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Vector Control of an Induction Motor Fed by a PWM Inverter with Output LC Filter
Janne Salomäki and Jorma Luomi
Abstract — This paper introduces a control method for an induction motor that is supplied by a PWM voltage source inverter through an LC filter. A full-order observer is used to estimate the system states, and no additional voltage or current measurements are needed for the vector control of the motor. Simulation and experimental results are presented confirming the functionality of the proposed control method. Index Terms — Vector control, induction motor, LC filter, observer.
II. THEORY The principle of the control system is shown in Fig. 1. The inverter output voltage u A is filtered by an LC filter, and the induction motor (IM) is fed by the filtered voltage u s . The inverter current i A , the electrical angular speed ωm of the rotor, and the dc link voltage u dc are the only measured quantities, whereas the stator voltage u s and current i s of the motor are estimated by an observer (the estimated quantities being marked by ‘^’). The system is controlled by nested control loops in the rotor flux reference frame. A. Filter and Motor Models In a reference frame rotating at angular speed ω s , the equations for the LC filter are
HE voltage generated by a PWM frequency converter consists of sharp-edged voltage pulses. Sudden alteration of the voltage causes unwanted effects such as bearing currents and high voltage stresses in motor insulations. The oscillation at the switching frequency causes additional losses and acoustic noise. These phenomena can be eliminated by adding an LC filter to the output of the PWM inverter. In addition, the EMI shielding of the motor cable may be avoided if the output voltage of the inverter is nearly sinusoidal. The control of an induction motor becomes more difficult if an LC filter is used. Usually, a very simple scalar control method (volts-per-hertz control) is chosen. Although better control performance is needed in many cases, only few publications deal with the vector control of an induction motor fed via an LC filter. A deadbeat controller has been used to control the inductor current and the capacitor voltage , the highpass filtered stator voltage has been used to correct the voltage reference , and a multi-loop feedback controller has been proposed . In these methods, extra current or voltage measurements are needed in addition to the phase current and dc voltage measurements usual in a frequency converter. A challenge for the motor drive control design is to keep the number of measurements low in order to obtain cost savings and reliability improvements. In this paper, a method is presented for the vector control of an induction motor fed by an inverter with an output LC filter. A cascade control method is used to control the inverter current, the stator voltage, the stator current and the rotor speed. The system states are estimated by a full-order observer.
di A dt
= − jω s i A − du s dt
R Lf Lf
1 (u − u s ) Lf A
= − jω s u s +
1 (i − i ) Cf A s
where L f is the inductance and RLf the series resistance of the inductor, and C f is the capacitance of the filter. The motor control is based on the inverse-Γ model of the induction motor in the rotor flux reference frame. The stator and rotor voltage equations in this reference frame are
u s = Rs i s + 0 = RR i R + dψ dt
+ jω sψ
+ j (ω s − ω m )ψ
iA u A,ref
us Cf Observer
The authors are with Helsinki University of Technology, Power Electronics Laboratory, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-02015 HUT, Finland (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Fig. 1. Principle of the control system.
u s ,ref
i s ,ref
The motor control is based on vector control and forms two outermost loops of the cascade control. respectively. The state vector is x = [i A u s i s ψ R ]T . Complex signal flow diagram of the cascade control. respectively. a PI-type rotor flux controller is used. Based on (1)-(6).ref + jL′ s + + + + + + u A. and the two time constants are ′ ′ defined as τ σ = Ls /( Rs + RR ) and τ r = LM / RR . decoupling terms are used to compensate the cross-couplings caused by the rotating reference frame. and the rotor speed is governed by a PI-controller. Cascade Control Figure 2 illustrates the proposed cascade control of the system in the rotor flux reference frame. The stator and linkages are rotor flux and rotor ω m is the rotor flux (5) (6) ′ ψ s = ( Ls + LM ) i s + LM i R ψ R = LM (i s + i R ) means of a PI controller. Observability The observability of the system can be investigated using the observability matrix M o = [C C A C A 2 C A 3 ]T (9) B. 2.ref ωm. the state-space representation of the system can be written as shown in (7) and (8) at the bottom of this page. In the LC filter control. i R is the rotor current. and electrical angular speed of the rotor. the innermost control loop governs the inverter current i A by The system is observable if the rank of the observability matrix is equal to the number of states .ref + ψ R. respectively. C.ref + + + ˆ us i A.ref jC f jL f ωm ˆ is Motor Control ˆ ωs ˆ us LC Filter Control iA Fig. The observability was checked for various angular speeds of the rotor and the reference frame. where Ls denotes the stator transient inductance and LM is the magnetizing inductance. ′ respectively. indicating that the system is observable.ref isq . In both control loops. In addition. where ψ and ψ are the stator and s R linkages.ref + + u s . The stator current is controlled by a PI-type controller with cross-coupling compensation.030 2 ˆ ψR ˆ is isd . and the stator voltage u s is governed by a P-type controller in the next control loop. Rs and RR are the stator resistances. ⎡ Rlf − jω s ⎢− ⎢ Lf ⎢ 1 ⎢ Cf x=⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ 0 ⎢ ⎣ − 1 Lf − 0 1 Cf − jω s 1 ′ Ls 0 1 − − jω s ′ τσ RR A ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎡ 1 ⎥ ⎢L 0 ⎥ ⎢ f ⎥x + ⎢ 0 ⎞ ⎥ 1 ⎛ 1 ⎢ 0 ⎜ − jω m ⎟ ⎥ ⎜τ ⎟ ⎢ ′ Ls ⎝ r ⎠ ⎥ ⎢ 0 ⎣ 1 ⎥ − − j(ω s − ω m )⎥ B τr ⎦ 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥u A ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (7) i A = [1 0 0 0]x C (8) .
3 for the example values used in the next sections. hold the stability but are more complicated to implement. The observer gain vector K can be selected in many ways.05 to 0. the transfer function from the inverter current to its estimate can be written as Fig.2 0. in a reference frame where ψ = ψ R + j 0 . Full-Order Observer The most essential part of the control is a full-order observer. and interpolation between tabulated values is used during the operation.u.1 0 0. such as the backward Euler method or the bilinear transformation.1 0 −0. All poles stay in the left halfplane. By assuming that the estimated inverter current does not interact with the estimated stator voltage.030 15 Imaginary Axis (p. The bandwidths of the controllers were 500 Hz for the inverter current. s + R Lf L f + jω s + k1 s + k1 (12) .2 Imaginary Axis (p. 15 0.1 0 −0. 2) Simple constant gain: The observer becomes relatively simple when the real-valued gain K = [k1 0 0 0]T is selected. The sampling frequency of 5 kHz was equal to the switching frequency. indicating that the observer is stable.2 −0.u) (b) 0. The selection can be based on the pole placement method. The LC filter was designed to have a cutoff frequency of 566 Hz in order to meet a rule of thumb that the cutoff frequency should be about one decade below the switching frequency and one decade above the nominal fundamental frequency .u. Figure 4 illustrates the observer poles as the speed and the slip of the motor are varied.2-kW four-pole induction motor (400 V.: (a) pole plot and (b) its magnification in the neighborhood of the origin.05 p. SIMULATION RESULTS The behavior of the system was investigated by means of computer simulations with Matlab/Simulink software.1 Real Axis (p.2 Fig.e. as illustrated in Fig. and slip frequency changes from –0.u) Imaginary Axis (p. the assumption of ωr = 0 in the pole placement method does not cause stability problems.1 −0. Thus the gain k1 is approximately the bandwidth of the inverter current estimator. where the last approximation holds if k1 >> R Lf L f + jω s .1 −0. 250 Hz for the stator voltage.u) Imaginary Axis (p.u) 3 0.1 Real Axis (p. which is implemented in the estimated rotor flux referˆ ˆ ence frame. Observer poles obtained by pole placement as rotor speed changes from –1 to 1 p. this would increase the computing time of the processor dramatically.05 p. A simple symmetric Euler method has been found to be an effective and reliable discretization method in electromechanical simulations  and full-order flux observers .u) (b) 0.u) 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −15 −10 −5 0 5 10 15 Real Axis (p. as will be presented in the following. and it can be selected so that the estimator is at least twice as fast as the controller of the inverter current. the slip frequency affects only the imaginary parts of the observer poles. the pole placement should be carried out at every calculation step. 150 Hz for the ˆ i A (s) i A (s) = k1 k ≈ 1 . A practical solution is to use gain scheduling: the observer gain vector is calculated in advance as a function of the angular speed of the rotor. The fundamental-frequency voltage drop in the filter inductance was chosen to be less than 5 % of the nominal voltage in the nominal operating point . The filter parameters are also given in Table I. The poles also depend on the angular slip frequency ωr = ω s − ω m as the estimated rotor flux reference frame is used.2 −0. 4.u. given in Table I. However.05 to 0.u) (a) ˆ ˆ ˆ x = A x + Bu A + K (i A − i A ) (10) where estimated states are marked by the symbol ‘^’ and K = [k 1 k 2 k 3 k 4 ]T is the observer gain vector.2 ~ = ( A − KC)~ x x (11) In the pole placement method. i. 50 Hz). Observer poles obtained by constant gain as rotor speed changes from –1 to 1 p. Other alternatives. If the gains obtained for no-load operation are used.u) (a) 0. Therefore. The data of a 2. or a simple constant gain can be used. the poles of the estimation error dynamics are placed to desired locations. Because the system model is time variant.: (a) pole plot and (b) its magnification in the neighborhood of the origin.1 0 0. 1) Pole placement: The dynamics of the estimation error ~ = x − x are given by ˆ x −0. were used for the simulations. The digital implementation of the full-order observer based on the conventional forward Euler discretization causes instability at higher speeds.2 −0. The corresponding discretization of the full-order observer (10) is given in the Appendix.u. 3. R The observer is defined as 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −15 −10 −5 0 5 10 15 Real Axis (p.. III. and slip frequency changes from –0.2 D.
030 TABLE I PARAMETERS OF THE MOTOR AND THE LC FILTER Motor Parameters Stator resistance Rs Rotor resistance R R ′ Stator transient inductance Ls Magnetizing inductance LM Total moment of inertia J Rated speed nN Rated current I N Rated torque TN LC Filter Parameters Inductance L f Capacitance C f Series Resistance RLf 3. 5. 6. 500 Voltage (V) 0 -500 4. Figure 5 shows an example of simulated sequences. Freq. which explains a large part of the difference between the measured shaft torque and the electromagnetic torque reference during the accelerations.264 H 0. Experimental setup.2 times the inertia of the induction motor. and 3 Hz for the rotor flux. The results are in good agreement with the simulation results when the main flux saturation is taken into account. Measured shaft torque is used only for monitoring.) R 0. −2.62 4. and the torque behaves as expected.65 Ω 0. converter dSPACE Fig.67 4.02 p. and a deceleration ramp to standstill. nominal load torque steps at various speeds.6 10 5 0 -5 -10 4. The measured performance corresponds to the simulation results rather well.8) p.. the measured saturation characteristic of the magnetizing inductance was added to the observer and control. The rotor speed is in accordance with its reference. at which the main flux saturation has decreased because of the field weakening. ref was used in the observer and control instead of uA . converter LC filter IM PM servo Speed Torque Freq.9 µF 0.2-kW four-pole induction motor was fed by a frequency converter controlled by a dSPACE DS1103 PPC/DSP board. The total moment of inertia of the setup was 2.u. 7. The reference value of the inverter voltage u A.65 4.63 4..1 Ω ψ (p. Voltage and current waveforms from the simulation shown in Fig.6 4. The first subplot shows the inverter output voltage (phase-to-phase) and the stator voltage (phase-to-phase). The correspond- Fig. Therefore. A permanent magnet servo motor was used to provide load torque. 9.66 4.61 4. Control of induction motor (IM) is investigated.0209 H 0.1 ± 11.0 mH 9.66 4. 7.68 4.3-µF filter capacitors were used in delta connection.5 0 0 2 T/TN 4 ω (p.63 4.0155 kgm 2 1430 r/min 5. 10.61 4.64 Time (s) 4.7 p. Fig.9 µF. The 2.62 4. and permanent magnet (PM) servo motor is used as loading machine. The shaft torque was measured using a HBM T10F torque flange for monitoring purposes.5 0 0 2 4 t (s) 6 8 10 Current (A) stator current. The stator voltage and current are nearly sinusoidal. . The measured rotor speed was used as a feedback signal for the control.) m 2 4 6 8 10 1 0 0 1 2 4 6 8 10 8.u.u. The second subplot shows the inverter current and the stator current.67 Ω 1. Constant motor parameters were used in the observer and control. and –0. Three 3. The rotor flux linkage is reduced by 15 % at the highest speed because of field weakening. The voltage and current waveforms are illustrated in detail in Fig.0 A 14. The first subplot shows the rotor speed (solid) and its reference (dashed). the base value of the angular frequency being 2π ⋅ 50 rad/s . the electromagnetic torque reference is far too high in no-load operation at the highest speed. 5. and the measured voltage and current waveforms are illustrated in detail in Fig. 5. ing experimental results are shown in Fig. Figure 8 presents experimental results corresponding to the simulations shown in Fig. However.u. The poles of the observer were set to (–7. The third subplot shows the rotor flux linkage (solid) and its estimate (dashed). The second subplot shows the electromagnetic torque (solid) and its reference (dashed) normalized by the rated torque TN . Simulation results showing a sequence with speed and load changes. consisting of accelerations.6 Nm 1 0. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The experimental setup is illustrated in Fig.u.68 IV.64 4. The results show that the operation of the system is successful. The parameters of the experimental setup correspond to those given in Table I.65 4. 15 Hz for the rotor speed. 6.67 4. giving the per-phase capacitance value of 9.
154-159. Graz. or a constant gain can be used.5 0 0 2 4 t (s) 6 8 10 Fig. 9. 2002.07 0.u.” in Proc.06 0. Ejiogu.) m Fig. 71-78. 8. Fig.08 0. “Novel vector control system using deadbeat controlled PWM inverter with output LC filter.” in Conf. 2102-2109. 1. V. in Proc.04 Time (s) 0.u.6 Nm.) m 1 0. 8. Y.5 0 ψ (p. The observer gain can be selected by means of pole placement. Experimental results showing a sequence with speed and load changes as observer gain is obtained by pole placement and constant motor parameters are used in observer and control.u.01 0. Experimental results showing a sequence with speed and load changes as observer gain is obtained by pole placement and main flux saturation is taken into account. Seliga and W. Rec.05 0.5 T/TN 0 0 2 2 4 6 8 10 1 0 0 1 2 4 6 8 10 T/TN ψ (p.04 0. J. H. Simulation and     .5 0 0 2 2 4 6 8 10 ω (p.03 0. 11.05 0. The explanations of the curves are as in Fig. The performance is nearly equal to that of the more complicated observer. Emami-Naeini. D. IEEE/IAS Annu. Experimental result showing voltage and current waveforms as the rotation speed is 25 Hz and the load torque is 14. June 1994. The results are shown in Fig. The second subplot shows the inverter current and the stator current. G.u. and A. The first subplot shows the inverter output voltage (phase-to-phase) and the stator voltage (phase-to-phase). Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems. and T. Kawabata. the vector control of an induction motor can be based on nested control loops.u. pp. 1999. Hirabayashi. Portugal. Powell. K.” in Proc.06 0. 10. The explanations of the curves are as in Fig.) R 0 2 4 t (s) 6 8 10 0. “Fast and accurate symmetric Euler algorithm for electromechanical simulations. E. 4th ed.) R 1 0 0 1 2 4 6 8 10 0.5 0 0 2 T/TN 5 500 Voltage (V) 0 -500 0 10 Current (A) 5 0 -5 -10 0 0.03 0. Fig.02 0. Okamura. Koczara. experimental results show that the proposed control method operates correctly. 3. The system states can be estimated by a full-order observer. requiring only the measurements of inverter current. 2001. Upper Saddle River. Pittsburgh. PA. The third subplot shows the rotor flux reference (solid) and the estimated rotor flux (dashed). Nakano.02 0.C. Nabae.5 0 0 2 4 t (s) 6 8 10 ω (p. Austria. Electrimacs’99.01 0. The second subplot shows the measured shaft torque (solid) and the electromagnetic torque reference (dashed).) m 2 4 6 8 10 1 0 0 1 2 4 6 8 10 ψ (p.u. A.) R 0. R. “A novel control strategy of the inverter with sinusoidal voltage and current outputs. “Multiloop feedback control strategy in sinewave voltage inverter for an adjustable speed cage induction motor drive system”.F.. Aug.07 0. and rotor speed. Kawabata. Experiments were also carried out using an observer with a constant gain k1 = 2π ⋅ 1000 s −1 . 2002. Taiwan. 11. CONCLUSIONS When the inverter output voltage is filtered by an LC-filter. 1 0. NJ. The first subplot shows the rotor speed (solid) and its reference (dashed). Franklin. Experimental results showing a sequence with speed and load changes as the observer gain is constant. Lisboa. Taipei. The main flux saturation was taken into account in the observer and control. EPE 2001. 8. and Y. Kojima. Sept. REFERENCES  M. pp. Niiranen. vol. J.030 1 0. dc voltage. pp.08 ω (p. IEEE PESC’94. CD-ROM. Meeting. vol. Prentice Hall. Oct.
3. Y.   ⎡ R Lf ⎤ 1 1 ~ ~ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ i Ad (n + 1) = i Ad ( n) + Ts ⎢− i Ad (n) + ω s (n)i Aq (n) − u sd ( n) + u Ad (n) + k1d iAd (n) − k1q iAq (n) ⎥ Lf Lf ⎢ Lf ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ R Lf ⎤ 1 1 ~ ~ ˆAq (n + 1) = i Aq (n) + T s ⎢ − ˆ ˆAq (n) − ω s (n)i Ad ( n + 1) − ˆ ˆ ˆ i i u sq (n) + u Aq ( n) + k1q iAd (n) + k1d iAq ( n) ⎥ Lf Lf ⎢ Lf ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 ⎤ 1 ˆ ~ ~ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ u sd ( n + 1) = u sd (n) + Ts ⎢ i Ad (n + 1) + ω s (n)u sq ( n) − i sd (n ) + k 2 d i Ad ( n) − k 2 q i Aq ( n)⎥ Cf ⎢C f ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 1 ⎤ 1 ˆ ~ ~ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ u sq (n + 1) = u sq (n) + Ts ⎢ i Aq (n + 1) − ω s ( n)u sd (n + 1) − i sq (n) + k 2 q i Ad ( n) + k 2 d i Aq (n )⎥ Cf ⎢C f ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (13a) (13b) (13c) (13d) ⎡ 1 ⎤ 1 ˆ 1 ~ ~ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ i sd (n + 1) = i sd (n) + Ts ⎢ u sd ( n + 1) − i sd (n) + ω s (n)i sq ( n) + ψ R ( n) + k 3d iAd (n) − k 3q iAq ( n)⎥ ′ ′ ′ τσ L sτ r ⎣ Ls ⎦ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ω ( n) 1 ˆ ~ ~ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ i sq (n + 1) = i sq (n) + Ts ⎢ u sq (n + 1) − i (n) − ω s ( n)i sd (n + 1) − m ψ R ( n) + k 3q i Ad (n) + k 3d i Aq (n)⎥ ′ ′ sq ′ Ls τσ Ls ⎣ ⎦ ˆ ˆ ψ R ( n + 1) = ψ R (n) + T s ⎢ R R iˆsd (n + 1) − ⎣ ⎡ 1 (13e) (13f) τr ˆ ψ R (n) + k 4 d iAd ( n) − k 4 q iAq (n)⎥ ⎦ ~ ~ ⎤ (13g) ˆ ω s (n + 1) = ~ ~ ˆ i sq (n + 1) R R + k 4 q i Ad ( n) + k 4 d i Aq (n) ˆ ψ R ( n + 1) + ω m (n) (13h) . “Use of a LC filter to achieve a motor friendly performance of the PWM voltage source inverter. and G. pp. 39. Xiyou. July/Aug. Bin.” in Proc. and P. Steinke. Sevilla. pp. Nov. WI. May 1997.” IEEE Trans. “Parameter sensitivity of full-order flux observers for induction motors. IEEE IEMDC’97.030  M. vol. Pohjalainen. Spain.” in Proc. Yu. vol. The discretized observer is given below in (13). 1. Applicat.1TA2/4. Milwaukee. pp. IEEE IECON'02. C. “The engineering design and the optimization of inverter output RLC filter in AC motor drive system. 175-180. Stulz. Ind. 2002. In contrast to the forward Euler method. Hinkkanen and J. 2003. Luomi. the new state values are used when available. C. 1127-1135 J. 6 APPENDIX DIGITAL IMPLEMENTATION The full-order observer (10) is discretized using the symmetric Euler method . where the sample time is denoted by Ts . TA2/4.
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