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Home (https://www.brainkart.com) | Engineering (https://www.brainkart.com) | Probability and Queueing Theory - MA8402, MA6453

(https://www.brainkart.com/subject/Probability-and-Queueing-Theory_92/) | Queueing Theory

Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail

Queueing Theory

Introduction, Markovian Queues, Birth & Death processes, Single and Multiple server queueing models, Little’s formula, Queues with finite waiting rooms,

Queues with impatient customers, Queues with impatient customers.

QUEUEING THEORY

Introduction

Markovian Queues

Birth & Death processes

Single and Multiple server queueing models

Little’s formula

Queues with finite waiting rooms

Queues with impatient customers

Queues with impatient customers

Since the customers arrive in a random fashion. Therefore their arrival pattern can be described in terms of Prob.

We assume that they arrive according to a Poisson Process i.e., the no f units arriving until any specific time has a Poisson

distribution. This is the case where arrivals to the queueing systems occur at random, but at a certain average rate.

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It refers to the manner in which the members in a queue are choosen for service

Example:

ii. Last Come, First Served (LCFS)

A Queueing system is said to be in transient state when its operating characteristics are dependent on time. A

queueing system is in transient system when the Prob. distribution of arrivals waiting time & servicing time of the customers

are dependent.

If the operating characteristics become independent of time, the queueing system is said to be in a steady state.

Thus a queueing system acquires steady state, when the Prob. distribution of arrivals are independent of time. This state occurs

in the long run of the system.

There are several types of queueing models. Some of them are

5. The most common case of queueing models is the single channel waiting line.

Note

P = Traffic intensity or utilization factor which represents the proportion of time the servers are busy = λ/4.

Characteristics of Model I

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2)Expected (or avg) queue length (or) expected no. of customer waiting in the queue is given by

4) Expected (or avg.) waiting time of customer in the system (waiting & service) is given By

5) Expected (or avg.) waiting time in the queue for busy system

13) Avg waiting time in non-empty queue (avg waiting time of an arrival Wh waits)

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3 Littles' Formulae

We observe that LS = λWS, Lq = λWq & WS = Wq + 1/µ and these are called Little's Formulae

3.1 Model I: (M/M/1)" (∞/FCFS)

A TV repairman finds that the time spend on his job has an exponential distribution with mean 30 minutes. If the

repair sets in the order in which they came in and if the arrival of sets is approximately Poisson with an avg. rate of 10 per 8

hours day, what is the repairman's expected idle time each day? How many jobs are ahead of avg. set just brought?

Example:4.31

In a railway marshalling yard, goods trains arrive at a rate of 30 trains per day. Assuming that the inter-arrival time

follows an exponential distribution and the service time (tie time taken to hump to train) distribution is also exponential with an

avg. of 36 minutes. Calculate

If the input of trains increase to an avg. of 33 per day, what will be the change in

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(i) Ls = ρ/ 1-ρ= 5 trains (approx)

Example:4.3.2

(3) A super market has a single cashier. During the peak hours, customers arrive at a rate of 20 customers per hour. The

average no of customers that can be processed by the cashier is 24 per hour. Find

(iv) The average time a customer spends in queue.

(v) The any time a customer spends in the queue waiting for service

λ= 20 customers

µ= 24 customers / hour

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(ii) Average no of customers in the system.

Ls = λ/ µ-λ= 5

Ws = Ls / λ= ¼ hour = 15 minutes.

(v) Average time a customer spends in the queue

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Lq = Ls – (1- p0)

(4) Consider a single server queuing system with Poisson input, exponential service times, suppose the mean arrival rate is 3

calling units per hour, the expected service time is 0.25 hours and the maximum permissible no calling units in the system is

two. Find the steady state probability distribution of the no of calling units in the system and the expected no of calling units in

the system.

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n=1

(2) Trains arrive at the yard every 15 minutes and the services time is 33 minutes. If the line capacity of the yard

is limited to 5 trains, find the probability that yard is empty and the average no of trains in the system.

ρ= λ/ µ= 2.2

Model V (M / M / C) : ( ∞/ FCFS)

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Example:4.5.1

(1) A super market has 2 girls running up sales at the counters. If the service time for each customers is exponential with

mean 4 minutes and if people arrive in Poisson fashion at the rate of 10 an hour.

(b) What is the expected percentage of idle time for each girl.

(c) (c) If the customer has to wait, what is the expected length of his waiting time.

C = 2, λ= 1/6 per minute µ= ¼ per minute λ/ Cµ= 1/3.

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Example:4.5.2

There are 3 typists in an office. Each typist can type an average of 6 letters per hour. If letters arrive for being typed at the

rate of 15 letters per hour, what fraction of time all the typists will be busy ? what is the average no of letters waiting to be

typed ?

Here C = 3; λ= 15 per hour; µ= 6 per hour

P[all the 3 typists busy] = p[n ≥ m]

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= 0.7016

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Example:4.6.1 A car service station has two bags where service can be offered simultaneously. Due to space limitation,

only four cars are accepted for servicing. The arrived pattern is poission with a mean of one car every minute during the

peak hours. The service time is exponential with mean 6 minutes. Find the average no of cars in eh system during peak

hours, the average waiting time of a car and the average no of cars per hour that cannot enter the station because of full

capacity.

λ= 1 car per minutes

C = 3, N = 7, ρ= λ/ Cµ= 2

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Example:4.6.2 A barber shop has two barbers and three chairs for customers. Assume that customers arrive in a poisson

fashion at a rate of 5 per hour and that each barber services customers according to an exponential distribution with mean of 15

minutes. Further if a customer arrives and there are no empty chairs in the shop, he will leave. What is the probability that the

shop is empty ? What is the expected no of customers in the shop ?

Here C = 2, N = 3,

µ= 1/15 customers / minute

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Probability that the shop is empty = probability that there are no customers in the system

P0 = 0.28

=1.227 Customers(approx)

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Single-channel finite population model with Poisson arrivals and exponential service (M/M/I)(FCFS/n/M).

Example:4.7.1. A mechanic repairs machines. The mean time b/w service requirements is 5 hours for each machine and

forms an exponential distribution. The mean repair time is C hour and also follows the same distribution pattern.

ρ= λ/µ= 0.2

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=(2.481)−1 =0.4030

(ii) Probability that there shall be various no of machines (0 through 5) in the system is obtained by using the formula

(iii) The expected no of machines to be and being repaired (in the system)

(iv) Expected time the machine will wait in the queue to be repaired

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Example:4.7.2. Automatic car wash facility operates with only one bay cars arrive according to a poisson is busy. If the

service time follows normal distribution with mean 12 minutes and S.D 3 minutes, find the average no of cars waiting in the

parking lot. Also find the mean waiting time of cars in the parking lot.

∴ The average no of cars waiting in the parking lot = 1.7 cars The mean waiting time of the cars in the parking lot

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Example 1: A super market has 2 girls running up sales at the counters. If the service time for each custo minutes and if

people arrive in Poisson fashion at the rate of 10 an hour.

(b) What is the expected percentage of idle time for each girl.

If the customer has to wait, what is the expected length of his waiting time.

C = 2, λ= 1/6 per minute µ= ¼ per minute λ/ Cµ= 1/3.

∴ Probability of having to wait for service = 0.167 b) Expand idle time for each girl = 1 - λ/Cµ

Expected length of customers waiting time = 1/ µ −λ=3 minutes

Example 2: There are 3 typists in an office. Each typist can type an average of 6 letters per hour. If letters of 15 letters

per hour, what fraction of time all the typists will be busy ? what is the average no of letters waiting to

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