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Green University of Bangladesh

Faculty of Science and Engineering


Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Program: B.Sc. Engg. in CSE
Course Title: EEE 102 Introduction to Electrical Engineering Lab
Course Credit: 1.5
Laboratory Experiment Sheet
Course Teacher: Md. Aynal Hossain

Experiment #: 01
Experiment Name: Familiarization with resistor’s color code and verification of Ohm's Law

Objectives:
This experiment is intended to
i. To determine the value of a selection of resistors using three different methods:
a. Using the color codes (to give the nominal value)
b. Using the digital Ohmmeter.
ii. To verify the Ohm’s Law.

Theory:
Ohm’s Law: At Constant temperature current through a conductor is directly proportional to voltage applied
across it.

I α V Where, V = Voltage across the conductor & I = Current through the conductor
1
Or, I = GV Where, G  Conductance of the Conductor
R
V
I And R = Resistance of the Conductor
R
V
Or, R 
I
V1 V 2 V 3 V 4 V 5
According to the Law R     
I1 I 2 I 3 I 4 I 5

V1

I
I1
Figure 1.1

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Color code table:

Nominal Resistance (According to color code): R=FST ± 4th Band


List of Equipment:
1. DC Power Supply(12V)
2. Resistors: 100 Ω , 470 Ω , 1 KΩ, 2.2KΩ, 3.3 KΩ and 10 KΩ
3. DC Voltmeter(0-450 V)
4. DC Ammeter(0-10 A)
5. Connecting wires

Circuit Diagram:

Figure 1.2

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Procedure:
You will be supplied with sets of 5 resistors.

1- Find the nominal value and the tolerance of each resistance using the color codes. Record your results in
Table 1.
2- Using the digital multimeter as an ohmmeter, measure and record the resistance of each resistor. Record
your results in Table 1.
3- Connect the circuit as shown in Figure 1.2 for R = 100 Ω and perform the following :
a- Set the source voltage, Vs to 12 V.
b- Measure V and I.
c- Repeat steps 3a and 3b for Vs=10V, Vs=8Vand Vs=6V.
d- Record your results in Table 2.

Data table-1:

Resistor R1 R2 R3 R4 R5
Nominal Value, Rn
Measured Value, Rm
Rn ~Rm
% Deviation( Rn
∗ 100%)
Data table-2:

Voltage (V) 12 10 8 6
Current (I)
Resistance
V
(R = I )
Calculation:

V1 V 2 V 3
Calculate , , .
I1 I 2 I 3
Graph:

Plot V-I on graph paper as figure 1.1

Report:
Do the experimental and theoretical values of voltages and currents agree? Indicate the percentage of
differences. Give possible reasons for any discrepancies.

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Green University of Bangladesh
Faculty of Science and Engineering
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Program: B.Sc. Engg. in CSE
Course Title: EEE 102 Introduction to Electrical Engineering Lab
Course Credit: 1.5
Laboratory Experiment Sheet
Course Teacher: Md. Aynal Hossain

Experiment #: 02
Experiment Name: Verification of KVL and KCL

Objectives:
This experiment is intended to
(a) verify Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL)
(b) verify voltage divider rule
(c) verify Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL)
(d) verify current divider rule

Theory:
KVL: The algebraic sum of the potential rises and drops around a closed loop (or path) is zero. Expressed
mathematically, KVL states that

WhereM is the number of voltages in the loop (or the number of branches in the loop) and vm is the mth voltage.

Voltage Divider Rule: The Voltage Divider Rule can be given by

Vx = (Rx/Req) V

Where, V = voltage across / supplied to any series circuit


Req = equivalent resistance of the series circuit = ∑Ri
Rx = any particular resistor in the series circuit
Vx = voltage across Rx.
If, i = 3 then
∑Ri = R1+R2+R3

KCL:
KCL states that the sum of the currents entering any node equals the sum of the currents leaving the node.
∑Ientering = ∑Ileaving

The Current Divider Rule is given by


Ix = (Rp/Rx) I

Where, Rp is the equivalent resistance of a parallel circuit which is given by the following formula
Rp = (1/R1 +1/R2 +--------) -1

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List of Equipment:
1. Resistors: 1kΩ, ½ W; 2.2kΩ, ½ W; 1.2KΩ, ½ W
2. Ammeter(0-10 A)
3. Trainer Board
4. Connecting Wires
Circuit diagram:

Figure 2.1

Figure 2.2

Procedure:
KVL:
1. Connect three resistors R1=1K, R2=2.2K and R3=4.7K in series a DC power supply as shown in fig 2.1.
2. Apply 12 V DC from DC power supply.
3. Take readings of V1p, V2p, V2p using a voltmeter .
4. Change the value of VS to 10 V and 8 V and repeat step 3 each time.
5. Verify KVL (i.e. VS=V1+V2+V3) for each set of data.
KCL:
i. Connect two resistors R1=1K and R2=2.2K in parallel with R=1.2K to a DC power supply as shown in
Figure 2.2. Set E = 8V from the trainer board.
ii. Take readings of I1m, I2m and Im using three ammeters,
iii. Verify KCL (i.e. I = I1 + I2).
iv. Verify Current Divider Rule (i.e. I1c = (Rp/R1) Ic& I2c = (Rp/R2) Ic .
v. Change the input voltage E to 10V and 12V.Repeat ii, iii and iv for each case.

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Table:

KVL:
% Error,
No. of V V1c V2c V3c V1p V2p V3p Vp= (V1p+ V2p+ V2p) 𝑉 − 𝑉𝑝
Obs. (V) (V) (V) (V) (V) (V) (V) (V) 𝑉
× 100%
1 12
2 10
3 8

KCL:
No. Input % Deviation,
voltage, Im I1m 𝐼𝑚 ~𝐼𝑚∗
of Ic I1m I2c I2m Im*=I1m+I2m
E A A ( )
Ob A A A A A 𝐼𝑚
s. V × 100%
1 8

2 10

3 12

Calculation:
Theoretical + other necessary calculation.

Report:
Do the experimental and theoretical values agree? Indicate the percentage of differences. Give possible reasons
for any discrepancies.

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Green University of Bangladesh
Faculty of Science and Engineering
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Program: B.Sc. Engg. in CSE
Course Title: EEE 102 Introduction to Electrical Engineering Lab
Course Credit: 1.5
Laboratory Experiment Sheet
Course Teacher: Md. Aynal Hossain

Experiment #: 03
Experiment Name: Verification of Thevenin's Theorem

Objectives:
To verify Thevenin's theorem with reference to a given circuit theoretically as well as experimentally.

Theory:
It is often desirable in circuit analysis to study the effect of changing a particular branch element while all other
branches and all the sources in the circuit remain unchanged. Thevenin’s theorem is a technique to this end and
it reduces greatly the amount of computations which we have to do each time a change is made. Using
Thevenin’s theorem the given circuit excepting the particular branch to be studied is reduced to the simplest
equivalent circuit possible and then the branch to be changed is connected across the equivalent circuit.

The Thevenin’s theorem states that any two terminal linear bilateral network containing sources and passive
elements can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consist of a voltage source Vth in series a resistor Rth where

Vth = The open circuit voltage ( VOC ) at the two terminals A & B.
Rth = The resistance looking into the terminals A and B of the network with all sources removed.

RTH A IL
A IL
Linear
Bilateral VTH VL RL
VL RL
Network

B
B

There are several methods for determining Thevenin resistance RTH. An attractive method for determining RTH is
: (1) determine the open circuit voltage, and (2) determine the short circuit current ISC as shown in the figure;
then

RTH

VOC
RTH 
I SC VTH ISC

List of Equipment:
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1. Resistors:R1=1 kΩ, ½ W; R2=2.2kΩ, ½ W; R3=1.2KΩ, ½ W
2. Voltmeter(0-450V)
3. Ammeter(0-10A)
4. Connecting wires

Circuit Diagram:

Figure 4.1

Procedure:
 Remove RL and connect the circuit as shown in Figure 4.2. Take the reading of the voltmeter at the
terminal AB.
 Connect the circuit as shown in Figure 4.3. Measure the current of the short-circuited terminal AB.

Figure 4.2 Figure4.3

 Put these data in table and find out Rth.


 Finally construct the Thevenin’s equivalent circuit as shown in Figure 4.1(b) using Vth&Rth.

Data table-1:
No. of Vth(C) Vth(M) or ISC(C) ISC(M) Rth(C) Rth(M)=(Voc(M) % Deviation % Deviation
Obs. V VOC(M) A A Ω / ISC(M)) in Vth= in Vth=
V Ω 𝑉𝑡ℎ(𝐶) ~𝑉𝑡ℎ(𝑀) 𝑅𝑡ℎ(𝐶) ~𝑅𝑡ℎ(𝑀)
𝑉𝑡ℎ(𝐶) 𝑅𝑡ℎ(𝐶)
× 100% × 100%

Calculation:
Theoretical + other necessary calculation.
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Report:
Do the experimental and theoretical values agree? Indicate the percentage of differences. Give possible reasons
for any discrepancies.

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Green University of Bangladesh
Faculty of Science and Engineering
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Program: B.Sc. Engg. in CSE
Course Title: EEE 102 Introduction to Electrical Engineering Lab
Course Credit: 1.5
Laboratory Experiment Sheet
Course Teacher: Md. Aynal Hossain

Experiment #: 04
Experiment Name: Verification of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Objectives:
The objective of this experiment is to verify maximum power transfer theorem.
.

Theory:
The maximum power transfer theorem states that a resistive load will receive maximum power when its
total resistive value is exactly equal to the Thevenin’s resistance of the network as “seen” by the load.

RTH

RL
VTH +
_

We know that any circuit A terminated with a load RL can be reduced to its Thevenin’s equivalent. Now
according to this theorem the load RL will receive maximum power when

RL=RTH

The efficiency of power transfer is defined as the ratio of the power delivered to the load POUT, to the power
supplied by the source PIN.

POUT V RL
%   100  L  100   100
PIN VTH R L  RTH

The voltage regulation is defined as

Load voltage at no load Load voltage at full load


%VR =  100
Load voltage at full load
RTH
 100
RL
At maximum power transfer condition,    & VR= 100 %.

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A relatively low efficiency of 50 % can be tolerated in situations where power levels are relatively low such as
in electronic & communications circuits for transmission & reception of signal where the Engineer’s goal is to
receive or transmit maximum amount of power.

However, when large power levels are involved, such as at generating stations, efficiencies of 50 % would not
be acceptable. The goal here is high efficiency and not maximum power. Power utility systems are designed to
transmit the power to the load with the greatest efficiency by reducing the losses on the power lines. Thus the
effort is concentrated on reducing RTH, which would represent the resistance of the source plus the line
resistance.
List of Equipment:
1. One DC voltmeter
2. One DC Ammeter
3. DC power supply
4. RTH= 22, RL= 44
5. Wires & Chords

Circuit Diagram:

Rth
S

Vth A V VL
RL
I

Procedure:
1. Set up the circuit as shown in figure.
2. Apply 30V dc from dc power supply.
3. Keep the Thevenin rheostat, Rth ( 22 ) at maximum position.
4. Vary the load rheostat ( 44 ) from minimum to maximum value in step & measure the voltages VL , & I.
Take at least 15 sets of reading.
5. Keep the Thevenin rheostat at another position & repeat step4.

Data table:

No. of VTH VL I PIN=VTHI POUT=VLI LOSS= PIN % %VR RL=VL/I


Obs. -POUT
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Calculation:
Theoretical + other necessary calculation.

Report:
Do the experimental and theoretical values agree? Indicate the percentage of differences. Give possible reasons
for any discrepancies.

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Green University of Bangladesh
Faculty of Science and Engineering
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Program: B.Sc. Engg. in CSE
Course Title: EEE 102 Introduction to Electrical Engineering Lab
Course Credit: 1.5
Laboratory Experiment Sheet
Course Teacher: Md. Aynal Hossain

Experiment #: 05
Experiment Name: Verification of Superposition Theorem

Objectives:
This experiment is intended to familiarize with superposition theorem and to practically verify superposition
theorem.

Theory:
The superposition theorem states that, the current through, or voltage across, an element in a linear bilateral
network is equal to the algebraic sum of the currents or voltages produced independently by each source. To
apply the superposition principle, we must keep two things in mind:
1. We consider one independent source at a time while all other independent sources are turned off. This
implies that we replace every voltage source by 0 V (or a short circuit) and every current source by 0 A
(or an open circuit).
2. Dependent sources are left intact because they are controlled by circuit variables.
List of Equipment:
1. Resistor:1kΩ, ½ W; 2.2kΩ, ½ W; 1.2KΩ, ½ W
2. Ammeter(0-10A)
3. Trainer Board
4. Connecting Wires

Circuit Diagram:

Figure 5.1

Procedure:
 Connect the R1=1kΩ ,R2=2.2kΩ ,R3=1.2KΩ and ammeter as shown in Figure 5.2.Adjust E1=10V
,E2=8V.Take the ammeter reading I.
 Then modify the circuit connection as shown in Figure 5.3. Take the reading I1.
 Then connect the circuit as shown in Figure 5.4. Take the reading I2.

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Figure 5.2 Figure 5.3
Figure 5.4

Table:

No. of IM (A) I1M (A) I2M (A) IM'=I1M+I2M IC Deviation


Obs. 𝐼′𝑀 ~𝐼𝐶
( )
𝐼𝐶
× 100%

Calculation:
Theoretical + other necessary calculation.

Report:
Do the experimental and theoretical values agree? Indicate the percentage of differences. Give possible reasons
for any discrepancies.

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Green University of Bangladesh
Faculty of Science and Engineering
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Program: B.Sc. Engg. in CSE
Course Title: EEE 102 Introduction to Electrical Engineering Lab
Course Credit: 1.5
Laboratory Experiment Sheet
Course Teacher: Md. Aynal Hossain

Experiment #: 06
Experiment Name: Familiarization with alternating current (AC) waves.

Objectives:
In this experiment we shall study some aspects of sinusoidal waveform, and correlate these with practically
measurable values such as – rms value (also called effective value), phase angle and time period. Also, an
exposure to simple ac circuit, and some circuit elements are made. Try to familiarize yourself with
 Oscilloscope.
 How to measure peak value, phase angle and time period (or frequency) using oscilloscope.
 The methods of measuring rms value both using oscilloscope and multimeter.
 Difference between AC and DC setting of multimeter and oscilloscope.
 Capacitor, resistor and breadboard.

Theory:
Any periodic variation of current or voltage where the current (or voltage), when measured along any particular
direction goes positive as well as negative, is defined to be an AC quantity. Sinusoidal AC wave shapes are the
ones where the variation (current or voltage) is a sine function of time.

1
Here, Time period = T, Frequency f 
T
v(t )  Vm sin( 2f .t )

Effective value
The general equation of rms value of any function (voltage, current or any other physical quantity for which rms
calculation is meaningful) is given by the equation
T
1 2
T 0
V v dt .

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Now, for sinusoidal functions, using the above equation we get the rms value by dividing the peak value (Vm) by
square root of 2. That is
T
1
V 
T 0
(Vm sin( 2f .t )) 2 dt

2
1 Vm

2  (V
0
m sin  ) 2 d 
2
Im
Similarly, for currents, I  . These rms values can be used directly for power calculation. The formula for
2
T
1
average power is given by P avg   (vi)dt . And for sinusoids this leads to Pavg  VI cos( ) . Here, V and I
T0
are rms values and  is the phase angle between voltage wave and current wave. The phase angle is explained
in the next section.

Phase Angle

Phase difference between two ac sinusoidal waveforms is the difference in electrical angle between two
identical points of the two waves. In figure 2, the voltage and current equations are given as:
v  Vm Sin (2f .t )
i  I m Sin (2f .t   )

Impedance
For, ac circuit analysis, impedance plays the same role as resistance plays in dc circuit analysis. It, can be stated
fairly safely that, the concept of impedance is the most important thing, that makes the ac analysis, so much
popular to the engineers. As you will see in your latter courses, any other periodic forms of time varying
voltages or currents, are converted into an equivalent series consisting of sines and cosines (much like any
function can be expanded by the power series of the independent variable using the Taylor series), only because
the analysis of sinusoidal voltages are very much simple due to the impedance technique.
What is the impedance anyway? Putting it simply, it is just the ratio of rms voltage across the device to the rms
current through it. That is
V V
Z  m . Its unit is ohms.
I I m 

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List of Equipment:
1. Oscilloscope
2. Function generator (used as ac source)
3. Resistors : 1k, 220
4. Capacitor : 1f
5. Multimeter
6. AC ammeter
7. Switch
8. Breadboard

Circuit Diagram:

Procedure
1. Connect the output of the function generator directly to channel 1 of the oscilloscope as shown in figure 2.
Set the amplitude of the wave at 10v peak to peak and the frequency at 1kHz. Select sinusoidal wave shape.
2. Sketch the wave shape observed on the oscilloscope. Determine the time period of the wave and calculate
the frequency.
3. Measure the voltage with an ac voltmeter.
4. Change the frequency to 500Hz and note what happens to the display of the wave. Repeat when the
frequency is increased 2kHz.
5. Construct the circuit as shown figure 3. Measure the input voltage with multimeter with AC voltage mode
and the input current, with an ac ammeter. The ratio between the voltage to the current gives the magnitude
of the impedance Z.
6. Observe the wave shapes in channel 1 and 2 simultaneously. Find the frequency of both the waves (are they
equal to the supply frequency!) and their amplitude from the display. The phase different is given by
360 f .t degree, where ‘t’ is the time delay between the two waves. Note that the voltage in channel 2 is the
voltage across a resistance and hence this is in phase with the current flowing in the circuit.

Report
1. Compare the frequency of the wave determined from the oscilloscope in step 2 of the procedure with the
mentioned value on the function generator.
2. Calculate the rms value of the voltage observed in step 2 of the procedure and compare with that measured
in step 3.
3. How does the time period vary when the frequency of the wave is changed in step 4?
4. Calculate the magnitude of the impedance from the readings taken in step 5.
5. Find the magnitude and phase angle of the impedance from the readings taken in step 5 and 6.

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Green University of Bangladesh
Faculty of Science and Engineering
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Program: B.Sc. Engg. in CSE
Course Title: EEE 102 Introduction to Electrical Engineering Lab
Course Credit: 1.5
Laboratory Experiment Sheet
Course Teacher: Md. Aynal Hossain

Experiment #: 07
Experiment Name: Verification of KVL and KCL in AC Circuits

Objectives:
The objective of this experiment is to study RLC series and series parallel circuits when energized by an ac
source and to construct phasor diagrams. KVL and KCL in phasor form will also be verified.

Theory:
KVL: The algebraic sum of the potential rises and drops around a closed loop (or path) is zero. Expressed
mathematically, KVL states that

WhereM is the number of voltages in the loop (or the number of branches in the loop) and vm is the mth voltage.

Voltage Divider Rule: The Voltage Divider Rule can be given by

Vx = (Rx/Req) V

Where, V = voltage across / supplied to any series circuit


Req = equivalent resistance of the series circuit = ∑Ri
Rx = any particular resistor in the series circuit
Vx = voltage across Rx.
If, i = 3 then
∑Ri = R1+R2+R3

KCL:
KCL states that the sum of the currents entering any node equals the sum of the currents leaving the node.
∑Ientering = ∑Ileaving

The Current Divider Rule is given by


Ix = (Rp/Rx) I

Where, Rp is the equivalent resistance of a parallel circuit which is given by the following formula
Rp = (1/R1 +1/R2 +--------) -1

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List of Equipment:
1. Multimeter
2. Ac ammeter
3. Rheostat
4. Capacitor
5. Switches
6. Inductor
7. Breadboard

Circuit Diagram

Procedure
1. Construct the circuit as shown in Figure 1.
2. Measure the voltage VR , VL and VC and the current I with the help of ac meters.
3. Change the magnitude of R and C and repeat step 2.
4. Construct the circuit of Figure 2.
5. Measure the voltage VR, VL and VP and the currents I , I1 and I2.
6. Change the magnitude of R1 and C and repeat step 5.

Report
1. Determine the magnitude of circuit components (R, L, C) used in the experiment.
2. Comment on the relative magnitudes of I , I1 and I2 in the circuit of Figure 2.
3. Assuming the circuit elements to be ideal, draw the phasor diagram for both the circuits using the
experimental data. The diagrams should be drawn to scale on graph paper. Choose I as the reference for
figure 1 and I1 as the reference for figure 2.
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4. From the phasor diagrams, express the voltages and the currents as phasors and compare those with the
values calculated in step 1. Comment on the observed discrepancies between these.
5. Show that the voltage and the current phasors obtained for figure 1 and 2 satisfies KCL and KVL.

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Green University of Bangladesh
Faculty of Science and Engineering
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Program: B.Sc. Engg. in CSE
Course Title: EEE 102 Introduction to Electrical Engineering Lab
Course Credit: 1.5
Laboratory Experiment Sheet
Course Teacher: Md. Aynal Hossain

Experiment #: 08
Experiment Name: AC Power measurement using wattmeter

Objectives:
The objective of this experiment is to learn the use of wattmeter for measuring power in ac circuits.

List of Equipment:
1. Lamp board
2. Capacitor bank
3. Multimeter
4. AC ammeter
5. Wattmeter
6. switches

Circuit Diagram

Procedure
1. Connect the circuit in Figure 1 without the wattmeter. Measure V and I.
2. Connect the wattmeter as shown and measure the power W.
3. Put the potential coil of the wattmeter across the lamp-board. Measure the power W.
4. Repeat steps 2, 3 for a different combination of lamp and capacitance.
5. Connect the circuit in Fig. 2 without the wattmeter. Measure V, I, I1 , I2 and Vp.
6. Connect the wattmeter to measure the total power (W) into the circuit.

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7. Connect wattmeter to measure power consumption (W1 and W2 respectively) in the two parallel branches.

Report
1. Compare/relate the wattmeter readings (W and W or W, W1 and W2) for both circuits. Give your
comments.
2. Use your results to find out of individual circuit components and also the power factors of each circuit.
3. Compare the values of W obtained in step 8 with those obtained in step 2 and 6.

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