nursing informatics is to improve the health of
populations, communities, families and individuals by
optimizing information management and communication.

This includes the use of technology in the direct provision of


care, in establishing effective administrative systems
managing and delivering educational experiences,
supporting life-long learning and supporting nursing
research.”
SCOPE OF INFORMATICS

Data, information, knowledge and wisdom.

Communication and information management.

Types, capabilities, and limitations of technology.

Legal and ethical considerations of information.


APPLICATIONS OF NURSING INFORMATICS

P ractice
E ducation
A ministration
R esearch
P ractice
Work lists to remind staff of planned nursing interventions.
Computer generated client documentation including
discharge instructions and medication information.
Monitoring devices that record vital signs and other
measurements directly into the client.
Computer generated nursing care plans and critical
pathways.
DATA, INFORMATION, KNOWLEDGE & WISDOM

DATA are discrete entities that are described objectively without


interpretation.

INFORMATION is data that are interpreted, organized, or


structured.

KNOWLEDGE is information that is synthesized so that relationships


are identified and formalized

Wisdom is the appropriate use of data, information and knowledge in


making decisions and implementing nursing actions.
P ractice
Automatic billing for supplies or procedures with nursing
documentation.
Reminders and prompts that appear during documentation
to ensure comprehensive charting.
Quick access to computer-archived patient data from
previous encounters.
Online drug information.
E ducation
Online course registration and scheduling
Computerized student tracking, and grade management
Computer‐assisted instruction
Course delivery and support for Web‐based education
Remote access to library and internet resources
E ducation
Teleconferencing and Webcast capability
Presentation software for preparing slides and handouts
Online test administration
Communication with students
A ministration
Automated staff scheduling.
Online bidding for unfilled shifts.
Electronic mail for improved communication.
Cost analysis and finding trends for budget purposes.
Quality assurance and outcome analysis.
Patient tracking and placement for case management.
R esearch
Computerized literature searching.
The adoption of standardized language related to nursing
terms.
The ability to find trends in aggregate data, which is data
derived from large population groups.
Use of the internet for obtaining data collection tools and
conducting research.
Collaborate with other nurse researchers.
Nursing Informatics
Model
Nursing Science
The ethical application of knowledge acquired through
education, research and practice to provide services and
Cognitive Information
interventions to patients
Science in order toScience
maintain, enhance or
restore their health

Computer
Science
Nursing Science

Cognitive Information
Science Science

Computer
Informatics Science
Evolution of Nursing Informatics
1950s 1970s 1990s

1960s 1980s 2000s


1950s
Computers were initially used in healthcare
facilities for basic office administrative and
financial accounting functions.

These early computers used punch


cards to store data and card readers
to read computer programs, sort, and
prepare data for processing.
1960s
Studies were conducted to determine the effective
utilization of the computer technology in health care
industry and to identify the areas of nursing that
needs to be automated.

Hospital information systems (HIS) were


developed primarily to process financial
transactions and serve as billing and
accounting systems.
1970s
Hospitals began developing computer-based information
systems which initially focused on physician order entry and
results reporting, pharmacy, laboratory and radiology reports,
information for financial purposes.

Several states and large


community health agencies developed
and/ or contracted for their own
computer‐based management
information systems (MIS)
1980s
During this decade, the field of informatics emerged in the healthcare
industry and nursing. NI became an accepted specialty and many
nursing experts entered the field. Technology challenged creative
professionals and the use of computers in nursing became revolutionary.

Discharge planning systems were


developed and used as referrals to
community health care facilities in the
continuum care.
1990s
Computer technology became an integral part of
healthcare servicing, nursing practice and the nursing
profession.

Policies and legislation were


adopted promoting computer
technology in healthcare including
nursing.
2000s

Clinical Information Systems became individualized in the electronic patient record


(EPR) or electronic health record
Information Technologies continued to advance with mobile technology such as with
wireless tablet computer, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and cellular phones.

Telenursing, is increasing in popularity


and providing patient care in an
efficient and expeditious fashion.
History of
Nursing Informatics
in the Philippines
1996 1999 2008

1998 2003 2010


1996
The Philippine Medical Informatics Society was officially
registered under the Securities and Exchange
Commission by its board composed of eleven physicians.
The organization was headed by Dr. Alvin Marcelo.

The PMIA and its founders had strong influence in the


development of health informatics in the Philippines.
1998
Faculty members of the University of the Philippines
began formal education and training in medical
informatics and information science.

Dr. Herman Tolentino took a post-doctoral fellowship in


medical informatics at the University of Washington.

Dr. Alvin Marcelo for his training at the National Library


of Medicine.
1998

Dr. Cito Maramba went to Coventry for his Masters in


Information Sciences at the University of Warwick.

They were later followed by other physicians such as Dr.


Micheal Muin and Dr. Ryan Bañez.
1999
A study group was formed headed by the National
Institute of Health of the University of the Philippines
Manila. This group identified international standards for
health information and their adaptability in the
Philippines.

Standards of Health Information of the Philippines 1999


(SHIP99) was established. It was headed by National
Institute of Health of the UP Manila with the
collaboration of Philippine Nurses Association
2003
a Master of Science in Health Informatics was proposed
to be offered by UP-Manila College of Medicine (major
in medical informatics) and the College of Arts and
Science (major in bioinformatics) and was later
approved to be offered starting academic year 2005-
2006.
2008
Nursing Informatics course in the undergraduate
curriculum was defined by the Commission on Higher
Education (CHED) Memorandum Order 5 Series of
2008. This was later revised and included as Health
Informatics course in CHED Memorandum Order 14
Series of 2009. This was first implemented in the summer
of 2010.
Current Issues and Problems

Lack of devices, machines, resources, and methods of utilizing


information, computers, and nursing science in nursing.

It is costly to train nurses on the use of the program for


electronic documentation.

Nurse informaticists are also scarce in the Philippines.

Some nurses in the Philippines are computer illiterate.


Theories, Frameworks
and Models of Nursing
Informatics
Theories, Frameworks and Models
General models:
1. Graves and Corcoran's model
2. Schiwirian's model
3. Turley's model
4. Data Information Knowledge (D-I-K)
5. Benner's Novice to Expert model.
Graves and Corcoran's model (1989; 1995)

According to this model, nursing informatics as the


linear progression, from data into information and
knowledge.
Graves and Corcoran's model (1989; 1995)
MANAGEMENT

DATA INFORMATION KNOWLEDGE

Management processing is integrated within each


elements, depicting nursing informatics as the proper
management of knowledge, from data as it is
converted into information and knowledge.
Schiwirian's model (1986)

According to this model, nursing informatics involves


identification of information needs, resolution of the
needs, and attainment of nursing goals/objectives.

Patricia Schiwirian proposed a model intended to stimulate


and guide systematic research in nursing informatics,
model/framework that enable identification of significant
information needs, that can foster research
Schiwirian's model (1986)

GOAL

USERS

TECHNOLOGY

RAW MATERIALS
(Nursing-related information)
Turley's model (1996)

Nursing informatics is the intersection between the


discipline-specific science (nursing) and the area of
informatics

And in this model, there are 3 core components of


informatics, namely Cognitive science, Information science,
and Computer science.
Turley's model (1996)

Cognitive
Science Information
Science

Computer
Science
Informatics
Data Information Knowledge (2001)

According to this model, NI is a specialty that integrates


nursing science, computer science and information science
to manage and communicate data, information,
knowledge and wisdom into nursing practice.

Nursing informatics is an evolving, dynamic process involving


the conversion of data into information, and subsequently
knowledge.
Data Information Knowledge (2001)

Knowledge
COMPLEXITY

Information

DATA

HUMAN INTELLECT
Benner's Novice to Expert model

Every nurse must be able to continuously exhibit the


capability to acquire skills (in this case, computer
literacy skills parallel with nursing knowledge), and
then demonstrate specific skills beginning with the
very first student experience.
Benner's Novice to Expert model
EXPERT

PROFICIENT

COMPETENT

ADVANCED
BEGINNER

NOVICE
Expert – individual with mastery of the concept and capacity to intuitively
understand the situation and immediately target the problem with minimal
effort or problem solving.

Proficient – evolution through continuous practice of skills, combined with


professional experience and knowledge; individual who appreciates standards
of practice as they apply in nursing informatics.
Competent – enhanced mastery and the ability to cope with and manage
many contingencies.
Advanced Beginner – marginally demonstrate acceptable performance
having built on lessons learned in their expanding experience base; needs
supervision.

Novice – individuals with no experience of situations and related content in


those situations where they are expected to perform tasks.
What is a NURSE INFORMATICS SPECIALIST?

 Also referred to as Nurse Informaticist.

Makes sure that the nursing process is


supported by accurate and automated
documentation, that helps ensure high
quality, patient – centered care.
What is a NURSE INFORMATICS SPECIALIST?

Manages, interprets, and communicates


medical data found within any number
of healthcare or medical facility setting.
Has unique expertise in both nursing
practice and healthcare information
technology.
INFORMATICS COMPETENCIES
 Levels of Competency
• Beginning Nurse
• Experienced Nurse
• Informatics Nurse Specialist
• Informatics Innovator
 Types of Competency
• Computer Skills
• Informatics Knowledge
• Informatics Skills
INFORMATICS COMPETENCIES
 Types of Competency
1. Computer Literacy
• A set of skills that allow individuals to use computer technology to
accomplish tasks.

2. Informatics Knowledge
• A set of cognitive processes that allows the individual to recognize
what, when, and where information is needed and to locate,
evaluate, and use that information appropriately.

3. Informatics Skills
• The technical ability to use tools and techniques to improve
information and knowledge access, integration, management and
use.
Four Level of Informatics
Competencies for nurses
The Beginning Nurse

The Experienced Nurse

The Informatics Nurse Specialist

The Innovator Nurse


The Beginning Nurse

Has fundamental information management skills

Can use information systems


The Experienced Nurse

Proficient in his/her area of specialization and highly skilled in


the use of IT and computers to support that area of practice.
Sees the relationship between data elements and makes
judgments based on observed trends and patterns.
Uses information systems and works with the informatics specialist
to enact improvements in information systems.
The Informatics Nurse Specialist

Has advanced preparation in information management.


Focuses on informatics applications to support all areas
of nursing practice.
Uses skills in critical thinking, data management and
processing, decision making, and system development and
computer skills.
The Innovator Nurse

Work lists to remind staff of planned nursing interventions


Computer‐generated client documentation including discharge
instructions and medication information
Monitoring devices that record vital signs and other
measurements directly into the client record
Computer‐generated nursing care plans and critical pathway
FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER
What is COMPUTER?
 A computer is an electronic device,
operating under the control of instructions
stored in its own memory that can accept data
(input), process the data according to specified
rules, produce information (output), and store
the information for future use.
FUNCTIONALITIES OF A COMPUTER
1. Input – feeding data to the computer from
external environment.
2. Storage – recording of data involved in all
operations.
3. Process – manipulating and transforming of data by
arithmetic and logical instructions.
4. Output – producing data by presenting results
derived from processing.
COMPUTER ETHICS
COMPUTER ETHICS
Computer ethics is a branch of practical philosophy that
deals with how computing professionals should make
decisions regarding professional and social conduct.
MAJOR AREAS OF COMPUTER ETHICS

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
 Industrial property
 Copyright
MAJOR AREAS OF COMPUTER ETHICS

 Real people exists behind computer


 Privacy protection
 Spamming
 Helping in making the network better
MAJOR AREAS OF COMPUTER ETHICS
PERSONAL HEALTH INFORMATION
It is an information about an identifiable individual that
relates to the physical or mental health of the individual, or
provision of health services to the individual.
POSSIBLE REASONS WHY PERSONAL HEALTH
INFORMATION ARE BREACHED:
1. Inadvertent loss
2. Technical failures
3. Failure to adequately dispose of paper records
4. Failure to adequately ispose of electronic records
5. Failure to comply with established policices
6. Staff misconduct
7. Computer hacking.