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Units=

and magnitude. The standard measure of each kind of physical quantity is called a

unit.

Absolute Units

An absolute system of units is defined as a system in which the various units are all

expressed in terms of a small number of fundamental units.

The fundamental units in mechanics are measures of length, mass and time. The

sizes of fundamental units, whether centimeter or meter or foot, gram, or kilogram

or pound, second or hour are quite arbitrary and can be selected to fit a certain set

of circumstances. Since length, mass and time are fundamental to most other

physical quantities besides those in mechanics; they are called the Primary

fundamental units.

fields are also represented by fundamental units. These units are used only where

these particular disciplines are involved and therefore they are called Auxiliary

Fundamental Units

All other units which can be expressed in terms fundamental units with the help

of physical quantities are called Derived Units. Every derived unit originates from

some physical law or equation which defines that unit.

The volume V of a room is equal to the product of its length (l), width (b), and

height (h) therefore

V=lbh

If meter is chosen as the the unit of length, then the volume of a room

6m X 4m X 5m is 120 m3. The number of measures (6 X 4 X 5 =120) as well as units

(m x m x m = m3) are multiplied. The derived unit for volume is thus m3.

1 Length Metre M

2 Mass Kilogram kg

3 Time Second sec

4 Electric Current Ampere A

5 Temperature Kelvin K

6 Luminous Intensity Candler Cd

Supplementary Units

1 Plane angle radian rad

2 Solid angle steradian sr

Derived Units

S. No Name Unit

1 Area m2

2 Volume m3

3 Density kg/m3

4 Angular velocity rad/sec

5 Angular acceleration rad/sec2

6 Pressure, Stress kg/m2

7 Energy Joule(Nm)

8 Charge Coulomb

9 Electric Field Strength V/m

10 Capacitance (ASec/V)

11 Frequency Hz

12 Velocity m/sec

13 Acceleration m/sec2

14 Force Kg-m(N)

15 Power Watt

(J/sec)

16 EMF Volt (W/A)

Dimensions

evident that every quantity has a quality which distinguishes it from all other

quantities. This unique quality is called Dimension. The dimension is written in a

characteristics notation, example [L] for length, [T] for time and so on.

as the complete algebraic formula for the derived unit. Thus when quantity such as

area A of a rectangle is measured in terms of other quantities i.e. length l, and

width b, in this case, the relationship is expressed mathematically as;

Area A = l x b

Since l and b each have the dimensions of a length, [L], the dimensions of area is

If meter (m) is unit of length, then meter square (m2) can be used as unit of area.

In mechanics has the three fundamental units are length, mass and time. The

dimensional symbols are length [L], Mass [M], time [T]

Conversions

A Few Standard Conversions

1 m = 3.28 ft

1 kg = 2.2 pounds

1 hp = 746 W

standard is applied to a piece of equipment having a known measure of physical

quantity. They are used for the purpose of obtaining the values of the physical

properties of other equipment of by comparison methods

The classification of standards is based on the function and the application of the

standards.

International standards are defined on the basis of international agreement.

They represent the units of measurements which are closest to the possible

accuracy attainable with present day technological and scientific methods.

International standards are checked and evaluated regularly against absolute

measurement in terms of the fundamental units. The international standards are

maintained at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures and are not

available to the ordinary user of measuring instruments for the purposes of

calibration or comparison

Primary standards are absolute standards of such high accuracy that they

can be used as the ultimate reference standards. These standards are maintained

by national standards laboratories in different part of the world. The primary

standards, which represent the fundamental units and some of the derived

electrical and mechanical units, are independently calibrated by absolute

measurements at each of the national laboratories.

The secondary standards are the basic reference standards used in industrial

measurement laboratories. The responsibility of maintenance and calibration of

these standards lies with the particular industry involved. These standards are

checked locally against reference standards available in the area. Secondary

standards are normally sent periodically to the national standards laboratories for

calibration and comparison against primary standards.

These standards are used to check and calibrate general laboratory instruments for

their accuracy and performance. For example, a manufacturer of precision

resistances may use a Standard Resistance (which may be working standard) in the

quality control department for checking the values of resistors that are being

manufactured. This way, he verifies that his measurement set up perform within

the limits of accuracy that are specified.

Measurements

comparison between the quantity and a predefined standard. Since two quantities

are compared the result is expressed in numerical values

Methods of Measurement

(i) Direct methods (ii) Indirect methods

directly compared against a standard. The result is expressed as a numerical

number and a unit. Direct methods are quite common for the measurement of

physical quantities like length, mass and time

practicable. These methods in most of the cases, are inaccurate because they involve

human factors. They are also less sensitive. Hence direct methods are not preferred

and are rarely used.

measurement systems use indirect methods for measurement purposes.

A measurement system consists of a transducing element which converts the

quantity to be measured in an analogous form. The analogous system is then

processed by some intermediate means and is then fed to the end devices which

present the result of the measurement.

Instrument

magnitude of a quantity or variable.

(ii) Electrical measuring instruments

(iii) Electronic measuring instruments

Classification of Instruments

There are many way in which instruments can be classified. Broadly, instruments

are classified into two categories.

(ii) Secondary Instruments

in terms of physical constants of the instrument. The examples of this class of

instruments are Tangent Galvanometer and Rayleigh’s current balance

These instruments are so constructed that the quantity being measured can

only be measured by observing the output indicated by the instrument. These

instruments are calibrated by comparison with an absolute instrument or another

secondary instrument which has already been calibrated against an absolute

instrument. A voltmeter, a glass thermometer, and a pressure gauge are typical

examples of secondary instruments.

are (i) Indicating Function (ii) Recording Function (iii) Controlling Function

These instruments provide information regarding the variable quantity

under measurement and most of the time this information are provided by the

deflection of the pointer. This kind of function is known as the indicating function of

the instruments.

These instruments usually use the paper in order to record the output. This

type of function is known as the recording function of the instruments.

This is function is widely used in industrial world. In this these instruments

controls the processes.

categories:

1. Static characteristics

2. Dynamic characteristics

Set of criteria defined for the measurements, which are used to measure the

quantities, which are slowly varying with time or almost constant, i.e., do not

vary with time, are called Static Characteristics.

While when the quantity under measurement changes rapidly with time, the

relation existing between input and output are generally expressed with the help

of differential equations and are called “Dynamic Characteristics”.

Static Characteristics

Desirable Undesirable

Repeatability

Dynamic Characteristics

Desirable Undesirable

Calibration

The various performance characteristics are obtained in one form or another by

a process called “Calibration”.

readings of an instrument agree with the accepted and the certified standard.

Static Error: It is the difference between the measured value and true

value of the quantity

Mathematically

δA = Am − At ----------- eq (1.1)

δA: Absolute error or Static error

Where, Am: Measured value of the quantity

At : True value of the quantity

. Static Correction: It is the difference b/w the true value & measured

value of the quantity mathematically

δC=(−δA)=(At−Am)

Limiting error or Relative error:

(εr) = δA/At

εr=(Am − At)/At

Percentage relative error:

% εr = (δA/At) × 100

From relative percentage error, accuracy is expressed as

A = 1 − |εr|

Where A: relative accuracy

And a = A × 100%

Where a = Percentage accuracy

Error can also be expressed as percentage of Full Scale Deflection (FSD) as,

Am At

X 100

F .S .D

measurement gives a value of 149 V. Calculate (i) Absolute error (ii) Percentage

error, (iii) Relative accuracy (iv) Percentage accuracy (v) Error expressed as

percentage of full scale reading if scale range is 0 – 200 V.

At= 150 V

Am = 149 V

(i) Absolute error = Am − At = −1 V

(ii) % εr = (Am − At )/At ×100= 1/150 ×100=− 0.66%

(iii) A = 1 − |εr| = 1 − |−1/150|= 0.9933

(iv) % a = A × 100 = 99.33%

(v) F.S.D= [(Am − At )/F.S.D] × 100

Example:

A Voltage has a true value of 1.50 V. An analog indicating instrument with a scale

range of 0 – 2.50 V shows as a voltage of 1.46 V. What are the values of absolute

error and correction. Express the error as a fraction of the true value and the full

scale deflection (f.s.d.).

𝐒𝐨𝐥𝐮𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧:

Absolute error δA = Am − At = 1.46 – 1.50 = − 0.04 V

Absolute correction δC = − δA = + 0.04 V

Relative error,εr= δA/At= (− 0.04 /1.50) ×100= −2.67 %

Relative error (expressed as a percentage of F.S.D.) = (− 0.04 / 2.5) ×100 =−1.60 %

Where F.S.D. is the Full Scale Deflection.

Example: A meter reads 127.50 V and the true value of the voltage is 127.43 V

Determine (a) The static error, (b) The static correction for this instrument

Solution:

From Eqn. 1.1, the error is

δA = Am − At= 127.50 – 127.43 = + 0.07 V

Static Correction δC = − δA = − 0.07 V

Example: A thermometer reads 95.45°C and the static correction given in the

correction curve is –0.08°C. Determine the true value of the temperature.

Solution:

True value of the temperature At= Am + δC = 95.45 – 0.08 = 95.37°C

3. Accuracy: It is the degree of closeness with which the instrument reading

approaches the true value of the quantity.

Accuracy as “Percentage of Full Scale Reading.

In case of instruments having uniform scale, the accuracy can be expressed

as percentage of full scale reading.

expressed as ±0.1% of full scale reading.

Note: This form of notation indicates the accuracy is expressed in terms of limits of

error.

So for the accuracy limits specified above, there will be ±0.05 units of error in

any measurement.

So for a reading of 50 units, there will be a error of ±0.05 units i.e., ±0.1%

while for a reading of 25 units, there will be a error of ±0.05 units and i.e.,

±0.2%.

percentage error is more. Hence specification of accuracy in this manner is

highly misleading.

Accuracy as “Percentage of True Value”.

This is the best method of specifying the accuracy. Here it is specified in

terms of true value of quantity being measured.

Example: Accuracy can be specified as ±0.1% of true value. This indicates that as

readings gets smaller, error also gets reduced.

Accuracy as “Percentage of Scale Span”: For an instrument with a max , amin

representing full scale and lowest reading on scale, then (amax−amin) is called

span of the instrument (or) scale span.

Accuracy of an instrument can be specified as percent of such scale span.

Example:

For an instrument having scale span from 25 to 225 units, then accuracy can

be specified as ±0.2% of scale span i.e., ± [(225−25)× 0.2/100] which is ±0.4

units of error in every measurement.

scale.

It does not give any information about accuracy at any other point on scale.

deflection. If the true power is 100 W, what would be the range of readings?

Suppose the error is specified as percentage of true value, what would be the range

of the readings?

Solution:

When the error is specified as a percentage of full scale deflection, the

magnitude of limiting error at full scale = ± 1/100 ×1000= ± 10 W

Thus the Wattmeter reading when the true reading is 100 W may be

100 ± 10 W i.e., between 90 to 110 W

Relative error = ± 10/100 ×100= ± 10%

The magnitude of error = ± 1/100 ×100= ± 1 W

Therefore the meter may read 100 ± 1 W or between 99 to 101 W

Accuracy can also be defined in terms of static error.

measurements.

(i). Conformity

(ii). Number of significant figures

(i). Conformity

ohmmeter as 2.4M Ω consistently, due to non-availability of proper scale.

figures, in which the reading is expressed.

Significant figures convey the actual information about the magnitude and

measurement precision of the quantity.

Thus, there is 3 significant figures while if it is specified as 110. 0 Ω, then it may be

closer to 110.1 Ω or 109.9 Ω. Thus, there are now 4 significant figures.

measurement.

Normally, large numbers with zeros are expressed in terms of powers of ten.

Example: Approximate population of a city is reported as 4,90,000 which actually

is to be read as the population lies between 4,80,000 to 5,00,000 but due to

misconception it can also be implied as population lies between 489,999 to 490,001.

variable to which the instrument responds.

in the value of the quantity to be measured.

Mathematically it is expressed as,

Infinitest imal Change in output

Sensitivity

Infinitest imal Change in input

q o

Sensitivity

qi

∆qo

Output

∆qi

qo

Input qi

6. Hysteresis

Many times, for the increasing values of input an instrument may indicate

one set of output values, and for the decreasing values of input, the same

instrument may indicate it different set of output values. When these output values

are plotted against the input the following types of graphs are achieved. For the

increasing and the decreasing inputs, the output shows a maximum variations at

half of full scale, for this reason hysteresis error is specified at 50% of the full scale.

7. Threshold

The smallest change in the input that gives a perceivable change on the

output of an instrument is called the resolution.

In most of the instruments, when the input is increased from zero value there

is a small dead band or dead zone for which no perceivable output is indicated by

the instrument. Thus the smallest input that gives some perceivable output is the

threshold of the instrument. Then we can say the resolution is the smallest change

in input that can be measured and threshold is the smallest input that can be

measured. Then needless to say that the resolution has a meaning only after the

threshold input has been passed.

8. Repeatability

Repeatability is a measure of closeness with which a given input may be

measured over and over again.

Measurement of Errors

The measurement error is defined as the difference between the true or

actual value and measured value

The true value is the average of the finite number of measurement

Measured value is the precise value

The error may arise from the different source and are usually classified into

the following types.

1. Gross Error

2. Systematic Error

3. Random Error

1. Gross Errors

Gross errors may occur because of the human mistakes. For example consider

the person using the instruments takes the wrong reading, or they can record the

incorrect data. Such type of error comes under the gross error. The gross error can

only be avoided by taking the reading carefully

Two methods can remove the gross error. These methods are

The reading should be taken carefully.

Two or more reading should be taken of the measurement quantity. The

readings are taken by the different experimenter and at a different point

removing the error.

These type of errors include the loading effect and the misuse of the

instruments.

2. Systematic Error

The systematic errors are mainly classified into three categories

(i) Instrumental Errors (ii) Environmental Errors (iii) Observational Errors

(i)Instrumental Errors

These errors may be due to wrong construction, wrong calibration of

measuring instruments.

These types of error may arise due to friction or may be due to hysteresis.

(ii) Environmental Errors

These errors are due to the external condition of the measuring devices.

External condition includes temperature, pressure, humidity or it may

include magnetic field

(iii) Observational Errors

Such types of errors are due to the wrong observation of the reading.

3. Random Errors

The error which is caused by the sudden change in the atmospheric condition,

such as type of error is called random error.

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