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ISSN: 1646-9895

Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação


Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies

J u l h o 1 6 • J u l y 1 6

©AISTI 2016 http://www.aisti.eu Nº E5


Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies

Edição / Edition
Nº. E5, 07/2016

ISSN: 1646-9895

Indexação / Indexing
Academic Journals Database, CiteFactor, Dialnet, DOAJ, DOI, EBSCO, EI-Compendex,
GALE, IndexCopernicus, Index of Information Systems Journals, Latindex, ProQuest,
QUALIS, SCImago, SCOPUS, SIS, Ulrich’s.

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AISTI – Associação Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação
Rua Quinta do Roseiral 76, 4435-209 Rio Tinto, Portugal
E-mail: aistic@gmail.com
Web: http://www.risti.xyz

RISTI, N.º E5, 07/2016 i


Ficha Técnica

Director
Álvaro Rocha, Universidade de Coimbra, PT

Coordenadores da Edição / Issue Coordinators


Ning Zhang, Renmin University of China, Beijing, CN
Álvaro Rocha, Universidade de Coimbra, PT

Conselho Editorial / Editorial Board


Carlos Ferrás Sexto, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, ES
Gonçalo Paiva Dias, Universidade de Aveiro, PT
Jose Antonio Calvo-Manzano Villalón, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ES
Luís Paulo Reis, Universidade do Minho, PT
Manuel Pérez Cota, Universidad de Vigo, ES
Ramiro Gonçalves, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, PT

Conselho Científico / Scientific Board


Adolfo Lozano-Tello, Universidad de Extremadura, ES
Adrián Hiebra Pardo, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, ES
Adriano Pasqualotti, Universidade de Passo Fundo, BR
Alberto Fernández, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, ES
Alberto Bugarín, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, ES
Alejandro Medina, Universidad Politécnica de Chiapas, MX
Alejandro Rodríguez González, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ES
Alejandro Peña, Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia, CO
Alexandre L’Erario, Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, BR
Alma María Gómez-Rodríguez, Universidad de Vigo, ES
Álvaro E. Prieto, Universidad de Extremadura, ES
Ana Azevedo, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, PT
Ana Cristina Ramada Paiva, FEUP, Universidade do Porto, PT
Ana Isabel Veloso, Universidade de Aveiro, PT
Ana Maria Correia, ISEGI, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, PT
Anabela Mesquita, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, PT

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Angelica Caro, Universidad del Bío-Bío, CL
Ania Cravero, Universidad de La Frontera, CL
Antoni Lluís Mesquida Calafat, Universitat de les Illes Balears, ES
Antonia Mas Pichaco, Universitat de les Illes Balears, ES 
António Coelho, FEUP, Universidade do Porto, PT
António Godinho, ISLA-Gaia, PT
Antonio Jesus Garcia Loureiro, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, ES
António Pereira, Instituto Politécnico de Leiria, PT
Armando Mendes, Universidade dos Açores, PT
Arnaldo Martins, Universidade de Aveiro, PT
Arturo J. Méndez, Universidad de Vigo, ES
Baltasar García Pérez-Schofield, Universidad de Vigo, ES
Benjamim Fonseca, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, PT
Bráulio Alturas, ISCTE - Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, PT
Brenda L. Flores-Rios, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, MX
Brígida Mónica Faria, ESTSP, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, PT
Carlos Costa, Universidade de Aveiro, PT
Carlos Rabadão, Instituto Politécnico de Leiria, PT
Carlos Carreto, Instituto Politécnico da Guarda, PT
Carlos Morais, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, PT
Carlos Vaz de Carvalho, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, PT
Carmen Galvez, Universidad de Granada, ES
César Gonçalves, Universidade do Algarve, PT
Ciro Martins, Universidade de Aveiro, PT
Cristina Alcaraz, Universidad de Málaga, ES
Daniel Castro Silva, Universidade de Coimbra, PT
Daniel Polónia, Universidade de Aveiro, PT
Daniel Riesco, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, AR
David Fonseca, Universitat Ramon Llull, ES
David Ramos Valcarcel, Universidad de Vigo, ES
Dora Simões, Universidade de Aveiro, PT
Eduardo Sánchez Vila, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, ES
Emiliano Reynares, CIDISI - UTN FRSF - CONICET, AR
Enric Mor, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, ES

RISTI, N.º E5, 07/2016 iii


Eusébio Ferreira da Costa, Escola Superior de Tecnologias de Fafe, PT
Feliz Gouveia, Universidade Fernando Pessoa, PT
Fernando Bandeira, Universidade Fernando Pessoa, PT
Fernando Diaz, Universidad de Valladolid, ES
Fernando Moreira, Universidade Portucalense, PT
Francisco Restivo, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, PT
Gerardo Gonzalez Filgueira, Universidad da Coruña, ES
Gerardo Rodriguez, Universidad de Salamanca, ES
Germano Montejano, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, AR
Guilhermina Lobato Miranda, Universidade de Lisboa, PT
Hélder Zagalo, Universidade de Aveiro, PT
Hélia Guerra, Universidade dos Açores, PT
Henrique Gil, Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco, PT
Henrique Santos, Universidade do Minho, PT
Higino Ramos, Universidad de Salamanca, ES
Hugo Paredes, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, PT
Isabel Pedrosa, Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, PT
Isaura Ribeiro, Universidade dos Açores, PT
Isidro Calvo, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), ES
Ismael Etxeberria-Agiriano, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), ES 
Ivan Garcia, Universidad Tecnologica de la Mixteca, MX
Javier Garcia Tobio, CESGA-Centro de Supercomputacion de Galicia, ES
Jezreel  Mejia, Centro de Investigación en Matemática (CIMAT), MX
João Pascual Faria, FEUP, Universidade do Porto, PT
João Paulo Costa, Universidade de Coimbra, PT
João Tavares, FEUP, Universidade do Porto, PT
Joaquim José Gonçalves, Instituto Politécnico do Cávado e do Ave, PT
Joaquim Madeira, Universidade de Aveiro, PT
Joaquim Reis, ISCTE - Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, PT
Jörg Thomaschewski, University of Applied Sciences OOW - Emden, DE
Jose Alfonso Aguilar, Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa, MX
José Augusto Fabri, Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, BR
José Braga de Vasconcelos, Universidade Atlântica, PT
José Cascalho, Universidade dos Açores, PT

iv RISTI, N.º E5, 07/2016


José Felipe Cocón Juárez, Universidad Autónoma del Carmen, MX
Jose J. Pazos-Arias, Universidad de Vigo, ES
José Luís Silva, Universidade da Madeira, PT
José Paulo Lousado, Instituto Politécnico de Viseu, PT
José Luis Pestrana Brincones, Universidad de Málaga
José Luís Reis, ISMAI - Instituto Superior da Maia, PT
Jose M Molina, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, ES
Jose Maria Zavala Perez, Eticas Research & Consulting, ES
José Martins, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, PT
Jose Maria de Fuentes, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, ES
Jose R. R. Viqueira, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, ES 
José Silvestre Silva, Academia Militar, PT
Josep M. Marco-Simó, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, ES
Juan D’Amato, PLADEMA-UNCPBA-CONICET, AR
Juan M. Santos Gago, Universidad de Vigo, ES
Juan Manuel Fernández-Luna, Universidad de Granada, ES
Juan-Manuel Lopez-Zafra, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, ES
Leonardo Bermon, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, CO
Leila Weitzel, Universidade Federal Fluminense, BR
Lilia Muñoz, Universidad Tecnológica de Panamá, PA
Luis Alvarez Sabucedo, Universidad de Vigo, ES
Luís Correia, Universidade de Lisboa, PT
Luis de Campos, Universidad de Granada, ES
Luis Enrique, Sicaman Nuevas Tecnologías S.L., ES
Luis Fernandez-Sanz, Universidad de Alcalá, ES
Luís Ferreira, Instituto Politécnico do Cávado e do Ave, PT
Luis Vilán-Crespo, Universidad de Vigo, ES
Luisa María Romero-Moreno, Universidad de Sevilla, ES
Luisa Miranda, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, PT
Lus Sussy Bayona Ore, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, PE
Magdalena Arcilla Cobián, Universidade Nacional de Educación a Distancia, ES
Manuel Jose Fernandez Iglesias, Universidad de Vigo, ES
Marcelo Mendonça Teixeira, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, BR
Marco Painho, ISEGI, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, PT

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Maria Hallo, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, EC
María J. Lado, Universidad de Vigo, ES
Maria João Castro, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, PT
Maria João Ferreira, Universidade Portucalense, PT
Maria João Gomes, Universidade do Minho, PT
Maria José Angélico, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, PT
Maria José Marcelino, Universidade de Coimbra, PT
Maria José Sousa, Universidade Europeia, PT
Marisol B. Correia, Universidade do Algarve, PT
Maristela Holanda, Universidade de Brasília, BR
Martín Llamas Nistal, Universidad de Vigo, ES
Matías García Rivera, Universidad de Vigo, ES
Mercedes Ruiz, Universidad de Cádiz, ES
Miguel A. Brito, Universidade do Minho, PT
Miguel Bugalho, Universidade Europeia, PT
Miguel Casquilho, IST, Universidade de Lisboa, PT
Mirna Ariadna Muñoz Mata, Centro de Investigación en Matemáticas (CIMAT), MX
Nelson Rocha, Universidade de Aveiro, PT
Nuno Lau, Universidade de Aveiro, PT
Nuno Ribeiro, Universidade Fernando Pessoa, PT
Orlando Belo, Universidade do Minho, PT
Oscar Mealha, Universidade de Aveiro, PT
Paula Peres, Instituto Politécnico do Porto
Paula Prata, Universidade da Beira Interior, PT
Paulo Martins, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, PT
Paulo Pinto, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, PT
Pedro Abreu, Universidade de Coimbra, PT
Pedro Miguel Moreira, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, PT
Pedro Nogueira Ramos, ISCTE - Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, PT
Pedro Sánchez Palma, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, ES
Pedro Sanz Angulo, Universidad de Valladolid, ES
Pilar Mareca Lopez, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ES
Raul Laureano, ISCTE - Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, PT
Renata Spolon Lobato, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, BR

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Reinaldo Bianchi, Centro Universitário da FEI, BR
Rita Santos, Universidade de Aveiro, PT
Roberto Rodrígues Echeverría, Universidad de extremadura, ES
Rodolfo Miranda Barros, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, BR
Rogério Eduardo Garcia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, BR
Rubén González Crespo, Universidad Internacional de La Rioja, ES
Rui Cruz, IST, Universidade de Lisboa, PT
Rui José, Universidade do Minho, PT
Rui Pedro Marques, Universidade de Aveiro, PT
Santiago Gonzales Sánchez, Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, PE
Sergio Gálvez Rojas, Universidad de Málaga, ES
Sérgio Guerreiro, Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, PT
Silvia Fernandes, Universidade do Algarve, PT
Solange N Alves de Souza, Universidade de São Paulo, BR
Tomás San Feliu Gilabert, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ES
Valéria Farinazzo Martins, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, BR
Victor Hugo Medina Garcia, Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, CO
Vitor Carvalho, Instituto Politécnico do Cávado e do Ave, PT
Vitor Santos, ISEGI, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, PT
Wagner Tanaka Botelho, Universidade Federal do ABC, BR
Xose A. Vila, Universidad de Vigo, ES

RISTI, N.º E5, 07/2016 vii


Editorial

Information Technology Drives Innovation in Service

Ning Zhang*

* zhangninruc@163.com

Renmin University of China, Beijing, China


ix

Technological innovation presents a diversified development trend, with the integration


of information technology services and industries, cloud computing, big data and other
new models has been recognized by more and more users. Information technology
services companies face the pressure of transformation and upgrading, business model
change is underway.
Information technology services industry as an important part of the IT industry, it can
provide digital platform development, business data storage and processing, system
design and consulting services, and will promote productivity and economic growth.
Thus, the RISTI (Revista Iberica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informacao) presents
actual papers on main topics of journal specialization to address and focus new innovative
in information technologies. The Vol. 2016, No. E5, has selected 40 extended articles
presented at the panel discussion on Information Technology Innovation and Computer
Engineering in July 2015 in Beijing China, which aims to more deep insights about the
development of “Information Technology Drives Innovation in Service”.
We gratefully appreciate the authors for their scholarly contributions, and all the
included contents were anonymously reviewed by distinguished experts to maintain
academic excellence and integrity. We assure our readers that RISTI (Revista Iberica
de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informacao) will serve as a key exchange platform for
publications in information science & technology field. The authors and readers can
count on the journal.

RISTI, N.º E5, 07/2016 ix


Índice / Index

EDITORIAL
Information Technology Drives Innovation in Service �������������������������������������������������� ix
Ning Zhang

ARTIGOS / ARTICLES
Research on Influence Factors of New Rural Sports Culture Development
Based on Data Mining Technology������������������������������������������������������������������������������������1
Huasheng Huang, Xiaojun Wu, Ganchen Tao, Ying Zhang, Yuefeng Wang, Xiaodong Long
Influence of Corporate Equity Incentive and CSR on Firm Performance:
an Empirical Analysis based on Large-scale Data Mining����������������������������������������������13
Ming Li, Zhenxiang Chen
Study on the Image Supporting System and Propagation Mechanism
of Rural Tourism Destination......................................................................................... 26
Li Long, Song Hui
Countermeasures and Support Environment for the Development of the
Non-governmental Economy in Suzhou, China..............................................................37
TianXueying, NiePanke
Effectiveness of College Counselors’ Work and Ideological
Education Based on Multimedia Platform..................................................................... 50
Pingqian Guo, Yafeng Zhang
The Influence of Strategic HRM on Enterprise Performance based on
Online Survey and Data Mining.......................................................................................61
Shuxia Wang
Asymmetric Effect of Energy prices on Energy Saving and
Emission Reduction based on Dynamic panel GMM Test.............................................. 71
Hua Peng
BIRCH Algorithm and Data Mining Application in Construction of Financial
Enterprise Management Team based on “Internet Plus” Background ......................... 84
Chenglin Xiao, Weili Xia
Urbanization Moderate scale Management of Land and Grain
Production based on Evolutionary Algorithm ................................................................95
Tao Zhai, Yadong Fan
E-course of College Badminton Curriculum Based on Multimedia Platform:
an Experiential Teaching Method..................................................................................106
Hong Zhang

x RISTI, N.º E5, 07/2016


Research on Badminton Footwork Training and Teaching Effect based on
Computer Aided Information Processing...................................................................... 115
Chao Chen
Study on the Cooperation of Hotels and Online Self-service Travel Business
based on Information Technology.................................................................................125
Xiaolong He, Xiaomei Zhang, Fangyuan Liu
Prediction and Simulation on the Consumers Purchase Intention of
Rice based on System Dynamics Modeling...................................................................136
Shengde Hu, Haoning Wu, Yuqiu Cai
Research on Evaluation Index System of Tourism Competitiveness
based on Tourism E-business Platform ........................................................................146
Wu Ling, Li Long
Research on Sports Tourism Resources Value and Promotion with Skating
and Skiing based on Data Mining Method....................................................................158
Xianfeng Zha, Xiaomei Zhang
Design of Forest Tourism Resources Evaluation System based on GIS........................171
Chuanming Yang, Xiaomei Zhang
Research on the Fluctuation of RMB Exchange Rate based on Data
Mining Method...............................................................................................................182
Ying Ye, Yirong Ying
Study on Wireless Data Transmission System based on GPRS and ARM .................. 195
Mingyu Zhang, Yuling Wang, ShuLan Gong
Research on the Appraisal Index System of Real Estate based on BP
Neural Network............................................................................................................. 207
Jia Liu, Xiaode Zuo, Mingjian Xu
Empirical Analysis on the Efficiency of Financial Governance based on
Computer-aided Data Mining ....................................................................................... 217
Chao Ma
Research on Fuzzy PID Control Strategy for Brushless Direct Current Motor ............227
Lili Jing, Hua Ge, Yang Nie
Research on the Mobile Internet Fragmentation Economic based on
Support Vector Machine ............................................................................................... 238
Hong Jiang, Hong Zhao
Research on Teaching Evaluation of College Physical Education Based on
Data Mining and Network Survey................................................................................. 249
Zhengdao Lu, Yibo Zhao
Research on the Competency Model of Innovative Entrepreneurial Team
based on Network Information Data Mining Technology............................................ 260
Jia Liu

RISTI, N.º E5, 07/2016 xi


Study on the Coordinated Control System of Urban Traffic Trunk Line
based on Particle Swarm Optimization..........................................................................273
Chengtao Cao, Feng Cui, Lunhui Xu
Extraction Process Optimization of Total Flavones from Moriga Oleifera
Leaves Based on Computer-aided Response Surface Method..................................... 287
Yi Zheng, Bin Wu, Jianmei Deng, Shaojuan Jiang
Technology Innovation and Manufacturing Upgrading Drive Mechanism
based on Internet Plus................................................................................................... 299
Feng Ji, Ting Zhang, Fan Wu, Bangjun Wang
Supply Chain Risk Assessment based on Support Vector Machine .............................310
Wei Cao, Xi Zhang
An Improved K-means Algorithm Application in Distributed Data Mining
and Information Technology......................................................................................... 323
Jianhu Gong
Research on the Formation and Development Mechanism of Brand Loyalty
based on Social Media .................................................................................................. 334
Hongxin Li
Research on Social Support System of Peasant Workers’ Citizenship
based on Data Mining Theory ......................................................................................347
Ji Liu, Xiaomei Zhang , Zhilin Suo
Research on the E-business Enterprise Employee Occupation Commitment
and Career happiness based on Network Survey ......................................................... 360
Shuliang Lv, Tiange Duan, Lanying Du
The Influence of Rural Financial Development on Urban-rural Income
Gap based on Data Mining Method...............................................................................374
Qiwen Zhang, Weiwei Lu, Jinyuan Wang
Simulation of Influencing Factors in Internet-Enabled Transformation
Performance of Traditional Enterprise Based on System Dynamics ..........................387
Feng Ji, Ting Zhang, Fan Wu, YuPeng Mou
Design of Injection Mold for Automobile Grille Based on
Computer-aided CAD Technology ..............................................................................400
Jinlian Wang
Research on Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on Support
Vector Machine...............................................................................................................413
Shusen Li, Qingchun Zhang, Xin Shang, Bin-bin zhang
Research on Public Management Efficiency Improvement Method based on
Parallel Database Oriented Optimization Management Information System..............425
Yingjun Han, Rui Sun

xii RISTI, N.º E5, 07/2016


Adjustment and Application of Ground Motion Input in Temporal
Analysis of Structure Aseismic .....................................................................................437
Changhao Zhang, Jianhu Feng, Xuntao Wang
Design and Development of a Dynamic Wearable Computer Device Platform ...........447
Zhouping Yin
Design and Implementation of Communication System Based on
Android Platform .......................................................................................................... 459
Mingming Chen, Hong Tang, Yuzhi Chen, Ning Wang

RISTI, N.º E5, 07/2016 xiii


Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação Recebido/Submission: 01/03/2016
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

Research on Influence Factors of New Rural Sports


Culture Development Based on Data Mining Technology

Huasheng Huang1, Xiaojun Wu1, Ganchen Tao2, Ying Zhang2, Yuefeng Wang2,
Xiaodong Long2,*

Long Xiaodong,*171761779@qq.com

1
Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning, Guangxi, China
2
P.E. Department, Jinggangshan University, Ji’an Jiangxi, China
Pages: 1–12

Abstract: With the advent of the information age, the Internet and people’s
production and life are increasingly inseparable. In this paper, we analyze network
culture construction in rural areas, and find out that development of network
culture has accelerated the economic development in rural areas, also brought new
vitality to the new countryside. At the same time, by using data mining method the
results show that factors of the impact of Jiangxi new countryside sports culture
development as government behavior influence factor, economic impact factor,
sports industry investment influence factor, rural influence of peasants’ sports,
environmental impact factor and social influence factor. So that, the government
should fully implement the new rural business information service system
construction, enrich the cultural life of rural sport.
Keywords: Information network, data mining, new countryside, sports culture,
E-commerce platform, rural economy

1. Introduction
With the advent of the information age, the Internet and people’s production and life are
increasingly inseparable, has penetrated all levels and in all industries. In recent years,
the Internet in China has been rapid development, according to the CNNIC released
the 27th China Internet development statistics report shows, the country rural reached
1.86 billion, accounted for 27.9% of the overall Internet users, an increase of 16.9%. At
present, China’s efforts to solve the “three rural issues”, promoting the development of
rural economy, promoting the construction of new countryside, the next period of time
will emerge more farmers in the internet(Lastra, 2015). Network culture is changing
the mode of economic growth in rural areas, rural spontaneous a typical representative
of the application of information technology completely changed the fate of peasants
and farmers through the spontaneous use of market of electronic commerce transaction
platform, direct docking market demand, drive the development of manufacturing in
rural areas and other supporting industries, promote the upgrading of rural industrial
structure and economic development (Abreu, 2015; Azadi, 2014). We are in the era of
information explosion, the rapid development of Internet makes network culture in rural

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Research on Influence Factors of New Rural Sports Culture Development Based on Data Mining Technology

areas into the remote mountain village, into the life of the peasants, is making efforts to
change rural for thousands of years, urban and rural information unequal status, rural
network culture has become a rural information window, has also become a bridge for the
development of rural economy. Network culture is due to the application of computers
and the development of the Internet and the rise of a new cultural style. Network uses,
content as well as the network and the human society associated with the occurrence and
the physical and nonphysical to the rule of people’s thoughts, values, norms of behavior,
and way of life reshape together constitutes the network culture (Sok,2015).
The new countryside is a concept peculiar to China, the new rural sports culture is all
related with sports culture in the sum of China’s socialist system under. The central
government issued the CPC Central Committee on deepening reform of cultural system
to promote socialist cultural development and prosperity of a number of major issues,
Jiangxi Province issued 2013-2015 cultural reform and development plan, the Jiangxi
provincial government issued the Jiangxi provincial people’s Government on speeding up
some policies and measures, cultural and creative industries at the same time pointed out:
first from the cultural infrastructure construction, the development of cultural industry,
cultural system reform and innovation, cultural talent team construction, security and
other aspects of policy measures to clear our province cultural development strategy;
secondly put forward to explore Jiangxi cultural heritage, promote the prosperity of
cultural industries ideas, put forward the protection and development of local cultural
heritage. Jiangxi is located in the south of China, elegant living environment, but the
economy is relatively backward, resulting in new rural sports culture in general is
relatively backward. How to accelerate the new rural sports culture, optimization and
development is the urgent problem, for in the countryside comprehensive construction
of a well-off society in an all-round way, optimize regional economic structure, promote
regional economic growth, strengthen the construction of spiritual civilization is of
great practical significance (Yazdanpanah, 2015; Urrea-Hernandez, 2015). At the same
time to implement the central Jiangxi Province and relevant documents, sound and
fast promote the cultural development of new rural sports, accelerated growth of sports
population in rural areas, promote the health of the peasant, improve the farmer quality,
rich farmers in the sports and cultural life has great practical significance.

2. Data mining and the rural information network


2.1. Data mining
Data mining is an important part of knowledge discovery. It is found that the data mining
is done through the establishment of the mining model and the corresponding algorithm
(Vachon, 2006; Jabbour, 2014). Nowadays, many kinds of models and algorithms of
association rules, classification, clustering, and decision tree and so on are provided in
order to select and use. Sampling is a classical statistical technique, has been studied
for over a hundred years of history, especially the random sampling technique, there
are many basic principles, and describes the effectiveness of random sampling. In the
field of data management, a small part of a subset of data sampling can capture the basic
features of the data through extraction to represent the total data set, and according to
the sample set to obtain approximate query results, or based on the data mining of the
sample set. Figure 1 is a representative sampling method of classification in data mining.

2 RISTI, N.º E5, 07/2016


RISTI - Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação

The probability is selected according to the data items are the same, the sampling method
can be divided into uniform sampling and sampling bias.

Figure 1 – The data mining process and influence


As the name suggests, in the uniform sampling each data item in the same probability
of being selected in the sampling bias, selected probability of different elements may be
different. Structure Lattice is often used to enumerate all possible itemsets, in general, a
data set containing d different items may produce R rule, R can be expressed as follows:
d −1 
 d  d −k  d − k 
R =∑   × ∑  d d +1
  =3 − 2 + 1 (1)
= k 1= k
  j 1  j 
Apriori algorithm is mining association rules is an important method, by using the
candidate item sets to find frequent item set. If the set {x, y} satisfy “support” conditions,
then each element in the collection should also occur frequently. The composition of the
set can be represented by a tree, as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2 – Itemsets transcendental principle

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Research on Influence Factors of New Rural Sports Culture Development Based on Data Mining Technology

Assume itemsets is non-frequent, this kind of pruning index search space based on the
support measure is called the support degree based pruning technology, as shown in
Figure 3

Figure 3 – Support-Based Pruning

2.2. The construction of rural information network


The foundation of rural informatization construction is the construction of information
infrastructure. The network infrastructure of rural informatization is based on the basic
conditions and guarantees the implementation of rural informatization, rural information
network is an important tool to realize rural informatization. Rural information network
coverage is the most basic problem that must be solved in the development of village
information. Governments at all levels should be on the existing basis, to further increase
investment, and strengthen the construction of rural infrastructure, vigorously carry out
and promote the application of various network technologies (Michelsen,2006). The
construction of the rural information infrastructure because of small scale, decentralized
investment, the central and provincial governments to direct operation, need to rely on
local government and grass-roots organizations to implement(Asudi, 2015).
1. Network culture can effectively promote rural labor productivity: the development
of the Internet makes the world smaller; the Internet will become an important
engine for leading the development of rural economy. Especially the advanced
productivity and business model represented by electronic commerce, provides a
new direction for solving the “three rural issues”. Farmers through the Internet,
learning to advanced farming technology, can learn a variety of science and
technology to become rich valuable experience, can accurately and timely know
the city unit recruitment information, farmers can directly on the net release of
agricultural products sales information, can effectively reduce the circulation link,
reduce costs, increase revenue (Vande ,2015).

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2. Rural network culture constructions are an important platform to improve the


quality of farmers: at present, the degree of rural areas is still very low. network
cultural construction in rural areas can not only provide intellectual support and
spiritual impetus for the development of rural economy, the more important is
to be able to provide a successor force of an endless supply of the in-depth reform
of the rural. Only to strengthen the network of cultural construction in rural
areas to establish a new socialist culture, so that the overall level of civilization
construction in rural areas have a larger increase, to further accelerate China’s
rural modernization.
3. The development of network culture to change the psychological status of farmers
have great effect: from peasant” variable, especially after 80 some no longer
rely on farming for a living, a new generation of farmers in their psychological
change farmer vulnerable shadow. These new generation of farmers learned to
surf the Internet directly from the Internet learn a lot of useful knowledge, in
living habits is already standard of urban people, from their minds the “farmers”
burden completely get rid of, this is probably network culture construction in
rural area of rural economic development the most practical significance:
network information into the countryside, the farmers do not envy city people,
can feel at ease to building a new socialist countryside.

3. The research object and methods


3.1. Research objects
Expert questionnaire survey of national sports culture of 16 experts and leaders;
Jiangxi province six city (Ji’an City, Ganzhou City, Nanchang, Jiujiang and Pingxiang
City and Fuzhou City) as 223 experts, the relevant leaders and rural farmers
were questionnaire.

3.2. Main research methods


•• Literature: topic as much as possible full access to domestic and foreign
research literature, the absorption and digestion of the achievements of the
relevant literature, understand the theory of the frontier and progress, especially
by foreign scholars use the theory and method, drawing on existing research
results and research methods, the theoretical framework and hypotheses are
proposed and measurement for the empirical study in this paper the concept of
looking for a useful reference.
•• Comparative analysis: comparison of human understanding, and to
determine the relation between the differences between things, and reveal the
most common way of thinking of the nature of things.
•• Expert interviews: interviews is the main conception of this study are
validated and the further adjustment, and as a measure of the conceptual model
and research the variable table and draw lessons from the experience of experts
and relevant personnel, for the index of validity of the guarantee to determine
the specific content.
•• Questionnaire: questionnaire survey is an important method for the research
of this study, through the discussion on the structure of the empirical study on

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Research on Influence Factors of New Rural Sports Culture Development Based on Data Mining Technology

variable indicators measuring scale and in formal empirical research by larger


scale questionnaire validation study ideas and research hypothesis.
•• Mathematical statistics: mainly used to determine the value of the collected
data, verify the hypothesis. According to the aim of the study, this study using
several statistical analysis methods of the questionnaire survey to collect data
processing, examine the various concepts of measurement scale and verify
hypotheses proposed in the research model. This research mainly adopts two
kinds of statistical analysis tools of SPSS16.0 software and EXCELL statistical
package for the social sciences.
•• Logical reasoning: by using comparison, deduction, induction, analysis,
reasoning, logical analysis of the results, draw conclusions from.

4. Results
4.1. The impact factors of rural sports culture
Article employ 16 experts or leadership questionnaire, 32 Factors Affecting factors issues
to statistical factor analysis, Jiangxi cultural factors affecting rural sports factor collation,
analysis and classification. Based on the KMO value and Bach Wright shows: KMO =
0.832; Bach Wright test value X2=146.639, P=0.000<0.01; there was a significant
difference in the factor analysis model of data for statistics. Table 1 results show that
remove “Kaiser” eigenvalues greater than 2 common factors, a total of six common main
factor, followed by the contribution rate as 18.387%, 15.480%, 12.859%, 11.411%, 9.488%,
7.457%; cumulative contribution rate =75.082%>70%. Due to the construction of rural
sports culture elements is extremely complex, there are a large number of elements
without development and dig out, according to the statistical significance, can reflect the
overall amount of information.

Initial Eigenvalues Rotation Sums of Squared


Component Loadings
Total Variance Cumulative % Total Variance Cumulative %
F1 5.884 18.387 18.387 4.595 14.361 14.361
F2 4.953 15.480 33.867 4.419 13.808 28.169
F3 4.115 12.859 46.726 4.263 13.323 41.492
F4 3.652 11.411 58.137 3.870 12.095 53.587
F5 3.036 9.488 67.625 3.538 11.058 64.645
F6 2.386 7.457 75.082 3.340 10.437 75.082

Table 1 – Total Variance Explained

4.2. Classification of factors


Construction of the main factors influencing factors of rural sports culture is
very complex, we use statistical factor analysis of variance orthogonal rotation to
maximize its impact factor to give six main factors reasonably classify and name (as
shown in Table 2).

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Component
indicators
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6
1 government organizations influence 0.584
factors
2 rural sport participation factors 0.528
3 rural sports popularity factors 0.816
4 rural sports participation factors 0.555
5 central government investment 0.801
6 Rural Sports Association 0.642
7 rural sports activities of the organization 0.938
8 influence diversity of rural sports 0.617
9 rural sports entertainment function 0.658
10 factors affecting rural climatic 0.557
conditions
11 factors influence the rural area 0.562
12 central government’s fiscal 0.763
13 factors influence rural sports equipment 0.564
14 innovation of rural sports project 0.686
15 local government investment factors 0.686
16 local government fiscal economic 0.641
investment
17 rural sports ornamental function factors 0.825
18 local rural economic development level 0.642
19 local rural sports characteristics 0.491
20 development of rural sports history 0.837
21 Sports and cultural factors 0.892
22 factors of government management 0.727
23 factors of government management 0.629
24 local rural economic development 0.793
25 rural sports organization personnel 0.621
26 degree of government support 0.858
27 farmers’ per capita income level 0.799
28 local social and political environment 0.777
29 rural sports culture dissemination 0.554
30 rural sports industry 0.600
31 individual investment of rural sports 0.717
32 government propaganda effect 0.554

Table 2 – Component Matrix

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So that, 32 factors influencing factors can be summarized as: “The government Behavior
Factors Factor”, “economic factors factor”, “sports industry input factors Factor”, “sports
and cultural life of rural farmers factors factor”, “rural area outside environmental
factors “and” social factors influence factor “and other six types.

4.3. New development strategy of sports culture


By 223 experts, relevant leaders and farmers in rural areas, to investigate the government
behavior index important degree view, input SPSS16.0 statistical software for processing.
The results in Table 3 show: the importance of government action, government organization
metric, the mean and standard deviation (3.6637 ± 0.56861), T = 96.218 and P = 0.000;
the importance of Physical Education Association, indicators of government action, mean
and standard deviation (4.6547 ± 0.50409), T = 137.890 and P = 0.000; in government
action “government official” indicators in importance, mean and standard deviation
(3.6278 ± 0.65796), T = 82.337 and P = 0.000; the importance of government action
rural Social instructor indicators, the mean and standard deviation (4.1749 ± 0.74186),
T = 84.038 and P = 0.000; in government action sports organization key personnel, the
importance of indicators, the mean and standard difference (3.4843 ± 0.64965), T =
80.092 and P = 0.000; degree of importance in government action “level of government
support” index, the mean and standard deviation (4.5291 ± 0.57563), T = 117.496 and
P = 0.000; in government action the importance of “social and political environment”
indicators, the mean and standard deviation (3.9910 ± 0.75927), T = 78.495 and P =
0.000; the importance of government action, government propaganda indicators, the
mean and standard deviation (2.8969 ± 0.67992), T = 63.624 and P = 0.000. Government
to promote the importance of behavioral indicators Jiangxi Rural Development of Sports
Culture optimization were: sports associations; the degree of government support; rural
social instructors; government propaganda; sports organizations key personnel; social
and political environment; governmental organizations; government managers.

indicators Mean value T value P value ranking


Government organization 3.6637±0.56861 96.218 0.000 5
Sports Association 4.6547±0.50409 137.890 0.000 1
government management staff 3.6278±0.65796 82.337 0.000 6
rural social instructor 4.1749±0.74186 84.038 0.000 3
Sports organization key staff 3.4843±0.64965 80.092 0.000 7
Government support 4.5291±0.57563 117.496 0.000 2
social and political environment 3.9910±0.75927 78.495 0.000 4
government propaganda 2.8969±0.67992 63.624 0.000 8

Table 3 – The Jiangxi government behavior index(n=223)


From Table 4, the results show that: in all areas of the economy, the central government
investment in the economy, the importance of indicators, the mean and standard deviation
(2.9238 ± 0.71567), T = 61.008 and P = 0.000; In the “Local Government Finance and
Economy input” indicators the degree of importance, the mean and standard deviation
(3.4664 ± 0.65587), T = 78.924 and P = 0.000; degree of importance “level of local rural

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economic development” indicators, the mean and standard deviation (3.4215 ± 0.53850),
T = 94.882 and P = 0.000; degree of importance, “per capita income level of farmers’
indicators, the mean and standard deviation (3.6502 ± 0.64626), T = 84.347 and P = 0.000;
in farmer sports personal investment an important indicator of the degree of mean standard
deviation (4.1883 ± 0.69778) and, T = 89.635 and P = 0.000; in the central government
investment in sports infrastructure indicators of the degree of importance, the mean and
standard deviation (4.6054 ± 0.48987), T = 140.391 and P = 0.000 ; the importance of
local government funding for sports activities in rural areas metric, the mean and standard
deviation (4.0045 ± 1.05479), T = 56.693 and P = 0.000; in various economic fields “physical
and cultural quality of rural farmers’ index the degree of importance, the mean and standard
deviation (3.6054 ± 0.51672), T = 104.196 and P = 0.000; degree of importance, the level
of development of rural sports industry indicators, the mean and standard deviation
(4.5874 ± 0.49340), T = 138.843 and P = 0.000. Indicators of the rural economy in various
fields to promote the importance of optimizing the development of Jiangxi Rural Sports
Culture in the order, the central government sports infrastructure investment; the level of
development of rural sports industry; farmer sports personal investment; the financing of
local government investment in rural sports activities; farmers annual per capita income
levels; physical and cultural quality of rural farmers; local government finances economic
investment; the level of the local rural economic development; the central government
financial and economic investment.

indicators Mean value T value P value ranking


central government’s fiscal 2.9238±0.71567 61.008 0.000 9
local government financial investment 3.4664±0.65587 78.924 0.000 7
local rural economic 3.4215±0.53850 94.882 0.000 8
annual per capita income of farmers 3.6502±0.64626 84.347 0.000 5
farmer sports personal investment 4.1883±0.69778 89.635 0.000 3
central government investment 4.6054±0.48987 140.391 0.000 1
local government investment 4.0045±1.05479 56.693 0.000 4
Rural sports culture quality 3.6054±0.51672 104.196 0.000 6
development of rural sports industry 4.5874±0.49340 138.843 0.000 2

Table 4 – Jiangxi rural economic index important degree (n=223)


From Table 5, the results show that: the importance of sports and cultural life of Jiangxi Rural
farmers “Farmers sports participation” index, the mean and standard deviation (4.0807 ±
0.63865), T = 95.418 and P = 0.000; in “farmer sports liking” metric the degree of importance,
the mean and standard deviation (3.8610 ± 0.79608), T = 72.426 and P = 0.000; degree
of importance, “government official” indicators, the mean and standard deviation (3.5291
± 0.52659), T = 100.080 and P = 0.000; degree of importance “farmers sports diversity”
indicator, the mean and standard deviation (4.0628 ± 0.82506), T = 73.534 and P = 0.000;
the importance of “farmer sports watch features” index, the mean and standard deviation
(3.7848 ± 1.04767), T = 53.947 and P = 0.000. Farmers living index Sports Culture to promote
the importance of optimizing the development of Jiangxi Rural Sports Culture in the order
of: the extent of the farmers participating in sports; sports diversity of farmers; farmer sports
liking; farmer sports watch function; government managers.

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indicators Mean value T value P value ranking


Farmers’ participation 4.0807±0.63865 95.418 0.000 1
Farmers love sports 3.8610±0.79608 72.426 0.000 3
Government management personnel 3.5291±0.52659 100.080 0.000 5
Diversity of peasant sports project 4.0628±0.82506 73.534 0.000 2
Sports Watch features 3.7848±1.04767 53.947 0.000 4

Table 5 – Jiangxi rural sports culture life index (n=223)


The results in table 6 shows the importance of Jiangxi Rural external environment “Rural
climatic conditions” indicators, the mean and standard deviation (3.4484 ± 0.52486),
T = 98.113 and P = 0.000; in “rural site conditions” indicators of the degree of importance ,
mean and standard deviation (2.8251 ± 0.74186), T = 56.868 and P = 0.000; degree
of importance “rural sports equipment” indicators, the mean and standard deviation
(4.5964 ± 0.49172), T = 139.590 and P = 0.000 ; the importance of “history of rural
Sports development” indicators, the mean and standard deviation (4.3363 ± 0.70320),
T = 92.087 and P = 0.000; the importance of “other level cultural development in rural
areas” metric, the mean and standard deviation (3.6771 ± 0.88214), T = 62.248 and
P = 0.000. External environmental indicators to promote the importance of rural
Jiangxi Rural Sports Culture optimize the development were: Rural sports equipment;
sports history of rural development; other levels of cultural development in rural areas;
rural climatic conditions; rural site conditions.

indicators Mean value T value P value ranking


Rural climatic conditions 3.4484±0.52486 98.113 0.000 4
The rural site 2.8251±0.74186 56.868 0.000 5
Rural sports equipment 4.5964±0.49172 139.590 0.000 1
development of rural sports history 4.3363±0.70320 92.087 0.000 2
rural cultural development 3.6771±0.88214 62.248 0.000 3

Table 6 – Jiangxi rural environment index (n=223)


Table 7 show that the importance of social influence in rural Jiangxi Province, “the
number of rural sports” indicators, the mean and standard deviation (4.0448 ±
0.60609), T = 99.659 and P = 0.000; in “rural sports organization” metric the degree of
importance, the mean and standard deviation (2.7534 ± 0.54291), T = 75.733 and P =
0.000; in “rural sports innovation” the importance of indicators, the mean and standard
deviation (3.6188 ± 0.64585), T = 83.674 and P = 0.000; the importance of “local rural
sports characteristics” indicators, the mean and standard deviation (3.5516 ± 0.55814),
T = 95.024 and P = 0.000; degree of importance “rural Sports culture Communication”
metric, the mean standard deviation (4.5516 ± 0.51621) and, T = 131.670 and P =
0.000. Rural indicators of social influence to promote the importance of optimizing
the development of Jiangxi Rural Sports Culture were: rural sports culture spread; the
number of rural sports; sports innovation in rural areas; local rural sports activities
characteristics; the number of organized sports activities in rural areas.

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indicators Mean value T value P value ranking


number of rural sports 4.0448±0.60609 99.659 0.000 2
number of rural sports organizations 2.7534±0.54291 75.733 0.000 5
Rural sports innovation 3.6188±0.64585 83.674 0.000 3
characteristics of rural sports 3.5516±0.55814 95.024 0.000 4
spread of sports culture 4.5516±0.51621 131.670 0.000 1

Table 7 – Jiangxi rural social influence index(n=223)

5. Conclusion
Network information industry has become a new bright spot in China’s economic
growth, and penetrates into the whole process of agricultural modernization,
influence on the development of agricultural economy is more and more deep, play
an important role. The report pointed out that accelerating the transformation of
economic development, the development of the information industry.. However, we
should also see that although the pace of development of China’s Internet market is
very rapid, but security is conducive to rural network culture market development
policy and system lags behind and support. Therefore, the government should increase
the pace of information construction in the new rural construction, in the rural areas
to set up a network of specialized services, township institutions can set up a network
information service center, directly for the “three rural”, set up public cafes in rural
residential area. This model helps to absorb the network management personnel,
can effectively promote the employment of university students, also the “three rural
service”. Empirical results show that the effect of new rural sports culture of Jiangxi
optimization factors for the development of a: “the government behavior influence
factor”, “economic impact factor”, “sports industry investment influence factor”, “rural
farmers sports culture life factor”, outside of the rural areas of environmental impact
factor “and” social influence factor “six types. Optimization of sports culture in rural
areas of Jiangxi new development strategies are: change the behavior of the government,
increase in all areas of economic input, rich in Jiangxi rural sports and cultural life of
farmers, beautify external environment in rural areas of Jiangxi, harmony and stability
of Jiangxi rural social influence.

Acknowledgments
This study was financially supported by Jiangxi Academy of social science and art project
planning(YG2015148).

References
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no Processo Ensino-Aprendizagem: Visão de Professores e Pais de alunos do
ensino Básico e Secundário. RISTI-Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de
Informação, (16), 108–128.

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Asudi, G. (2015). Napier grass stunt disease in East Africa: Farmers’ perspectives on
disease management. Crop Protection, (71), 116–124.
Azadi, M., Shabani, A. (2014). Planning in feasible region by two-stage target-setting
DEA methods: An application in green supply chain management of public
transportation service providers. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and
Transportation Review, (70), 324–338.
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environmental management and the adoption of green supply chain management
in Brazil. Resources. Conservation and Recycling, (92), 255–267.
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agri-environmental schemes? Results from a qualitative meta-analysis.
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A case study of furniture production. Journal of Environmental Management, (79),
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Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação Recebido/Submission: 02/03/2016
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

Influence of Corporate Equity Incentive and CSR on


Firm Performance: an Empirical Analysis based on
Large-scale Data Mining

Ming Li 1, Zhenxiang Chen 1,2,*

*zhenxiangchen123@gmail.com

1
School of Management, Wuhan Technology and Business University, Wuhan 430065, China
2
Hubei Business Service D&R Center, Wuhan 430065, China
Pages: 13–25

Abstract: According to the stakeholder theory, employees are important


stakeholders of the enterprise. Enterprises ignore the social responsibility of
employees may bring to the enterprise staff turnover rate increased, the risk of
recruitment difficulties. Therefore, there are a large number of enterprises to start
the implementation of employee stock ownership incentive system. In this paper,
by using data mining method, we choose a stock incentive in China’s 2006-2012
shares listed companies, then use paired samples T test and cross section regression
analysis of equity incentive effects and external variables on the effect of the effect.
The research shows that the corporate performance has a significant growth
before and after the stock ownership incentive, and the employee stock ownership
incentive has a positive effect on the enterprise performance, but this effect is more
significant in private enterprises and small scale enterprises. Equity concentration
is the positive effect of the employee stock ownership incentive effect, while the
macro economy has a positive effect on the positive effect of equity incentive.
Keywords: Data mining, employee shareholding, equity incentive, mechanism
analysis, corporate social responsibility

1. Introduction
According to the stakeholder theory, employees are important stakeholders of the
enterprise; corporate social responsibility to employees may be the risk of rising
employee turnover rate, recruitment difficulties. Therefore, there are a large number of
enterprises to start the implementation of employee stock ownership incentive system.
Employee stock ownership incentive is a modern enterprise of a strategic management
decision-making behavior, when the business owners and the separation of ownership
and management (i.e. the principal agent relationship), in order to ensure that operators
can maximize play professional level, and ensuring that it does not damage the interests
of the enterprise, allowing employees to hold shares or options of the enterprise in order
to solve the information asymmetry problem in corporate governance. The development
of capital market in western countries as, equity incentive has been widely used, such
as one of the earliest American Equity Incentives mainly used in Silicon Valley and

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other knowledge innovation enterprises and high-tech enterprises, experience shows


that the long-term incentive of enterprise managers and employees showed better
effect. Since then Japan, Britain, France, Singapore began to follow, equity incentive
system obtained the good development, at present in the global top 500 enterprises,
85% to take equity incentive system, said this system not only an effective solution to the
corporate governance in modern capital market, optimizing the relationship between
the shareholder (owner), managers and outside investors.
Our country in the capital market has just set up was an early study of equity incentive
in listed companies, but ultimately failed to perform, until 2005, equity division reform,
the relevant departments of the state introduced equity incentive management approach
China Securities Regulatory Commission in December 2005 promulgated the “listed
company equity incentive management approach”, the Ministry of Finance in February
2006 released the state-owned holding listed companies the implementation of equity
incentive pilot scheme, the listed companies in the implementation of equity incentive
to clear away the obstacles, from China’s employee stock ownership incentive entered
the phase of rapid development. But with the increase of professional managers, and
enlarge the scale of enterprise, employee stock option motivation to the development
of the enterprise, whether there is the significant effect began to be questioned, many
scholars think due to equity incentive targets are senior corporate management
personnel, these personnel not only stock right incentive, and get higher pay, and a few
years China’s economic development better, and therefore ability general managers can
also basically realize motivating goal set by the owner of the, not reflect the level of
incentive objects. In addition, the agency governance will also lead to moral problems,
managers to achieve incentive targets, the preparation of false financial statements or
spread false information, damage the long-term growth of the listing Corporation and
the interests of small and medium investors.
In the existing theoretical research, the study of employee stock ownership incentive is
mainly focused on whether there is the incentive effect, the direction of the incentive
effect, the strength of the. In the incentive effect, it is divided into direct effect and indirect
effect. Direct effects including the effects of the three directions, as the effect based
on the convergence of interest hypothesis that agent (operators) equity incentive will
expand its consistency and interests among the shareholders, can stimulate the behavior
of performance management, finally bring forward the enterprise performance(Abreu,
2015). Entrenchment effect hypothesis pointed out that operators of rent-seeking
behavior, equity based incentives may be because of the abuse of executive and cannot
effectively alleviate the agency conflicts, but will exacerbate agency problems, is not
conducive to enterprise performance. Also a point of view that is a nonlinear relationship
between equity incentive and corporate performance, when the incentive object number
of shares less than a certain threshold, the positive incentive effect, and the number of
shares more than a certain threshold, negative incentive effects (Shen, 2011; Azadi, 2014).
For the indirect effect, it is mainly of equity incentive by what means to improve enterprise
performance, managers will reduce dividend payments by expanding investment and
increase earnings management, raise the innovation strength to promote enterprise
performance improvement, so as to realize the incentive effect. Currently more scholars
from the sample data of listed companies of, the equity incentive effect empirical research,

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such as Huang (2009) resaerch listed companies section data found that employee stock
ownership on firm performance has a positive effect, but the management shareholdings
influence on firm performance is 4-6 times the ordinary employee stock ownership, but
impact on enterprise performance and employee stock ownership there is an inflection
point. Kong (2015) using in Shaanxi Province in the unlisted small and medium sized
enterprise data analysis found that employee stock ownership plans to significantly
improve the corporate performance, the incentive effect of the employee stock ownership
plan exist boundary conditions, employees holding number more, the incentive effect
of the employee stock ownership plan smaller and smaller. Wang (2015) during the
period 2006-2010 implementation of equity incentive of listed companies as a sample,
the study found and non-implementation of the equity incentive plan of companies
compared to the implementation of equity incentive plan of company performance
before and after the implementation in are good, and in the non state owned enterprises
is more significant. There are also scholars have studied the effects of external variables
of the incentive effects, Chen (2015) study the effect of state ownership and market
competition on the relation between equity incentive and corporate performance, found
that the equity incentive have incentive effect, but the state-owned holding weakened
the effect of the implementation of equity incentive, product market competition will
strengthen the positive relationship between equity incentive and firm performance.
Wu (2014) analysis of the influence of board characteristics on the governance effect
of equity incentive, the study found that the equity incentive policy produced a positive
incentive effect, the board of directors shareholding and the proportion of independent
directors increase can enhance incentive effect, and the chairman and general manager
together while reduce the incentive effect.
This paper chooses Chinese manufacturing listed companies as the analysis object,
compared to the previous literature, there are two aspects of innovation, using
cross-sectional data, which dependent variable is the equity incentive and corporate
performance change amount and on the amount of changes whether there significant
difference of paired sample t test analysis; second influences the effect of equity
incentive factors, mainly including two aspects of the ownership structure of the firm
and macroeconomic environment, the former refers to the internal characteristics of the
company, the latter points to the external environment.

2. Large-scale data mining


2.1. BIRCH algorithm
In general, the single pass scan data set can get better clustering results. Optional follow-
up of multiple scan can further improve the quality of clustering. From the statistical
point of view, clustering is given a consists of N data points in the data set and a distance
measuring functions f (such as computing clusters within each of the two data points
between the average distance function), the data set is divided into K clusters (or
not given number k, by the algorithm automatically discover the optimal number of
clusters), final result is to find a for a data set of the optimal partition, which makes the
distance measure function f of the minimum value. From the point of view of machine
learning, clustering is an unsupervised learning algorithm, by clustering data into n

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Influence of Corporate Equity Incentive and CSR on Firm Performance: an Empirical Analysis based on Large-scale Data Mining

clusters, which minimizes the distance between points within the cluster. The core of
BIRCH method in the micro clustering stage is the construction of CF tree as follows:

CF = ( n, LS , SS ) (1)

n
LS = ∑ xi (2)
i =1

n
SS = ∑ x 2i (3)
i =1

The use of CF (cluster feature) can be derived from a part of Statistics: c


n

∑x i
LS (4)
x0 = i =1
=
n n

∑( x − x0 )
2
i (5)
nSS − 2 LS 2 + nLS
R= i =1
=
n n2

n n

∑ ∑( x − xj )
2

i =1 j =1
i
2nSS − 2 LS 2 (6)
d= =
n (n − 1) n (n − 1)

The average distance of the objects in the cluster was measured by d.

SS1 SS2 2 LS1 LS2


d* = + − (7)
N1 N2 N1 N2

2.2. Large-scale data mining


In recent years, data mining has attracted great attention of the information industry,
the main reason is the existence of a large number of data, can be widely used, and the
urgent need to convert these data into useful information and knowledge. Access to
information and knowledge can be widely used in a variety of applications, including
business management, production control, market analysis, engineering design and
scientific exploration. Data mining generally refers to the process of searching for
information hiding in the data from a large number of data. Data mining usually
and computer science, and through statistics, online analysis processing, information
retrieval, machine learning, expert system (rely on past experience rule) and
pattern recognition, and many other methods to achieve these goals. Data mining
classification as shown in figure 1.

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Figure 1 – Data mining classification


The purpose of data mining is to find more high-quality users from the data. Then I
continue to explore the guiding methods of data mining model. What is the guidance of
the data mining method model, and how to build a model of data mining is important. In
constructing a supervised data mining model, first of all to understand and define some
models that attempt to estimate the target variables, data mining process as shown in
figure 2.

Figure 2 – Data mining model

3. Model design and variables


3.1. Model building
Currently research on employee stock ownership incentive effects of equity includes the
event study and regression model method, which event study method is test incentive
behavior impact on stock prices in the short term, such as by using the event study found

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Influence of Corporate Equity Incentive and CSR on Firm Performance: an Empirical Analysis based on Large-scale Data Mining

that listed company equity incentive announcement before and after the issuance of the
stock has a significantly positive price effect. The regression model method is mainly to
study the influence of the institutional behavior on corporate performance under the
background of employee stock ownership and stock ownership incentive. In this paper,
we mainly observe the direction and extent of the financial effect of employee stock
ownership. Effect of the equity incentive effect more is the use of panel data analysis,
namely the return of employees or executives Shareholding on firm performance
(indicators). However, the paper considers that hasn’t been properly chosen such that the
equity incentive, executive stock ownership may not be used to motivate, the body that
contains equity. In this paper, we choose the cross section data analysis, each enterprise
to select the year of the incentive value, as a result of changes in the performance of
enterprises before and after the incentive. Specific models are constructed as follows:

(1)

Among them is the enterprise performance index, is the equity incentive agent variable,
is the control variable, is the constant.
For model (1), if α is significantly positive, that equity incentive has a significant positive
impact on enterprise performance, that is, the existence of positive equity incentive
effect, if α is negative, it shows that the equity incentive has a significant negative impact
on corporate performance, that is, the existence of negative equity incentive effect, if
the coefficient α is not significant, it shows that there is no incentive effect. To further
explore the third variables of corporate equity incentive effect of, in equation (1) joined
the corporate ownership structure with equity incentive proxy variable of the cross term,
macroeconomic environment and equity incentive proxy variable of the cross terms, the
model are as follows:

(2)

(3)

Among them is the enterprise equity index, is the macroeconomic indicators, and the
rest of the meaning of the variables with the formula (1). is the cross terms of
enterprise equity incentive and enterprise equity concentration, and it is the cross terms
of enterprise equity incentive and macro economy.In the equation (1), the purpose of
introducing the cross term is to examine the influence of internal variables (ownership
structure) and external environment (macro economy) on the incentive effects of
employee stock ownership,This is mainly to observe the coefficient β. In this paper, the
least square method (OLS) is used to estimate the above equations.

3.2. Sample selection and variable


In this paper, we select A shares of Listed Companies in China during the period of
2006-2012, the reason why not include samples during the period of 2013-2014,

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The main consideration is that after 2013, the incentive cannot reflect the changes in
the performance of the company’s equity incentive. In order to ensure the validity of the
data, this paper removed the *ST name of the company in the year,
Excluding the three years before and after the equity incentive, this paper mainly takes
into account the changes in the performance of the stage (three years) before and after
the equity incentive. Finally get 227 enterprises cross section data. Enterprise data are
derived from the Tai’an Shenzhen financial database (CSMAR), economic sequence data
from the 2015 “China Statistical Yearbook”.
1. Enterprise performance: Enterprise performance is refers to the company
business results in a certain period of time, the modern enterprise system to
measure the enterprise’s performance there are many variables, including total
return on assets rate (ROA), net assets income rate (ROE), operating margins,
earnings per share (EPS), profit growth rate etc.. In the incentive effects of
equity research in the literature, many performance appraisal chose indicator
associated with net profit, Dong Lijuan (2013) of 150 with equity incentive of
enterprise statistics showed that, 82% of the assessment indexes of enterprises
net profit growth rate, 72% chose the weighted average return on net assets rate,
in addition to 21.3% of the enterprises chose net profit, 12.67% of the enterprises
chose operating income growth rate. After drawing on the existing literature, this
paper choose the growth rate of net profit as the index of enterprise performance
evaluation, which is the proxy variable of the majority of the study of employee
stock ownership incentive literature.
2. Corporate equity incentive(esop): the equity incentive, many literatures
have choices of executives shareholding accounted for accounted for the total
capital ratio of employee stock ownership or total equity ratio measure, this
paper argues that this part of the employee stock ownership is not real incentive
properties of, part of the shares in the former excitation have held. Therefore, this
article choose listed companies to equity incentive for the first time after notice
(sent) stake as an employee stock ownership plan index of equity incentive.
3. Ownership structure of enterprises: Ownership structure in the narrow
sense is the equity structure, but also refers to the degree of concentration
of shares in enterprises. It is generally believed that the more concentrated
ownership, is the largest shareholder of enterprise management control and
decision-making more assertive, which will increase the risks and benefits of
enterprises. In this paper, we choose the proportion of the top five shareholders
and measure the ownership structure.
4. Macro economy: This paper chooses the growth rate of gross domestic
product (GDP) to measure. For the variable for the effect of equity incentive effect
to explain for the macro economy and better that may lead to equity incentive
effect is getting better and better, but the “upside” effect exists “distortion”.
5. Control variable: This paper selects two variables as the control variables of
the enterprise scale and the assets and liabilities structure. Enterprise scale use
numerical representation of business income. Assets and liabilities structure
use the asset liability ratio (total liabilities / total assets), the greater the asset
liability ratio, indicating that the stronger the business use of financial leverage.

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4. Empirical analysis
4.1. The comparison of enterprise performance before and after the stock
ownership incentive
Before using the regression model analysis, firstly, the sample t test of sample
enterprises employee ownership equity incentive and net profit growth rate differences
were analyzed. The former excitation is refers to enterprises in the released incentive
announcement, i.e., motivation, the implementation of the annual) in front of three
years, excitation is refers to the enterprise in released incentive announcement back
three years (including notice that year). The specific paired samples T test results are
shown in table 1. From table 1 can see, 227 enterprises in equity incentive three years
ago, the average net profit growth rate is 16.55%, in the three years after the equity
incentive, the average net profit growth rate is not 24.10%, the second difference 7.55%.
T test statistic value is 2.033, corresponding to a bilateral probability sig values for
0.043<0.05 that China’s A-share listed companies in equity incentive and net profit
growth rate has increased significantly.

net profit
sample difference T DF Sig. (bilateral)
growth rate
Before excitation 0.1655
0.0755 2.033 226 0.043
After excitation 0.2410

Table 1 – Paired sample T test before and after equity incentive

4.2. Test on the effect of stock incentive of Listed Companies in China


Table 2 shows the cross-sectional data and regression estimation results, including
(1) is the estimation results for the full sample enterprises, column (2) - (4) is the sub
sample estimation results, including private and state-owned enterprises Division
of the reference in Taian database of actual control of corporate division standard,
enterprise scale division is on business income points for large-scale enterprises
(incentive year revenue 10 billion yuan or more) and small scale enterprises
(incentive year revenue 10 billion yuan). Table 2 columns (1) for the full sample
enterprise estimation results show that goodness degree was 0.667, observation of
all the independent variables, the employee stock ownership plan equity incentive
variable coefficient for 1.337>0 in 0.01 probability level statistically significant, that
equity incentive has a positive promoting role on the performance of enterprises
growth, this result and table 1, consistent with the conclusion. For control variables,
you can see the enterprises operating income variable coefficient for -1.862<0, at
1% significant level of probability of statistically significant, indicating that larger
enterprises, enterprise performance growth is low and even negative growth; assets
and liabilities rate variable coefficient for 10.293>0 in 5% significant probability
level statistically significant, indicating that the greater the proportion of corporate
debt and corporate performance growth is larger.
To observe sub sample estimation results, we can see private enterprises sample ESOP
variable coefficient for 7.662>0, at 1% significant level of probability of statistically

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significant, so for private enterprises, the implementation of employee stock ownership


equity incentive can and positive impact on firm performance, and for the state-owned
enterprises sample, variable coefficient of ESOP 0.437, in significant 10% probability level
but not significant, indicating that state-owned enterprise employee stock ownership
incentive effect is not significant. For the control variables, the results are not consistent
with the full sample, but the coefficients are the same.
For different size of enterprise, small sample sizes of ESOP variable coefficient for
1.729>0, at 1% significant level of probability of statistically significant, so for the small
scale of the enterprise, employee stock ownership plan for enterprise performance have
positive effect of equity incentive, for large-scale enterprises, the variable coefficient
of ESOP was 0.560, is not significant at the 10% level of probability that large-scale
enterprises employee stock ownership incentive effect is not significant. For the control
variables, the coefficient of symbols and was basically consistent with the previous
column, here no longer repeat one.

dependent variable performance


sample sample privately operated state-owned small-scale large-scale
column (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
1.337*** 7.662*** 0.437 1.729*** 0.560
esop
(0.000) (0.000) (0.177) (0.001) (0.162)
-1.86*** -5.665** -0.887 -2.541** -1.634
lnincome
(0.010) (0.014) (0.227) (0.025) (0.362)
10.293** 26.600 8.660** 12.551* 2.544
capstru
(0.035) (0.141) (0.042) (0.083) (0.637)
-39.7*** -126.508*** -17.537 -54.903** 30.939
_cons
(0.006) (0.007) (0.229) (0.020) (0.384)
R2 0.667 0.499 0.629 0.589 0.641
N 227 172 39 137 90

Table 2 – The equity incentive effect of Listed Companies in China

4.3. Analysis on the mechanism of stock incentive effect of Listed Companies


in China
Table 3 further shows the employee stock ownership plan effect of equity incentive
mechanism analysis, that equation (2) and equation (3) of the estimation results,
including (1) examines the effect of equity incentive is affected by ownership concentration
influence, (2) examines the equity incentive effect is affected by the macro economic
development impact. Column (3) - column (6) is a sub sample of the estimated results.
For the full sample enterprises, the main observation variables, the variable coefficient of
ESOP 4.329>0, at 1% significant level of probability of statistically significant, ESOP and
ownership concentration degree oc5 cross terms in the coefficient of variable -0.057<0,
and statistically significant at 1% probability level.

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dependent variable performance


sample sample privately operated state-owned
column (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
4.329*** -1.189 12.483*** -0.588 0.718 0.642
esop
(0.000) (0.276) (0.000) (0.937) (0.359) (0.487)
-1.679** -1.916*** -3.898* -5.151** -0.893 -0.879
lnincome
(0.016) (0.007) (0.075) (0.027) (0.225) (0.233)
10.810** 11.466** 22.747 22.727 8.698** 8.539**
capstru
(0.022) (0.019) (0.172) (0.214) (0.041) (0.047)
-0.057*** -0.148** -0.005
esop_oc5
(0.000) (0.010) (0.692)
0.233** 0.616 0.020
esop_economy
(0.015) (0.266) (0.812)
-35.077** -40.094*** -84.486* -114.613** -17.633 -17.420
_cons
(0.012) (0.005) (0.061) (0.017) (0.228) (0.234)
R2 0.734 0.692 0.589 0.518 0.630 0.630
N 227 227 172 172 39 39

Table 3 – Analysis on the mechanism of stock incentive effect of Listed Companies


The results illustrate the enterprise ownership, the more concentrated on corporate
equity incentive positive effects have a negative impact, which will weaken the incentive
effects of equity. The marginal impact of corporate performance on equity incentive
is =4.329-0.057*oc5, the total sample size of enterprise equity
concentration is 57.116, so =4.329-0.057*57.116=1.073>0. In column
(2), variable coefficient of ESOP -1.189<0, in 10% probability level is not statistically
significant, ESOP and macro economy cross variable coefficient for 0.233>0, at 1%
probability level statistically significant, the results illustrate external macroeconomic
growth is better, have a positive impact positive effect on corporate equity incentive,
enterprise performance of equity incentive marginal effects for
=-1.189+0.233*economy, for the full sample and the macro economic growth rate of
10.192, so =-1.189+0.233*10.192 =1.186>0.
The analysis results of the stock incentive effect mechanism under the sample of state
owned enterprises and private enterprises. For private enterprises, when the introduction
of equity incentive and ownership concentration degree of cross variable, the variable
coefficient of ESOP is 12.483, cross term variable coefficient is -0.148, both in the 5% level of
probability of statistically significant, the results with the enterprises in the whole sample
results is consistent, indicates that equity more concentrated will weaken the positive
effects of equity incentive. When the introduction of equity incentive and macroeconomic
time series cross variable, the variable coefficient of ESOP is -0.588, cross term variable
coefficient is 0.616, were not significant, but the sign of the coefficients with the sample
under the agreement, this paper still think macro economic growth rate rose high-energy
invisible to expand the positive effects of equity incentive. For a sample of state-owned

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enterprises, when the introduction of equity incentive and ownership concentration


degree of cross variables, variable coefficient of ESOP was 0.718, cross term variable
coefficient is -0.005, two were under 10% probability level is not statistically significant;
when the introduction of equity incentive and macroeconomic time series cross variable,
the variable coefficient of ESOP 0.642, cross term variable coefficient is 0.020, were not
significant, but can calculated and enterprise performance of corporate equity incentive
marginal impact is positive. For the enterprise operating income and asset liability ratio
of two control variables, the coefficient symbol and the significance of the 2 agreement
with the table, here is no longer a detailed statement.
These results indicate that Chinese listed company’s employee stock ownership
plan, there exists a positive incentive effect. The results and most scholars research
conclusion consistent, indicating that ESOP can really mobilize staff Holdings
(usually in the senior management incentive objects) working enthusiasm and ability,
by strengthening enterprise management, control cost and business strategy, to
improve the performance of enterprises. There is a positive incentive effect for private
enterprises and state-owned enterprises there is no incentive effect explanation is:
for state-owned enterprises, there are two main reasons, one is the actual situation of
the state-owned enterprise’s equity incentive object for general staff and management
personnel of enterprises, especially senior managers, most countries appointed, which
is the incentive object can not participate in the decision of enterprise management
level, the incentive effect is not obvious, on the other hand, the state-owned enterprise
performance appraisal index target by the relevant departments of the impact, in
operation, the strategy and the system is passive, the “hard constraints” makes the
incentive objects can not effectively play the level of management, equity incentive in
the state-owned enterprises limited in. Behavior and for the general private enterprises,
on the contrary, first of all enterprises operating mechanism is more flexible, enterprise
equity incentive targets are also the actual management about the business objectives,
the “right” (management rights, equity) consistent background makes incentive staff
goals and objectives, to fully mobilize the enthusiasm of the management on improving
the enthusiasm of enterprise performance.
As for the impact of external variables on the equity incentive effect, the positive effect of
ownership concentration will reduce the enterprise equity incentive, this paper considers
that there are two factors, one is the top five shareholders, including few business
objectives of equity incentive management object, so the five largest shareholder equity
ratio is higher. Business decision rights incentive target was smaller (major projects,
strategic restructuring still depends on the actual controller), this situation will lead to a
positive incentive effect is weakened; the two is more concentrated ownership, itself will
occupy the interests of small shareholders, the earnings management is more inclined
to the current distribution, but not as the next the capital, more empirical analysis also
indicates that the ownership concentration and corporate performance are negatively
correlated. Therefore, this endogeneity (incentive and performance may be endogenous
problem) has led to the weak effect of incentive. Macro-economic growth to improve
the equity incentive effect, apparently in macro-economic upturn, the positive effect of
micro enterprise performance, compared with normal (economic) growth rate. At this
time behavior of equity incentive for incentive object is concerned with the existence

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of an “invisible” welfare effects, namely enterprise performance ascending part of is by


external economic growth rate.

5. Conclusion
The agency behavior under the modern enterprise system due to the asymmetric
information between the owner and the manager in the two sides cannot be effectively
supervision and management, employee stock ownership equity incentive system to
gradually solve the problem. However, there are many researches about the effect of
employee stock ownership incentive on firm performance, but the conclusion is not
uniform. This paper chooses in the period 2006-2012 have the behavior of equity
incentive in China A-share listed companies, using paired samples t test and the cross-
sectional regression model, analysis of the impact on the effect of employee stock
ownership plan effect of equity incentive and external variables. The results show that:
the performance of Listed Companies in China before and after the equity incentive (net
profit growth rate) has significant growth. Employee stock ownership incentive can have
a positive effect on the performance of listed companies, but this effect is more significant
for private enterprises and small scale enterprises, while the effect is not obvious for
state-owned enterprises and large-scale enterprises. The positive effect of ownership
concentration on employee stock ownership incentive is affected by the impact, while
the macro economy has a positive effect on the positive effect of equity incentive.
Based on the above conclusions, this paper puts forward some suggestions on the
operation of employee stock options:
•• Develop a suitable to the enterprise own development incentive program,
currently listed companies incentive schemes and similar, no difference, are
inspired by the linked object and corporate performance. If the performance of
the company in a specified period can be completed the exercise. Although this
initiative is indeed able to mobilize the enthusiasm of executives, but whether
it is really suitable for the company’s development, more difficult to judge.
Enterprises from the incentive model and source of capital (stock), incentive
object, motivation scale, exercise price, exercise arrangement (period), the
exercise conditions (performance appraisal) full investigation and verification.
•• Enterprises should strengthen the system construction of employee stock
ownership incentive strategy. In determining the incentive plan, major
shareholders and decision-making layer to the equity incentive before the
implementation, and after exercise are clearly defined, especially for managers
(inspired by the top management object) to carry out effective supervision to
prevent incentive management personnel take damage to minority shareholders
and the company’s long-term growth behavior in order to achieve the goal
incentive, which can be from salary, performance evaluation and other aspects
of the regulation. On the other hand, you can consider the use of reverse
repurchase way to implement equity incentive, which can fully mobilize the
management level of existing shares executives.
•• Continue to improve the laws and regulations on the system of employee stock
ownership in china. The securities regulatory authorities should strengthen of
equity incentive of listed company information disclosure to crack down on

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insider information, standardize enterprise bonus system and strict supervision


on the behaviors of corporate executives, to develop more in line with the reality
of laws and regulations, and effectively protect the interests of small investors.
In the equity incentive, it is not only to give the company a certain right to
freedom, but also to allow the market, employees, and investors to effectively
supervise the three.

Acknowledgments
This study was financially supported by Humanity and Social Science Youth foundation
of Ministry of Education of China (Project NO: 15YJC630060); “Corporation Society
Responsibility” Academic Research Team of WTBU (XSTD2016001).

References
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Informação, (16), 108–128.
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DEA methods: An application in green supply chain management of public
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Chen, W., Jia, S. (2015). State owned holding, market competition and equity incentive
effect — An Empirical Study Based on propensity score matching method. Journal
of Zhejiang University, (9), 101–118.
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Owned Company’s employees’ Stock Ownership: Based on the sample data of 1302
companies. Economic science, (4). 86–94.
Kong, J., Xu, Y. (2015). An empirical study of ESOP incentive effect — Based on the
historical data of the private SMEs of Shaanxi province. Journal of Guangxi
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Shen, H. (2011). Empirical analysis of equity incentive effect of A stock market based on
event study .financial development research, (2), 73–77.
Wang, Y., Shen, X. (2015). Equity incentive, property rights and corporate performance,
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Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação Recebido/Submission: 03/03/2016
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

Study on the Image Supporting System and


Propagation Mechanism of Rural Tourism Destination

Li Long, Song Hui*

* songhuisuzhou@163.com

Suzhou University, Suzhou city, Anhui province, 234000, China


Pages: 26–36

Abstract: In this paper, the author analyzed the rural tourism brand building
and dissemination, which based on the basic concept and implementation path
from the tourism destination image building, image support system and image
propagation mechanism. For example in Anhui rural tourism destination,
through field investigation of rural tourism for empirical research, we found in the
northern Anhui rural tourism is still in its primary stage, image positioning is not
accurate enough, brand communication channel is single, also awareness is not
high, resulting in rural tourism destination brand competitiveness is not strong,
restricted the development of rural tourism seriously. Based on rural tourism
development present situation of northern Anhui, we proposed that strengthen
government guidance, the regional unified planning, combination of media, spread
consistent image, using emerging technologies, and rooted in brand culture, to
achieve sustainable development of Anhui rural tourism.
Keywords: Image supporting system, Tourism image shaping, Tourism
propagation mechanism, Tourism destination, 3D virtual interactive

1. Introduction
At present, the development of rural tourism in China quickly, especially since
countries in 2006 as “China rural tourism year” so far this time, development of
village tourism began in full swing. In between Eleven-Five and Twelve-Five, rural
tourism development meet opportunities, while there have been some issues during
rural tourism development, rural tourism destination image position is not accurate
enough, and brand competitiveness is not strong enough, serious constraints on the
development of rural tourism(Yong, 2002). To solve these problems, will provide new
opportunities for the development of rural tourism in our country during thirteen
five periods. Rural tourist destination image is the tourists’ first impression of rural
tourism will have a primary effect, halo effect, so tourism destination image plays an
important role, and rural tourism image dissemination effect affects the influence and
radiation radius of tourism brand. Good tourism image is designed and constructed
based on the elements of construction, from the actual, blindly packing speculation,
is not possible to establish a good image of tourism; but only the excellent design
and construction, no effective dissemination of the image, the tourists and the public

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cannot form a good impression, only the excellent design and construction of effective
communication together, to establish a good image of tourism. Rural tourist destination
image is composed of a variety of factors, its connotation is to continuously improve,
will experience from the image positioning is not clear to clear, and then to the process
of re-positioning the destination image(Chun, 2004; Freixo, 2014).
2015 China Netizen tourist and predetermined behavior survey report pointed out that
the number of China’s Internet users has reached 485 million. Among them, 34% of
Internet users over the past six months participated in tourism activities, 1.66 billion
(figure 1). This shows that China’s Internet users demand for travel and is very large;
many people want to be able to travel in a busy work.

Figure 1 – Internet users in the past six months whether to travel


Research has also shown that the future users within a year go out tourism greater
demand, overall Internet users, 47.2 percent of people travel demand, this ratio increase
13.2% than 2014 (Figure 2). Therefore, this part of the crowd has travel demand, but
because of various reasons, is unable to achieve the desire. And with the development of
economy, people’s demand for spiritual civilization will also be expanded, and the future
demand of Internet users is expected to increase.

Figure 2 – The expected of travel by internet users in the coming year


Rural tourism destination image first determine a clear theme, the theme of the selected need
to be based on a large number of basic theoretical research and field investigation(Mengxiang,

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Study on the Image Supporting System and Propagation Mechanism of Rural Tourism Destination

2006; Peiji, 2006). The establishment of rural tourism destination theme is the key to
shaping the image of the rural tourism destination, which has a direct relationship between
the formation of a rural tourist destination image and brand. Tourism theme image once
formed, will be in the minds of tourists have the general impression. Generally speaking,
the accumulation of the impression of the image is relatively stable.

Figure 3 – The formation of rural tourism destination image theme

2. Virtual reality technology and tourist image


2.1. Tourism experience
Tourism experience research began in twentieth Century sixty or seventy years, is the
core of tourism sociology and even modern tourism research, basic theory. At first, the
researchers gave the definition of the tourist’s experience, because of the nature of tourism
and experience to hold different views; there are differences in the understanding of
the tourism experience. In 1998, Richard C and prentice et al summarizes the five most
representative tourist experience research paradigm: in leisure studies in North America as
the representative of the level of the modes of experience; as a psychologist Zeke Center as
the representative of smooth cool “experience a paradigm; behavioral intention experience
paradigm; Mr. Cohen, for on behalf of the phenomenon of learning experience paradigm;
insider outsider paradigm. Subsequent to McCann Nair (J) to represent the presence
of authenticity experience research paradigm and symbol science from the perspective of
experience research paradigm from behind, the understanding of tourism experience from
the tendency to understand the experience to understand the essence of tourism (Wei,
2005). Pace of tourism study on modern leisure tourism advantages and disadvantages of
heated debate strode, keen to explore the problem of “authenticity” of tourism experience.
Finally, Cohen to learn from the perspective of the tourism experience research paradigm
unifies the differences become tourist experience research important theory and scope of
the research type and lead the study of Tourism experience to the demand of tourists,
motivation types and quality of tourism experience research.
Boorstin in 1964 with the old tourist seeking knowledge of the view of the modern public
to complain about the pursuit of artificial, hypocritical travel experience proposed the

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modern mass tourism experience is just a popular consumer behavior. 1975 Turner
and Ash also pointed out that the modern mass tourism is a departure from the normal
behavior, is a disease of the times. MacCannell used “Modernity” to explain “authenticity”,
argues that the modern people to tourism in the pursuit of truth, suffered a lot of criticism
to escape the modernity, which tourism sociologists in 1979 Cohen in the published the
travel experience of phenomenology of the additional monarch paths to phenomenon
from the perspective that, due to the different people the ultimate meaning and world
view is different, different experiences for different tourists and different community
has different meanings, so different people need different experience. Tourist experience
is defined as individuals with a variety of center; depending in person is attached to a
“center” tourism experience to meet the travel from the pursuit of pleasure to search
for the meaning of demand. Cohen, this travel experience research paradigm from the
perspective of phenomenology, the travel experience “authenticity” of the differences
were unified, and foreign scholars have been widely recognized and adopted (long, 2011).
On this basis, the researchers began to study the needs of tourists, motivation, experience
quality, experience content and Realization of the path. At first, Pearce inspired
by Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs, the needs of the tourists are divided into
relaxation, stimulation, relationship, self-esteem and development and self-realization.
Later, Ryan Chris will travel demand summed up as intellectual, social, ability, avoid
stimulation. The research of tourism demand lays the foundation for the quantitative
and Empirical Study of tourism experience. American scholar Mcintosh first proposed
four types of tourism motivation, including: physical health, culture, communication,
status and prestige. Japanese scholars use factor analysis to the tourism motivation:
mood, physical, spiritual, economic. Hui (2008) put forward eight categories of tourism
motivation: landscape tour, fitness tourism, culture, arts, tourism, urban shopping and
sightseeing, entertainment, Cuba tourism, community tourism, food tourism and explore
tourism of urban life. In addition there are scholars summed up the tourist motivation of
the backpack tourists, including: escape, relax, knowledge, search, experience and social
aspects of the five. There are scholars to study self-help travel motivation include: the
pursuit of freedom, to get a sense of challenge, the pursuit of a unique sense of self.
Other scholars found that the five impact factors of Taiwan tourists’ travel experience
are: relaxation and fun, cultural entertainment, personality identity, historical memory,
escape. Study on the quality of tourism experience. The theme of the study is to explore
the tourists experience to meet the formation model, experience the quality of the factors
and to experience the quality of the evaluation and enhance the experience of quality
strategy research. According to the research method, it can be divided into qualitative
research and quantitative research, in which the latter is the main research method.

2.2. Virtual reality technology


The intervention of the virtual reality technology to virtual tourism is through computer
simulation reality of tourist attractions to generate realistic audio-visual collection is one of
the three-dimensional space, according to inherited the historical and cultural background,
through 3D virtual interactive technology reproduction space and historical monuments,
let has been quiet in monuments of historical culture or story can be reproduced in the
appropriate context, visitors can even with its own set of role and the historical space
characters dialogue, to learn more about what had happened in a particular historical period.
Let the tourists “real” participation in the cultural context of the similar historical context,

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Study on the Image Supporting System and Propagation Mechanism of Rural Tourism Destination

the more true feeling of historical and cultural. Through the immersive three-dimensional
experience of the digital scenic area, get the intuitive, real experience, so that the relatively easy
access to relatively comprehensive historical and cultural information and the “immersion”
experience. The Louvre is built on the Internet “virtual museum” the collection of hundreds
of thousands of precious exhibits posted online for public access, and with full details of the
depth to the text explanation and pictures. But in the virtual online museum, the public is
through pictures and text of the panoramic view. But its shortcoming is show the lack of
more realistic immersive experience, such as when visitors in viewing a painting, only to see
the painting pictures and the following text explanation, there is no feelings from the direct
experience of the cultural connotation of historical relics, as shown in figure 4.

Figure 4 – The Virtual Museum of Louvre


The Mogao Grottoes of Dunhuang due to the harsh natural environment and traffic
inconvenience, so many Dunhuang art lovers to witness the Dunhuang art treasures,
2003, President of the Dunhuang Academy submitted the tourist service center of
Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes construction proposal “proposal, the main content of this
proposal is: request to digital technology and computer technology and other modern
means, the Mogao Grottoes of Dunhuang digital results display to tourists.

Figure 5 – The Virtual Museum of Louvre

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The virtual tour breakthrough time and space


constraints, the contradiction between the
Dunhuang Grottoes in the preservation and
tourism development have been alleviated,
and provide a new perspective on visit to
tourists and Dunhuang researchers, as shown
in figure 5 and figure 6. At the same time, due
to the reduction of the actual contact time
between the cave and tourists, will be conducive
to the stability and long-term preservation of
the caves. Because this kind of tourism is in
the computer virtual of, many scenes not seen
in the Dunhuang travel can also be displayed,
currently on display in the main content
including Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes location
roaming, Dunhuang Cave virtual excavation
process display, virtual restoration of Shi Kuxu
intends to roam, the real grottoes of virtual
roaming and creation of computer aided cave
virtual roaming and other.Virtual the Imperial
Figure 6 – Virtual tourism of the
Palace is China and Asia, as shown in figure 7,
recovered grotto (Mogao Gave205)
is the first on the Internet to show the world’s
historical and cultural heritage of the virtual
world, but also a network experience museum.
Visitors can choose their own role, and give it to change clothes, dress up and so on.
Visitors with the mouse, you will be able to follow the role of in-depth understanding of
all the buildings in the Imperial Palace and its characteristics.

Figure 7 – Virtual the Imperial Palace

3. Village tourism image systems


Rural tourist destination image by image positioning and tourism slogan designing,
shaping a distinctive destination image, but these are not enough, they also need to

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improve the support system. Supporting system by mind identity system (MIS), visual
identity system (VIS), and behavior identifies system (BIS) and so on.

3.1. Mind identification system


The mind of rural tourism is the core and soul of rural tourism image design, a deep
analysis on the basis of the concept of rural tourism must be in a wide range of design
and development of rural tourism products. Because of the rural tourism is a unique
living environment, production patterns, life style and idyllic scenery to attract tourists,
it reflects a return to nature and artistic conception of the unity of heaven and man,
also in line with the rise great trend of “green tourism”, “eco-tourism” in recent years.
Therefore, I believe that based on ecological protection and sustainable development of
the rural cultural heritage tourism is a rural tourism image design of common conceptual
basis. Of course, different rural tourism and tourism products, due to the geographical
position, natural resources and market demands and other reasons, its conceptual basis
should be different, focused, to reflect their personalities and characteristics, which
requires on tourist destination image design to concrete analysis of concrete problems.

3.2. Behavior identification system


Identification of rural tourism is tourism image dynamic recognition of forms, is
the activity of the rural tourism resources, and it is the practice of philosophy and the
creation of guidelines for tourism and culture. At the time of rural tourist destination
image design, focus on images of local residents to create and design of tourist image
of enterprises, especially in China.

Figure 8 – Tourism image recognition systems

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3.3. Visual identification system


According to relevant statistics, perceived as external information, 83% through the
Visual channel to reach the minds of people, meaning that vision is the acceptance of
external information of the main channel. Visual recognition systems can all be visible
the external visual symbols to convey the operating concept with intelligence information
in the CIS is the most direct and effective way to establish corporate reputation and
shape the corporate image. Visual identity design for rural tourism usually includes
visual identity design and Visual landscape design. At present, new media technology,
widely used in various fields, but is still at an early stage of tourism development in rural
areas, rarely used new media technology. Thus at the time of rural tourist destination
image design,to make full use of new media technology spread rural tourism destination
image, for tourists to enjoy the visual.
In addition to the above three identification systems,there are some scholars and
auditory identification system (HIS), customs identification system (FIS). Auditory
images generally include the destination language, folk songs,local opera, background
music and theme songs and religious music. Customs identification means in rural
tourist destinations only and representative image to become the region’s program
or activity. Thus, when the rural tourist destination image, also want to focus on the
auditory system and design style identification system. Comprehensive support system
is a rural tourist destination image design’s strong backing, is the internal factors of
sustainable development of rural tourism destinations, and it is also essential for rural
tourism brand of key components.

4. The transmission system of rural tourism destinations image


Tourism communication mechanism means how to spread during the trip, all aspects
of the tourism communication link together organically to form travel a reasonable
flow of information channels. Rural tourist destination image design approaches for it
to spread in the future, only the rural tourism destination image out to make tourists
feel, to make tourists travel to this desire. Different routes of transmission will have a
different effect, spreading the effects is related to the tourism image and brand in the
minds of the impression level.

4.1. Dissemination channels and the negative effects of eliminating


From the interface point of view, tourism communication through self, people, the
general public and the information highway and multimedia communications. Rural
tourism in the different media to disseminate results will vary, so when you select the
media, to specific conditions, for different tourist market select targeted media. Image
media including mass media, interpersonal media, outdoor media, real media, tourism
image media classification and characteristics are described in detail.
From information dissemination pattern of de Fleury, we can see that rural tourism
destination by a specific transmitter that transmits a variety of communication channels
to mass media, people perceive the image of rural tourism through various mass media,
and feedback on this information. In the process of information transfer will be in the

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Study on the Image Supporting System and Propagation Mechanism of Rural Tourism Destination

Figure 9 – De Fleury model

“noise” effects of tourist image in the process, which will suffer the effects of negative
events about rural tourism, damaging tourism destination image in people’s perceptions.
Thus, in rural tourism image in the process of spreading propaganda, should pay
attention to reduce or eliminate the negative impact on rural tourism destination image.

4.2. Empirical study on effect perceptions


Investigating present situation of rural tourism development in Northern Anhui,
stratified random sampling survey, the questionnaire analysis by SPSS17.0 software, we
find the rural tourism destination of tourists is the surrounding area, this mainly due
to rural tourism attraction radius and the spread effect of restricting the scope of the
destination image. Tourists’ perception of rural tourism in northern region is mainly
based on network and the main newspapers magazines, because single transmission of
the scenic routes, there is no targeted market segments spread enough in the network
media and other reasons, caused by propagation effects of tourism destination image is
not ideal. Thus, in rural tourism destination image communication, we should segment
tourist market for different markets, select the appropriate media for dissemination
of tourism image. Meanwhile, using a variety of modes of transmission are combined
communication and in the dissemination of note also that in the process of creating a
unified tourism rural tourism destination image.

Factor Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent


Travel agency 21 14.0 14.0 14.0
TV 6 4.0 4.0 18.0
Network 66 44.0 44.0 62.0
Relatives and friends 15 10.0 10.0 72.0
Newspapers and magazines 42 28.0 28.0 100.0
Total 150 100.0 100.0

Table 1 – Tourists’ perception of Rural Tourism in North Anhui

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5. Conclusion and recommendations


Create a rural tourism destination image plays an important role in rural tourism
planning and development, which related to a tourism development success, so we
must pay attention to the design and building of rural tourism image. However, due
to the development of rural tourism in China not long ago, research is weak, low level
of awareness, its development plans tend to be resource-oriented development or
market-oriented development, ignoring the tourist image. In the rural tourism business
process is also a blind pursuit of short-term economic benefits, ignoring the protection
of the rural overall image and rural tourism environment and traditional culture. This
is unfavorable to the long-term sustainable development of rural tourism. In the early
stage of the rural tourism development, government should pay attention to the guiding
role, the government to guide the rural tourism destination image, the long-term goal of
unified planning of rural tourism development. In the process of rural tourist destination
image communication, we must according to the specific situation to carry out targeted
communication. Dissemination of the image of rural tourism should focus on the target
market of tourists and potential tourists, using the appropriate route of transmission for
effective dissemination, all means of communication should be spread around strategic
goals to launch, through a combination of media, passed on to the unified rural tourism
image of tourists.
Along with economic development, social progress and people’s conception of the
renewal, rural tourism has become the new focus of residents’ consumption in China,
especially urban resident. Tourism image and communication, to some extent, means that
the expansion of economic efficiency and market, it is the key element to attract tourists.
Therefore, in order to create a distinctive rural tourism image, keeps the rural tourism
destination attraction for a long time, it should be based on the country’s own characteristics
and development trend of tourism consumption, establish their own unique image, as
well as strong advocacy marketing campaign to spread the rural tourist destination image,
and rely on village tourism image to attract tourists, promote the development of rural
tourism. In parallel with the development of rural tourism, we should stick to the rural
ecological protection based on sustainable development of tourism and rural cultural
heritage concept. In the thirteen five period, rural tourism will be developed to the depth
direction, we believe that rural tourism will take a scientific concept as the foundation,
create a perfect rural tourism destination image, create their own brand, get out of the
road of sustainable development with its own characteristics.

Acknowledgments
Song Hui is corresponding author. This paper is supported by Key project of Humanities
and social sciences of Anhui Provincial Department of Education “The study area
tourism development under the background of urbanization in Wanbei Coal Mining
subsidence” (No: SK2016A1003); the Humanities and social sciences research key
project of Anhui College “Evaluation and utilization of wetland tourism resources in
Northern Anhui”(SK2015A565).

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References
Chun, L. (2004). Tourism Psychology (Second Edition), Beijing: China higher education
press, 20–32.
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Qualidade em Unidades Hospitalares. RISTI-Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e
Tecnologias de Informação, (14), 1–15.
Hui, H., Jian, X. (2008). Modern tourism communication. Hunan science and
technology press, 22, 22–25.
long, L. (2011). The construction of brand communication path in the context of new
media tourism destination. Economic Research Guide, 5, 30–35.
Mengxiang, Y. (2006). The visual recognition system into tourism related research
(VIS). Journal of Guilin Institute of Tourism, 10, 23–30.
Peiji, S., Xianfeng, L. (2006). Study on tourism image communication. Journal of
Southwest University(Social Sciences), 10, 8–10.
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press, 12, 4–8.

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Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação Recebido/Submission: 04/03/2016
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

Countermeasures and Support Environment for the


Development of the Non-governmental Economy in
Suzhou, China

TianXueying*, NiePanke

* lucy.txy@163.com

School of Business, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou215009, Jiangsu, China
Pages: 37–49

Abstract: As required by the policy of “New Normal”, more attentions need to


be paid to the quality and efficiency of the economic development. Therefore, it
is important for the non-governmental economy in Suzhou, an important pillar
experiencing rapid development, to learn how to recognize and adapt to the
new normal, and deal with the accompanied new opportunities and challenges.
The purpose is to motivate the vitality and promote the transformation and
upgrading of the non-governmental economy, so as to enhance the comprehensive
competitiveness, which is the key for the sustainable economic growth. By
analyzing the overall scale, industrial structure, social contribution, scientific and
technological level of the non-governmental economy in Suzhou, this research
revealed the problems facing this economy. On this basis, this research explored
corresponding countermeasures in terms of promoting the adjustment of the
industrial structures and the characteristic development. Meanwhile, it is also
suggested to improve the product quality, brand building, the investment on
research and development, independent innovation ability, the energy efficiency,
and comprehensive utilization of resources. Meanwhile, some policy supports were
proposed based on the talent, financial, and government environments, so as to
provide a scientific basis for the decision marking of the governments.
Keywords: Non-governmental economy, problem analysis, support environment,
countermeasures

1. Introduction
The president, Xi Jinping, systematically elaborated the meaning of the new normal in
China’s economy in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) held in 2014. Since
then, how to adapt to the new normal and grasp new opportunities, so as to realize new
growth points has been a historical problem facing many enterprises, especially for the
non-governmental enterprises. The non-governmental economy in Suzhou has witnessed
vigorous development and presented a favorable growth in both the quantity and quality
since 2009. Meanwhile, the enterprise scale and operating income have increased
substantially, and the proportion of the paid taxes has risen year by year (Pan, 2006;
Freixo, 2014). In addition, remarkable growth has been found in the private investment,
and with the increasingly advanced scientific and technological level of the enterprises,

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the enterprises and entrepreneurs of high quality have emerged continuously. The
rising of the non-governmental economy in Suzhou has laid a solid foundation for the
scientific development of the economic society in Suzhou. As required in “New Normal”,
more emphasis is required to be focused on the quality and efficiency of the economy
(Jiang,2009; Zhang, 2011). Meanwhile, as an important pillar, the rapidly developed
non-governmental economy in Suzhou has to learn to recognize and adapt to the new
normal, as well as grasp the new opportunities and address the challenges posed by the
new normal. The purpose is to motivate the vitality and promote the transformation
and upgrading of the non-governmental economy, so as to enhance the comprehensive
competitiveness. This is the key to maintain the sustainable economic growth, and also
an urgent research problem (Chen, 2009; Lu, 2013). There have been disputes regarding
the understanding and the definition of the scope of the non-governmental economy.
However, most scholars held that non-governmental economy is not equal to the private
economy, and apart from the private economy, non-governmental economy also includes
the private economy contained in the mixed economy. According to the definition of the
non-governmental economy in the Report on the Development of the Non-governmental
Economy in China 2003 (the Report 2003 for short hereinafter), on the one hand, non-
governmental economy is a general designation to the multi ownership economy which
is exclusive of the state owned and state holding enterprises. It includes the individual
business households, private enterprises, collective enterprises, enterprises invested by
Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan and foreign countries. On the other hand, non-governmental
economy does not include the enterprises invested by Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan and
foreign countries in a narrow sense. The non-governmental economy appearing in this
report generally refers to the non-governmental economy in a narrow sense. Based on
the narrow definition of the non-governmental economy in the Report 2003, the private
enterprises and individual workers were incorporated into the non-governmental
economy in this research. By doing so, this research aimed to explore the development
perspective of the non-governmental economy in Suzhou under the background of the
new normal, so as to reveal the problem facing the economy. Based on this, this research
explored corresponding countermeasures so as to provide scientific evidence for the
government’s decision-making (Esteban, 1994; Qian, 2013).

2. The Current Situation and Problem of the Non-governmental


Economy in Suzhou
2.1. The Overall Scale
The overall scale of the non-governmental economy in Suzhou is great, and has been
increasing year by year. As shown in the latest statistical yearbook of Suzhou in 2014,
the number of the registered private enterprises and individual business households was
705,404 in 2013, in which there were 255,722 registered private enterprises, increasing
by 11.37% compared with the 229,618 in 2012. Meanwhile, the number of the individual
business households was 449,682, increasing by 8.35% compared with the 415,023
in 2012. The total number of the employees in the non-governmental economy was
4,438,447 in 2013, which presented an increase of 14.6% compared with that in 2012.
Thereinto, the numbers of the employees in the private enterprises and the individual
business households were 3,539,530 and 898,917 respectively, which increased by
15.37% and 11.51% separately compared with those in 2012. The total amount of the

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registered capitals in the non-governmental economy was 995.41876 billion yuan in


2013, presenting an increase of 14.5% compared with that in 2012. Thereinto, the total
amount of the registered capitals in private enterprises and the registered capitals per
household were 966.20638 billion yuan and 3.7783 million yuan separately, which
increased by 14.15% and 2.5% respectively compared with those in 2012, as shown in
Table 1. In addition, as demonstrated in the statistical bulletin regarding the national
economy and social development of Suzhou in 2014, the number of the registered private
enterprises and individual business households in Suzhou was 785,200 by the end of
2014, increasing by 11.3% compared with that of the last year. Thereinto, the numbers
of the private enterprises and individual business households were 295,600 and 489,600
respectively, which presented an increase of 15.6% and 8.9% separately compared with
those of 2013. Meanwhile, the amount of the registered capitals in private enterprises and
individual business households was 1,183.02 billion yuan, growing by 18.8% compared
with that in 2013. The total amount of the private investment was 332.18 billion yuan,
presenting an increase of 1.8% compared with that in 2013, and accounted for 53.3% of
the total investment in the fixed assets.

increased
Main indexes 2013 2012
proportion
The total number of the enterprises 255722 229618 11.37%
The number of the employees 3539530 3067910 15.37%
Private Registered capital (ten thousand
enterprises 96620638 84646807 14.15%
yuan)
Registered capital per household
377.83 368.64 2.5%
(104yuan)
The total number of households 449682 415023 8.35%
Individual
business The number of the employees 898917 806147 11.51%
households
Registered capital (104yuan) 2921238 2514328 16.18%

Table 1 – The overall situation of the non-governmental economy in Suzhou

2.2. The Industrial Structure


The industrial structures in the non-governmental economy of Suzhou are generally
in the following order: tertiary industry> secondary industry> primary industry from
the perspective of the numbers of the enterprises and employees, and the proportion
of the registered capitals. Meanwhile, tertiary industry accounts for a great proportion
in the non-governmental economy. As for the primary industry, except the registered
capital of the individual business households accounts for 1.4%, other indexes of the
individual business households and all the indexes of the private enterprises are all
less than 1%. Meanwhile, tertiary industry plays an absolute dominance in terms of the
numbers of the enterprises and employees, as well as the registered capitals. Thereinto,
as for the private enterprises, the numbers of the enterprises and employees, and the

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registered capitals are 156,894, 1,458,883 and 612,146.51 million yuan separately, which
account for the proportions of 61.3%, 41% and 63.3% respectively. The numbers of the
individual workers, related employees and registered capitals are 387,677, 682,378 and
2 2825.38 million yuan respectively, occupying the proportions of 86.2%, 75.9% and
78.1% separately, as shown in Table 2.
According to the analysis on the financial situations of the non-governmental industrial
enterprises above the designated size in 2013, the sectors where the main output
value and profit of the non-governmental industries above the designated size are
concentrated can be acquired. These sectors include the manufacturing industries of
the electrical machines, equipments, steel wire products and universal equipments,
the smelting and rolling processing industry of ferrous metals, manufacturing industry
of chemical fibers, textile and clothing. Obviously, except the textile and clothing
industries, all of the aforementioned industries belong to the heavy industry, and are
important pillars for the non-governmental enterprises. However, although these
industries have created primary economic contribution, they present great pollution
and energy consumption. In 2013, the tertiary industry in the non-governmental
economy of Suzhou mainly includes the traditional service industries such as wholesale
and retail businesses, leasing and business service industries, neighborhood service and
other service industries, accommodation and catering industries and so on. In contrast,
the strategic emerging industries such as new energy, new materials, biotechnology,
and new medicines take a small proportion. Meanwhile, they generally exhibit the
drawbacks including small scale and capital, single product structure, and low added
value and production efficiency.

Secondary industry Primary industry Tertiary industry


Main indexes
Quantity Proportion Quantity Proportion Quantity Proportion
enterprises
1501 0.6% 97327 38.1% 156894 61.3%
number
The
Private employees 14316 0.6% 2066331 58.4% 1458883 41%
enterprises number
Registered
capital 342509 0.4% 35063478 36.3% 61214651 63.3%
(104yuan)
households
1649 0.4% 60356 13.4% 387677 86.2%
number
employees
Individual 4119 0.5% 212420 23.6% 682378 75.9%
number
workers
Registered
capital 39785 1.4% 598915 20.5% 2282538 78.1%
(104yuan)

Table 2 – The industrial structure of the non-governmental economy in Suzhou in 2013

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2.3. The Social Contribution


The development of the non-governmental economy has offered considerable
job opportunities for the society. On the one hand, an increasing number of rural
populations flow into the urban areas, which promotes the urbanization process. On the
other hand, the workers laid off from the state-owned enterprises can be reemployed
by the non-governmental enterprises, which accelerate the reform of the state-owned
enterprises and promote the stability of the society. According to the latest statistical
yearbook of Suzhou in 2014, the total number of the employees working for the non-
governmental economy was 4,438,447 in 2013, accounting for 63.8% of those in all
economy types. This is the greatest contribution that the non-governmental economy
in Suzhou makes to the society. In addition, according to the statistics on the financial
situation of the above-scale non-governmental industries, it is discovered that there
were 5,910 enterprises in the above-scale non-governmental industries, presenting
an increase of 6% compared with that in 2012. Meanwhile, the gross industrial output
value, total assets, major business income and total profits created by these enterprises
were 1,009,750.34, 933,807.98, 1,004,889.69 and 34,167.3 million yuan respectively,
which increase by 10.2%, 11.3%, 8.8% and 7.6% separately compared with those in 2012.
The specific details are illustrated in Table 3. It is obtained that the non-governmental
economy in Suzhou is experiencing rapid development.

Main indexes 2013 2012


The overall condition of the non-governmental economy
The number of the employees 4438447 3874057
The proportion of the employees working for the non- 63.8 55.8
governmental economy in the total employees of the city (%)
The financial condition of the above-scale non-governmental industries
The number of the enterprises 5910 5577
Gross industrial output value (104 yuan) 100975034 91636331
Total assets (104 yuan) 93380798 83902432
Major business income (104 yuan) 100488969 92348541
Total profit(104 yuan) 3416730 3255194
Total profit and taxes (104 yuan) 5722267 5318733

Table 3 – The contribution of the non-governmental economy to Suzhou

2.4. The Scientific and Technological Level


As for the expenditures spent on the scientific research in the large and medium-
sized industrial enterprises in 2013, 1,554.83 million yuan was spent on the technical
transformation of the private enterprises. This was merely inferior to that of the limited
liability companies, and accounts for 27.8% of the total expenditures. The expenditure

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spent on the technology introduction was the minimum for being 56.41 million yuan,
which ranked the last place and accounted for a proportion of 3.2%. The expenditure
used to purchase domestic technology was little for being 6,4.31 million yuan, ranking
the second from the end and occupying 3.3% of the total expenditures. Besides, 3,471.38
million yuan was spent on the internal research and development, (R&D) which ranked
the fourth place and occupied 14.8% of the total expenditures. Compared with 2012,
all expenditures were increased except the expenditure used for purchasing domestic
technology, as demonstrated in Table 4.

Expenditure
Expenditure Expenditure spent on
Total internal
spent on spent on the purchasing
Item expenditure
technical technology the
spent on R&D
transformation introduction domestic
technology
Total amount 558532 170933 198791 2342437
Type of businesses
State-owned enterprise 3517 - - 6461
Collective Enterprise - - - 976
Cooperative stock corporation - - - 1722
Associated enterprise - - - 130
Limited liability company 169081 76222 167432 377927
Limited company 59480 6299 12417 162970
Private enterprise 155483 5641 6431 347138
Other enterprises - - - 2252
Enterprise invested by Hong 63050 41345 3821 437636
Kong, Macao and Taiwan
Foreign enterprise 107921 41427 8689 1005225

Table 4 – The expenditures spent on the technical transformation and introduction, absorption,
research and development in the large and medium-sized industrial enterprises in 2013
(104yuan)

The professional level of the technical personnels plays an important part in the research,
development and innovation of the enterprises. Table 5 displays the distribution
of the technical personnels in the enterprises of different economic types at the end
of 2013. It can be seen that the number of the technical personnels was 499,327 in
non-governmental enterprises, which was merely lower than that in the enterprises
funded by foreign countries, Hang Kong, Macao and Taiwan. Meanwhile, this number
accounted for 40.4% of that in the enterprises of various economic types. The numbers
of the personnels with senior and middle titles, postgraduates and undergraduates were
16,517, 110,660, 15,911 and 186,810 respectively, which occupied 3.3%, 22.2%, 3.2% and

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37.4% of the total personnels separately. These numbers all presented different degrees
of growth compared with those in 2012.
In general, non-governmental enterprises pay more attention to the technological
innovation and transformation. By the end of 2013, 505 non-governmental enterprises
have been engaged in the scientific and technological activities, accounting for 23.9% of
all enterprises. Among these non-governmental enterprises, 70.3% (355) participated
in R&D activities. With the enhanced ability of the scientific innovation and accelerated
scientific innovation, the number of the independent intellectual properties has been
increased. In 2013, the number of the patent applications was 4317 in private enterprises,
accounting for 27.3% of the total patent applications. Meanwhile, the number of the
invention patents in private enterprises was 3089, which showed an increment of 34
compared with that in the foreign-funded enterprises and ranked the first place among
all kinds of enterprises. However, few funds have been input into the innovation process.

Total Senior Middle Junior


Type Postgraduate Undergraduate
amount title title college
Total amount 1234777 55800 308325 55941 470340 500440
Public institution
owned by the 110505 16370 57771 6493 70570 26311
whole people
State-owned
9296 730 2433 721 4875 2847
enterprise
Enterprise
subordinated to
31210 3695 7141 5287 16448 6887
eachministry or
the province
Enterprise by
foreign countries,
Hang Kong, 584439 18488 130320 27529 191637 264508
Macao and
Taiwan
Non-
governmental 499327 16517 110660 15911 186810 199887
enterprise

Table 5 – The technical personnels in the enterprises with different economic


types at the end of 2013

In 2013, the expenditure spent on the technical transformation was 1,554.83 million
yuan in private enterprises, occupying 27.8% of the total expenditures. However, the
expenditure spent on the technology introduction was the minimum for being 56.41
million yuan, accounting for 3.2% of the total expenditures. The expenditure used for
purchasing domestic technology was 64.31 million yuan, merely with a proportion of
3.3%, which was lower than that in 2012. The internal expenditure spent on R&D was
3,471.38 million yuan, which occupied 14.8% of the total expenditures. It is inevitable

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Countermeasures and Support Environment for the Development of the Non-governmental Economy in Suzhou, China

that the insufficient input on innovation will affect the innovation ability and finally
impede the transformation and development of the non-governmental economy.
Meanwhile, there are absence of management talents and technical personnels in
the non-governmental enterprises. In 2013, the number of the technical personnels
in the non-governmental enterprises was 499,327, taking a proportion of 40.4%.
However, in these technical personnels, those with senior title accounted for 3.3%,
which was far lower than those in the public institutions owned by the whole people
(14.8%) and state-owned enterprises (7.9%). Meanwhile, the postgraduates in the non-
governmental enterprises took a proportion of 3.2%, which was lower than those in the
public institutions owned by the whole people (5.9%), state-owned enterprises (7.8%)
and enterprises funded by foreign countries, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan (4.7%). It
can be clearly seen that non-governmental enterprises have small proportions of the
technical personnels with high technical level and educational background.

3. The Countermeasures for Promoting the Healthy and Rapid


Development of the Non-governmental Economy in Suzhou
3.1. Promoting the Adjustment of the Industrial Structures and the
Characteristic Development of the Non-governmental Economy
Firstly, strategic emerging industries are supposed to be developed energetically. While
maintaining the competitive advantages of the traditional industries, the developing
plan of multiplying the emerging industries has to be implemented perseverely. That
is to say, non-governmental enterprises are encouraged to develop in the following
strategic emerging fields including new energy, new materials, new medicines, energy
conservation and environmental protection, biotechnology and internet of things.
Meanwhile, key support projects are set in these fields, accompanying with corresponding
preferences related to financing, taxes and scientific research, so as to gradually promote
the proportion of the emerging industries in the non-governmental economy of Suzhou.
Secondly, modern service industries are expected to be developed rapidly. It is suggested
to fully utilize the policy measures made by the governments of various levels for
promoting the development of the service industries and enhance the support degree
to the non-governmental service enterprises. Meanwhile, the policies proposed by
the municipal government to develop the modern service industry by separating the
manufacturing industries and the enterprises are required to be put into practice. By
doing so, the producer services such as scientific research, modern logistics, trade
marketing, specialized supply, industrial design, energy conservation service, and so on
can be promoted.
Thirdly, the characteristic development of the non-governmental economy needs to be
promoted. More attention is expected to be paid on small and medium-sized technology-
based enterprises, and the small and medium-sized enterprises with rapid growth, which
are characterized by great growth space, strong specialty characteristics and high technology
content. Meanwhile, by applying the specialty, refinement and unique as the objects,
these enterprises are subdivided and the characteristics are extracted on the precondition
of satisfying the common requirements. Afterwards, the all-round services including
information communication, product development, quality detection, management
consultation and technology introduction are pointedly provided in these enterprises.

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3.2. Striving to Improve the Product Quality and Enhancing the Level of
Brand Building
Firstly, policy guidance is utilized and enterprises are encouraged to produce the products
with high technical content, great market capacity and high added value. Meanwhile, top
priority requires to be given on the quality of the products by energetically implementing
the overall quality control system and standards. Besides, the quality of products needs to
be evaluated by the quality supervision organizations of various levels. In addition, non-
governmental enterprises are encouraged to strive for the various high-quality awards.
The enterprises with high quality and excellent brands are supposed to be awarded, and
advertised as the benchmark, model and star enterprises through vigorous propaganda,
so as to stimulate other enterprises to imitate and learn.
Secondly, it is suggested to implement the relevant rules of intellectual property
management issued by the state, Jiangsu province and Suzhou, so as to comprehensively
promote the number and quality of the patent applications in the non-governmental
economy. Meanwhile, attentions are supposed to be paid to the registration, protection
and management of the intellectual properties such as trademarks and brands, so as
to develop a group of model and competitive enterprises with intellectual property.
Enterprises are encouraged to implement the brand and famous brand strategies,
and thus enhance the brand consciousness and quality consciousness. In addition, it
is necessary to comprehensively promote the establishment of the quality system, so
as to adopt the idea of producing high quality products, and building famous brands
and favorable image for the non-governmental enterprises as objectives. Moreover, the
registration, application, management and protection levels of the trademarks require
to be further improved.

3.3. Increasing the Research Input and Enhancing the Capability of


Independent Innovation
Firstly, the various policies for supporting the technical innovation are supposed to be
implemented. These policies include the pre-tax super-deduction of research expenses,
favorable income tax for high-tech enterprises and technically advanced service
outsourcing enterprises, and rewarding the enterprises that establish the research
institutions and undertake the key science and technology projects of the state. Non-
governmental enterprises are encouraged to carry out the research and development on
the products and technologies based on the innovation. Meanwhile, enterprises should
appeal innovative talents and increase the research and development input by applying
the innovation and excellence as the objectives, so as to enhance the comprehensive
competitiveness. Meanwhile, non-governmental enterprises should employ, utilize
and retain the various management and technical talents according to their own
characteristics. The government should assist the non-governmental enterprises in
enhancing the intensity of talent introduction by providing service platforms. Various
policies and measures are utilized to guide and help the non-governmental enterprises
to promote the creation of the intellectual property through independent development
and university-industry cooperation. This can promote the transformation and
industrialization of the scientific and technological achievements, and thus enhance the
innovation capacity and core competitiveness of the enterprises.

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Countermeasures and Support Environment for the Development of the Non-governmental Economy in Suzhou, China

Secondly, based on the processes of the project application, project approval, financial
support and achievement transformation of the non-governmental economy in Suzhou,
the government should provide support and fund for the independently innovated
products. And the industrialization process for the products of the non-governmental
economy should be promoted. Meanwhile, relevant guides are expected to be formulated
to carry out the policy of purchasing the independently innovated products of the non-
governmental enterprises preferentially through the governments. By applying the
market demand as the guide, enterprises are encouraged to integrate with the universities
and scientific research institutions, so as to learn from each other’s advantages and carry
out associated research and development. The advantages of the emerging media such as
internet and twitter are supposed to be fully utilized, so as to create the high-tech sharing
platform that integrates information interaction, combination of industry-university-
research and achievement transformation. By doing so, the enterprise innovation can be
promoted by the three parts jointly.

3.4. Increasing the Efficiency of Energy Utilization and the Comprehensive


Utilization of Resources
Firstly, strict indexes and criterions require to be established in the processes of applying
and approving the projects. In this way, the initiation and development of the industries
with high energy consumption and pollution can be completely avoided, so that high
energy consumption and pollution are controlled from the sources. Meanwhile, strict
energy audit needs to be conducted on the heavy industry related projects that have
been implemented, so as to observe the energy consumption of the project constantly.
Meanwhile, to highlight energy conservation and transformation, the heavy industry
related projects are encouraged to utilize new energy of pollution free. Besides,
environmental protection departments have to carry out the environmental assessment
strictly, and release the assessment results in public. As to the projects or industries fail
to qualify the environmental assessment, the environmental protection departments
should supervise and urge them to rectify and reform within the deadline. If the projects
or industrials still cannot reach the standards after the rectification, they are ordered to
be closed. By doing so, the energy efficiency level of the non-governmental enterprises in
the industries with heavy energy consumption is further improved. This aims to make the
energy consumption per unit products reach the domestic advanced level, and encourage
enterprises to compete for the “Energy Star”.
Secondly, the enterprises should focus on promoting the source reduction, recycling,
remanufacturing, zero emission, and the development and application of industry
ecologicalization. Meanwhile, circular economy is encouraged to be developed in the
fields including industries, services, modern agriculture and vein industry to form a
batch of circular economy-based model enterprises. In addition, cleaner production
is supposed to be comprehensively implemented especially in the chemical, brewing,
papermaking, electroplating, textile, dyeing, building materials, steel industries and so
on. This aims to develop a batch of cleaner production-based model enterprises, and the
enterprises where resources can be comprehensively utilized.

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4. The Overall Support for the Development of the Non-governmental


Economy in Suzhou
4.1. Talent Environment
The introduction and cultivation of high-quality talents need to be accelerated.
Enterprises and governments have to actively take advantage of the activity platforms
such as “the week of the international elite in Suzhou”, “annual meeting concerning
the development of the merchants in Suzhou”, “win in Suzhou”, “plan for introducing
overseas talents” and “talent introduction plan on campus”. Meanwhile, excellent
management and technical personnels at home and abroad require to be introduced
actively. And relaxed environment and preferential policies are provided for them so
as to cultivate the excellent non-governmental entrepreneurs and establish the efficient
teams of non-governmental enterprises. Particularly, the leading personnels playing
an important part in the innovation and entrepreneurship of the emerging strategic
industries such as new energy, new medicine and biotechnology need to be introduced.
In this way, the advanced international experience and superb technical level possessed
by them can preferably serve the non-governmental economy in Suzhou. Meanwhile,
non-governmental enterprises have to widen their channels in employing, utilizing and
retaining talents. In a word, the innovation, transformation and upgrading of the non-
governmental enterprises can be promoted by creating a favorable talent environment.

4.2. Financial Environment


Multiple financing channels need to be explored. At present, financing difficulty is still
the maximum bottleneck restricting the rapid development of the mall and medium
non-governmental enterprises. According to the relevant surveys, most of the non-
governmental enterprises raise funds through borrowing from friends, internal fund-
raising of the enterprises, non-governmental financing load and interbank funding
between enterprises. These irregular financing channels present high risks. Therefore, it is
important to vigorously exploit the financial channels of various types, and comprehensively
give play to the functions of the credit financing, equity financing and debt financing,
as well as further widen the financing policies. All of these factors determine whether
or not non-governmental enterprises can realize the rapid development. When it comes
to the credit financing, commercial banks are encouraged to provide the corresponding
supports regarding the discount interest or risk compensation for the loan of mall and
medium enterprises. Meanwhile, financial institutions are encouraged to develop the
financial derivatives which are suitable for the characteristics of the non-governmental
enterprises, and increase the credit load placement in small enterprises. Meanwhile,
guarantee industries have to be standardized strictly, and supervised comprehensively
in terms of the industry permission, business operation, credit rating and industry
management. This can ensure that the guarantee scale is increasingly enlarged, and the
standards of business operation are strictly implemented, so as to promote the healthy
and ordered development of the guarantee industry.

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4.3. Government Environment


It is necessary to create a powerful government environment and accelerate the
construction of the public service platforms. Great quantity and high quality of non-
governmental enterprises are required by the “New Normal”. Accordingly, the
governments of various levels are required to actively promote the function transformation,
and correctly deal with the relationships between the government and the markets and
enterprises in particular. The purpose is to cultivate the entrepreneurship and promote
the transformation and upgrading of the non-governmental economy. As is well known,
the non-governmental economy in Suzhou has not been treated fairly in terms of the
tax preference in the past few years. Therefore, relevant government departments have
to give more positive supports to the capital financing, information consultation, talent
introduction and technical progress. Meanwhile, the governments need to establish
the joint conference system and hold meetings among all the member units in leading
groups of the non-governmental economy. In this way, the key and difficult problems
existing in the transformation and upgrading of the non-governmental economy can
be discussed and negotiated regularly. Meanwhile, the governments require to be
collaborated with the enterprises, chambers of commerce and associations to establish
the service platforms including information publishing, technical exchange, quality
evaluation and management consultation. Besides, based on the principles of resource
sharing, openness and compatibility, specialized services are expected to be provided for
the non-governmental economy, especially for the emerging strategic industries, so as to
satisfy the common demands of the non-governmental economy.

Acknowledgments
This work was supported in part by a grant from National Natural Science Foundation
of China (Number: 71002017). This work was supported in part by a grant from
Philosophical and Social Science Foundation of University in Jiangsu Province
(Number: 2014SJB548). This work was supported in part by a grant from “333” Projects
Foundation of Jiangsu Province. (Number: BRA2015417).

References
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819–851.
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da QualidadeemUnidadesHospitalares. RISTI-RevistaIbérica de Sistemas e
Tecnologias de Informação, (14), 1–15.
Jiang, X. (2009). Exploration on the Way of Realizing Scientific Development in Suzhou.
China Collective Economy, 9, 64–65.

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Lu, Y., Chen, X. (2013). Analysis on Operational Efficiency of Private Economy.


Enterprise Economy, 6, 97–100.
Pan, S. (2006). Debate on the Implication of Non-state Economy and Comment on It.
Economic Survey, 6, 85–87.
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Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação Recebido/Submission: 05/03/2016
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

Effectiveness of College Counselors’ Work and


Ideological Education Based on Multimedia Platform

Pingqian Guo 1, Yafeng Zhang 2,*

* szxyzyf@163.com

1
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Suzhou University, Suzhou city, Anhui province,
234000, China
2
Suzhou University, Suzhou city, Anhui province, 234000, China
Pages: 50–60

Abstract: With the development of electronic information, ideological and political


education presents a new feature. At the same time, the influence of the network
is gradually infiltrated into political education, which provides opportunities and
challenges for the ideological and political education. In this paper, the author test
the effectiveness of counselors’ work based on multimedia platform data, results
show that 85% students think the counselor has great influence to their mental
health and future career development, and 83.3% counselors feel satisfied with
their work. In order to improve the effectiveness of the counselors, college should
establish a clear, scientific management system and professional development
mechanism. Also, college should strength the responsibility of counselors, and
enhances the work loyalty.
Keywords: Network education, college counselors, multimedia platform,
ideological education

1. Introduction
Electronic media will bring revolution to our society, with the arrival of the era of
electronic information, ideological and political education presents a new feature.
At the same time, the influence of the network is gradually infiltrated into the
process of Ideological and political education, which provides opportunities and
challenges for the ideological and political education (Mastroleo, 2010; Carrell,
2014). Correctly grasp the characteristics of Ideological and political education in
the network environment, seize the opportunity, meet the challenge, innovate the
ideological and political education, and become the era subject of the ideological and
political education in the network environment. College counselors and teachers are
the backbone of College Students’ Ideological and political education, and play an
important role in the ideological and political education of students. To strengthen
the team building is an organizational guarantee for the ideological and political
education of college students (Huang, 2013; Sá, 2012; Alavi,2012). Questionnaire
survey shows that our instructors in Colleges and universities in the age structure, the
school record structure, subject structure, position / Title structure showing a certain

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characteristics; types of counselors is diversified and to the construction of professional


counselors. To improve the counselor and teacher troop overall quality must provide
corresponding policy, security conditions, strengthen the construction of the team.
Network education is to actively integrate the advantages of the network resources for the
ideological and political education, the establishment of professional web sites to provide
a solid technical support, and create a positive network culture atmosphere (Khansa,
2015; Catts,2015). To the advantage of relying on the campus culture construction,
the informatization, digitalization and network construction of embedded in the
ideological and political education system, through the network to achieve full coverage,
full integration, full penetration of the correct ideas of communication theory. At the
same time, to create a is familiar with the work of Ideological and political education,
and proficient in the dissemination of knowledge, is good at network technology of the
composite type of Ideological and political education teachers, is particularly important
to grasp the initiative in the construction of network environment (Anand, 2010; Michel,
2012; Sabella, 2010). High quality ideological and political teachers should have a high
level of political theory, can skillfully apply the communication skills to the ideological
and political education activities, and skillfully use the network to guide the correct
direction of public opinion.

2. Multimedia learning platform


2.1. E-learning platform
The ideological and Political Education under the network environment created by
the communication and interaction with extensive model of openness and contact
information, make the educated can according to the needs of active search, take the
initiative to seek, education of “push” become educated “pull”. The media resources of
Ideological and political education in the network environment are open. Multimedia
classroom as shown in figure 1 and content of E-learning platform as shown in figure 2.

Figure 1 – Multimedia classroom


The network environment brings both opportunities and challenges to ideological and
political education. First, the network has expanded the position of Ideological
and political education. The special medium of the network has the ability of
mass information storage, and its nonlinear spread has the characteristics of wide
coverage, so it can enrich the content of the ideological and political education of the
network. In addition, traditional and single way of Ideological and political education
in classroom and book as the basis, relatively fixed location, narrow coverage of

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Effectiveness of College Counselors’ Work and Ideological Education Based on Multimedia Platform

Figure 2 – Content of E-learning platform

information, the influence is small, the network to make ideological and political
education get rid of the constraints of time, to improve the students’ participation
and initiative; illustrated, intuitive image information, the effect of the ideological
and political education is also greatly enhanced. Moreover, under the environment
of network ideological and political education on the subject and object of duality,
the educators in the interactive network, can quickly grasp the latest and most
comprehensive education information feedback, greatly enhancing the effectiveness
of Ideological and political education work, to further strengthen the educational
function of Ideological and political education.

2.2. Counselors work under network environment


Network information technology has a revolutionary impact on the development of
Ideological and political education, must be highly valued. The network breaks the
boundaries between the real world and the virtual world, and creates a good atmosphere
for the ideological and political education to create an equal, open and democratic
dialogue. In the traditional sense, the identity of the subject and object of education in the
network environment shows more dual nature and anonymity, which makes the equal
status of education both have been further strengthened, narrowing the psychological
distance of their communication. Network between the educators and the educated,
set up a communication bridge, it can be to exclude the interference factors under the
condition of the educated are more willing to adopt the equal dialogue and education,
giving vent to their true feelings. Educators can also interact with the educated in the
process of equality, Multimedia learning principles as shown in figure 3.

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Figure 3 – Multimedia learning principles

3. Research design and variables


3.1. Network questionnaire
Strengthening the construction of Ideological and political education work team is
an organizational guarantee to strengthen and improve the ideological and political
education of College students. Now, the main body of the ideological and political
education of college students is the school party and government cadres and the
Communist Youth League cadres, ideological and political theory course and the study of
social science teachers, counselors and teachers. Among them, the instructor, the teacher
in charge is the moral education in Colleges and universities to carry out the ideological
and political education of the backbone of the force. Therefore, the understanding of the
current college counselors, the basic situation of the class teacher team, to study their
characteristics, to effectively strengthen the construction of college counselors, class
teachers has a very important significance.

Figure 4 – Network questionnaire


Through the network questionnaire, we choose 600 counselors as research samples.
Among them, 15 undergraduate colleges and universities, the instructors population

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accounted for 40%; 13 in higher vocational colleges, instructor’s population accounted


for 33.9%; private colleges, instructor’s population accounted for 26.1%.

3.2. Current situation of College Counselors


College counselors, the age structure of the class teacher team is the basic state of the
team, it reflects the survival and development of the team, see table 1. These cases
illustrate that one aspect the present stage in China’s colleges and universities counselors,
head teachers younger degree is high, at the same time that they are a with vigor and
vitality, energetic, young and energetic team; on the other hand, existing university
counselor team from thing students ideological and political education work experience,
experience and they engaged in university teachers or related work experience is closely
related to. Questionnaire survey showed that the case, just graduated from college in
counselors, the work of a teacher in charge of a class, about 20%, they are engaged in the
ideological and political education work experience with them in college work experience
almost simultaneously can say they are in “learning by doing”. In a sense, the rich long-
term engaged in the ideological and political education of students work experience and
experience of counselors, teacher in charge, with the growth of the age and the number
of less and less trend.

instructor Age number percentage

youth 22-25 years old 108 18.5%


middle age 26-30 years old 257 43.6%

old age 31-35 years old 132 22.6%


youth 36-40 years old 43 7.3%
41-55 years old 30 5.0%
middle age
46-50 years old 18 3.0%

Table 1 – Age distribution of College Counselors


Counselors, teachers should have higher education levels than other teachers in general,
which is adequate for the work of college students to work, the objective needs of
ideological education work. At present, the academic structure of college counselors and
teachers in charge of the class is mostly college degree. Among them, with a bachelor’s
degree accounted for 66% of the survey, with a graduate degree as 31.8%; with the
proportion of doctoral graduate degree is only 2.2%. Thus, although the current college
counselors, the master’s degree in line with the basic standards, but there is a gap
between the requirements of college instructors, see table 2.

education number percentage


undergraduate 396 66.0
graduate student 191 31.8
doctor 13 2.2

Table 2 – Educational structure of College Counselors

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According to the results of questionnaire survey, the subject structure of college counselors
and head teachers in Colleges and universities is in line with the situation of college type.
Overall, most of the professional training of counselors, class teacher on the ideological
and political education to do a good job in the preparation of knowledge related to lack of
knowledge. Therefore, it is urgent and important to strengthen the training work of the
counselors and teachers in charge of the class. From the results of our survey, the current
counselor, teacher team of subject structure has the following characteristics: has the
philosophy and social science disciplines and subjects accounted for 9.6% of investigation
number, with education, psychology and sociology majors accounted for 3.8%, the subject
designed industry and related to counselors professional requirements closer to, but
both add up to only 13.4%, relatively few. With humanities disciplines (16.7%), with the
economics and management disciplines of 12.9%, with science and engineering majors
accounted for 22.5%, according to counselors in Ideological and political education of
college students need professional knowledge structure, we need to give them related
disciplines of training and learning. Details of the survey are shown in table 3.

education number percentage


Philosophy 55 9.6%
Education and psychology 23 3.8%
language 101 16.7%
Economics & management 224 37.9%
Polytechnic 135 22.5%
other 61 10.4

Table 3 – Subject structure of the instructor

4. Effectiveness of counselors’ work


4.1. Job evaluation
The primary object of the work of the counselors is the students; the basic goal is the
comprehensive development of students and talent. So, evaluation of the effectiveness of
the work of counselors, the most have the right to speak the students should be. Survey
shows that students think that counselors are college / University contact most, for their
help the greatest that counselor’s work of self-growth of physical and mental health
and future career development has great guidance and guidance. Among them, 85%
students think that the influence of personal counselor, counselors work is very effective,
promotes the growth and ability of his thoughts, help yourself to shape the good outlook
on life; 11.5% students think of counselors in general, just now life trivia and habits form;
only 3.5% students think the effectiveness of counselor work basic is not reflected. By the
difference analysis it is found that student cadre of counselor effectiveness evaluation
of higher than non-student cadre, think counselor is his mentor and close friend of the
student cadres accounted for 74.5% those counselors is to guide the work of student
cadres accounted for 15%. In addition, a student of counselor effectiveness evaluation is
generally higher than that of students in other grades; they think counselor is to adapt
herself to the primary guide for college life.

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Student grade
Evaluation number percentage
Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4
Very effective 510 85% 245 160 103 92
commonly 77 11.5% 32 24 15 6
No effect 13 3.5% 2 3 4 3

Table 4 – Evaluation of students’ work


Counselors work is effective, in addition to student evaluation, the Counselor’s
self-awareness and self-evaluation is also very important. From the Counselor’s self-
evaluation data, most of them are “more satisfied” and “general”, said “very satisfied”
only 2.1%, said “not satisfied” and “very dissatisfied” only 7.5%. From the subjective
evaluation, the majority of counselors believe that they have the basic ability and
quality, can be competent for the work of counselors. Among them, 26% counselors said
that “fully qualified” this work, 64.8% counselors said “basic competence”, 8.55% the
counselors said “barely competent”, and 0.65% of the counselors said “not competent”.
Influenced by the social environment and the development ideas and ideas of higher
education, the college counselors are still at the edge of the University, and the
recognition of the effectiveness of the work is not high. First of all, the importance of
College Leadership on the work of counselors is not high. Think that the work of college
counselors is very important in 20.4%, that the work of college counselors is more
important than 36.5%, that the work of College Counselors in general and the following
43.2%. In Colleges and universities, the importance of leadership to teaching is generally
higher than the degree of attention to the work of counselors. Although most colleges and
universities believe that the work of counselors is indispensable, but when the school has
a major policy choices and development choices, the work of the counselors are always
pushed or ignored. Secondly, the other administrative departments of the education and
ideological understanding of the work of counselors is not enough, it does not recognize.
Most departments believe that the instructor is only responsible for the implementation
of the Department’s work arrangements, the implementation of good, good is effective,
and does not require the work of innovation. Again, full-time teachers, work of counselors
there discrimination that instructors lack of professional theory and ability to conduct
scientific research and teaching research, as long as the discipline of students do a good
job is effective. In addition, although the state policies and regulations of teachers and
administrators have dual identity, but in many colleges and universities, counselors are
excluded from the teachers, a lot of relevant treatment and policy cannot enjoy.

evaluation number percentage


Fully qualified 156 26%
Basic competence 384 64.8%
Barely qualified 50 8.55%
Not competent 4 0.65

Table 5 – Counselors’ self-evaluation

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4.2. Factors affecting the effectiveness of College Counselors’ work


The effectiveness of the work of college counselors plays an important guiding role
in promoting the growth of college students, maintaining the stable development of
colleges and universities. But due to the influence of subjective and objective factors, the
effectiveness of counselor work haven’t been fully implemented, did not fully play its role
as the core of Ideological and political education, did not obtain the development level
and status and teaching the same. Through investigation and analysis, the reasons that
influence the effectiveness of the work of college counselors mainly include: subjective
factors of counselors’ professional value orientation, education, personal qualities, etc.;
the execution of national policies, counselor team management and counselor career
development system, objective factors. The objective factor is the key to determine the
effectiveness of college counselors’ work at present. Subjective reasons as the lack of life
value orientation of higher vocational attitude, value orientation is refers to the subject of
value based on his view in the face and deal with all kinds of contradictions, conflicts and
relations to basic value of the position, attitude and value and the basic value orientation.
The overall value of student work concept is to “educating people” as the ultimate goal.
The survey data show that the positive effectiveness of counselors occupation attitude and
related work. The subjective is more willing to engage in the occupation of the effectiveness
of counselors’ work satisfaction is higher. Among them, “very happy” to choose the
occupation counselors, 83.3% of people said it was “very satisfied or satisfied with my job”.
“Not willing” or “very happy” to choose this occupation counselor, only 11.1% of people
said it was “satisfactory” in their work, feel very satisfied with the people there. Thus, the
subjective value orientation of counselors is an important factor affecting the effectiveness
of counselors’ work. From this investigation can see that most of the counselors targeting
education is relatively low (see Table 6), completely ignore the education uniqueness
of counselor work, did not distinguish between Counselors and other teachers in the
educational function of the difference. The most fundamental reason lies in the fact that the
target of the counselor education deviates from the highest level of educational philosophy.

sort goals number percentage


1 Let students have mental health 233 43.1%
2 Let students become law-abiding people 117 21.7%
3 Let students become knowledgeable people 109 20.2%
4 Let students have good moral quality 68 12.6%
5 Let students to set up the lofty ideal of communism 12 2.2%

Table 6 – Educational goal orientation of Counselors


Counselor’s personal accomplishment structure is not perfect, a person’s quality
performance in many aspects, mainly through the individual in life, work and other
aspects of behavior and way of doing things. The personal qualities, which are the most
closely related to the effectiveness of the instructors, include ideological and political
quality, moral quality, psychological quality, knowledge theoretical quality, ability
quality and physical quality. Stress quality has been put in the most important position,
and the counselors’ Ideological and political quality, moral quality, psychological quality
and other personal qualities have not received more attention, no better performance

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of the actual value. Counselors individual quality structure is not perfect, resulting
in counselor in philosophy, education methods and personality exist certain defects,
concept of value for students of education and training of the impact and effectiveness of
counselor work difficult to achieve the essential purpose of education.
The objective reason is the key to the effectiveness of College Counselors’ work at
present. It can be said that the constraints of the objective factors lead to the generation
of subjective factors. Among them, the most important of the three objective reasons is
staffing and future career development of counselor of the division of responsibilities and
counselors. Staffing imbalance leads to low work efficiency, college counselors personnel
equipped with low proportion, counselors with number of students overall side. As can be
seen, the number of students with 92% of the counselors does not meet the requirements,
the number of people outside the Department of education. And the number of students
with too much, will inevitably affect the effectiveness of education and management of
counselors, and reduce the effectiveness of the work of counselors. Survey shows that
the number of students and counselors work effectiveness was negatively correlated.
Among them, with 200 students under the counselor to work effectively said “very
satisfied” or “more satisfied” accounted for 76%, said “dissatisfied” or “very dissatisfied”
0; with more than 500 students counselors to work effectively expressed “very satisfied”
or “relatively satisfied” with the proportion as 23.2%, expressed “dissatisfied” or “very
dissatisfied” proportion was 17.7%. As can be seen, with the increase in the number
of students, the effectiveness of counselors work is gradually reduced, the number of
students is an important factor affecting the effectiveness of the work of counselors.
The core function of the instructor is to cultivate students’ Ideological Education
and ability, to guide students to establish a correct world outlook, outlook on life and
values. But the survey found that the time distribution of the daily work of counselors
deviated from the core functions, resulting in a functional alienation. In this survey,
the distribution of weekly working hours of the counselors were classified and sorted,
as shown in table 7.

sort goals number percentage


1 Managing student affairs 318 44.3%
2 Administrative affairs 183 17.5%
3 Students ability training 136 14.6%
4 Ideological Education 105 13.3%
5 Psychological counseling 132 8.1%
6 Learning Guide 65 5.2%

Table 7 – Daily work order of Instructors


Instructors engaged in too much work, have no time to take into account the student’s
ideological and political education, psychological education, career planning guidance, such
as the core work. This not only resulted in the alienation of the work of the counselors, but
also affected the effectiveness of the work of counselors. Survey shows that in the student
management affairs and administrative work of counselors, on the effectiveness of the
said satisfactory ratio were 48.6% and 26.2%, expressed not satisfied with the proportion

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of 9.9% and 39.9% respectively; while the time spent in the students of Ideological and
political education and ability training instructor, expressed on the effectiveness of the work
satisfaction rates were 61.2% and 62.3%, The proportions of the expressed dissatisfaction
were 4.1% and 2.1% respectively. It can be explained that the reasonable distribution of
the daily working hours and the correct exercise of their work responsibilities are the key
to the effectiveness of the counselors’ work. From the order of table 8, we can see that the
most hope for the reform of the mechanism is also the main objective difficulties faced by
college counselor’s work. Therefore, to fundamentally improve the effectiveness of the work
of counselors, the reform of the management system for counselors, to create a clear and
smooth development of the mechanism is the key.

sort goals number percentage


1 Scientific division 355 21.9%
2 Improve work treatment 322 19.9%
3 career development mechanism 278 17.2%
4 Increase training opportunities 259 16%
5 Clarify the job responsibilities 153 9.4%
6 Enhance the value identity 149 9.2%
7 Strengthen examination management 63 3.9%
8 psychological counseling courses 40 2.5%

Table 8 – Content of school reform

5. Conclusions
In order to improve the effectiveness of counselors’ works, we need to improve the
quality of the subjective and the objective of the management system. On the one hand,
instructor to improve the effectiveness of self-work, set counselors undertaking the value
pursuit of the ideal, the pursuit of external urge to internalize the occupational interest
and value; on the other hand, a clear, scientific management system and professional
development mechanism, do “management guide, management development. Effective
ideological and political educators and educational objects should have the effectiveness
of including potential energy, kinetic energy dimension two dimensions. Embodied
in dimensional potential energy efficiency of the ideological and political education of
Ideological and political education in the strong subject consciousness, cause of the
ideological and political education work and sense of responsibility, kinetic energy
efficiency as a concrete manifestation of the ideological and political education of political
accomplishment, personality, theoretical preparation, teaches education practice ability.
Therefore, to enhance the effectiveness of counselors work, the first is to start from the
two dimensions of the potential energy and the kinetic energy dimension.
First of all, school should establish the career of the career concept. Through publicity,
strengthen the sense of responsibility and sense of mission counselors, counselors to
enhance the cause of loyalty. Secondly, enhance the professional interests and the sense
of happiness, and create an atmosphere of recognition and respect for the instructor
in the school. In the policy formulation should respect the opinions of the Counselor

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Group, in the work to affirm the value of the work of counselors and results, so that the
instructor group in the school has a sense of status and honor. To implement flexible
management, strengthen the humanistic care of the instructor. We should actively expand
the development platform for counselors, to provide a chance to show self talent, realize
the value of self, so that the counselor to obtain a lasting career happiness. Secondly,
in order to improve the teaching practice ability of counselors to create ways. Through
the activities of external communication, business learning and training, counselors
and other ways to strengthen the training of counselors and other ways to expand the
exchange of counselors. Again, relieve the pressure of the counselor’s career. Through
the organization investigation, establishment of counselor club, carry out the campus
cultural activities, organization experience the outdoor type development activities and
counselor forum and Sharon and other ways to carry out, for counselors provide diverse
relieve pressure and emotion regulation of the platform.

References
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Marketing, 24, 222–238.
Carrell, S., Hoekstra, M. (2014). Are school counselors an effective education input?
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Schools in Lebanon. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 185, 381–387.
Mastroleo, N. R., Turrisi, R. (2010). Examination of posttraining supervision of peer
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Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação Recebido/Submission: 05/03/2016
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 10/03/2016

The Influence of Strategic HRM on Enterprise


Performance based on Online Survey and Data Mining

Shuxia Wang 1,2

szxywangshuxia@163.com

1
School of Management Engineering, Suzhou University, Suzhou city, Anhui province,234000, China
2
School of Management, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei city, Anhui province,
230026, China
Pages: 61–70

Abstract: With the development of information technology, data mining


technology is widely used in business survey and analysis. In this paper, the author
analyzes the influence of strategic HRM on enterprise performance. By using
structural equation method, the result shows that strategic HRM has positive
influence on enterprise performance, the path coefficient is 0. 546. At the same
time, staff training and the implementation of the performance salary is played the
adjustment effect. In conclusion, human resource is the carrier of innovation; the
strategic HRM can make the enterprise obtain the humans that meet the strategic
target and then produce the innovation performance.
Keywords: Data mining, strategic HRM, structural equation, employee training

1. Introduction
With the development of human resource management practice, management scholars
and practitioners pay more and more attention to the strategic value of human resources
(Jenster,1999; Zafar, 2013). Due to the acquisition, development and retention of human
resources is embedded in the unique history and culture of the enterprise, so it is the source
of enterprise’s unique competitive advantage. In order to realize the strategic value of
human resources, the management and operation of human resources must have a strategic
orientation, the enterprise needs to carry on the strategic human resources management
(David, 1997; Stone, 2015). Martell and Carroll in the 89 Fortune 500 companies in the
process of research found that 40% to 69% subsidiaries of the human resources department
to a certain extent, involved in the process of enterprise strategic management. Strategic
human resource management has always been an important issue in the research of human
resource management. The research shows that strategic human resource management
can improve the performance of the enterprise by cultivating the employee’s behavior in
line with the requirements of the organization strategy, promoting the employee’s behavior
consistent with the organization’s goal (Gree, 1999; Pereira, 2015).
Strategic human resource management will change the characteristics of enterprise
employees and shape the enterprise innovation culture, in order to improve the

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enterprise’s knowledge creativity, and thus improve the enterprise performance.


Strategic human resources management will be effective in the management of human
resource management and enterprise strategy to match the formation and development
of enterprise culture within the enterprise, and thus enhance the performance of
enterprises (James, 2013; Nagendra, 2014). Research shows that human resource
is the carrier of innovation, the strategic human resource management can make
the enterprise obtain the human resources that meet the strategic objectives of the
enterprise to carry on the enterprise innovation, and then produce the innovation
performance. Strategic human resource management will be in the enterprise interior
create innovative atmosphere, motivate employees to assume more risk and implement
positive “active” market, such as research and development strategy, promote the design
and implementation of internal corporate entrepreneurship strategy, build long-term
competitive advantage of enterprises (Hussain,2007). Based on the study of system
theory that different institutional environment, the influence degree of the enterprise
strategic human resource management of enterprise performance different, unfair
competition environment will hinder the strategic human resource management on firm
performance have positive effects and the support environment significantly strengthen
the strategic human resource management and enterprise performance between role
in promoting. On the basis of existing research, this study through career development
and employee training plan, performance salary, temporary staff management, and
other typical employee participation in management practice to examine the influence
of strategic human resource management on enterprise performance mechanism.

2. Data mining and prediction


2.1. Data mining
In the complex target, the analysis of massive data sets, there is no ready-made and can
meet the conditions of the general theory of the method of calculation. However, the neural
network has a great advantage in the ability of the high bearing capacity of the noise data
and the ability to classify the training data. Therefore, it is feasible and necessary to design
a data mining method based on neural network, and to use it in real world problems.
Artificial neural network can be used in data mining classification, clustering, feature
mining, prediction and pattern recognition and so on. Therefore, artificial neural network
plays an important role in data mining, the neural network hierarchy as shown in figure 1.

Figure 1 – The neural network hierarchy

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Neural Network Artificial has a strong computing power. First of all, there is a huge
parallel distributed structure; secondly, it has the ability to learn and the resulting
induction. Data mining refers to the process from a large number of incomplete, noisy,
fuzzy, random data, extracted implicit in which people do not know in advance, but also
potentially useful information and knowledge of the process. It is an effective means
of knowledge discovery. Discovered knowledge not only can be used for information
management, query optimization, decision support, process control, etc., but also can
be used for the maintenance of the data itself.

Figure 2 – data mining process

2.2. Data prediction


During the process of data mining, data mining is the core content of the whole process:
•• Classification and prediction: tutor supervision learning to find a group
to be able to describe the data collection of the typical characteristics of the
model, in order to be able to classification and recognition of unknown data
belongs to a category is unknown cases mapping to a discrete categories. The
main representation methods include: classification rules, decision trees,
mathematical formulas and neural networks.
•• Clustering analysis: unsupervised learning methods, according to the
different aggregation between internal data object of maximizing the similarity,
and the aggregation minimizing the similarity between objects “as the basic
clustering analysis principle, the clustering analysis of data object is divided into
several groups. Each cluster analysis to obtain the group can be considered for a
similar don’t belong to the set of data objects, further from the same data set, and
can obtain the corresponding classification prediction model (rules) through the
classification study. In addition, a hierarchical model of the initial data set can
be obtained by the repeated clustering analysis of the obtained clustering group.
•• Outlier analysis: the analysis of isolated point data, in which the data is
usually excluded from the data mining analysis of data mining analysis of
the data.

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Figure 3 – Data prediction based on GMDH Shell

3. Research assumption
Huselid put forward some of the human resource practices known as “best practices”
are often superior to other human resource practices, thus promoting the improvement
of organizational performance. Employees are actively involved in the organization
of the business to expand the autonomy of employees, by stimulating their internal
needs to increase the input of employees. So let employees to participate in enterprise
management practice, improve the activities of the enterprise strategic participation
degree and its ability, so as to make the enterprise by improving the effectiveness of
strategic management of strategic human resources management are the effective
supplement. When the enterprises to carry out the strategy of the new human resources
by allowing employees to participate in the decision-making process, and let them know
the organization’s current business information to improve the staff to the acceptance
of the new HR strategy and investment. Trade unions participate in the sharing of
detailed information about strategic decisions made by employers and employees to
work together to improve performance. Career development and training opportunities
can help employees acquire the ability to implement strategies. Performance based on
personal interests and the company aims to motivate employees to achieve the strategic
objectives of human resource management. There are many temporary jobs (for example,
contract workers and temporary workers) in the enterprise, the cooperative relationship
between temporary and regular employees is the key to the effective implementation
of strategies. Therefore, we think that a variety of typical let employee opportunity
to actively participate in management practice, such as union participation, career
development and staff training plan, pay for performance, temporary staff management
etc., strategic human resources management more efficiency. But given to Chinese
enterprises especially private economies, trade unions are often non-existent, even in
large state-owned unions are often just collective activities of the organizers or material
welfare payment, trade unions to participate in the formulation of the strategy of the

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possibility is very small, so we will mainly discuss the career development and staff
training plan, pay for performance, temporary staff management three typical employee
participation in management practice activities can be of assistance in strategic human
resource management play effectiveness and impact on enterprise performance.

3.1. Career development and employee training program


Enterprise’s unique human capital is the fundamental source of competitive advantage.
In order to cope with the changing environment and gain sustainable competitive
advantage, enterprises must develop flexible human capital to quickly adapt to the
possible occurrence of enterprise strategic change. Career development plans to expand
the capacity of employees, to provide support for career development. Employee training
programs give employees the opportunity to acquire skills and knowledge to improve job
performance. Through career development and employee training programs, employees
are exposed to a wide range of knowledge and perspectives, so that they are no longer
resistant to change, and more willing to accept new knowledge and creative approaches.
In this regard, the rich career development and staff training extended the can be
used for the implementation of the strategy of human resources, and help enterprises
to flexibly adjust the human resource to meet various strategic demand. Therefore,
career development and employee training programs can expand the positive impact of
strategic human resource management on firm performance.
Hypothesis 1: employee career development and training programs will enhance the
positive impact of strategic HRM on firm performance.

3.2. Career development and employee training program


Enterprise’s unique human capital is the fundamental source of competitive advantage.
In order to cope with the changing environment and gain sustainable competitive
advantage, enterprises must develop flexible human capital to quickly adapt to the
possible occurrence of enterprise strategic change. Career development plans to expand
the capacity of employees, to provide support for career development. Employee training
programs give employees the opportunity to acquire skills and knowledge to improve job
performance. Through career development and employee training programs, employees
are exposed to a wide range of knowledge and perspectives, so that they are no longer
resistant to change, and more willing to accept new knowledge and creative approaches.
In this regard, the rich career development and staff training extended the can be
used for the implementation of the strategy of human resources, and help enterprises
to flexibly adjust the human resource to meet various strategic demand. Therefore,
career development and employee training programs can expand the positive impact of
strategic human resource management on firm performance.
Hypothesis 2: employee career development and training programs will enhance the
positive impact of strategic HRM on firm performance.

3.3. Temporary staff management


In recent years, some studies have pointed out that temporary employees can also
become strategic assets of enterprises. It is considered that the enterprise should

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adopt different modes and strategic use of human resources in different modes of
employment. They believe that there are two models for the management of temporary
employees: temporary employment contracts and alliances. In temporary employment
contract mode, if the enterprise human resource and is not very important or unique,
enterprises can consider hiring highly skilled contract workers, because hire their
costs may be relatively low, also the on-the-job employees formed competitive threat,
motivate them to work hard and improve their work performance. In the alliance mode,
enterprises and temporary employees to establish a partnership, so that their expertise,
knowledge and specific results for the enterprise. Anyway, temporary workers can
provide enterprises with professional skills and knowledge, some possible formal
internal staff do not have, so to the enterprise has very high value, has formed the
effective supplement of enterprise knowledge and capacity of the system. Therefore, it
can help enterprises to gain competitive advantage, improve enterprise performance,
and the cooperation of temporary employees, in turn, and support the implementation
of human resources strategy.
Hypothesis 3: temporary staff management system will enhance the positive impact
of strategic HRM of the enterprise performance.

4. Empirical analysis
4.1. Study sample characteristics
The sample of this study comes from 1245 enterprises in the eastern, central and
western cities of the city, and a total of 1245 questionnaires were issued to 100
enterprises. The questionnaire was completed by the person who is familiar with the
development situation of the enterprise and the development of the industry. A total of
1027 questionnaires were recovered. The recovery rate was 82.49%, and the effective
questionnaires were 874, and the effective rate was 85.10%. The measurement of the
variable is a part of the five stage of the use of the Li G. In order to ensure the validity
and reliability of the measurement, the study was carried out on the basis of a small
sample survey. As table 1 shows, strategic human resource management, including six
items and the scale Cronbach’α reliability coefficient is 0.89; measurement of temporary
staff management includes four items. The scale Cronbach’α reliability coefficient is
0.87, career development and staff training is the average number of enterprises with
formal employee participation in the career development and staff training project;
performance pay schemes is formal employees of the enterprise performance wages
accounted for the average proportion of the total wages; enterprise performance is
mainly used to measure business profits.

4.2. Research results


Firstly, the path coefficient of each variable is obtained by the method of structural
equation analysis. As shown in Table 2, strategic human resource management, career
development and staff training programs, performance pay, temporary employee
management have significant positive impact on enterprise performance. The hierarchical
regression analysis method was used to verify the hypotheses. Career development
and staff training plan, pay for performance, temporary staff management to strategic

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variable Survey item Reliability


coefficient
Human resource management closely with enterprise strategy
HRM has a great influence on the development of enterprise
Strategic strategy.
human
Human resource managers will greatly affect the decision making 0.89
resource
of enterprise CEO
management
HRM supports the realization of the strategic objectives
Has taken effective measures to ensure the coordination of HRM
Establish a complete management system for temporary
employees
Temporary Will establish a detailed management file for temporary staff 0.87
employees
Arrange appropriate training for temporary staff.
Performance evaluation of temporary employees

Table 1 – Variable measurement and reliability of measuring

human resource management and enterprise performance influence the effectiveness of


regulation by using the proposed by Baron regulated utility model validation procedures
to verify. Because of the difference between the different variables, the numerical
interval is not a, so we need to carry on the standard treatment of all variables before the
adjustment effect analysis is carried out. The min-max Standardization for moderating
effects of judgment is divided into the following two steps: first, the direct with existing
variables the dependent variables to make the regression analysis (model M1); then,
through the predefined variables and moderating variable is calculated by multiplying
a factor interaction, which is added to the independent variables for regression analysis
(model M 2). If the R2 value of the model M2 is greater than the R2 value of the model
M1, and the independent variables and the interactive factor regression coefficients are
significant, then the regulation effect exists; if not, it does not exist at the same time.

Relationship Path coefficient Significant degree


Strategic human resource management→ 0. 546 significant
enterprise performance
Career development and employee training → 0. 417 significant
business performance
performance-related pay→ 0. 412 significant
firm performance
Temporary employee management→ 0. 389 significant
enterprise performance

Table 2 – Influence coefficient between variables


Career development and staff training effectiveness of regulation analysis results are
shown in Table 3, increase the amount of R2 is 0. 32. At the same time, independent
variables and interaction factors were significant in the 0.05 confidence level. Therefore,
career development and staff training have positive influence on strategic human

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resources management and firm performance relationship exist utility regulation,


hypothesis 1 was verified.

regression model
independent
variables M1 Regression coefficient M2 Regression coefficient
and T value and T value
① Strategic HRM 0. 554(9. 28) ** 0. 332(6. 56)*
②career development
0. 467(8. 76) ** 0. 196(5. 76) *
and employee training
①×② 0. 132(5. 54)
R2 0. 23 0. 55
addition of R2 0. 32

Table 3 – Career development and employee training regulation effectiveness

The implementation of performance pay program regulated utility analysis results are
shown in Table 4, increase the amount of R2 is 0. 2. At the same time, independent
variables and interaction factors respectively significant at 0.01 and 0.05 confidence
levels. Therefore, performance pay program implementation of strategic human
resources management and firm performance positively related to regulate the utility,
hypothesis 2 was verified.

regression model
independent
variables M1 Regression coefficient M2 Regression coefficient
and T value and T value
①Strategic HRM 0. 536(9. 58) ** 0. 326(8. 64)**
②Merit pay 0. 401(4. 64)* 0. 208(5. 11)*
①×② 0. 129(4. 99) *
R2 0. 32 0. 52
addition of R2 0. 20

Table 4 – Merit pay adjustment utility validation


Temporary staff management system regulated utility analysis results are shown in
Table 5, increase the amount of R2 is 0. 23. At the same time, independent variables
and interaction factors respectively at 0.01 and 0.05 confidence level significantly.
Therefore, temporary staff management system of positive influence relationship of
strategic human resource management and enterprise performance has a moderating
effect, hypothesis 3 was verified. Due to the assumption that 1, supposing 2 and
3 have been verified. Therefore, career development and staff training plan, pay for
performance, temporary staff management’s positive influence on strategic human
resource management and corporate performance relationship exist utility regulation.
At the same time, we can see the career development and staff training plan, pay for

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performance, temporary staff management of the effectiveness of regulation size, the


career development and training programs for staff, temporary staff management time,
pay for performance plan minimum.

regression model
independent
variables M1 Regression coefficient M2 Regression coefficient
and T value and T value
①Strategic HRM 0. 579(8. 98) ** 0. 309(8. 85)**
②Temporary staff
0. 452(5. 32)* 0. 186(3. 33)
management
①×② 0. 119(5. 62) *
R2 0. 26 0. 49
addition of R2 0. 23

Table 5 – Temporary staff management

5. Conclusion
Human resource is the core strategic resource of the enterprise, and the enterprise human
resource management activities should be integrated into the enterprise management
strategy. However, the strategic human resources management activities are not in any
situation can effectively play a role in the enterprise human resources strategy is not in
any situation can be effectively implemented. As is known to all, without the support of
employees and investment, strategic enterprise human resource management activities
are difficult to implement. Strategic human resource management is more able to exert
its effectiveness in the context of the employee’s active participation. Although strategic
human resource management literature let us realize the human resources management
into the strategic management of enterprise value, but the integration of human resource
management and the strategy of the enterprise to enhance the study on the mechanism
of enterprise performance is relatively small.
This study first of strategic human resource management promotion mechanism of
enterprise performance are discussed, think three activities of career development and
staff training plan, pay for performance, temporary staff management let employees
to participate in the decision of enterprise management, is a potential regulator of the
relationship between strategic human resource management and enterprise performance.
Then on our country enterprise human resources management activities were investigation,
empirical validation of the theoretical data to obtain the subjective and objective view
of, found strategic human resource management, career development and staff training
plan, pay for performance, temporary staff management will have a positive impact on
enterprise performance. At the same time, career development and staff training plan,
pay for performance, temporary staff management’s positive influence on strategic human
resource management and corporate performance relationship existing utility regulation,
the career development and training plan for employees regulated utility maximization,
and temporary staff management time, pay for performance plan are minimal.

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The Influence of Strategic HRM on Enterprise Performance based on Online Survey and Data Mining

Acknowledgments
The work of this paper is supported by colleges’ outstanding young talent support
program in Anhui Province (Grant No.2014SQR03); and Suzhou University Bid
invitation project of the integration of urban and Rural Research Center in north Anhui
province (Grant No.SK2015A185). Suzhou University academic technical backbone
project (2016XJGG05).

References
David, F. (1997). Outsourcing the HR function: personal threat or value opportunity.
Strategic Change, 8, 459–468.
Gree, C., Gray, S. (1999). Human resource management outsourcing the make or buy
decision. Academy of Management Executive.13, 85–96.
Hussain, Z., Wallace, J. (2007). The use and impact of human resource information
systems on human resource management professionals. Information &
Management, 44, 74–89.
James, D., Johnson, R. (2013). Human resource metrics and decision support: A
classification framework Original. Human Resource Management Review, 23,
71–83.
Jenster, P. (1999). Deal maker or deal breaker: human resources issues in successful
outsourcing projects. Strategic Change, 8, 263–268.
Nagendra, A., Deshpande, M. (2014). Human Resource Information Systems
(HRIS) in HR Planning and Development in Mid to Large Sized Organizations.
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 133, 61–67.
Pereira, C., Ferreira, C. (2015). Identification of IT Value Management Practices and
Resources in COBIT 5. RISTI-Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de
Informação, (15), 17–33.
Stone, D., Deadrick, L. (2015). The influence of technology on the future of human
resource management. Human Resource Management Review, 25, 216–231.
Zafar, H. (2013). Human resource information systems: Information security concerns
for organizations. Human Resource Management Review, 23, 105–113.

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Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação Recebido/Submission: 06/03/2016
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

Asymmetric Effect of Energy prices on Energy Saving


and Emission Reduction based on Dynamic panel
GMM Test

Hua Peng 1,2

hi3223222@tom.com

1
College of Economics and Trade, Hunan University, Changsha 410079, China
2
College of Economics and Trade, Hunan University of Commerce, Changsha 410205, China
Pages: 71–83

Abstract: Building the energy price system which reflects the scarcity of resources
under the background of energy saving and emission reduction has important
theoretical and practical significance. In this paper, we can reflect the scarcity of
energy by measuring the shadow price of energy, then based on the data of 35
industrial sectors, we make an test of the asymmetric effect of energy prices on
energy saving and emission reduction through green technological innovation
and industrial structure adjustment. The results show that, energy shadow price
is conducive to promoting energy conservation and emission reduction, but the
different forms of energy shadow price have different effects on energy conservation
and emission reduction. Green technology innovation can be inspired by energy
shadow prices to reduce energy consumption and pollution, but the path blocks
through the “regulation” effect of the industrial structure to promote energy-saving
emission reduction. The effect of the relative price of energy on energy saving and
emission reduction is not significant, and it is Failure to effectively encourage
enterprise green technology research and development and optimization of
industrial structure, which reflects the defect of non-market pricing mechanism.
Keywords: Energy price, energy saving, dynamic panel GMM, asymmetric effect,
empirical analysis

1. Introduction
Energy saving and emission reduction is an important content of “13th Five-Year” plan,
but also the key to the sustainable development of economy China. The development of
China’s industrialization has long relied on the resource type growth path, which takes
the leading position in the industrial growth mode characterized by high investment,
high energy consumption, high emission, low quality, low efficiency and low output.
However, this extensive industrial growth model leads to a large number of resource
consumption and serious environmental pollution, pollution emissions and resource
consumption has been approaching the limit of environmental carrying capacity. China
is already the world’s largest consumer of energy and carbon dioxide emissions, the
international emission reduction pressure is increasing. 2015, Beijing, Tianjin and

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Asymmetric Effect of Energy prices on Energy Saving and Emission Reduction based on Dynamic panel GMM Test

serious fog and haze events highlight the urgency of environmental pollution control,
energy conservation and sustainable development is imminent. November 2015 China
government in the climate conference in Paris on commitment, by 2030, China’s per
unit GDP carbon dioxide emissions compared to 2005 decreased 60% - 65%, and
incorporated into the “45” planning energy-saving binding emission reduction targets.
Therefore, through energy conservation and emission reduction to promote the
transformation of industrial growth mode and sustainable development is the inevitable
way of China’s economic development.
The existing research literature on relationship between energy prices and energy
conservation and emissions reduction mainly focused on energy prices and energy
consumption, energy efficiency and energy prices and the relationship between the
environmental pollution. Energy prices and energy consumption, energy efficiency
aspects, Birol (2000) found through economic means to increase energy prices can
improve energy efficiency and to reduce energy intensity; Fisher-Vanden (2004) from
the effects of the micro level of energy prices. The results showed that energy source
price rise is China’s energy intensity decreased the driving reason, energy prices
contributed to the high rate of 54.4%; Sue (2008) research energy prices rise in the
long term it will induce technological innovation, so as to reduce energy intensity. Fan
(2012) study changes in energy prices and the embodiment of the technical progress
and non-reflected type technical progress of China 33 industry energy intensity
effect, the study found that rising energy prices and its embodiment of technological
progress to reduce the energy intensity of China’s most industries. The results show
that the price of energy relative index by regulating energy efficiency to reduce energy
consumption. Wang (2014) analyzes energy prices on energy efficiency, the results show
that increase energy prices do help to improve the energy efficiency, but only the price
of energy enough high to energy efficiency have a significant impact. Energy prices
and environmental pollution, James (2007) research that changes in energy prices to
encourage energy production activities of the industry less investment while suppressing
the energy put into the production activities in more industries, through the adjustment
and optimization of the economic structure to reduce the pollution of the environment.
Marklund (2007) found that the shadow price mechanism to reduce carbon dioxide
marginal abatement cost, through the economic loss computation reduction pay, on the
use of policies and measures to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and achieve energy
saving and emission reduction. Lin (2013) study found that energy prices distort the
energy efficiency of China to enhance, reduce the energy exploitation and production
of enterprise enthusiasm, thereby increasing environmental pollution, resulting in haze
weather. Leng (2016) study the relationship between energy price distortions and haze
pollution, the results show that energy price distortions have a positive impact on the
haze pollution. The existing relevant literature to clarify the relationship between energy
prices and energy saving and emission reduction provides a useful reference, but there
are three aspects of the problem is worth the improvement and expansion. The energy
prices to measure and relevant literature basically with fuel and power purchase price
index to represent the energy prices, but this measure is difficult to reflect the scarcity of
energy and environmental costs, the existing literature constructed the reflected energy
scarce areas of the energy shadow price, but the paper extends to the industry level, did

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not effectively distinguish and consider the heterogeneity effect on the energy shadow
price (Jie, 2014; Pereira, 2015).

2. Measurement system of energy shadow price


2.1. Research methods
In this paper, we use DEA technology to calculate the energy shadow price to reflect the
scarcity of energy and environmental costs, thus improving the existing energy relative
price system. Shadow price is not the actual market price, but a kind of calculating price.
Energy shadow price is based on the optimal state of energy allocation and reflects the
real value of the energy price, which is conducive to the existing energy price distortion
correction. Assume that the production system has M decision making units (DMU),
each DMU with energy input E and other N X = [ x1 , x2 ,, x N ] inputs, the production
of S kinds of output Y = [ y1 , y2 ,, yS ]. If the production possibility set meets the
boundedness and convexity, the combination of the weak and the combination of the
weak and the strong can be disposed, using the data envelopment analysis (DEA), the
production technology can be modeled as: T = {Y |( E , X )} ∈ R M . T is the production
technology, said to use input E and X to produce Y. The input directed distance function
is expressed as a technical constraint:

µ1γ 1 + µ2γ 2 (1)


Max 

s.t.  {Y |( E (1 − γ 1 ), X (1 − γ 2 )} ∈ R M (2)

The assumption PY is that the output of the price vector, PE is the energy of the price
vector, PX is the other input price vector. The decision DMU is to maximize the profit
maximization goal:

Max  PY Y − PE E − PX X (3)

s.t.  D {Y |( E (1 − γ 1 ), X (1 − γ 2 )} = 1 (4)

To solve the problem of maximizing the profit, the Lagrange function is:

Max  PY Y − PE E − PX X + λ ( D {Y |( E (1 − γ 1 ), X (1 − γ 2 )} − 1) (5)

Energy can be obtained by solving the first-order conditions relative shadow price is:

PE ∂D {Y |( E (1 − γ 1 ), X (1 − γ 2 )} / ∂E
=− (1 − γ 1 ) (6)
PY ∂D {Y |( E (1 − γ 1 ), X (1 − γ 2 )} / ∂Y

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Assuming that PY = 1 the absolute shadow price of energy can be obtained at this time:

∂D {Y |( E (1 − γ 1 ), X (1 − γ 2 )} / ∂E
PE = − (1 − γ 1 ) (7)
∂D {Y |( E (1 − γ 1 ), X (1 − γ 2 )} / ∂Y

Values γ 1 obtained by solving the linear programming, which λi represents the cross-
M
sectional observation values of the weights, if ∑λ
i =1
i = 1 that variable returns to scale

(VRS), if λi ≥ 0 and remove the weight and constraint of the said returns to scale
invariant (CRS).

Max  µ1γ 1 + µ2γ 2  (8)

M M
∑λ Y
i =1
i i ≥ Y ; ∑ λi Ei ≤ E (1 − γ 1 ); (9)
i =1

M M
∑λ X
i =1
i i ≤ X (1 − γ 2 ); ∑ λi = 1;λi ≥ 0 (10)
i =1

2.2. Indicators and data


Related input and output indicators are selected as follows: 1). Labor input, select the
number of Industrial Enterprises above Designated Size to measure the annual average
number of employees; 2). terms of capital investment, the estimation of capital stock
is relatively complex, through the perpetual inventory method to measure capital
stock is the common measure, but the calculation results due to the depreciation rate
and the initial amount of capital is larger, obtained under different assumptions capital
stock differences. In addition, the China industrial economy statistical yearbook does
not provide 2009-2014 industry fixed assets net annual average balance of data, only
industry reports the net value of the fixed asset data, so this chapter to net value of
fixed asset in the end of the year and net value of fixed asset in the end of the year the
average value to replace; 3). In terms of energy inputs, the total energy consumption of
Industrial Enterprises above designated size is measured, and the conversion of standard
coal conversion to 10 million tons of standard coal; 4). in industrial production, because
energy consumption has obvious industrial intermediate inputs properties, this paper
chooses contains intermediate input cost of the total industrial output value, rather than
industrial added value of industrial output.

3. Study design and indicators


3.1. Model setting
According to the research topic, the energy price is divided into two parts: the shadow
price of energy and the relative price of energy, and considering the energy consumption
and environmental pollution:

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ESit | PI it = γ 0 + ϕYit −1 + γ 1 SPit + γ 2 SPMAX it + γ 3 SPRISit + γ 4 SPDESit + γ 5 SPit × ETit + γ 6 SPMAX it × ETit +

γ 7 SPRISit × ETit + γ 8 SPDESit × ETit + γ 9 SPit × ISit + γ 10 SPMAX it × ISit + γ 11 SPRISit × ISit +
γ 12 SPDESit × ISit + γ 13 X it + µi + ε it (11)

ESit | PI it = δ 0 + ϕYit −1 + δ 1 EPit + δ 2 EPMAX it + δ 3 EPRISit + δ 4 EPDESit + δ 5 EPit × ETit + δ 6 EPMAX it × ETit +

δ 7 EPRISit × ETit + δ 8 EPDESit × ETit + δ 9 EPit × ISit + δ 10 EPMAX it × ISit + δ 11 EPRISit × ISit +

δ 12 EPDESit × ISit + δ 13 X it + µi + ε it (12)

Among them, i is the industry, t for the year, µ1 said the industry individual effects, ε it
as a random disturbance. The econometric model (1) is used to test the non-symmetry
effect of energy shadow price to energy conservation and emission reduction, and
the two aspects of energy consumption and environmental pollution are respectively
expressed as the explanatory variables. Considering the continuity and the dynamic of
the explanatory variables, this paper also added a lag phase Yit −1 to construct a dynamic
panel model to test. SPit as shadow price of energy, but also take into account the non-
symmetric test of the need, the shadow price of energy decomposition, the distinction
between energy prices highest sequence SPMAX it , energy prices rose series SPRISit
and energy prices decline SPDESit in three types of sequence. Also for inspection and
energy prices and the green technology innovation, the adjustment of industrial structure
coordination mechanism of energy saving and emission reduction effect, this paper
set shadow price of energy and decomposition and green technology innovation ETit ,
industrial structure adjustment ISit of cross terms, to reflect the indirect impact on
energy saving and emission reduction. X it As control variables, this paper selected
two variables industrial value-added rate and the overall labor productivity measure,
to reflect the influence of industry heterogeneity factors. In addition, environmental
regulation ERit and technological innovation RDit as control variables.

3.2. Index data


The research object of this paper is the 35 industry in China, the time span is 2000-2014
years. The key variables of the indicators are as follows: (1) energy saving and emission
reduction. The energy saving and emission reduction is divided into ES and PI, energy
saving, energy consumption of unit industrial output value of energy consumption to
measure the degree of energy consumption, emission reduction and environmental
pollution comprehensive index to measure. Comprehensive index of environmental
pollution is according to industrial wastewater emissions, industrial waste gas emissions
and industrial solid waste production three aspects, using entropy method of objective
weight are integrated, and can more fully reflect the emissions of industrial pollutants.
(2) Energy prices. The energy price distinction for the energy shadow price (SP) and
energy relative price EP and SP with the second part, based on the DEA estimates the
energy shadow price said EP with the ratio of the energy index and output index of
price said the energy price index with fuel and power prices to construct the index to
replace, output price index for industrial products factory price index to replace and

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Asymmetric Effect of Energy prices on Energy Saving and Emission Reduction based on Dynamic panel GMM Test

are converted as the base year unchanged price index. In addition, the energy shadow
price and energy relative price are decomposed into the highest sequence PMAX, rising
sequence PRIS and descent sequence PDES, the decomposition formula of the three
kinds of sequences is:

Pit = PMAX it + PRISit + PDESit , i = 1, 2, 3 N ,t = 1, 2, 3T  (13)


= =
PMAX it MAX ( Pi0 , Pi1 , Pit ),t 1, 2, 3T  (14)

t
PDESit = ∑ MIN {0,(PMAX ij −1 − Pij-1 ) − ( PMAX ij − Pij )},t = 1, 2, 3T (15)
j =1

The selection of intermediate variables and control variables are as follows: (1) green
technological innovation. Et considering undesirable outputs and based on SBM
model productivity indicator to measure input and output index choice of labor input,
capital investment, energy input and total industrial output, non-industrial CO2, SO2
and industrial cod selection of desired outputs. (2) industrial structure adjustment. IS
with the state-owned and state holding industrial enterprises accounted for more than
the total assets of industrial enterprises accounted for the proportion of total assets to
measure the impact of industrial property structure adjustment on energy saving and
emission reduction. (3) Dependent control variables. Industrial added value rate of RV
for the industrial added value and total industrial output value over the same period
ratio, overall labor productivity of LP for the industrial increase value and the average
number of staff and workers ratio, environmental regulation by the industry wastewater
and waste gas treatment operating costs and industrial gross output value of the ratio
measure, scientific and technological innovation in the industry science and technology
activities expenditures total accounted for the proportion of total industrial output value
to measure. All related data are derived from China’s industrial economic statistical
yearbook, China Environmental Statistics Yearbook, China Statistical Yearbook of
science and technology, and statistical yearbook of China.

4. Asymmetric effect test


4.1. Panel unit root and co integration test
This paper uses four methods of LLC test, IPS test, Fisher-ADF test and Fisher-PP test
to test the relative variables in the panel unit root test. Test results show that all the
variables of the level sequence are not in the four statistical tests at the same time rejected
the original hypothesis, indicating that the original sequence is not smooth. And all of
the variables of the first order differential sequence are at the level of 1%, rejected four
statistical tests of the original hypothesis, which shows that the first order difference is
smooth. Therefore, all of the variables of this paper are first order differential smooth I
(1), which can be tested by panel co integration test.

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Horizontal sequence statistics First order difference statistics


variable
LLC IPS ADF PP LLC IPS ADF PP
-2.735 3.235 45.612 50.720 -18.322 -10.17 216.82 289.35
ES
(0.003) (0.999) (0.988) (0.962) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
explained variables 
6.285 11.535 2.468 2.275 -9.358 -3.576 108.522 127.622
PI
(1.000) (1.000) (1.000) (1.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.002) (0.000)
-3.126 2.096 60.536 67.215 -21.256 -11.675 240.123 270.998
SP
(0.002) (0.986) (0.785) (0.584) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
explanatory variables
-29.075 -12.615 27.088 12.323 -35.535 -40.286 49.935 61.123
SPMAX
(0.000) (0.000) (0.007) (0.418) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
-0.225 3.858 27.936 27.566 -7.443 -3.322 102.276 189.853
SPRIS
(0.358) (0.999) (0.944) (0.988) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
-1.522 4.068 37.538 53.786 -18.224 -10.680 229.635 310.145
SPDES
(0.063) (1.000) (0.999) (0.935) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
2.122 6.848 16.566 19.315 -23.862 -14.582 288.968 454.265
EP
(0.958) (1.000) (1.000) (1.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
0.825 0.274 52.338 85.360 -17.572 -8.195 170.105 196.745
EPMAX
(0.795) (0.608) (0.750) (0.018) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
-6.295 2.768 33.672 39.143 -13.486 -5.778 147.872 345.426
EPRIS
(0.000) (0.998) (0.999) (0.999) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
-5.722 2.025 37.158 30.770 -17.442 -7.163 163.426 258.052
EPDES
(0.000) (0.988) (0.999) (1.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
13.018 -1.792 82.588 253.116 -18.885 -15.122 299.686 527.226
ET
(1.000) (0.036) (0.145) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
-4.505 4.770 42.035 29.126 -16.536 -9.068 196.772 288.786
IS
(0.000) (1.000) (0.996) (1.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
-0.032 -2.115 99.854 230.470 -17.852 -13.882 280.692 538.927
ER
(0.488) (0.018) (0.012) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
4.308 -0.116 47.578 98.035 -15.575 -7.368 175.105 361.828
RD
(1.000) (0.454) (0.984) (0.015) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
control variable
-3.112 1.530 56.348 63.958 -11.192 -8.488 188.922 318.315
RV
(0.000) (0.936) (0.882) (0.680) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
4.345 7.062 39.812 41.698 -9.235 -3.433 117.434 156.733
LP
(1.000) (1.000) (0.998) (0.998) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)

Table 1 – Panel unit root test


This paper uses panel co-integration test based on E-G two-step test pedroni and Kao
test, test results show that, although the rho-Statistic Panel and rho-Statistic Group
two statistics did not pass the significant test, but the other five statistics are at 5% levels
to reject the original hypothesis does not exist co integration relationship. Considering to
the sample interval belongs to the small sample, combined with the panel ADF-Statistic
and group ADF-Statistic shows that there exist co-integration relationship and Kao test
results also significantly declined the null hypothesis, show that there is a co integration
relationship between variables, energy prices on energy saving and emission reduction
of measurement estimation.

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Asymmetric Effect of Energy prices on Energy Saving and Emission Reduction based on Dynamic panel GMM Test

Correlation statistics Statistic value Pvalue


Panel v-Statistic 2.665 0.003
Panel rho-Statistic 2.838 0.968
Panel PP-Statistic -4.935 0.000
Panel ADF-Statistic -4.008 0.000
Group rho-Statistic 5.427 1.000
Group PP-Statistic -9.836 0.000
Group ADF-Statistic -7.898 0.000
Kao ADF-Statistic -1.936 0.025

Table 2 – Panel co-integration test

4.2. Asymmetric effect estimates


In this paper, the dynamic panel system GMM estimation method is used to deal with
the problem caused by the lag phase of the explained variable, to test the non symmetry
effect of energy price to energy saving and emission reduction. It was found that the AR
(1) test and AR (2) test showed that there was a first order sequence correlation, but there
was no correlation of the two order sequences. At the same time, Sargan test results also
show that the tool variables selected in this paper are effective, and the measurement
model is reasonable. The coefficients of Y-1 are all over 0.8, and they are all significant
at 1% level, which indicates that the energy consumption and environmental pollution
have strong dynamic and continuity. In view of the large estimation coefficient of Y-1,
this paper uses the system GMM estimation method, which is more robust than the
GMM estimation method.Asymmetric effects of energy prices on energy consumption
estimation results show that the energy shadow price (SP) on the energy consumption
strength es have negative effects, and the estimated coefficient is significant, indicating
that the energy shadow price rise can reduce energy consumption intensity.
Energy shadow price relative price of energy
variable
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Y-1 0.922***(110.98) 0.886***(494.80) 0.895***(57.35) 0.828***(57.25)
SP -26.538**(-2.40) -10.045***(-2.82)
SPMAX -26.516**(-2.42) -10.066***(-2.80)
SPRIS -26.535**(-2.40) -0.606***(-10.24)
SPDES 26.538**(2.40) 0.628***(10.25)
SP×ET -392.688*(-1.95)
SPMAX×ET -392.338*(-1.96)
SPRIS×ET -390.132*(-1.95)
SPDES×ET 390.286*(1.95)
SP×IS 0.608***(10.24)
SPMAX×IS 0.609**(10.25)

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SPRIS×IS 0.603***(10.23)
SPDES×IS 10.122***(2.82)
EP 0.862(0.32) 0.070(0.75)
EPMAX -0.895(-0.34) -0.068(-0.88)
EPRIS -0.898(-0.34) -0.065(-0.35)
EPDES 0.224***(5.58) 0.004**(2.28)
EP×ET 30.465(0.55)
EPMAX×ET -30.995(-0.45)
EPRIS×ET -25.215(-0.35)
EPDES×ET 0.006***(57.60)
EP×IS 0.576(0.26)
EPMAX×IS -0.572(-0.23)
EPRIS×IS -0.588(-0.24)
EPDES×IS 0.004**(2.24)
RV -1.512***(-7.68) -0.002**(-2.38) -0.009***(-7.78) -0.002***(-10.27)
LP -0.004*(-1.76) 0.002(0.38) 0.004(1.35) 0.148(1.42)
ER -0.003***(-3.45) -0.005***(-5.24) -0.003***(-3.28) -0.002***(-2.62)
RD -0.055***(-12.34) -0.038***(-5.25) -0.035***(-6.25) -0.025**(-2.30)
AR(1) test -2.766[0.005] -2.598[0.009] -2.608[0.009] -4.484[0.000]
AR(2) test 0.458[0.650] 0.588[0.555] 0.302[0.762] 1.578[0.115]
Sargan test 27.710[1.000] 27.522[1.000] 26.886[1.000] 34.220[1.000]
Number of samples 490 490 490 490

Table 3 – Asymmetric effect of Energy price to energy consumption ES


By observing the energy shadow price (SP) through the innovation of green technology
et on energy consumption strength of ES indirect effect shows, model 1 energy shadow
price (SP) and green technology innovation et cross term SP * et coefficient is significantly
negative, and combined with the estimated coefficients of model 1 energy shadow price
(SP), is not difficult to draw the energy shadow price can be through incentives for
green technology innovation to reduce the energy consumption of the conclusion of
the study. Actually, when the most energy Unisys, rise in energy prices will inevitably
increase the cost of production of industrial enterprises, in the long run will inspire
enterprises through green technology research and development or factor substitution
to reduce costs, to continue to maintain the core competitive advantage. And, the energy
shadow price highest sequence SPMAX and rising sequence spris cross coefficients
are consistent with the SP * et and also verify the energy shadow price rise and green
technology innovation synergy will help to reduce the energy consumption intensity.
But the energy shadow price decreased sequence SPDES and endothelin (ET) of cross
terms SPDES x et coefficient is significant for is, highly consistent with the estimated
coefficients of SPDES, that even if the energy in the optimal use of state, the decline
in energy prices still enthusiasm may reduce industrial enterprises to carry out green
technology research and development, in the long run is not conducive to technological

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progress and energy conservation, once again proved the existence of asymmetric effect.
Study found that energy prices down to the technical efficiency improvement of neglect
and price recovery period of inefficient and irrational will make energy consumption
into a vicious circle, different cycle fluctuations in energy prices in the regulation of
energy technical efficiency control energy consumption exist significant “asymmetric”
moderating effect. In addition, this paper used to reflect the energy scarcity of energy
shadow prices to conduct an investigation; the estimated results are relatively robust.
Relative energy price EP on energy consumption es estimation results show that, the
estimated coefficients of model 3 and model 4 energy shadow price EP is positive, the
highest sequence EPMAX and rising estimated coefficients of sequence EPRIS negative,
but were not significant.

Energy shadow price relative price of energy


variable
Model 1 Model 2 Model 1
Y-1 0.882***(86.45) 0.858***(36.44) 0.838***(44.75) 0.866***(138.25)
SP -3.768**(-2.28) -0.004**(-2.22)
SPMAX -3.855**(-2.34) -0.003**(-2.20)
SPRIS -3.728**(-2.25) -0.005**(-2.28)
SPDES 3.845**(2.34) 0.005**(2.25)
SP×ET -0.178***(-5.52)
SPMAX×ET -0.174***(-5.62)
SPRIS×ET -0.175***(-5.56)
SPDES×ET 3.824**(2.36)
SP×IS 0.002***(4.12)
SPMAX×IS 0.003***(5.15)
SPRIS×IS 0.005***(12.18)
SPDES×IS 0.248***(6.68)
EP -0.002(-0.33) -0.012(-0.88)
EPMAX -0.003(-0.34) -0.014(-0.90)
EPRIS -0.008(-0.85) -0.018(-1.28)
EPDES 0.002***(6.87) 0.016***(3.96)
EP×ET -0.488(1.62)
EPMAX×ET -0.485(-1.62)
EPRIS×ET -0.426(-1.42)
EPDES×ET 0.216***(34.58)
EP×IS 0.002(0.18)
EPMAX×IS 0.002(0.20)
EPRIS×IS 0.002(0.29)
EPDES×IS 0.018***(3.76)
RV -0.008***(-7.78) -0.008***(-7.70) -0.002***(-10.62) -0.002***(-9.52)

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LP -0.005***(-4.75) 0.005(0.75) -0.002(-0.55) 0.003(0.48)


ER -0.005***(-11.42) -0.006***(-11.45) -0.002**(-2.52) -0.002***(-4.78)
RD -0.038***(-39.80) -0.032***(-39.82) -0.007***(-9.37) -0.006***(-8.35)
AR(1) test -2.580[0.010] -4.125[0.000] -4.578[0.000] -4.560[0.000]
AR(2) test 0.638[0.522] 1.420[0.155] 0.855[0.400] 0.982[0.322]
Sargan test 26.956[1.000] 33.618[1.000] 33.924[1.000] 34.022[1.000]
Number of samples 490 490 490 490

Table 4 – Asymmetric effect of Energy prices on environmental pollution PI


In addition, table 4 shows the results of the non-symmetric effect of energy price on
environmental pollution. The results are consistent with the table 3. AR (1) test, AR (2)
test and Sargan test show that the model is reasonable and the instrumental variables
are effective. Energy shadow price (SP), the highest sequence SPMAX and sequence
spris rises to the pollution of the environment has obvious inhibitory effect, but a
decreasing sequence SPDES but has positive effects, shows that the energy shadow
price to the pollution of the environment also has asymmetric effects. Energy shadow price
(SP) mainly through the ET of green technology innovation to curb energy consumption
intensity and energy shadow price (SP), the highest sequence SPMAX, rising spris
sequences and et cross coefficient is significantly negative, provide good support for
the hypothesis. However, the decline in energy shadow prices will lead to excessive and
inefficient use of energy, thereby increasing environmental pollution emissions. Energy
shadow price SP also failed to achieve pollution reduction by adjusting the industrial
structure of IS, the combination of the two instead of increasing environmental pollution
emissions. Control variables, in addition to total labor productivity LP on energy
conservation and emission reduction effect is not significant, the industrial value-added
rate, environmental regulation, and technological innovation are conducive to energy-
saving emission reduction. Especially technological innovation is of great importance to
energy-saving emission reduction, not only can direct inhibition of energy consumption
and environmental pollution by means of energy-saving emission reduction technology,
more important is conducive to play the effects of regulation of energy prices, to cooperate
to promote the realization of energy-saving emission reduction effect.

5. Conclusions and policy implications


The conclusion of this paper shows that the existing non-market pricing mechanism
in China has become a great obstacle to the further development of energy saving and
emission reduction, and the reform of energy pricing mechanism is imperative. In
addition, the unreasonable industrial structure is not conducive to the full play of the
energy price adjustment effect, based on the conclusions of this paper put forward to
promote energy-saving emission reduction policy implications: 1).The energy market
price system which reflects the scarcity of energy should be constructed effectively.
Reflected in the shadow price of energy is energy optimal use of the marginal value,
which is the important information of industrial enterprises determine the amount
of energy input, when energy prices relatively low industrial enterprises will choice

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more energy investment, which leads to low efficiency of energy utilization. Therefore,
it is the key to ease the pressure of energy and promote the energy conservation and
emission reduction to build the energy market price system which can reflect the
shadow price of energy. In addition, rising energy prices is an effective way to reduce
energy consumption and environmental pollution, improve energy efficiency; 2)
Through the financing support, financial subsidies and other ways to encourage non-
state-owned economy into the energy consuming and polluting industries, in particular,
to attract advanced pollution control technologies and cleaner production technology
and have better research and development capabilities of enterprises to enter. But
the government cannot go into the blind implementation of the industrial structure
adjustment, and to use the difference of the adjustment strategy. Of nationalization and
privatization ratio relatively reasonable area, increase the focus on the introduction of
private scientific and technological innovation of enterprises and personnel support and
collocation other incentives to guide enterprises to carry out green technology research
and development; area of state-owned share is too high or privatization proportion is
too low, moderately reduce nationalization rate or increase the private rate based, but
also increase the innovation of science and technology and talent introduction policy
support. Only by reforming the market energy price system and encouraging the green
technology innovation and adjusting the industrial structure, can we make full energy
price adjustment effect to promote energy-saving and emission reduction.

References
Birol, F., Keppler, J. (2000). Prices, Technology Development and the Rebound Effect.
Energy Policy, 28, 457–469.
Fan, M. (2012). Energy prices, technological change and the impact of information
technology investment on the energy intensity of the sector. world economy, (5),
22–45.
Fisher-Vanden, K., Jefferson, H. (2004). What is Driving China’s Decline in Energy
Intensity? Resource and Energy Economics, 26, 77–97.
James, B. (2007). CO2 Emissions,Energy Consumption, and Output in France. Energy
Policy, 35 (10), 4772–4778.
Jie, C. (2014). The moderating effect of internal energy price relative index on energy
consumption: a study based on the perspective of technical efficiency change.
Resource science, (3), 520–529.
Leng, L., Du, S. (2016). Energy price distortion and fog and haze pollution - China’s
empirical evidence. Industry economic research, (1), 71–79.
Lin, B., Du, K. (2013). Influence of factor market distortion on energy efficiency.
economic research, (9),125–136.
Marklund, O., Samakovlis, E. (2007). What is driving the EU Burden-sharing Agreement:
Efficiency or Equity? Journal of Environmental Management, 85(2), 317–329.

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Pereira, C., Ferreira, C. (2015). Identification of IT Value Management Practices and


Resources in COBIT 5. RISTI-Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de
Informação, (15), 17–33.
Sue, W. (2008). Explaining the Declining Energy Intensity of the U.S. Economy.
Resource and Energy Economics, 30, 21–49.
Wang, J. (2014). The impact of energy prices on energy efficiency - Empirical Analysis
Based on global data. Economic management, (12), 13–23.

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Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação Recebido/Submission: 07/03/2016
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

BIRCH Algorithm and Data Mining Application in


Construction of Financial Enterprise Management
Team based on “Internet Plus” Background

Chenglin Xiao, Weili Xia*

* xiaweili@nwpu.edu.cn

Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi ‘an 710072, Shaanxi, China


Pages: 84–94

Abstract: According to a series of problems in the current situation of financial


management team under Internet background, the authors construct the index system of
teammanagementbasedondataminingmethod.Theresultsshowthatthefourdimensions
X2/df=4.287<5, RMSEA=0.063<0.08, GFI=0.95,CFI=0.94,IFI=0.94,NNFI=0.93.
Built element factor analysis, KMO=0.826, Barlett test value P=0.000<0.01, the total
variance of the 4 factors explain the cumulative as 70.911%.The main conclusions is
Chinese enterprise financial management team consists of four dimensions, respectively
as team base, team cohesion and decision making, team goals and team effectiveness,
and there is a high correlation between them.
Keywords: Data mining, Internet plus, financial enterprise, management team,
construction elements

1. Introduction
Global economic integration has become the main development trend in the world,
with China market economy and network economy has gradually become mature
and norms, “Internet plus” represents a new form of social economy, give full play to
the optimization of the Internet in the allocation of social resources and integration
for the whole society to enhance innovation and productivity, the formation of more
widely the Internet infrastructure development and implementation of the new form
of economic tools (Vicky, 2015; Pereira, 2015; Mei-Hsiang, 2016).Team management
concept in foreign research started earlier, and successfully applied to various forms
of organization and attempt to apply it to their own management practice, with a view
to improve management effectiveness, improve management efficiency to provide
meaningful reference and help (Julia, 2013; Dara,2012). Domestic enterprises is the
first to learn and use the organization of the team work, but the development of its team
building and management model, in general, is still relatively backward. The research
content involves the formation of the team, the team goals, team decision-making,
team cohesion, team relationships, team learning and team performance (Dara, 2013;
Wonjung, 2015; Belinda, 2015). According to the domestic and foreign research status
of enterprise management team, on the basis of the experience of mature management

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system at home and abroad on the “Internet plus” under the background of Chinese
financial enterprise management team construction and development.

2. BIRCH Algorithm and Data Mining


2.1. BIRCH Algorithm
BIRCH algorithm itself is a clustering algorithm, but it overcomes some of the
shortcomings of the K-Means algorithm, such as the determination of the K, because
the algorithm itself is not set before the number of clusters. He is achieved through
the CF-Tree, (Cluster Feature-Tree) clustering feature tree. An important consideration
of BIRCH is to minimize the I/O, by scanning the database, the establishment of a
stored in the memory of the initial CF- tree, can be seen as a multi data compression.

Figure 1 –BIRCH Algorithm Process


Cluster analysis based on similarity of data objects grouped; found that the distribution
of data space characteristics is a kind of data mining method. Hierarchical clustering
method can be divided into hierarchical clustering and hierarchical clustering.
Hierarchical clustering uses a bottom-up strategy for clustering, which starts from
the single member clustering, and gradually merges them into a larger cluster. In
each layer, the nearest two clusters are merged. On the contrary, it is the split level
clustering. BIRCH algorithm combined with the hierarchical aggregation and iterative
re positioning method, first with the bottom-up hierarchical algorithm, and then uses
the iterative relocation to improve the results. The main idea is to scan the database
and build an initial cluster feature tree which is stored in the memory, and then cluster
the leaf nodes of the tree. BIRCH algorithm is a very effective, traditional hierarchical
clustering algorithm; the algorithm can be used to scan the scan efficiently and effectively
to deal with outliers.

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Figure 2 – Clustering feature vector

2.2.Data mining
With the rapid development of information technology, many industries, such as
commercial, enterprise, scientific research institutions and government departments have
accumulated massive, different forms of data storage. These data often implies all sorts of
useful information, rely solely on database query retrieval mechanism and statistics method
is difficult to obtain the information, an urgent need to automatically and intelligently to
be processing of data into valuable information, so as to achieve for the purpose of service
decision. In this case, a new technology - Data Mining (DM) technology came into being.
Data mining is a multi-disciplinary field, it combines the database technology, artificial
intelligence, information retrieval and other research results of the latest technology, and
its application is very extensive. As long as there is an analysis of the value of the database,
you can use the data mining tools to dig useful information.

Figure 3 – Data mining

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3. Research object and methods


3.1. Research object
According to the Chinese enterprise management in Colleges and universities of visibility
and geographical distribution, out of six colleges and universities (Northwestern
Polytechnical University, Peking University, Renmin University of China, Zhejiang
University, Fudan University, Xiamen University) 10 experts were interviewed, and to
them for special interview personnel to study object, table 1 shows.

index classification number Proportion (%)

male 7 70.00
Gender
female 3 30.00

Under 35 years of age 1 10.00

36-45 years old 3 30.00


Age
46-55 years old 4 40.00

Over 56 years of age 2 20.00

doctor 4 40.00

academic degree master 3 30.00

bachelor 3 30.00

professor 3 30.00

title associate professor 6 60.00

lecturer 1 10.00

Northwestern Polytechnical University 3 30.00

Peking University 2 20.00

Renmin University of China 2 20.00


school
Zhejiang University 1 10.00

Fudan University 1 10.00

Xiamen University 1 10.00

Table 1 – Interviewers basic characteristic information (n=10)


According to Chinese geographical rational distribution, remove 10 financial
enterprises (Bank of China Erenhot City branch, Bank of Inner Mongolia Xilingol
branch, The Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, Head Office, Xi’an Branch
of China Minsheng Banking Corp., Ltd., Bank of China Xi’an, Chengdu Branch of
China Minsheng Banking Corp., Ltd., Ningbo Yinzhou Rural Cooperative Bank,
Bank of Jiangxi, Jiujiang bank, Hankou bank) of 316 enterprise management team is
questionnaire survey, and to them as positive test questionnaire researchers object.
Table 2 results show that result.

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index classification number Proportion (%)


male 229 72.47
Gender
female 87 27.53
35 years old and below 83 26.27
36-45 years old 166 52.53
Age
46-55 years old 45 14.24
56 years old and above 22 6.96
Department 3 0.95
rank of section chief 45 14.24
level
administrative rank of section or department 123 38.92
ordinary member of 145 45.89
5 years and below 115 36.39
11 - 6 years 85 26.90
Working life
12-18 years 77 24.37
19 years and above 39 12.34
doctorate 12 3.80
master’s degree 57 18.04
academic degree
Bachelor’s degree 168 53.16
nothing 79 25.00

Table 2 – Basic characteristic information of the questionnaire (n=316)

3.2. Research methods


1.  Document method: The article as much as possible fully searchable research
results at home and abroad, absorption and digestion of domestic and foreign
related enterprise management team literature, understand the frontier and
the progress of the theory of enterprise management team, especially scientific
theories and methods used by foreign scholars, from their existing research results
and the method, put forward the theoretical framework and hypotheses, and the
empirical research in the concept of measurement data sheet for a useful reference.
2.  Interview method: Interview is mainly conception of this study are
validated and the further adjustment, and as a measure of the conceptual model
and research the variable table determine specific content and experience of
the experts and the interview of the relevant authority of the experts for the
questionnaire lay a solid foundation.
3.  Questionnaire survey: Questionnaire survey is an important method
for the research of this study, through the discussion on the structure of the
empirical study on variables measuring scale and in formal empirical research
by larger scale questionnaire validation study ideas and research hypothesis,
for the construction of the article and the results provide security. All of the
questionnaires were evaluated by the method of grade five. Score for the 10-2
points, very important for 10 points, more important for 8 points, the general

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important for 6 points, compared with 4 points, is not important for 2 points,
the higher the score, the higher the degree of importance.
4.  Mathematical statistics method: Mathematical statistics is mainly used to
determine the value of the collected data, to verify the theoretical assumptions.
According to the needs of the research purposes, this study uses statistical
software package SPSS16.0, EXCELL and LISREL8.51 three kinds of software.
5.  Logic inference method: By using the methods of comparison, deduction,
induction, analysis and reasoning, the results of the statistical significance of the
data are analyzed, and the corresponding theoretical results are obtained.

4. Empirical analysis
4.1. Survey data
Study of 10 expert’s interview, mainly take the following two ways: one is carries on
the induction and the summary of previous enterprise team management content and
measurement; the second is semi-structured interviews were conducted. The results were
recorded, analyzed and summarized. The researchers prepared according to interviews of
some of the indicators. At the same time, interviews were carried out frequency analysis
and ranking, and the enterprise team management content 22 see table 3.

Content index Fre. Per.% Ran. Content index Fre. Per.% Ran.
1 people’s Academic 2 people’s work
9 90 4 7 70 18
Degree Foundation management life
4 person’s
3 basic skills of language
8 80 10 comprehensive quality 8 80 10
expression
foundation
5 the total number of 6 team development
10 100 1 7 70 18
teams time
8 team members’
7 team culture 9 90 4 8 80 10
harmony and trust
9 communication and
10 work together as a
collaboration of team 8 80 10 9 90 4
team
members
12 leader decision
11 team work spirit 7 70 18 10 100 1
making ability
13 public decision-making 14 crisis decision-
8 80 10 10 100 1
capacity making ability
15 collective goals 9 90 4 16 recent target 8 80 10
18 medium and long
17 personal goals 8 80 10 9 90 4
term goals
19 meet customer needs 9 90 4 20 team growth 7 70 18
21 to meet the needs of the
8 80 10 22 team value 7 70 18
players

Table 3 – Financial enterprise group management content ranking (n=10)

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4.2. Test analysis


35 questionnaires were issued to 10 financial enterprises, a total of 350 copies, 335
copies were recovered, the recovery rate was 95.71%, the effective questionnaires were
316, and the effective rate was 94.33%. Using SPSS16.0 to exploratory factor analysis
of the results of the pilot survey, using the principal component method to extract the
common factor, and take the characteristic value of more than 2 to intercept the standard
of the common factor. In “the enterprise team management” 16 related projects, table 4
results show that four factors explain the total variance for total 70.911%, which holds
the public factor occupancy 26.496%, the male factor 17.504%, the third common
factor occupies 13.872% and the four public factor occupies 13.039%). For the study,
the results of table 5 show that the common factor 1 is named as the team “based factor
of the enterprise team management”, Common factor 2 named “human team cohesion
and decision ability factor”, common factor 3 is named the “team goal factor of the
enterprise team management”, Common factor 4 named “team effectiveness factor for
enterprise team management”.

Initial Eigenvalues Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings


Component % of
Total Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative %
Variance
1 6.103 27.741 27.741 5.829 26.496 26.496
2 4.186 19.029 46.770 3.851 17.504 44.000
3 2.981 13.551 60.321 3.052 13.872 57.872
4 2.330 10.589 70.911 2.869 13.039 70.911

Table 4 – Total Variance Explained(n=316)

Component
index
1 2 3 4
4 people’s Academic Degree Foundation 0.880
6 people’s work management life 0.839
10 person’s language expression ability foundation 0.912
12 person’s comprehensive quality foundation 0.871
15 the total number of teams 0.631
17 team development time 0.666
18 team culture 0.709
1 team members’ harmony and trust 0.566
7 communication and collaboration of team members 0.680
8 work together as a team 0.800
17 team work spirit 0.842

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Component
index
1 2 3 4
18 leader decision making ability 0.576
19 public decision-making capacity 0.842
20 crisis decision-making ability 0.621
5 collective goals 0.709
9 recent target 0.505
14 personal goals 0.633
16 medium and long term goals 0.709
2 to meet customer needs 0.501
3 team growth 0.618
11 to meet the needs of the players 0.552
13 team value 0.793

Table 5 – Rotated Component Matrix(n=316)

4.3. The reliability and validity test


Reliability analysis is used to analyze the stability and the consistency of the data, the
general use Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to observe internal consistency, in
the questionnaire, a coefficient >0.7, that data stability and consistent performance
meet the research needs, and the data has a good reliability; validity analysis is mainly
observed the design index of validity and rationality, commonly used Bartlett ball
degree (Barlett) index to analyze, think statistically observations is relatively large
and the p value less than the significant level, and shown to do factor analysis. Kmo
test comparison of simple correlation coefficient between the variables and partial
correlation coefficient of index, index between 0 - 1, closer to 1, the better was that
KMO>0.9 is very good and very suitable for, KMO>0.8 said better and is more suitable
for, KMO>0.7 said, KMO>0.6 said less and less suitable. KMO<0.6 said very well
and is not suitable. Table 6 the results show that the enterprise team management
questionnaire reliability and validity of the test results of the questionnaire, Cronbach
a=0.873>0.7, that data stability and consistent performance meet the research needs,
the data has good reliability; kmo value =0.826 were > 0.8 that better and more suitable
for; and Barlett sphericity test p value = 0.000, statistics to have very significant
difference in meaning, that the structural validity of the questionnaire is very good.

Scale items number Cronbach a KMO P value


Enterprise team management scale 38 0.873 0.826 0.000

Table 6 – Questionnaire reliability and validity test (n=316)


Reasonable assumptions verification “enterprise team management” four dimension
structure, raise exceptions three competition model to carry on the comparison,

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respectively, for dimension 3, 2 and 1 dimension, of which 3 dimensions including (“team


based”, “team cohesion and decision ability and team goals and team effectiveness”
merger); 2 dimensions including (“team based” and with “team cohesion and decision
ability and team goals and team effectiveness” merger); 1 dimensions the four factors
all combined. Table 7 results show: “enterprise team management” four dimensional
structure to better sample, the fourth dimension X2/df=4.287<5, RMSEA=0.063<0.08,
GFI=0.95, CFI=0.94, IFI=0.94, NNFI=0.93 are greater than 0.90. Visible, four
dimensional model fit the ideal, compared with the other 3 dimensional model, the
four dimensional model of the fitting data index is obviously better than the other 3
dimensional model, which shows that the hypothesis is reasonable.

Model X2 df X2/df GFI RMSEA RMR NFI NNFI CFI IFI


4 dimension 372.969 87 4.287 0.95 0.063 0.065 0.94 0.93 0.94 0.94
4 dimension 456.926 89 5.134 0.86 0.11 0.087 0.83 0.82 0.79 0.81
2dimension 597.223 91 6.563 0.75 0.18 0.094 0.75 0.74 0.72 0.72
1 dimension 758.694 93 8.158 0.68 0.22 0.099 0.67 0.66 0.70 0.70

Table 7 – Comparative analysis of confirmatory factor results(n=316)

4.4. Interaction of each dimension


Table 8 results show: the enterprise team management index content, team based, team
cohesion and decision-making ability, team goals, team effectiveness of correlation
coefficient respectively 1, 0.81, 0.67 and 0.561, moderate, visible, “the enterprise team
management index does not exist independently and internal mutual has moderate or
related. “Team based” refers to a formal group element that is composed of individuals
who work together to achieve a certain goal. Must have: one is groups emphasize
information sharing team stressed the collective performance; second, the role of group
is neutral (sometimes negative), and the role of the team is often positive; three is a
group of individual liability, and responsibility to the team may is an individual, may
also be common; four skill groups is random or different, and team skills is complement
each other.

Serial content 1 2 3 4
1 Team base 1
2 Team cohesion and decision making 0.81 1
3 Team goals 0.67 0.55 1
4 Team effectiveness 0.61 0.59 0.77 1

Table 8 – Correlation matrix analysis table (n=316)

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5. Conclusions
The team management of commercial banks is the foundation to achieve business success.
Excellent commercial bank team is a constant pursuit of excellence, innovation, and
complementary skills, willing to work together for the common purpose and performance
objectives and methods and to work together for the team. Commercial bank itself is a big
team, under the various functional departments, grass-roots units are commercial banks
in the sub team. How to scientifically and effectively to these good management team,
to create the best performance is the important objectives of management team. A good
team must highlight employee’s personal values, respect the status of employees in the
team, to provide staff development space, the staff of professional value realization and the
enterprise’s survival and development requirements are organically combined together.
In this team, employees want mutual help and support requirements, in a collective
work, promote cooperation between staff and improve staff work of excellence “sense of
achievement”, and create a increased job satisfaction of the atmosphere of mutual trust
and the vast space in the team. This is the team spirit, is the ideological core of a good team.
Performance evaluation through the control completion of work objectives, adopt a scientific
approach and assessing the employee’s completion of work objectives, responsibilities to
fulfill degree. The purpose of performance appraisal is to improve the performance of the
team staff, and to link their work and the development goals of the enterprise. Effective
performance evaluation is an important means to improve the efficiency and management
efficiency of enterprise management. So that only scientific, practical work performance of
team workers were evaluated on the basis of the establishment of effective incentive and
remuneration system, in order to give full play to the employees play an important role in
the process to achieve business goals and in the fierce competition in the human resources
made active, so that commercial banks really have a branch in the competition remain
invincible position in the talent team.

References
Mei-Hsiang, W., Tarng, Y. (2016). Investigating the success of knowledge management:
An empirical study of small- and medium-sized enterprises. Asia Pacific
Management Review, 21, 79–91.
Vicky, A., Tanya, B. (2015). Leveraging integrated information systems to enhance
strategic flexibility and performance: The enabling role of enterprise risk
management. International Journal of Accounting Information Systems, 19, 1–16.
Pereira, C., Ferreira, C. (2015). Identification of IT Value Management Practices and
Resources in COBIT 5. RISTI-Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de
Informação, (15), 17–33.
Julia, E., Hoch, J. (2013). Shared leadership in enterprise resource planning and human
resource management system implementation. Human Resource Management
Review, 23, 114–125.
Dara, P., Sari, A. (2012). Corporate Governance Mechanism and the Level of Internet
Financial Reporting: Evidence from Indonesian Companies. Procedia Economics
and Finance, 2, 157–166.

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BIRCH Algorithm and Data Mining Application in Construction of Financial Enterprise Management

Wonjung, N., Ji, Y. (2015). Nurses’ Educational Needs Assessment for Financial
Management Education Using the Nominal Group Technique. Asian Nursing
Research, 9, 152–157.
Belinda, S. (2015). Factors Influencing Administrators’ Empowerment and Financial
Management Effectiveness. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 176,
466–475.
Dara, S. (2013). Enhancing financial performance with social media: An impression
management perspective. Decision Support Systems, 55, 911–918.

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Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

Urbanization Moderate scale Management of Land and


Grain Production based on Evolutionary Algorithm

Tao Zhai, Yadong Fan

neauzht@126.com

Northeast Agriculture University, Haerbin 150030, China


Pages: 95–105

Abstract: Evolutionary algorithm is an optimization process of simulating


biological evolution, which is a hot research topic in the field of artificial intelligence
in computer science. In this paper, we study the relationship and dynamic effect of
urbanization appropriate scale operation of land and grain production. The result
indicate that; 1.There is no the granger causality relationship between urbanization
and grain production; 2. There is unidirectional granger causality between
urbanization and appropriate scale operation of land, There is a unidirectional
granger causal relationship between appropriate scale operation of land and grain
production; 3. Urbanization in the short term on grain production has a positive
effect, long-term negative impact. Urbanization is the negative influence to the
appropriate scale operation of land; 4.Urbanization is mainly influenced by its
fluctuation; grain production was mainly affected by its fluctuation, but the influence
is weakened gradually, The land moderate scale is mainly affected by Urbanization.
So there is a long-term stable relationship between appropriate scale operations of
land grain production land urbanization.
Keywords: Evolutionary algorithm, Land economy, Urbanization, Grain
production, VAR model

1. Introduction
Land is the foundation of human survival, is the most important agricultural production
material, the protection and utilization of land for stability and improves agricultural
productivity; ensure national food security is of great significance. With the accelerated
process of urbanization in China, constantly improve the level of urbanization, in
this process, land use pattern also constantly changing, land scale management level
continuously improve is an important performance of this change. Although the scale
management of land and food production between whether there is significant positive
related academia is still controversial, however, the 18 big reports of the party clearly
pointed out: to promote industrialization and urbanization of the coordination between
the benign interaction, urbanization and agricultural modernization, and promote the
simultaneous development of industrialization, informatization, urbanization, agricultural
modernization. To speed up the development of modern agriculture, enhance the ability
of comprehensive agricultural production, to ensure the effective supply of national food
security and important agricultural products. Development of various forms of scale

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management, build intensive, professional, organized, and social integration of new


agricultural business entities. Accelerate the construction of urbanization cannot be at the
expense of food production, urbanization to protect food security as the foundation, always
tighten the string of food security(Xu,2011; Pereira, 2015). Heilongjiang Province is China’s
major grain producing area and an important commodity grain base, in-depth study of
Heilongjiang Province to promote urbanization in the process of land scale management
and food production, not only conducive to the promotion of Heilongjiang Province
Rural Economic and social development and for the protection of national food security,
maintenance of national economic and social stability is of important significance. Firstly,
literature on domestic and foreign about urbanization and scale land management and food
production to sort out, to find out the academic circles for the three relations reached a
consensus and existing differences, secondly from theory on urbanization and scale land
management and food production between internal mechanism, and then use statistical
data in Heilongjiang Province of Heilongjiang Province urbanization and scale land
management and food production by empirical analysis, and finally come to the conclusion
put forward corresponding countermeasures and suggestions.
Domestic and foreign experts and scholars have conducted extensive research on the
relationship between urbanization and land scale management. Hong (2005) believes
that the greatest feature of urbanization is the agglomeration effect, the transfer of rural
population is conducive to the land in the hands of farmers moderate concentration,
to achieve the scale of agricultural operations and intensive management. In the long
run, the development of urbanization is conducive to the protection of arable land,
the reduction of agricultural population will help the development of agricultural
scale management and improve the productivity of agriculture. Qu(2011) put forward
urbanization to reduce the agricultural population, realize the scale, modern, intensive
land management. A good, standard land circulation mechanism is the necessary
condition to realize the land management of scale. Huang(1998) pointed out that with
the advance of industrialization, urbanization and rural population transfer and the
rural land contract and management rights gradually circulation and concentration.
With the further transfer of the rural population, the rural circulation to undertake the
management right of farmland area will continue to expand. From the existing literature,
we can see that the relationship of urbanization and land scale operation, scholars draw
a more consistent conclusion, consensus, that the urbanization process accelerated,
urbanization rate continues to improve, conducive to the scale of operation of rural land,
intensive management, contribute to the improvement of the efficiency of agricultural
production, but the conduction of the relationship is the need for certain conditions.
There are many factors that affect grain production, and the research on the influence
of land scale management on grain production has been studied extensively and deeply.
At present, there are two kinds of views, a view that land scale management is able to
overcome the adverse impact on food production of land, fragmentation, land scale
management and grain production has a significant positive relationship; another view
that China’s grain production does not exist significant economies of scale, agricultural
production is constant returns to scale characteristics. With the implementation of
the rural household contract responsibility system, the enthusiasm of the farmers has
been greatly improved, and the grain output has been greatly improved. Household
management has also brought the land use of “fragmentation”, the land fragmentation

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has negative impact on Grain Yield and statistically very significant (Zhang, 2010),
reducing the farmers’ grain production efficiency, reduced grain yield. Subsequently,
the academic circles advocated the adoption of appropriate scale of land management
to improve grain production. In Jiangsu province and Zhejiang Province on the scale
of agricultural operations conducted an experimental investigation, found that large
rice per unit yield higher than the village average of 8%, 3% higher than the wheat.
Chen(2012) using the statistical data of Changshou City in Jiangsu Province, using
production function and partial correlation analysis to draw the conclusion that the
scale of cultivated land management has a significant positive effect on grain yield.

2. Evolutionary Algorithm
Evolutionary algorithm is based on Darwin’s theory of evolution by simulating the
process of biological evolution and mechanism of the problem of self - organization,
adaptive artificial intelligence technology. Biological evolution is realized through
reproduction, variation, competition and selection, and the evolutionary algorithm is
mainly to solve the optimization problem by selecting, recombination and mutation of
these three kinds of operations. Evolutionary computation is a kind of search algorithm
based on natural selection and natural genetic mechanism. As the same with the ordinary
search method, evolutionary computation is a kind of iterative algorithm; the different
is evolutionary computation in the optimal solution search process, usually from a set of
the original problem solution of improvement to another group of good solution, from

Figure 1 – The basic framework of evolutionary


algorithm

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the improved solution of further improvement. And in the evolution of the problem,
when the optimization model of the original problem is established, the solution of
the original problem must be coded. Evolutionary computation in the search process
using structured and random information, so that the most satisfied with the goal of the
decision to obtain the maximum survival possible, it is a probabilistic algorithm.
Generally speaking, evolutionary computation for solving includes following steps:
given a set of initial solutions, the solutions of the performance evaluation; from the
current this set of solutions in choose a certain number of solution as the basis for
iterative solution; again on the operation, iterative solution; if these solutions satisfy
the requirements then stop, otherwise will be obtained by the iterative solution as the
current solution to operation.
Evolutionary computation includes 4 typical methods of genetic algorithm, genetic
programming, evolutionary strategy and evolutionary programming. The first kind
of method is more mature, and has been widely used. The application of evolutionary
strategy and evolutionary programming in scientific research and practical problems is
more and more widely. The main genetic operation of genetic algorithm are selection,
crossover and mutation, and in the evolution rule and strategy, the evolution mechanism
of source on selection and mutation. In terms of fitness, genetic algorithms are used
to select a good parent, and evolutionary rules and evolutionary strategies are used to
select offspring. Genetic algorithm and genetic programming emphasizes the parent
offspring genetic chain, and rules of evolution and evolutionary strategy focuses on
the sub generation behavior itself, immediately as a chain. Evolutionary rules and
evolutionary strategies are generally not used to encode, eliminating the process of
encoding and decoding procedures are more suitable for continuous optimization

Figure 2 – Evolutionary Algorithm

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problems, but it cannot be non-numerical optimization. Evolutionary strategies can be


used to determine the mechanisms that produce the parent generation for reproduction,
and the genetic algorithm and evolutionary rules emphasize the dependence of
individual fitness and probability. In addition, evolutionary rules are abstracted to the
similarity between populations, and the evolutionary strategy is the similarity between
individuals. Evolutionary strategies and evolutionary rules have been applied to many
fields of continuous function optimization, pattern recognition, machine learning,
neural network training, system identification and intelligent control.

3. Research method and variables


3.1. Method selection and variable
VAR model is often used to predict the time series system and analyze the dynamic
impact of random disturbance on the variable system, so as to explain the impact of
various economic shocks on the formation of economic variables. In this study, based
on the test of the stability of the variables, the variables were analyzed by using VAR
model and variance decomposition, to investigate the dynamic relationship between
urbanization, land moderate scale management and grain production.
•• Urbanization level (UR): Urbanization level is an important indicator to
measure the level of urbanization in a country or region. Combined with the
existing research, we found that there are 3 main methods to be used: (1)
population index (2) land index method (3) urbanization index system method.
In the three methods, more and more scholars use population index method,
urban population accounted for accounted for the proportion of the total
resident population and non-agricultural population household population
proportion, the urban population accounted for the proportion of the total
resident population to measure method of level of urbanization has been
accepted by most scholars, and because data are easy to obtain, so this study by
urbanization of the population accounts for the proportion of the total resident
population to represent the level of urbanization.
•• Moderate scale management of land (LS): The moderate scale
management of land is a kind of management way that the operating cost is
reduced gradually by expanding the area of land management. Existing index
of land moderate scale management mainly include worth arable land, labor,
the average cultivated land area and per capita cultivated land area. Based
on the availability of data, this paper selects the rural household average per
person to measure the index of cultivated land area to measure the degree of
moderate scale management of land.
•• Food production (CQ): The index of grain production has two indexes of
total yield and per unit area yield. This paper selects the total grain output in
this paper as a measure of grain production.

3.2. Data sources and descriptive statistics


This study selected in Heilongjiang Province from 1990 to 2011 years of sample data, all data
sources in the calendar year “Heilongjiang statistical yearbook and the variables were log
processing, calculation and analysis were in operation eviews6.0 based. Since the 90’s of last

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century, the urbanization process of Heilongjiang province has been accelerating, and the
urbanization level has been continuously improved. 1990 Heilongjiang province urbanization
rate of 48%, in 2011 the rate of urbanization increased to 56.5%, higher than the national
level of 5.3 percentage points. At the same time, Heilongjiang Province, the average per capita
operating area of cultivated land increased steadily, in 1990 for 7.46 acres, in to reach 10.42
acres in 2005 to reach 10 acres, in 2011 increased to 12.85 acres. In 1990 to 2011 years in
Heilongjiang province’s total grain yield except for individual years slight decline, the overall
trend of rising trend, the grain production in 1990 for 2312.5 million tons, in 2008 exceeded
40 million tons, exceeded 500 million tons in 2010, reached 5012.8 million tons, become the
country the second billions of pounds of production of province super. In 2011, Heilongjiang’s
grain output was more than a grain of grain, for the first time in Henan Province, which
became the first province of grain production in the whole country.

Figure 3 – Trend of the urbanization rate, per capita household management of cultivated land
and grain yield in Heilongjiang province (1990-2011)

4. Empirical analysis
4.1. Stability test
Due to the non-stationary time series analysis may produce spurious regression phenomenon.
Therefore, the time series analysis requires the stationarity test and inspection methods are
mainly ADF test and PP test methods. In this paper, the use of more extensive ADF test
method for time series stability test, the specific test results as shown in table 1. As can be
seen from the table 1, the time series LNUR, LNLS and LNCQ in 5% of the significant levels
are non-stationary sequence, its first order difference after the three variables for a smooth
sequence, that is, the first order of the entire sequence, denoted as I (1).

time series type ADF 5% critical value P value conclusion


LNUR (C T 0) -3.4416 -3.7105 0.0790 Not stable
LNLS (C T 0) -0.3210 -3.6584 0.9835 Not stable
LNCQ (C T 0) -1.4616 -3.6450 0.8103 Not stable
△LNUR (0 0 0) -3.0697 -1.9591 0.0040 stable
△LNLS (C T 0) -8.0953 -3.6585 0.0000 stable
△LNCQ (0 0 0) -4.2391 -1.9591 0.0002 stable

Table 1 – Stationary test results of time series

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4.2. Co integration test


The purpose of co integration test is to determine whether there is a long-term equilibrium
relationship between variables. In order to determine the model parameters has more
explanatory power, must be to seek the balance between the lag period and the degree
of freedom, this paper based on the LR test statistic, FPE, AIC information criterion, SC
information criterion and HQ information criterion five indicators of lag order selection.
Results are shown in Table 2. The results show that the selection of the 2 criteria in the late
period of the 4 order delay, the selection of 3 criteria has 1, in order to meet the criteria for
the selection criteria, we consider the model of the optimal lag order of 2 order.

Lag LR FPE AIC SC HQ


0 NA 3.62e-08 -8.6201 -8.4714 -8.5953
1 63.64446 1.37e-09 -11.9161 -11.3196 -11.8151
2 17.57705* 8.92e-10* -12.4335 -11.3896* -12.2568*
3 9.114994 1.07e-09 -12.4989* -11.0077 -12.2465

Table 2 – Selection results of lag order


The characteristics of the root of urbanization, land scale management and food
production of three variables cointegration test. Test results are shown in table 3. From
the cointegration test results, we found that in the absence of cointegration equation
and at least a cointegration equation of the trace statistics at the 5% significance level
rejected the null hypothesis, which shows that there exists a long-term co integration
relationship between LNUR, lnls and LNCQ three variables that between 1990 to 2011
in Heilongjiang Province urbanization and scale land management and food production
exist long-run equilibrium relationship.

integration equation characteristic value Trace statistic 5% critical value P value


None * 0.7349 44.0695 29.7971 0.0006
At most 1 * 0.5750 18.8468 15.4947 0.0150
At most 2 0.1275 2.5919 3.8415 0.1074

Table 3 – J-J cointegration test results

4.3. Grainger causality test


The co integration test shows just there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between
the urbanization and scale land management and food production, but the relationship is
a causal relationship, still need further do Granger causality test. Test results are shown
in table 4. The analysis of Grainger causality test results the following conclusions can be
drawn: first, significant at the 10% level, the scale management of land grain production in
LNLS is Grainger LNCQ, Grainger LNCQ is not a grain production scale land management
LNLS, there is a one-way causal relationship between land scale management and food
production LNLS LNCQ, which is the early information of land scale management LNLS
will affect the current grain production of LNCQ; second, there is no causal relationship
between Grainger and the grain production in town; third, at 5% level, urbanization causes

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the land scale management LNUR is Grainger LNLS, Grainger LNLS is not the scale
management of land urbanization LNUR, with a one-way causal relationship between
urbanization LNUR and LNLS scale land management.

hypothesis sample F statistics P value conclusion


LNLS does not Granger Cause LNCQ 20 3.0037 0.0800 refuse
LNCQ does not Granger Cause LNLS 1.1799 0.3343 Not refuse
LNUR does not Granger Cause LNCQ 20 0.3701 0.6968 Not refuse
LNCQ does not Granger Cause LNUR 2.0932 0.1578 Not refuse
LNUR does not Granger Cause LNLS 20 4.9153 0.0228 refuse
LNLS does not Granger Cause LNUR 2.0801 0.1595 Not refuse

Table 4 – Granger causality test results

4.4. Impulse response analysis


The impulse response is analyzed when an error term is changed, or when the model is
subjected to a certain impact on the system dynamics. Figure 4 is the impulse response
graphs on Heilongjiang Province urbanization and scale land management and food
production, the horizontal axis of the graph represents the is impact lag periods and the
vertical axis represents the impulse response variables, the dotted line is standard deviation
band, the solid line shows the impulse response function. It shows urbanization of their
own a standard difference of positive innovation, has the positive effect in the first period,
followed by a substantial decline, in the fifth period before have the positive effects, but from
the beginning of the fifth to the tenth stage has been negative impact. The urbanization on
the land scale management positive new interest and a standard deviation, the influence
of the first phase as 0, leveled off after reached the maximum in the third period, the
overall positive influence. This shows that there is a long-term close relationship between
land scale management and urbanization, land scale management has a positive role in
promoting urbanization. The urbanization of grain production of a standard deviation
of the positive new information, in the first phase of the impact as 0, in the third period
reached the maximum after the decline, but the overall positive impact. This shows that
there is a long-term close relationship between urbanization and food production, in the
short term urbanization had a strong response to food production, from the long run this
response is gradually weakened, but still has a stable and positive role in promoting.

Figure 4 – Response function: LNUR to LNUR, LNUR to LNLS,LNUR to LNCQ

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Figure 5 shows that the scale of the land management of a standard deviation of the positive
new information, in the first phase has a negative impact, followed by the negative impact
of each period, and the negative impact of the gradual increase. Land scale management
of their own a standard difference of positive innovation. In the first period has positive
effect, began to exhibit wavy effect from the first stage, even down to a trough, the crest
of odd period rise, the trough value and peak value is basically the same, on the whole is
now positive effect. Land scale management on grain production in a standard deviation,
effects in the first period of 0, second period has a small positive effect, third stage and
after each period appear wavy effect, but are slightly negative effect.

Figure 5 – Response function: LNLS to LNUR, LNLS to LNLS, LNLS to LNCQ


Figure 6 shows that grain production of town of a standard positive innovation, has
significantly positive effect in the first period, then declined gradually, starts from the
fourth to the tenth period were negative effect, and the negative effect gradually increases.
The grain production of land scale operation of a standard forward new information, in
the first phase of the impact, in the second period to the lowest after a slight rise to
tenth, a positive impact on the overall. The grain production of a standard deviation of
their own, in the first phase has a significant impact, and then decreased to sixth for 0,
followed by a negative impact on the tenth.

Figure 6 – Response function: LNCQ to LNUR, LNCQ to LNLS, LNCQ to LNCQ

5. Conclusions
Based on the statistical data of Heilongjiang Province, this paper studies the relationship
between urbanization and moderate scale management of land and grain production
in province. Mainly obtains the following conclusions: (1) despite the urbanization

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rate, moderate large-scale management of land and grain production of non-stationary


time series, but after the first order difference tends to be stable, using five information
criterion to determine the optimal lag period 2 order. (2) Co-integration test shows that
there is a long-term stable relationship between urbanization, land scale management
and grain production. (3) Granger causality test results show that there is no Granger
causality between urbanization and food production; there is a one-way causal
relationship between urbanization and land scale operation, at 5% significant level,
urbanization is Granger cause of appropriate scale of operation of land; land moderate
scale management and food production is a one-way causal relationship also exists
between, at the 10% level of significance, the appropriate scale operation of land is the
Granger cause of grain production. (4) From the analysis of impulse response function
curve, we can know that there is a positive effect of urbanization on grain production in
the short term. Urbanization has a negative impact on the moderate scale management
of the land; the moderate scale management of land has a strong positive impact. (5) The
variance decomposition shows, urbanization is mainly affected by its volatility effect.
This effect remained at more than 58%; grain yield mainly by its fluctuation effect, but
the effect gradually weakened, in the four urbanization has a great influence on the grain
yield; appropriate scale land is mainly affected by urbanization, overall, three effects of
moderate scale management of land relatively stable.
This paper reveals that the urbanization, moderate scale management of land and food
production is not isolated, in the future development strategy to correctly handle the
relationship between the three. Based on the relationship between urbanization and
grain production, we should steadily push forward the urbanization and ensure the
national food security. Urbanization can promote the grain production in the short
term, however, the promotion effect is gradually weakened, and the urbanization has a
negative effect on grain production in the medium and long term. The reason may be in
the short term the rural surplus labor transfer to urban and bring the improvement of
the efficiency of grain production, with much of the labor force flow to urbanization, the
improvement of grain yield influenced and restricted by the shortage of labor. Based on
the positive pulling effect of moderate scale management of land and grain production,
and actively promote the appropriate scale of land management, both to improve the level
of urbanization, there can be to promote food production. Establishment and improve
the land transfer system, cultivate the market of circulation of rural land contracted
management right, land supply and demand information smooth and symmetrical,
encourage landowners to the grower and business experts, implementation of grain
production scale, intensive management.

Acknowledgments
The work of this paper is supported by Philosophy and Social Science Foundation of
Heilongjiang Province (13C012); Applied technology and research and development
program of Heilongjiang provincial science and Technology Department (GZ13D103).

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Informação, (15), 17–33.
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Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

E-course of College Badminton Curriculum Based on


Multimedia Platform: an Experiential Teaching Method

Hong Zhang

3570313@qq.com

PE School, NanJing XiaoZhuang University, Nanjing 211171, China


Pages: 106–114

Abstract: Multimedia technology has the powerful influence in the field of modern
sports education, a new education method as experience teaching method will
better promote the teaching effect. By using empirical analysis, the result shows that
experience teaching method will increase the students’ interest in learning. More
than 50% students increase interest in badminton class through the experience,
also the experience teaching method will promote students’ physical quality and
basic badminton skills. Therefore, the experiential teaching will stimulate the
initiative of students learning; and will effectively improve the teaching quality of
badminton courses. On this basis, we put forward relevant proposals.
Keywords: Multimedia education, experiential method, badminton curriculum,
online questionnaire

1. Introduction
With the continuous progress of China’s education, deepening education reform and
development of physical education, scientific research has been fruitful. However the
common orientation of modern education and teaching practice is to promote students
all-round and harmonious development, improve the students’ comprehensive quality,
and achieve the teaching goal, the nation each big institutions of higher learning must
be continuous innovation, accumulate experience, summed up a set of applicable in
nowadays teaching methods to meet the demand the stages of contemporary college
students, of course, also give us badminton teaching brought new opportunities and
challenges(Zhang,2012;Dai, 2012). Experience type teaching method is applied to the
badminton teaching process, can make class teaching more lively, and for students to
create a relaxed and harmonious atmosphere in the classroom. Experience of classroom
teaching is by a series of conducive to the positive transfer of technology of experiential
sports to guide the students to actively participate in the beginning of experience, with
strong entertainment atmosphere in the classroom began learning technical movements
in the, such not only can fully mobilize the enthusiasm of the students enthusiasm in
learning this lesson, can further improve the interest of learning the sport of badminton,
thus contributing to the future study of the teaching content(Hu, 2012; Kim,2014;
Crespo,2015). The rise of badminton sport in China is the embodiment of the people
sports concept and sports function. The sport to further enrich the content of physical

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exercise, have also gradually become a hot item in the domestic and international mass
sports and the modern sports fitness campaign of new features. This study is of mass
badminton teaching reform and innovation, have important significance to break away
from the universities and colleges in the traditional badminton skills teaching ideology
(Sigala, 2012; Jian-hua,2012; Krstev, 2014). More and more the phenomenon of the
current sports public elective course in Colleges and universities to carry out and not
particularly optimistic, many students think the sports class is boring, the enthusiasm is
not high, are not keen interest in learning; students appear withdrawn, alienation and
other psychological problems, students analyse and solve the problem of capacity needs
to be improved. So in order to adapt to the rapid development of social requirements for
talent, we need to a take the student as the main body, pay attention to the teacher-student
interaction, lively, interesting and strong, for the non-sports professional students this
group of character and thinking characteristics of the teaching methods. It is more likely
to help students to change the idea, in order to obtain a more solid knowledge.
With the popularity of badminton sport in recent years, in the sports elective course
in Colleges and universities, badminton course has attracted a lot of the majority
of students love, teachers how to better carry out badminton class, the use of more
reasonable and effective teaching methods have become the most important badminton
elective. In the process of teaching teachers cannot blindly focus on how the experience
knowledge transfer to the student’s mind, and to let the students learn to ask for, from
their own personal experience summed up the experience of truth and to be integrated,
to the teachers to obtain knowledge and ultimately more reasonable effective will be on
the understanding. The experience teaching method is based on the traditional teaching
methods, students acquire knowledge through experience, and meaning and emotion
in learning constantly reflect experience, life experience and ability character (Huang,
2013). Therefore, attempt by the ordinary university badminton option class in the use
of experiential teaching methods for teaching and research, to a certain extent in order
to further improve the quality of teaching in the teaching of badminton. In order to
promote the sports undertakings flourish, and thus stimulate student’s sports interest
in learning, the establishment of lifelong sports consciousness, this study tries to from
thebadminton elective class exploring experience type teaching method application and
implementation. With its from teaching and formulate relevant syllabus and all kinds of
teaching documents in order to provide reference for the major colleges and universities,
and have used this method of colleges and universities in improve the university
badminton teaching quality, improve teaching file to provide some of the material.

2. Multimedia teaching platform


Badminton is a general physical education course in Colleges and universities. The basic
technology includes the steps of lower limb, the technique of upper limb and the serving
method. Because badminton movement is delicate and complex, students should
grasp and improve the technical and tactical level of the project. How to innovate the
badminton teaching method, give full play to the leading role of teachers and students,
through access to relevant information to show that the application of multimedia
assisted instruction is one of the main directions of sports teaching reform. Multimedia
technology as a supplementary means of badminton teaching has many advantages,

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but badminton is a practical course, it is impossible to replace the traditional teaching


methods. Students through the multimedia courseware to watch, for the formation of the
concept of action, the formation of the action representation, correct the wrong action
to get a positive effect. But the badminton as the ultimate goal of curriculum practice is
to master the technical movements, achieved through traditional teaching. Therefore,
multimedia technology just auxiliary means in the traditional teaching process, it
cannot replace the traditional teaching method. In order to receive good teaching effect,
multimedia technology should be combined with traditional teaching method.

Figure 1 – Badminton simulation in 3D environment

Figure 2 – The basic framework of badminton teaching


In badminton teaching, teachers of traditional explanation and demonstration has some
limitations, especially the contradiction between the demonstration action time and
space, such as off air smash and demonstration may not stay in the air for students
to see the details. And multimedia technology breaks through the space and time
advantage, to freeze the details of its action, labeling, animated illustrations, students to
provide intuitive, image of a variety of demonstration for students to understand clearly
every action link, promote students to establish correct action concept and clear action

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representation. Therefore, the use of multimedia assisted teaching than single operation
with traditional teaching in the explanation and demonstration of make it easier for
students to understand and master the technical movements and make the teaching
more rational and scientific.

Figure 3 – The badminton teaching

3. Experience teaching method of badminton


3.1. Design of experiential teaching method
Experiencing type teaching method is to practice thinking development of students as
the goal point, to the effective solution of practical problem as the basic support, so that
teaching activities become the organic unification of teacher’s guidance and students’
learning activities. In the whole process of teaching experience teaching penetration in
the whole teaching process, develops take the student as the center, according to the
students’ interests and individual differences of autonomous learning and teachers’
guidance, combining, and overall development of the students’ physical and mental
health and improve the teaching efficiency of the teachers.
1.  Beginning of the class: teachers according to the students in the
experimental group, in accordance with the teaching task, the interest hobby,
exercise capacity, physical quality and teaching requirements put the students
in different groups, when the students in their respective groups to experience
type badminton, to them were classified teaching guidance, establish action
Essentials, to establish the standard of assessment. Before the students to study
and practice to provide background, set up the teaching problems, inspire
students before the experiential exercises of independent thinking, and promote
the understanding of students’ psychology of badminton skills and knowledge,
stimulate students’ interest in and desire for knowledge, and content to students
clear the students, students in each group were to experience practice.
2.  In the course: according to the instructions of teachers teaching, students
learn from each other, learn from each other in their respective groups. Aiming

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at the error action of the students in practice and the special problems, such as
hit the lofty ball hit by, twist is not sufficient, timely feedback to teachers, find
out the reasons, suit the remedy to the case, and give the error correction. For a
variety of issues and questions raised by the students, to give specific guidance,
prescribing exercise designed to facilitate students’ learning and improvement
and is conducive to arouse students interest and experience a variety of ways
and means of practice. According to the guidance of teachers students exercises
to consolidate and improve, achieve a multiplier effect.
3.  After class: experience type teaching method in addition to the application
in the teaching process, in class also has wide application, by teachers to design
the experience type teaching program, students can in spare time using class a
more profound impression on experiential teaching method of repeated practice
to imitate, so as to deepen the technical movements in the master. Teachers
can appropriate arrangements for after-school exercises, through experiential
exercises gradually transition to complete technical exercises, effectively
consolidate and improve the degree of mastering the technical movement.

3.2. Effect of experiential teaching on learning interest


Students interested in the badminton class degree shows, through to the experimental
group and control group students questionnaire investigation that, experimental group
have to badminton class nearly 50% of the students are very interested in nearly 25%
of the students of Badminton Class expressed interest. But the control group was only
about 32% of the students are very interested in badminton, interested in badminton
class students accounted for nearly 27%. The experimental group and the control group
of badminton course said very interested or interested in the proportion of students
is 16%. The experimental group of badminton class is not interested or not interested
students is almost 0, but the control group students of badminton class is not interested
or not interested in the proportion of more than 10% students. Through the experience
type teaching method of the teaching experiment, the experimental group and the
control group in the level of interest of Badminton Class showed significant difference.
The students in the experimental group through a semester of experiential learning can
have a great interest in badminton class. The results show that the experiential teaching
method can improve students’ learning interest in badminton, which has promoted the
popularity and development of badminton in a certain extent. Today is the badminton
movement the most popular time, good badminton skills can not only achieve physical
fitness, more able to meet the needs of contemporary people to pursue fashion? At
the same time, in contemporary people gradually pay attention to physical exercise of
society, palm grip a sport skills into the communication between people of the most
effective way. Therefore, in the sports option class, badminton class into the one of
the majority of students love project. However, teachers should want to in the original
foundation to further improve the attitude of students towards badminton, requires
teachers with good teaching methods to guide, experiential teaching method fully
embodies the teachers’ effective guide and promote the students’ interest in training. So

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the experience type teaching method plays an important role in the popularization and
development of badminton sport.

4. Empirical analysis
4.1. Physical fitness test
Physical education teachers in the school sports science experts, curriculum theory
expert, and ordinary institutions of higher learning and Dean of faculty, colleges and
universities are a large number of interviews, access to a large number of a wealth of
information about experiential teaching method in badminton as a selective course in
application. In particular, in-depth interviews of College P.E. teachers, understanding
of the experiment in the presence of difficulties and problems, for the application
of experiential teaching methods to provide the objective and real data, make the
experience type teaching method in badminton as a selective course in the application
is more practical and fit. According to the specific research direction, through access to
a lot of literature and combined with my own experience design two copies of the first
draft of the questionnaire, followed by visits to relevant experts, analysis and review
of many experts, I also according to the opinions and suggestions of the experts, the
questionnaire were finishing, modify and perfect, eventually forming can effectively
reflect the badminton to students learning interest and teaching and the special quality
index of the formal questionnaire. In order to determine the experimental group and
the control group homogeneity, in order to ensure the validity of this experiment has
high, before the experiment of experimental group and control group were pre-test, test
content includes the student’s basic physical fitness, badminton skills test, badminton
first began to learn learning motivation survey. In addition, our results on students’
physical test summary table as follow:

designated
Standing long 800m
group solid ball X±S shuttle run
jump X±S X±S
X±S
Experimental classes 177.45±7.81 5.62±0.64 21.25±1.05 3.49±0.19
control group 182.66±7.88 5.45±0.65 21.42±1.02 3.53±0.21
T 2.437 3.455 2.258 2.057
P >0.05 >0.05 >0.05 >0.05

Table 1 – Analysis of physical fitness test

Before the experiment, were experimental group of NanJing XiaoZhuang University and
control group students the forehand the lofty ball, forehand hitting the lofty goals and
forehand network before rubbing ball test. Forehand made the evaluation criteria of the
lofty goals that serve to singles and doubles service line between effective; forehand hit

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the lofty goal of evaluation criteria: to play to the singles and doubles service line for
effective; forehand before rubbing ball evaluation standard for: placement of the ball is
the distance the net vertical line one meter or less for. Required tests shall be carried out
technical checks by experienced badminton teachers; specific operation is completed by
him. The experimental group and the control group badminton single technology test
results as table 2:

Index Experience group Control group T P


Lofty ball 4.18±0.51 4.26±0.81 0.49 >0.05
Hit lofty goals 5.75±0.71 6.12±0.83 1.05 >0.05
Chopping 5.18±0.63 5.73±0.82 1.11 >0.05

Table 2 – Badminton single technology test results

4.2. Badminton technology evaluation


An essential feature of the experience teaching method is to stimulate the students’
emotion, to promote students’ cognitive activities. And teaching demonstration law only
the objects, teaching aids presented to students or teachers simply do demonstration
experiments, although there are intuitive, but only object can only lead to students
cold intelligence operations, and can’t play of emotion. A comparative analysis on the
influence of the experience teaching method and the traditional teaching method of
the teaching quality of badminton elective single technology, test results and analysis
are shown in table 3.

Index Experience group Control group T P


Lofty ball 7.35±1.52 5.17±1.09 0.0022 <0.01
Hit lofty goals 7.25±1.42 6.35±1.43 0.0029 <0.01
Chopping 7.85±1.65 6.47±1.03 0.0010 <0.01

Table 3 – Badminton single technology after the experiment

In the badminton elective course teaching, integrated test evaluation can effectively
reflect student learning effects. In the semester curriculum, teachers should properly
organized teaching competition, this will enable students to be learned in the classroom
of the technical action of stage of consolidation and further improve, at the same time,
in various stages of teaching the game to make the students timely found the existence
of their own lack of, and feedback to the discussion of the shortcomings and deficiencies
through the communication between students and teachers, and ultimately to be
corrected. The following is a comprehensive test of the university badminton elective
course of the result of the specific evaluation index, as table 4.

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Group Number X±S T P


Experience group 33 82.04±7.66 3.172 <0.05
Control group 33 77.12±8.15

Table 4 – Comprehensive test results


In the experience type teaching, teachers through the organization of arrangement
reasonable teaching the game to enable students to understand a certain stage of their
own, teaching competition here is not only refers to the game of badminton’s teaching,
also includes the experience type teaching competition, teachers in order to promote
the students’ understanding of the teaching content, before class design experience.
However, in order to further enhance the students’ interest and understanding of the
teaching content, teachers can will experience a type scheme is presented in the form
of game teaching. The student experience at the same time, and can feel the joy of
success. The average integrated test can effectively reflect the students throughout the
semester learning effect, and through the concrete test results can be timely feedback
to the students their own shortcomings and deficiencies exist. However, through the
experimental study of experiential teaching methods show that experiential teaching
method can effectively improve the level of comprehensive testing of students. Students’
self-evaluation table as shown in table 5:

Group Fit High Low Total number


Experience group 25 4 4 33
Control group 14 9 10 33

Table 5 – Students’ evaluation of classroom teaching content

5. Conclusions
In the teaching process, learning attitude of teachers’ teaching methods and teaching
art students have a more important influence. In badminton teaching process, students’
learning attitude directly affects the teachers’ teaching and students’ learning process: a
good learning attitude can help to teachers in teaching give full play to its advantages, and
with a more positive attitude to create a more perfect teaching plan. At the same time,
students have a good learning attitude, will directly promote the students’ learning effect
is good or bad; therefore, this study through the student self-evaluation of badminton
teaching content and to the badminton teaching classroom group.
Evaluate the organization of learning attitude of students, so as to achieve the purpose
of testing the experience type teaching method. Each student due to many reasons
of their growth environment, cognitive level, and interest, hobbies and so lead on all
aspects of the teaching factors have different understanding, will eventually manifested
in the understanding of classroom learning. Therefore, in the experience of teaching
process, the teacher will give full consideration to provide independent thinking, and
create opportunities for students, and let them experience the joy of success in the

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performance of the process. At the same time, students in experiential education of


the learning process, can further improve their own shortcomings and deficiencies,
teachers will also be arranging different experiential scheme according to the students
of their own characteristics, fully mobilize all the students enthusiasm for learning, and
improve their cognitive level and theoretical level and practical level. In the experiential
teaching process, teachers will use experience of sports to promote students’ learning
the technical movement, and then follow the sport technique learning rules, so that
the technology learning can proceed in an orderly way, interlocking and step by step.
However in the teaching, teachers pay more attention to the students of learning
content of active reflection, discuss and share. Therefore, the experience type teaching
method not only in a certain extent is conducive to students’ mastery of technology,
and more conducive to the students to analyze and solve problems ability training. The
requirements of the teaching program of teachers in the teaching process to give full play
to students’ subjectivity, respect students’ individual differences.

References
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de Informação, (15), 35–49.
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Multimedia Teaching in Local Vocational Schools. Physics Procedia, 33, 1144–1148.
Hu, M., Xu, S. (2012). Research of Multimedia Teaching on Principles of Management.
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Huang, Y., Backman, S. (2013). Experiencing student learning and tourism training in
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Tourism Education, 13, 190–201.
Jian-hua, S., Hong, L. (2012). Explore the Effective Use of Multimedia Technology in
College Physics Teaching. Energy Procedia, 17, 1897–1900.
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Zhang, C., Chen, X. (2012). Use of Multimedia in Gross Infective Pathogen Experimental
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Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação Recebido/Submission: 10/03/2016
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

Research on Badminton Footwork Training


and Teaching Effect based on Computer Aided
Information Processing

Chao Chen

chenchao10126@163.com

PE School, NanJing XiaoZhuang University, Nanjing 211171, China


Pages: 115–124

Abstract: Multimedia spots information processing system can be more


rapid processing to all kinds of processing, search, storage and transmission. In
addition, the sports information processing system has a special function, which is
capable of dealing with multi-source sports information. In this paper, the author
analyzes the badminton footwork training and teaching effect based on computer
aided information processing, the result shows that after the footwork training,
the technical level and the physical quality of the students have been improved
obviously. At the same time, the footwork training method can enhance students’
interest in badminton sport; also will improve students’ heart and lung function.
Keywords: Information Processing, badminton training, teaching quality,
technical level

1. Introduction
With the development of computer technology, multimedia computer technology has
been widely used in the field of physical education. The application of this representative
is sports information processing system, which using the technology have multimedia
technology, audio & video technology and communication technology and the use of
this system also greatly enhances the sports information processing, transmission,
retrieval and storage capacity. Badminton sports as our traditional advantages of the
project, in the competitive badminton training level in the world’s leading level (Sigala,
2012; Jian-hua, 2012). With the increasing level of China’s competitive badminton,
led to the development of domestic colleges and universities badminton, badminton
sport is also more and more people. Nowadays, the badminton sport in Colleges and
universities is more vigorous development, swept the country’s major colleges and
universities, badminton sport is one of the most enthusiastic about the topic among
college students. Now the development of badminton sport, mainly with fast speed and
accuracy in placement, stability control, smash ruthless, emphasize the ability of the
technology of comprehensive and surprise attack. This, combined with the demand of
Badminton Footwork, to complete the pedal step, jump ball, diving and so on each kind
of high difficulty action(Zhang, 2012; Hu,2012; Kim,2014). If you do not have good and

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stable technical footwork, master good technique to demonstrate the use, in court only
fast moving in place, you can grab highest point, rational hitting point of threatening
to hit the ball, so step technique of badminton sport is very important. It is the premise
and quality assurance of badminton sport and it is also a bottleneck in the process of
technical and tactical improvement for beginners. And the wrong move gait is very
easy to cause the sports injury, hindered the badminton technology enhancement, and
has hindered the badminton movement development (Dai, 2012; Crespo, 2015). And
through the research of this topic will help to improve the ability to move the badminton
step technology, and enhance the level of competition. In preventing sports injury
caused by wrong action at the same time, improve the physical quality of the students;
let students further understand the badminton sport, their own lack of cognition, so as
to rapidly improve badminton athletics level.
Badminton technique is the basic and the most important part of badminton. Most of
the badminton movement of college students will be excessive concentration of energy in
the badminton strokes of the practice, and a disregard for Badminton Footwork practice
(Huang, 2013; Krstev, 2014). It formed in badminton, because step, hitting action will
deformation, directly affects the various batting technique. And in Badminton Footwork
practice, a student of technical footwork movement standardization degree is not very
high. This will affect the rapid development of badminton sport, so in the badminton
training increased Badminton Footwork Training and step standard. According to the
teaching practice and observation, most of the college students have different kinds of
problems in the process of the process. In this way, it hinders the improvement of College
Students’ badminton level. Therefore, through the Capital Institute of physical education
students of Badminton Footwork teaching practice of experimental study and analysis,
thus finding and improve step technology, help college badminton sport level of ascension.

2. Computer information processing


2.1. Sports information
Multimedia computer sports information processing system is the application
technology of multimedia technology and computer, audio-visual and communication
integrated arising from an information processing system capable of faster, better sports
information to all kinds of processing, search, storage and transmission. In addition, the
sports information processing system has a special function, which is capable of dealing
with multi-source sports information. This function can ensure that the system can
effectively deal with multi-source sports information. In addition, multimedia computer
sports information processing system in the sports information is recorded using the
medium is different, because the record different kinds of information that may be
used for the medium is different, for example, is the sports video information need
to use camera recorded on film, and then use professional equipment on the show or
transmission; sound sports information records will need to use the device for recording
the recorded on the cassette; and text, data and other types of sports information can
record the above the computer disk. In the sports information storage, you can use
multimedia equipment and computer software and according to the specific data format
will stored in the computer, according to the different needs of sports information
decomposition or comprehensive treatment.

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Figure 1 – Data collection and processing

2.1. Multimedia computer


Multimedia computer sports information processing system is more advanced multimedia
technology, which makes sports information processing system can effectively spread on
a wide variety of comprehensive analysis and processing and will sound, text and image
data together, and stored in the database system of sports information broadcast on
the screen, or is the use of the network to transmit them. In addition, the system also
has interactive features. This feature is refers to the sports information disseminators
and recipients between real-time information exchange, and exchange process is often
people use system programming and dialogue, and through active control system to
carry out the work, in order to analyze, research has been accepted and storage of sports
information, make sure to really play the role of sports information.
Sports information mainly contains images, text, audio and video and other kinds of
information, it represents the amount of data is very large, so the difficulty of its processing
is also larger. For example: on a resolution of 640 * 480 24 bit color images were stored,
the amount of storage used is 1m bytes and amount of data is change with the changes of
resolution of, when the resolution of the image becomes higher, the amount of data will
become more, and under normal circumstances, a 1 second video picture contains a total
of 30 (NTSC video standards) image. Multimedia technology in dealing with these data,
a large amount of sports information, usually use two kinds of methods: first, the use
of large capacity memory, such as CD, application of gigabit optical disc is the material
guarantee for the multimedia storing large amounts of data of sports information.
Second, the use of data compression technology to reduce the amount of data sports
information. Multimedia computer sports information processing system in the
compression technology of image compression can use broadband network for dynamic
video remote transmission, in order to make the sports information transmission and
access to more quickly, sports information processing system for remote transmission of
information, such as the following figure 2.

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Figure 2 – information processing system


A number of technologies of multimedia computer sports information processing
system can be developed to dig out more and better software system. Such as the use of
application system design platform to design a set of exercise training and consulting
system, after advancing with the times of training theory knowledge, training mode,
movement method and recovering methods information is added in the system, the
sports information processing system of sports training and consulting system will be
able to use this knowledge to solve various problems in the process of training, and
provide reasonable suggestions and a full range of services for sports training, so that
exercise training can become more scientific.

3. Badminton teaching method


3.1. Footwork exercises
Fixed footwork training method is a practice method of Badminton Footwork teaching
and training, it is refers to two or more than two basic technology, through a combination
of certain fixed line into practice method in badminton pitches exercises. It can quickly
let students master single step and relatively complex binding steps, but also let the
students to participate in the route design, lets the student feel footwork exercises will
not be so dull, can effectively improve the students’ interest. Interest for students, for
their study and work is of great significance, it can motivate students to seek knowledge
desire, so as to achieve the autonomy of students, so as to improve the efficiency of
students’ learning. College is the life energy and stamina most exuberant one age period,
and sports class specialized student due to the profession itself, in the energy and strength
of this period to than other students more exuberant, due to the relatively strong in this
age, physical quality, physiological development more perfect. The function is becoming
more and more stable; their physical quality is in a certain peak. And with the growth
of the age of the students, the students are growing their bone cells, more and thicker
bones, bone development is basically completed. At this point, the use of the fixed line

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method of continuous practice can be appropriate to increase the exercise time and the
intensity of confrontation, to promote student bone thickening and bone thickening.
Similarly, the age of the students body muscle composition is also changing, the water
gradually reduced, the protein gradually increased, the quality of the muscles continue
to improve, and gradually developed, muscle strength continuously strengthened. At
this time the student’s own circulatory system basically reached the level of adult, heart
muscle is relatively developed, the heart rate gradually slowed down, the blood pressure
is basically in a stable state. Therefore, in the use of fixed line exercise method, it can be
appropriate to increase the amount of exercise and exercise load, so as to improve the
level of system function in all aspects of the body.

Figure 3 – Badminton training


Fixed footwork training method for students in accordance with the design of the design
of a good route to repeat the practice, so that it generates the appropriate conditions for
reflection, is conducive to better grasp of the students and strengthens the badminton.
Through for students of the load intensity, the student body has a relative degree of
adaptability, is conducive to development and to improve the physical quality of the
students in all aspects; fixed line training method let students continued the running
practice, enhance the speed endurance quality of students, to complete the exquisite
technical movements in a relatively large load strength; fixed line practice make students
cycle step running exercises can inspire students to practice the positive emotions,
enhance high difficulty action of normative and blend into the skill and the special quality
and various body metabolic system practice exercises. Fixed line exercise method is also
followed by the simple to complex, from fixed to semi fixed line exercises in line with
the general objective of the law of exercise training and the basic principles of exercise
training. In addition, in the badminton to learn and practice, specially designed some
special fixed line for sexual practice, help students to have mastered the basic technology
effectively combined use, while the frontcourt and backcourt, offensive and defensive,
straight lines and oblique lines such as technology and consolidate and improve the
students’ level of skill and tactics and combat capability.

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Figure 4 – Badminton footwork

3.2. Basic principle


•• Systematic training principles: the principle of systematic training is a
necessary condition for the continued practice has ideal training effect and achieve
expected effects of exercise, the body’s biological adaptability training load must
be through the human body a little bit implementation. Suitable for the human
body to adapt to the rules of the training exercises, athletes in the biological aspects
of the changes in the benefits of improving, it takes a long time to train and train. It
can be used for a single action exercise, but also can be used for multiple movement
exercises, pay attention to gradually increase the intensity of the exercise of the
exercise, improve the integrity of the quality of the exercise.
•• Appropriate load principle: exercise is composed by the volume and
intensity loading, because training plan, in order to arrange the load is different
and in line with should be according to the different stages of training, will exhibit
different characteristics. The effect of the exercise is to meet the realization of the
individual by applying the appropriate exercise load to the individual. And the
exercise load is composed of load intensity and content of, due to the different
training program, thereby to arrange the load is also different, motion load and
load measuring, according to different training stages and will exhibit different
characteristics. The individual students in practice to bear a certain amount of
load intensity and load, and that the body is bound to produce a corresponding
change in the body, resulting in a certain amount of exercise effect.
•• Theory and practice: in combination with the actual implementing quality-
oriented education and the implementation of education policy must be to do
two, is their own development needs of sports teaching, is the establishment of
student individual right of sports scientific values of real need. In badminton
teaching practice, according to the actual situation of students and the actual
situation of social life, includes two aspects. Students in learning and mastering
the movement of technical knowledge, but also to understand and accept the
sports culture, deepen the understanding and understanding of sports culture.
In the badminton teaching practice, should give full play to the theoretical
knowledge in the technical skills of the important guiding role in learning and

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mastering technical skills at the same time in theoretical knowledge to deepen


understanding and learning.

4. Empirical analysis
4.1. Experimental design
Before the experiment on two groups of students to the body shape, physical fitness,
and footwork speed test, if the experimental group and the control group students
in the above aspects, no significant difference, the experimental object is reasonable
and effective, which can carry out the experiment. Ensure the teaching content of
the two groups, the number of teaching needs to be consistent, and the timing
of the time, the consistency of the venue, equipment. In the same teaching plans
and contents, based on the basis of assessment criteria, sports venues and other
conditions, with the traditional step teaching method (led by the teacher) controls
for experimental teaching, the experimental group focuses on fixed line practice
teaching step. After eight weeks, the experimental group and the control group
were given the same physical quality and gait speed test, and the data obtained
were statistically analyzed.

project experience group control group T value P value


100 meters 12.15±0.13 12.16±0.15 -0.142 0.891
800 meters 135.65±1.12 135.50±1.13 0.260 0.803
Standing long jump 2.83±0.04 2.84±0.03 -0.505 0.629
Solid ball 12.16±0.20 12.17±0.19 -0.110 0.915

Table 1 – four basic quality tests before the experiment

The students of experimental group and control group in the strength, speed, endurance
and the physical quality have no significant difference, in the 100 meters, standing long
jump and solid ball two project control group is still slightly better in the experimental
group. But in the 100 meters and 800 meters of the project, the control group, the relative
standard difference is slightly larger than the experimental group, and in the standing
long jump and solid ball project, controls the relative standard difference slightly light
rain in the experimental group.

4.2. Research results


In this experiment, because in the process of teaching, the experimental group and the
control group using respectively different training methods, the experimental group
with fixed line law practice, the control group using the traditional method of practice
and has a different effect of teaching. From table 2 show that after the experiment, the
two groups of students on the badminton ball technology learning interest has been
greatly improved. Students in the two groups of “no interest” choice is zero, indicating

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that badminton is well received by students welcome, also shows that whether it is
traditional gait practice or fixed line method step practice so that students will have
more love of badminton sport.

group Very interested General No interest


experience group 6 2 0
Percentage (%) 75% 25% 0%
control group 5 3 0
Percentage (%) 67.5% 32.5% 0%

Table 2 – Learning interest in badminton after the experiment

experience group control group


project P value
Before After Before After
100 meters 12.15 11.98 12.16 12.05 P<0.05
800 meters 135.65 128.52 135.50 130.21 P<0.05
Standing long jump 2.83 2.91 2.84 2.89 P<0.05
Solid ball 12.16 12.76 12.17 12.71 P<0.05

Table 3 – Students physical quality after the experiment

From table 3 it shows two groups after 24 hours of badminton class, on the level of
physical fitness have significantly improved, and in the experimental group and the
control group in the 100 meter run, 800 meter run, standing long jump, solid ball has
significant changes, the p value was less than 0.05. It is shown that there are significant
differences. And in these four basic qualities, the experimental group improved
significantly higher than the control group, the results show that the fixed line training
method has the actual effect, can be applied to the badminton teaching practice.

group Step technique Hitting technique


experience group 42.6 40.8
control group 38.5 36.9

Table 4 – Two groups technical level testing

As can be seen from table 4, the experimental group is not only the method of the
technical evaluation of the average score higher than the control group, and the
technical performance of the ball hit the average score is higher than the control group.
This shows that the fixed line method not only to make students in the process of the

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technical aspects of effective, but also has a great effect on the ball technology, but also
shows that the method of the direct impact of the technology. The results show that
the experiment is successful, has the actual effect and the utilization, can effectively
improve the student badminton ability level.

group Wins lost winning probability


experience group 6 2 75%
control group 2 6 25%

Table 5 – Results of teaching competition of the two groups of students

From table 5 can be seen: the students in the experimental group winning streak and
winning percentage significantly than that of the control group students is much higher,
which also fully illustrates the through 32 hours of study and practice, the technical level
of the students is improved, but the two groups of students to improve is differentiated,
scores of the experimental group was significantly better than the control group.
Analysis of the reasons, is due to the fixed line practice in teaching practice has played an
important role. Specific it, fixed line practice high density of the traditional badminton
practice methods, practice in the unit of time the number of relatively more, the load of
students is relatively large, but this can stimulate students interest in learning, the fixed
line law practice is more conducive to improve and enhance the quality of students’
action and rapid formation action to finalize the design.

5. Conclusions
Multimedia computer sports information processing system is more advanced multimedia
technology, which makes sports information processing system can effectively sports
information on a wide variety of comprehensive analysis and processing and will sound,
text and image data together, and stored in the database system of sports information
broadcast on the screen, or is the use of the network to transmit them. In addition,
the system also has interactive features. This feature is refers to the sports information
disseminators and recipients between real-time information exchange, and exchange
process is often people use system programming and dialogue, and through active
control system to carry out the work, in order to analyze, research has been accepted and
storage of sports information, make sure to really play the role of sports information.
Relative to the traditional badminton exercise, fixed line training method can enhance
students’ interest in badminton, the badminton, improve students’ heart and lung
function, enhance students speed endurance and indomitable fighting spirit. It can also
improve the students’ enthusiasm for the exercise of the badminton class. Fixed line
practice method on students’ Badminton Footwork technical ability raise has significant
effect, and can not only improve the students’ all aspects of physical ability and to
improve the quality of the badminton special also remarkable effect. The reasonable
control of the speed and direction of the students’ movement and the time between each

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group during the course of the fixed line method can bring different effects. The fixed
line training method can improve students’ initiative in Badminton Class and cultivate
students’ ability to innovate. The teaching of the fixed line training method has a good
effect on the students’ social adaptation ability, not only can cultivate students’ spirit of
solidarity and cooperation, but also can narrow the relationship between the students.

References
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de Informação, (15), 35–49.
Dai, W., Fan, L. (2012). Discussion about the Pros and Cons and Recommendations for
Multimedia Teaching in Local Vocational Schools. Physics Procedia, 33, 1144–1148.
Hu, M., Xu, S. (2012). Research of Multimedia Teaching on Principles of Management.
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Huang, Y., Backman, S. (2013). Experiencing student learning and tourism training in
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Tourism Education, 13, 190–201.
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College Physics Teaching. Energy Procedia, 17, 1897–1900.
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the development of best practice in an undergraduate tourism course. Journal of
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geocollaborative portals on collaborative e-learning in tourism education. Journal
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Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação Recebido/Submission: 11/03/2016
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

Study on the Cooperation of Hotels and Online


Self-service Travel Business based on Information
Technology

Xiaolong He, Xiaomei Zhang, Fangyuan Liu*

* 5499036@qq.com

College of Economics and Management, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
Pages: 125–135

Abstract: With the rapid development of self-service travel and online travel
business, a new product called an “online self-service travel” business sprout, which
is an online platform providing the information of sightseeing, lodging, dining,
traffic, entertainment and shopping in tourism activities. Visitors could choose
the attributes and ways of travel matters according to personal preference, the
platform connects travel matters by itself, forms itinerary and shows related travel
information for visitors to accomplish self-service travel. This paper collected 191
hotels’ data from Harbin of Heilongjiang province, used Binary Logistic Regression
for studying the influence factors of cooperation of hotel and online self-service
travel business based on online tourism enterprise. At last, getting result through
SPSS, it shows that 12 influence factors are having positive effect such as tourism
enterprise reputation, technical guidance during cooperation, related policy
guidance and pricing method, 3 factors having no effect on the cooperation which
are hotel room quantity, tourism enterprise economic benefits and creativity.
Keywords: Online tourism enterprise, online self-service travel, hotel, cooperation

1. Introduction
Visitors are good at collecting kinds of travel information from online travel platform
for travelling in our era that tourism industry virtualization and network life get more
universal, especially young visitors like choosing self-service travel by using resources
and information from online travel platform (Zhenglu,2014; Delgado, 2015). Online
tourism enterprises and their online travel business came into being and could meet
parts of the demand of tourism market. Online travel business accompanied by the
online tourism enterprise, three stages has been underdone since the end of the 20th
century in China. The first stage from 1999 to 1999, it is the stages in germination
of the online travel business. Tourism enterprise obtained the market share through
the call centre or online booking in this period, and obtain the benefit, information
consultation and online booking is the main of online business (Siwei, 2014; Zhao,
2014; Lixin, 2015). The second phase from 2002 to 2007, is the evolution period of
the online travel business. E-commerce began to widely used during this period, to
combine the tourism boom and the electricity business boom, and play the role of the

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Internet automation, and then make the tourism enterprises to improve efficiency and
reduce cost, the kind of online business is increase with the need of market (Tao,2011;
James, 2009). The third stage from 2007 to now, is the mature period of the online
travel business. The application of smart phone as the start during this period, and
then mobile devices and mobile network obtained the widely used, and the APP mobile
application development is rapid, it is provided the new opportunities for tourism
enterprise, Tourism enterprises into the era of flowers contend gradually, to carved up
the tourism market demand using the multivariate model, and focus on one or more of
the online business (Yun, 2014; Wenbiao, 2014).
A small number of online travel companies such as Ctrip, to make a few main business
and stronger gradually on the basis of resources and experience advantages, and become
a comprehensive online business tourism enterprises; more online tourism enterprises
is focused on one or two, three types of business, such as the Donkey-mother travel
network focused on the custom services of tours and group tickets, and the Mafengwo
travel network focused on travel guides and user experience, and equivalent to the online
travel community.
At present, the online travel business exists in the Chinese market can satisfy the general
requirements of most visitors, but for many self-service visitors, they hope the tourism
market can appear an online travel business trip which the itinerary is choreography
according to the personal preference, and farewell the existing model which to find
all kinds of information of strange tourist destination, and design schedule through
repeated comparisons, This method saving part time on the one hand, and the content
be recommended with emphasis on the other hand.

2. The content of online self-service travel business


Because of situation that there isn’t an online business providing itinerary for visitors
according to their personal preference in tourism market, this paper put forward online
self-service travel business to fill the vacancies in the market. The online self-service travel
business is an online travel business platform for visitors based on one online tourism
enterprise including large information of travel scenic, hotel, traffic entertainment and
more, visitors according to personal preference choose the attributes and ways of travel
matters, the platform would connect travel matters by itself, form itinerary and show
related travel information for visitors to accomplish travel action, figure.1 shows the
business process.
The online self-service travel business is still in the prototype stage, at present, there
is no Chinese tourism enterprise to develop and launch on the market, this promote
more direction and space subdivision to study. As the hotel is one of the most important
partners for the business operation, and close cooperation with the relevant travel
business, hotel is regard as the main body of research; we can predict the future growth
space through the approval, acceptance and willingness of cooperation comes from the
hotel. What is noteworthy is that since the business practices is generated in the travel
business, unable to determine the cooperative profit distribution, the most concerned
issues of partner does not make the concrete discussion in this paper, it can regard the
average of profit distribution of the similar online travel business as a reference.

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Figure 1 – Business Process of Online Self-service Travel Business

3. System establishment of cooperation influence factors


Hotel having right to decide would suffer from a variety of factors while cooperation
between hotels and online tourism enterprises. This paper sorts out 4 classes and 17
factors of cooperation influence fitting city condition after finding out the present
situation of Harbin hotels and their cooperation with online tourism enterprises.
Therefore, the system showed in figure.2.
Specifically, 4 classes are aspect of hotel itself, aspect of online tourism enterprise, aspect of
the process of cooperation and other aspect. 17 factors are hotel type, hotel location, target
customer, room quantity, room occupancy rate, having self-marketing business and having
cooperation with tourism enterprise in aspect of hotel itself, online tourism enterprise scale,
economic benefits, reputation and creativity in aspect of online tourism enterprise, technical
guidance, cooperation method, pricing method and settlement method in aspect of the process
of cooperation, enterprise cooperation trend and related policy guidance in other aspect.
Along with the increasing influence of Internet and information technology to the
tourism industry, OTA (online travel service provider) and the majority of tourists
using the Internet spontaneously organized the “Lvyou group” are the traditional to
travel agency industry as representative of the travel service provider has had a huge
impact. In early twenty-first Century, with the popularity of the Internet, a new travel
provider OTA (online travel service providers) came into being. After nearly 10 years
of development, OTA in terms of revenue has been to catch up with the trend of the
traditional travel agency. According to the National Tourism Bureau statistics, in 2013
China’s travel agency industry annual revenue of 359 billion yuan, business growth rate
of 6.7%, but the domestic tourism and inbound reception declined. According to Ai

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Figure 2 – Cooperation Influence Factors System of Hotel with Online


Self-service Travel Business
Rui network statistics, in the same year, China’s online travel transactions amounted
to over yuan, an increase of 27.7%, among them, the online ticket market transactions
amounted to 131 billion.
The basis of traditional tourism intermediary service industry is the monopoly of
information, which is built on the basis of different cost of tourism intermediary service
industry and tourists to obtain information. Because tourism products involves many
aspects and has a remote and repeated use rate is low, and the characteristics, so the
traveler information collection cost is very high and is difficult to reuse, inhibit the normal
tourism initiative to collect information of power, and professional travel agency does not
exist this situation. With the rise of the Internet, travel product supplier for propaganda
purposes their information will be published on the Internet, users, especially after 70
after the birth of the habit to use network of ordinary tourists to collect information
related to the cost decline, and in recent years the rise of the UGC (user generated
content) and PGC (specialized in producing content) not only makes ordinary tourists to

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Figure 3 – The online self-help tourism become popular

collect relevant information costs decline further, but also improve the accuracy of the
information. With the rise of the Internet, the traditional intermediary service agencies -
travel agencies in the information on the dominant position of almost all loss.
With the development of the Internet, especially the rise of a number of tourism
professional websites, tourism product suppliers cannot through travel agencies directly
to the tourists before the product information, and its power will be sold to the lower
prices directly to the tourists, and to avoid the travel agency in the middle of the link.
Therefore, for ordinary tourists, not only the cost of information collection, transaction
costs also continue to decline, the price difference between the price of tourism products
with standardized. Even though the price of the quoted price is slightly lower, many
tourists may choose to travel freely because of the poor degree of freedom of the tourists
who buy the quoted price. From the current trend, the freedom to travel is becoming a
trend. Online booking hotel now is really convenient and simple, as shown in figure 4.

Figure 4 – Online booking hotel

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4. Empirical analysis
4.1. Source of data
A set of questionnaire conform to the content is designed according to the cooperation
influence factors system, the total question is 19, and the 17 influencing factors of
system are included. In order to ensure the accuracy of the results of the survey, the
questionnaire survey is a field survey, the specific respondents are deputy manager level
or above of large hotel and the hotel owner of small and medium-sized hotel, so ensure
that they can represent the policymakers of the hotel to participate in the cooperation.
Research out 210 questionnaires, recycling 209 questionnaire, valid questionnaires is
191, 90.95% of total questionnaire distributed.

4.2. Establish of model


Logistic regression model is nonlinear regression model of the probability, mainly used
in the regression analysis of qualitative variable; it is a multivariate analysis method to
study the relationship between the results of classification observations (Y) and influence
factors(x). The dependent variable can be more or binary classification. The research
content of this study is the hotel in Harbin to participate in online self-service travel
business based on online tourism enterprise or not, only “have” and “have not” as the
results of whether the hotel have willingness to cooperate, so binary Logistic regression
analysis model is the most appropriate.
Binary Logistic regression analysis model is:

 11

= (Yi 1=
pi p= X i ) F  α + ∑ β j X ij  (1)
 i 
In the above formula: “p” means a choice rate; “Xij” means factors; “F” means to submit
a standard Logistic distribution.The model is established according to the study:

(Yi 1=
p= Xi ) G =
(Z)
(
exp β 0 + ∑ i =1 β1 X i + µ
n
)

(
1 + exp β 0 + ∑ i =1 β1 X i + µ (2)
n
)
In the above formula, “p” means the cooperation probability of Harbin hotels choose to
participate in cooperation with online self-service travel business based on online tourism
enterprise; dependent variable “Y” means the willingness to cooperation of Harbin hotels
to participate in online self-service travel business based on online tourism enterprise,
“Yes” is expressed in “1”, “No” is expressed in “0”; “Xi” means all kinds of factors to
influence of Harbin hotels to participate in cooperation with online self-service travel
business based on online tourism enterprise, it is respectively for the hotel type(x1),
hotel location position(x2), hotel target customer(x3), hotel room quantity(x4), hotel
room occupancy rate(x5), hotel online self-marketing business(x6), hotel cooperation
with tourism enterprise(x7), tourism enterprise scale(x8), tourism enterprise economic

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benefits(x9), tourism enterprise reputation(x10), tourism enterprise creativity(x11),


technical guidance in the process of cooperation(x12), cooperation method(x13), pricing
method(x14), settlement method(x15), enterprise cooperation trend(x16), related policy
guidance(x17); “G” means cumulative distribution function of a standard Logistic
random variables; “u” means the random disturbance.

4.3. Result of data analysis


First, according to the above analysis, making dependent variable “Y” to variable
definitions, “Yes” is expressed in “1”, “No” is expressed in “0”.Second, according to the
content of every survey question option, making “Y” to variable definitions, the details
are showed in Table 1. At last, putting 17 explanatory variables into the model of Binary
Logistic Regression, this paper selected the statistical software is SPSS 19.0.

Variable Variable Range


x1(0 - five-star, four-star or luxury hotel, 1 - three-star or business hotel, 2 - 0~4
economic, express inn hotel, 3 - features inn, theme inn or youth hotel, 4 - other
accommodation hotel)
x2(0 - at or near tourist attractions, 1- at or near transportation hub, 2 - at or 0~5
near business center, 3 - at or near main urban roads, 4 - at or near school,
hospital, family area, 5 - other location)
x3(0 - mainly tourists, 1 - not mainly tourists) 0~1
x4(0 - less than 100, 1 - 100~400, 2 - more than 400) 0~2
x5(0 - less than 30%, 1 - 30%~50%, 2 - more than 50%) 0~2
x6(0 - have self-marketing business, 1 - have no self-marketing business) 0~1
x7(0 - have cooperation with tourism enterprise, 1 - have no cooperation with 0~1
tourism enterprise)
x8(0 - large scale, 1 - general scale, 2 - new year or small scale) 0~2
x9(0 - good economic benefits, 1 - general economic benefits, 2 - bad economic 0~2
benefits)
x10(0 - good reputation, 1 - general reputation, 2 - bad reputation) 0~2
x11(0 - have creativity, 1 - have no creativity) 0~1
x12(0 - have technical guidance, 1 - have no technical guidance) 0~1
x13(0 - book online and sale by itself 1 - book and sale on the Internet) 0~1
x14(0 - pricing by itself, 1 - pricing agreement with tourism enterprise) 0~1
x15(0 - single or one-day settlement, 1 - periodic settlement, 2 - irregular 0~2
settlement)
x16(0 - have influence, 1 - have no influence) 0~1
x17(0 - have influence, 1 - have no influence) 0~1

Table 1 – Variables definition of influence factors

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According to the established display form of Binary Logistic Regression result in SPSS
19.0, there are 5 tables show the result of data analysis. Table.2 shows on the “case”
description: 191 pieces of data involved in the calculation, there is no default.

Unweighted Casesa N Percent


Included in Analysis 191 100.0
Selected Cases Missing Cases 0 .0
Total 191 100.0
Unselected Cases 0 .0
Total 191 100.0

Table 2 – Case processing summary

Original Value Internal Value


Yes 0
No 1

Table 3 – Dependent variable encoding

Table.3 shows the result of encoding variable: the score of “1” represents “having willingness to
cooperate”, the score of “0” represents “having no willingness to cooperate”.

Predicted
Observed Agree to cooperate
Percentage Correct
No Yes
Agree to cooperate No 0 74 .0
Yes 0 117 100.0
Overall Percentage 61.3

Table 4 – Classification processing table


Table.4 shows that the correct rate of anticipating all the “case” having willingness to
cooperate without any arguments into the past, and the percentage correct:61.3 means
there are 61.3% of hotels involved in the investigation having willingness to cooperate
with online self-service travel business based on online tourism enterprise.

Predicted
Observed Agree to cooperate
Percentage Correct
No Yes
Agree to cooperate No 54 20 73.0
Yes 10 107 91.5
Overall Percentage 84.3

Table 5 – Classification processing table

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From Table 5, it shows that the accuracy in “case” classification by regression analysis,
generally prediction accuracy rate of 50% that is considered good. In this case the
percentage correct is 84.3 more than 50, that is to say classification in describing factors
are good. The table 6 shows the coefficient of variable of the output regression equation
and the test values for the coefficient, the Sig. less than 0.05 means the coefficient has
statistically significant, on the condition of this, B value is positive means the influence
of the independent variable on the dependent variable is positive, B value is negative
means the influence of the independent variable on the dependent variable is negative,
and the greater the numerical is, the greater influence. Table 6 is the final empirical
analysis result of the influence factors for Harbin hotels to participate in online self-
service travel business cooperation based on online tourism enterprise, it can be seen
from the table that there are 12 factors to influence the cooperation, and 3 factors has no
influence on the cooperation, the other 2 factors has no statistical significance. Summary
table could be seen in table 7. In the table, “+” represents the impact direction is positive,
and the more “+” are, the deeper influence is, “-” represents the impact direction is
negative, “——” stands for in this study the factor hasn’t get conclusion.

95% Confidence Interval for


factor B S.E. Wald df Sig. EXP(B) Exp(B)
Lower Bound Upper Bound
x1 .680 .311 4.774 1 .029 1.974 1.072 3.632
x2 .187 .206 .827 1 .045 1.206 .805 1.806
x3 .137 .969 .020 1 .888 1.146 .172 7.658
x4 -.768 .687 1.381 1 .040 .464 .129 1.671
x5 .763 .417 3.340 1 .032 2.144 .946 4.857
x6 .199 .654 1.005 1 .043 1.701 .817 4.323
x7 .909 .551 2.720 1 .035 2.483 .842 7.318
x8 .848 .629 1.606 1 .039 2.335 .629 8.672
x9 -.616 .580 1.130 1 .042 .540 .173 1.682
x10 4.063 .740 30.100 1 .000 58.123 13.616 248.115
x11 -1.648 .669 6.861 1 .017 .192 .056 .660
x12 2.029 .560 13.127 1 .000 7.604 2.538 22.785
x13 0.315 .610 .323 1 .047 1.370 .462 4.065
x14 1.598 .600 7.100 1 .008 4.944 1.526 16.021
x15 .241 .562 .184 1 .049 1.273 .423 3.831
x16 -.322 .555 .279 1 .571 .725 .219 2.394
x17 1.018 .614 2.747 1 .035 2.768 .830 9.224
Constant -12.534 3.021 17.216 1 .000 .000

Table 6 – Variables in the equation

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Factor Influence
Hotel type +
Hotel location +
Hotel target customer ——
Hotel room quantity -
Hotel room occupancy rate +
Hotel have self-marketing business +
Hotel have cooperation with tourism enterprise +
Tourism enterprise scale +
Tourism enterprise economic benefits -
Tourism enterprise reputation +++
Tourism enterprise creativity -
Technical guidance +++
Cooperation method +
Pricing method ++
Settlement method +
Enterprise cooperation trend ——
Related policy guidance ++

Table 7 – Empirical Analysis Result of cooperation influence factors

5. Conclusions
The results of survey data sorting shows that 191 Harbin hotels involved in the
investigation and there are 117 hotels has the cooperation intention, accounted
for 61.3%, it means that more than half of the hotels accept online self-help travel
business as a new tourism product, having the potential willingness and opportunities
to cooperation with it. Empirical analysis results show that hotel type, location, room
occupancy rate, having self-marketing business, having cooperation with tourism
enterprise, online tourism enterprise scale, reputation, technical guidance, cooperation
method, pricing method, settlement method and relevant policy guidance are the factors
to effect hotels to participate in the online self-service travel business based on online
tourism enterprise, and the influence of the most significant is online tourism enterprise
reputation, technical guidance and pricing method; but hotel room quantity, online
tourism enterprise economic benefits and creativity has no effect on the cooperation.
Based on the empirical analysis result, online tourism enterprise should establish a good
enterprise reputation at the same time of maintain their own economic development,
focus on the relevant policy guidance, pay more attention on the convenience of operation
on the design and promotion of online self-service travel business, give related technical
support in the process of enterprise cooperation, and give the hotel more initiative in the
process of pricing and settlement. At the same time, the hotel should be good at analyzing
the market situation, seize the opportunity, using the characteristics or advantages of its

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location and marketing channel to obtain more cooperation opportunities so as to stay


in business and expand the development. As the specific contents of the study online
self-service travel business is not existed in the tourism market, the range of the object of
study is limited. So the study results have certain representative but not comprehensive.
Future research could broaden cooperation fields of the content and expanding the
scope of the object choice.

References
Delgado, A. P., Velthuis, M. (2015). Proposal for a continuous improvement IT
governance framework at financial institutions. RISTI-Revista Ibérica de Sistemas
e Tecnologias de Informação, (15), 51–67.
James, H., Mark, W. (2009). Econometrics (the 2nd Edition), Shanghai: Gezhi Press,
294–295.
Lixin, Z. (2015). Research on development of economy hotels in Harbin. The Border
Economy And Culture, 4, 6–7.
Siwei, Z. Fang, F. (2014). Development of a model for a cluster-based virtual tourism
supply chain. Tourism Tribune, 29, 46–54.
Tao, C. (2011). Econometrics. Dalian: Dongbei University of Finance & Economics
Press, 211–216.
Wenbiao, L. (2014). Study on innovation online tourism enterprise business mode based
on supply collaboration. Logistics Technology, 33, 40–42.
Yun, L., Lingqiang, Z. (2014). The comparison research on business model innovation
paths of online travel companies. Science Technology and Industry, 2, 238–29.
Zhao, L., Sheng, H. (2014). Proficiency analysis of tourism enterprises’ network
marketing. Hebei Normal University of Science & Technology (Social Sciences),
13, 89–92.
Zhenglu, G. (2014). Analysis to the tourism demand of students and strategy to the
marking of tourism enterprises. Foreign Economic Relation & Trade, 11, 91–94.

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Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação Recebido/Submission: 12/03/2016
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

Prediction and Simulation on the Consumers


Purchase Intention of Rice based on System
Dynamics Modeling

Shengde Hu, Haoning Wu, Yuqiu Cai *

* 63cyq@163.com

College of Economics and Management, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
Pages: 136–145

Abstract: The system dynamics can be applied to the medium and long term
economic analysis and forecast, as the problem of food security in China is a
complicated economic problem, so that SD method is an effective method to solve
this kind of complex problem. In this paper, we build the SD flow diagram of grain
supply and demand, and then research the consumers’ willingness on purchasing
rice based on binary logistic model. The result shows that consumer purchase
intention of rice is influenced by gender, place, market concern degree, quality
and safety, price range and safety knowledge. Rice as a consumer’s necessities, is
different from other agricultural products, consumers have a higher level of quality
and safety requirements on the rice consumption.
Keywords: System dynamics, causality diagram, purchase intention, rice products

1. Introduction
China’s government for years to the formulation and implementation of various
policies to protect and promote the stable development of grain production, but in the
food policy also had some mistakes, such as policy targeted poor, failing to anticipate
changes in supply and demand, the indirect effect of the policy and the long term effect
of estimation problems and so on (Joshua, 2015; Delgado, 2015; Milad, 2015). Past of
traditional experience judgment and qualitative analysis of agricultural policy analysis,
has been far cannot meet the new situation policy and economic development demands
more scientific, systematic and quantitative policy analysis tool, study of agricultural
policy in China has gradually from qualitative analysis to quantitative analysis. At the
same time, in recent years, the frequent occurrence of food quality and safety problems
caused by the strong reaction of the consumer group, which has a lot of scholars on
the issue of food safety and consumption (Ali, 2014; Gopal, 2014;Natascha, 2015). For
consumers of stratified sampling survey, through descriptive statistics and cross project
analysis method to measure consumer purchase intention of on food safety based, verify
the food safety information can be fortified to increase consumer’s willingness to buy.
High quality rice industry under the joint efforts of relevant government departments
and rice enterprises, there has been a considerable development, Harbin Wuchang,

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Mudanjiang and other well-known high-quality rice producing areas of rice products on
the market price has been much higher than the average market price of the common
rice, but most of the country’s rice production has not yet been completed by ordinary
rice to the transformation of high quality rice, rice products on the market price is not
high, even in accordance with the standard production of high quality rice products, it is
difficult to obtain the consumer recognition, rice products of good quality and low price
to achieve a long-term and arduous task(Ilyoo, 2013; Aurelio, 2013). If it is difficult to
achieve higher prices for better quality, will inevitably affect the rice farmers planting of
high quality rice enthusiasm, make the quality and safety of products of rice is not stable
supply, influence of our country food security. The realization of high quality and low
price of rice products is not only a process of changing from “lemon market” to “high
quality market”, but also an important means to improve the income level of farmers and
processing enterprises. Therefore, it is necessary to the realization path of rice industry
high quality construction, realize the production, processing and marketing links closely
connected, of industry in the aspect of the subject of interest coordination and stable
and good quality rice production, meet the needs of consumers for the purpose of the
demand of high quality rice.

2. System dynamics modeling


System dynamics to build in control theory, system theory and information theory based
on the study of the feedback system structure, function and dynamic behavior of a kind
of method for long-term social economic analysis and prediction, known as the “strategy
and decision Lab. Professor Wang Qi fan in the early 1980s introduced the system
dynamics method into China, has triggered a hot SD, in recent years, system dynamics
application of growth trend once again has become one of the hot topics in the study of
complex systems. Change law of China’s food security is a complex economic problems,
many of the details we did not fully grasp the rules and inherent relation, for this kind
of complicated problem of SD method is an effective method to solve the problem. In
this paper, the system dynamics method is used to describe the relationship among
the variables, and simulate the change law of the system, which is used to analyze the
problem of grain, to realize the medium and long term forecast and policy simulation.

2.1. System factor analysis


The basic balance of grain supply and demand means that there is enough grain supply
to meet the demand of grain. The grain supply capacity of a country or region depends
on the amount of grain production, the amount of imports and the beginning of the
period, the demand of grain depends on the amount of consumption, the export volume
and the final reserve quantity. Total food production is jointly decided by the per unit
area yield of grain and grain sown area, respectively, on Grain Yield and grain sown
area were analyzed: there are many factors affecting grain yield per unit area, generally
speaking, are mainly six aspects: labor input, agricultural production inputs, the
promotion of agricultural science and technology progress and technology, National
Water Conservancy Agricultural Public Investment in infrastructure, related system and
policy and natural disasters influence; grain sown area is mainly composed of arable land

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resources, multiple cropping index and grain planting area accounts for crop acreage
proportion of three aspects.
Based on domestic resources to achieve self-sufficiency in grain, is the basic policy to
solve the problem of grain supply and demand in china. The State Council issued the
“China’s grain problem” white paper pointed out that under normal circumstances
China’s grain self-sufficiency rate of not less than 95%, net imports not more than 5%
of domestic consumption. Previous experts have suggested that the self-sufficiency
rate is about 90%, taking into account the 10% of China’s imports of food will lead to
fluctuations in the international market food prices, and thus affect the third world food
supply. In the medium and long term prediction, the aggregate supply and demand for
food is the focus of our attention, and food supply and demand situation affects the food
price changes, price changes and further affect the next period of grain production.

2.2. Causality diagram (CLD)


Considering the purpose of modeling, analysis of the information collected from various
elements of abstract description of system overview and representative variables,
establish the system variables: the total grain yield (Total Production), yield (Production
per Unit), labor input (Labor), the total power of agricultural machinery (unit, Machine)
per mu per mu the amount of chemical fertilizer (unit Fer), the effective irrigated area
(Irri Area), water conservancy investment accounted for the national infrastructure
investment proportion (Irri Rate), agricultural science and technology three accounted
for the proportion of fiscal expenditure (AgriTech/GovExp), the disaster area ratio
(DisRate), grain sown area (Planting, Area) (Plant Area), cultivated land area multiple
cropping index (MI), the sown area of grain sown area of crops accounted for the
proportion of (Grain/Crop Area), the total food consumption (Consumption), total
population (total population), per capita food consumption (consumption per person),
inventory (stock), inventory coefficient (Stock Co), expectations (expected stock
inventory, expect (expected price) prices, grain price change rate of food price change,
prices and grain price), net import amount (net import).

Figure 1 – Causality diagram of the grain supply and demand

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According to the analysis of the main influence factors and determine the set of variables,
which can be used to build the system the main feedback loop: total production
arrows↑⇒Stock arrows↑⇒ StockCo arrows↑⇒ Expected price↓⇒Food price
change↓⇒Grain/CorpArea↓⇒Planting area↓⇒Total production decreases. This
circuit said food production caused by inventory increase, which leads to the reduction of
the expected prices and grain sown area reduced, leading to a period of food production.
Based on the above, the causality diagram is drawn, as shown in Figure 1. The variables
that affect grain production can be quantified by the variable of black body marker.

2.3. SD flow diagram


Causality diagram can only be qualitatively a rough description of system feedback
mechanism, if to quantitatively describe and shall be Figure 1 shows the causality
diagram change plotted SD flow chart, as shown in Figure 2, and on this basis, the use of
SD special dynamo language writing equations.

Figure 2 – SD flow diagram of grain supply and demand situation

3. System simulation and analysis


3.1. Simulation results
Application of system dynamics modeling software Vensim PLE model of food supply
and demand situation in China from 1996 to 2030 the time span of 35 years of simulation,
the main output results as shown in Figure 3, figure 4 and figure 5 shows. As can be seen
from the simulation results, the increase of grain yield in China depends on the increase
of yield, which is mainly caused by the decreasing of cultivated land in China. The next
two years, thirty years, China’s grain production and consumption tends to be stable,
food self-sufficiency rate of 93% to 107% fluctuations. From a long-term point of view,
in food production to keep steady growth, China’s food price volatility is very small,
compared with the prices of other consumer goods, prices steadily trend.

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Figure 3 –Food prices situation simulation curve

Figure 4 – Food production situation simulation curve


System dynamics method is mainly through the analysis of the structure of the social
economic system, with the help of computer simulation technology research, known as
the actual system of the laboratory. In the model, the policy parameters take different
values, which can be considered as different simulation schemes. The parameters in
this paper are based on the historical development of the system and the experience of
experts. In fact, these parameters can be adjusted with the real changes of the national
policy, which makes the model more realistic and effective. The simulation model itself
is a kind of abstraction and simplification of the realistic problems, due to a lot of data
that are difficult to quantify, coupled with the difficulties of data collection, the SD model
is constructed in this paper without considering agricultural water shortage, for farming
land quality, international prices of the impact and our government implementation

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Figure 5 – Total output of grain situation simulation curve

grain food purchase price policy and other factors. In addition, system dynamics model
is mainly used for quantitative analysis of long-term, dynamic and strategic. It focuses
to study the dynamic behavior of a system that is more concerned about the trend
prediction rather than the accuracy of the simulation results.

4. Empirical analysis
4.1. Econometric analysis model
This study to consumers to buy quality and safety of rice (the quality and safety of
rice is to reflect the quality and safety for the purpose, according to the organic food,
green food and pollution-free food standard production of organic rice, green rice, no
environmental pollution of rice in general, also known as for rice, the main products of
known for the quality and safety of rice or rice safe) will as explanatory variables, and
will be interpreted variables were transformed into binary variables (i.e. rice consumers
positive with “1”, the other with “0”) is a 0/ 1 binary variables. In the research of social
science, the general multiple linear regression models cannot be established directly
when the explanatory variables are 0/1 two variables, and most of the two Logistic
models are used in the study. Therefore, this study uses two yuan Logistic model,
which is interpreted as a variable range of 0-1. When the explanatory variable is the
two categories, the explanatory variable y is subject to two distributions,The overall
probability of setting the y=1 is P (=1 y),The probability distribution function of Y is:

(1 − y )
( y ) P Y (1 − p )
f= (1)

Under such a definition, the parameters of the model can be estimated by the maximum
likelihood estimation method. Log likelihood function:
n
( β ) log l=
l= (β ) ∑{y log 1 − F ( x ′β ) + (1 − y ) log F ( − x ′β )} (2)
i =0
i i

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The Logit model obeys the logistic distribution:

e xu β
( yi 1=
p= xi ) (3)
1 + e xu β
General form of the Logit model is as follows:
 m  1
G  α + ∑ β j X ij  =
pi =
 1 + exp −  α + β X  
 m


j =1
  j ij  
  i =1 

4.2. Sample description statistics


Data from large supermarkets in Heilongjiang, residents of the area and part of the
province of rice consumption more area investigation and. Details of the survey involved
in the investigation of the family of basic information, family income, the purchase of
safety awareness of rice and the safety of rice consumption behavior and other aspects
of the detailed information. After several revisions, the author issued a total of 450
questionnaires, 421 questionnaires were recovered, the examination does not conform
to the logic of the sample 53, a total of 368 valid questionnaires, the effective rate of
the questionnaire reached 81.8%. The statistics of the basic survey sample are shown
in Table 1.

Item Max Min Average Standard Median


deviation
Quality safety 1 0 0.64 0.48 1
Gender 1 0 0.51 0.50 1
Age 4 1 2.63 0.83 3
Educational level 3 1 2.29 0.80 3
Price 5 1 2.95 1.16 3
Quantity 4 1 2.53 0.76 2
Place 5 1 2.67 1.11 3
Package 3 1 2.24 1.16 2
Concern 6 1 3.38 1.46 4
Price assessment 1 0 0.55 0.50 1
Price increase reception 3 1 1.76 0.62 2
Security rice 4 1 2.48 1.04 3
Consumption influencing factor 6 1 2.27 1.01 2

Table 1 – Statistical value of rice consumers′investigation characterization


At this stage of the rice market in the face of frequent emergence of rice quality and
safety problems, this study designs the rice consumers of rice and the suffering of the
market survey, in the “buy rice, worry about whether rice quality and safety,” the survey,
44.6% of consumers said worry, 55.4% of consumers said not very worried, that most

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consumers still has not formed the rice quality and safety consciousness of suffering.
At present, the price of rice in the rice market is generally low, and consumers in the
survey also think so. In the current price of rice on Evaluation of the survey, 34.2% of
consumers believe that the market the price of rice is low, 56.0% of consumers believe
that rice prices are moderate, only 9.8% of consumers rice prices are too high, is outside
the acceptable range. For at this stage, the vast majority of consumers think that the
price of rice bear in the range, consumer survey for the quality and safety of rice paid
to afford the highest prices, the design problem of a price increase to receive the degree
of. The results showed that the quality of the safety of rice was higher than that of the
ordinary rice price range <50% consumers accounted for 80.2% of the total sample.
Consumers have an important role in the safety of rice consumers to choose the quality
and safety of rice consumers. Therefore this study of consumers on rice understanding
cognition degree and the quality and safety of rice cross analysis, the results of pollution-
free, green, organic rice, the more understanding of consumers that is in line with the
“Sanpin” standard is the quality and safety of rice. In the “buy rice, how to identify the
quality and safety of rice, 32.6% of consumers think” brand rice is the rice quality and
safety, brand effect to consumers with a suggestive role, 26.1% of consumers use look
and comparison of “goods than traditional way” to choose, also labels indicate has a
more important effect on consumers.

4.3. Estimation results


In this study, the logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate the data of 368 rice
consumers by using SPSS16.0 statistical software. The results of the model show that the log
likelihood function of -2 times is 186.423, and the numerical value is smaller. At the same
time, the NagelkerkeR2 is close to 1, so the model fitting degree is higher. In data processing,
all of the explanatory variables are adopted in this study. After repeated adjustment and
selection, the model is analyzed and the following results are obtained (Table 2).

Standard Wald
Item Coefficient Significance Occurrence
error outcome
Ⅰ Gender 4.788*** 1.306 13.873 0.000 1.297
Place of
-1.926*** 0.415 21.547 0.000 0.146
purchase

Purchase
0.639*** 1.405 20.711 0.000 0.002
concerns
Market Worry
0.089* 0.169 3.765 0.060 1.093
Degree
Ⅲ Increase
acceptance -0.825*** 1.178 49.110 0.000 3.838
range
What is the
Ⅳ quality and 0.614*** 1.485 17.103 0.000 0.002
safety of rice
K constant 29.074*** 5.741 18.803 0.000 2.584

Table 2 – Result of quality rice consumption willingness model

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The influential factors for the individual characteristics of consumers in the consumer
to consumers to buy rice quality and safety has the positive effect of the 1% significance
level, that female consumers to buy rice pay more attention to the quality and safety of
rice. Female consumers because of the unique serious, meticulous inner characteristics,
items on the requirements are relatively high; at the same time, the majority of female
consumers as the main person in charge of the family diet, on the health of family
members has a more stringent standards and requirements, so buy rice meters will
pay more attention to the quality and safety of rice, which is in line with consumer
behavior rationality. In the influencing factors of the consumption characteristics, the
attention points of rice buy place and consumers buy rice have a significant impact.
Rice consumers purchase place on consumer purchase behavior of quality and safety
of rice had a significant negative to influence by the 1% significance level, indicating
that consumers consider the brand of rice shops selling rice quality and safety level is
higher, were more likely to buy quality and safety of rice. When consumers buy Rice’s
concerns are significant at the 5% level, indicating that the purchase of rice on quality
and safety information to consumers more willing to purchase rice quality and safety.
In the market environment factors, the sense of the market through the significant
level of 10%, the quality and safety of rice price increases by 1% of the significant level.
Consumers are aware of the quality and safety of rice in the existing market, but also
hope to find the quality and safety of rice from the level and type of hybrid market.
Quality and safety of rice to accept the magnitude of the increase in consumer purchasing
quality and safety of rice will decline in the behavior of rice. From the result of the model
can be seen, price increases an amplitude variable coefficient is negative, that with
the quality and safety of rice prices relative to the common rice rise amplitude bigger
inhibition of consumer purchase behavior of quality and safety of rice, which is in line
with the economics principle of elasticity of demand. Quality and safety of rice is not
only to maintain the effectiveness of the life, but also to enable consumers to have a more
healthy body, more energy to engage in social activities, has a strong external effect.
Therefore, consumers on the quality and safety of rice to understand the more detailed,
the more they want to buy quality and safety of rice. At the same time, the accuracy of the
understanding of quality and safety of rice, will better guide consumers to buy quality
and safety of rice.

5. Conclusions
This study based on consumers’ purchase willingness of rice quality and safety and its
influencing factors empirical analysis, the conclusions are as follows: rice consumers to
buy rice quality and safety will affected by gender, rice place to buy, buy rice attention,
degree of the suffering of the market, quality and safety full price for rice to accept
the influence of amplitude and the quality and safety of rice degree of understanding
factors. Different factors influence and affect the direction of each in a different way.
Specifically, women often in franchise stores to buy rice, buy rice attention to safety
and quality, with strong rice market consciousness, can bear larger quality and
safety of rice price accepted range, on the quality and safety of the rice to understand the
profound and clear understanding, has the characteristics of consumers to buy quality
and safety of rice a greater willingness. Rice as a consumer’s necessities, and other

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agricultural products, consumers have a higher level of quality and safety, more stringent
requirements. According to the above analysis, the author puts forward the following
suggestions: first, according to the consumer characteristics of individual characteristics
and location, to buy rice points of concern to the rice market segmentation, develop
differentiated marketing strategy of the quality and safety of rice; second, starting from
the consumer awareness and the quality of the price point of view, should strengthen the
supervision of rice market, beware of fake the security market is flooded with fake rice,
the implementation of high quality strategy, in order to foster harmonious rice market;
third, through various publicity channels, shaping the quality and safety of rice quality
image, so that consumers are fully aware of the ecological value of the quality and safety
of rice, in order to improve the quality and safety of consumers to buy rice willing.

References
Ali, I., Fauziah, S. (2014). Intercultural Communication Competence as a Key Activator
of Purchase Intention. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 590–599.
Aurelio, G., Mauri, R. (2013). Web reviews influence on expectations and purchasing
intentions of hotel potential customers. International Journal of Hospitality
Management, 34, 99–107.
Delgado, A. P., Velthuis, M. (2015). Proposal for a continuous improvement IT
governance framework at financial institutions. RISTI-Revista Ibérica de Sistemas
e Tecnologias de Informação, (15), 51–67.
Gopal, D. (2014). Factors affecting Indian shoppers’ attitude and purchase intention: An
empirical check. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 21, 561–569.
Ilyoo, B., Hoon, S. (2013). The mediating role of consumer trust in an online merchant in
predicting purchase intention. International Journal of Information Management,
33, 927–939.
Joshua, D. Newton, Y. (2015). Environmental concern and environmental purchase
intentions: The mediating role of learning strategy. Journal of Business Research,
68, 1974–1981.
Milad, D., Mustafa, T. (2015). A research on effectiveness of Facebook advertising on
enhancing purchase intention of consumers. Computers in Human Behavior, 49,
597–600.
Natascha, L. (2015). The effect of food shape abnormality on purchase intentions in
China. Food Quality and Preference, 40, 24–30.

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Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação Recebido/Submission: 13/03/2016
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

Research on Evaluation Index System of Tourism


Competitiveness based on Tourism E-business
Platform

Wu Ling, Li Long

wuling2021@163.com

Suzhou University, Suzhou city, Anhui province, 234000, China


Pages: 146–157

Abstract: With the development of the tourism network platform, tourism


construction is a long-term and systematic work, the construction of evaluation
index system of tourism is very important. In this paper, the author made some
summary on tourism strong province status, and then construct evaluation index
of tourism competitiveness by using literature information method. On the basis
of analyzing the factors influencing the tourism construction, and followed the
principle of objectivity, systematic, measurability and comparability, the author
construct tourism evaluation index, including five primary indices as tourism
market needs capacity, tourism supply capacity, tourism support force, tourism
guarantees force and tourism pull effect.
Keywords: Tourism network platform, tourism competitiveness, evaluation
index system, industry contribution

1. Introduction
The national tourism administration put forward to build a World Tourism Power,
the first in the 2000 fifteen national tourism development plan, the next 20 years, the
goal of building a world tourism power in China will be able to achieve in this historical
period. In the national tourism work conference, first put forward the struggle goal
that we should transferred China from the world tourism power to become the world’s
tourism strong country (Hongjian,2009; Claudia, 2013). In 2005, the National Tourism
Administration has set up a special research topic, which is the first time to systematical
study the connotation and index system of China’s construction of the world tourism
power. In 2009, the State Council document No. forty-one of “the opinions of the State
Council on accelerating the development of the tourism industry” further clarified the
three aspects of this goal is the industrial scale, quality and efficiency. Efforts to reach the
time node is 2020, Strive to achieve the basic level of the world tourism power of China’s
tourism industry scale, quality and efficiency in 2020. In 2015 the national tourism work
conference, Li Jintao representative of the National Tourism Administration: the next
35 years, China’s tourism industry will be large to strong, from fast to good, to achieve
from the “preliminary well-off country” to “comprehensive well-off tourism country”.

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Then to the “preliminary rich tourism power” of the new leap, the next 35 years to build
China into world tourism power timetable and roadmap (Yongjun, 2008; Lijing, 2010).
Since the National Tourism Administration proposed the development goal of building
a tourism powerful country, many provinces put forward building the tourism
strong province, especially the abundant tourism resources provinces, which actively
explore effective policies and development strategies of the tourism strong province
construction(Zhang, 2014). In early 2015, the Implementation opinions of the Anhui
Province People’s Government on promoting the reform and development of tourism was
promulgated, which put forward that by 2020, the province’s total tourism consumption
amounted to 8000 billion Yuan, added value of tourism accounted for the proportion
of GDP of the province and strive to reach 7%, basically completed the strong province
of the travel (Zhifa, 2011; Xiangyang, 2009). On 7 August 2015, Anhui Provincial
Tourism Bureau in the document on the construction of strong tourism province to
build a comprehensive views of happiness, beautiful, wisdom and credit tourism,
which mentioned the four aspects of: happy tourism, infrastructure, beautiful tourism,
boutique, wisdom travels, Internet and tourism, tourism credit, credit information
publicity (Song,2005; Zhang, 2007). The construction of tourism strong province is a
major strategic decision made by the Anhui Provincial Committee and the provincial
government, in order to adapt to the new normal and promote the new development,
which is the stage goal of tourism reform and development (Qiuyang, 2009; Li, 2014;
Freixo, 2014). To create a comprehensive four tourism is key tasks and basic path for
the construction of the strong province of the travel. Building the strong province of
the travel, they pointed out the objectives and tasks of reform and development of the
tourism industry in the province; draw the outline of the overall framework, given the
direction and power of our province(Sá & Rocha, 2012; Abraham, 2000).
However, an important foundation for the construction of tourism strong province,
tourism industry and tourism product development still exist some problems, especially
tourism industry development is not balanced, tourism products obsolete has become an
important bottleneck of Anhui tourism strong province construction and the realization
of strategic targets. Therefore, in the basics of analyzing factors that influent the
construction of tourism strong province, how to construct the evaluation index system
of tourism province, to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the tourism strong
province, becomes the focus of our study.

2. Evaluation of online travel platform competitiveness


2.1. Tourism E-business Platform
From the development trend of the global tourism market, online travel industry has
gradually become a new industry. Online travel products derived from the ticket, hotel,
travel and other forms of tourism products. At present, the online travel business model
showing a diversified, differentiated momentum, has formed a complete upstream and
downstream industry chain, the enterprises in the competition continues to change, the
industry will present the pattern of competing patterns. Online travel platform model as
shown in figure 1.

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Figure 1 – Online travel platform model


Tools for exploring deep social relationships will no doubt provide value for users and
businesses using Facebook. In the field of tourism, the user can easily find the next
journey companion and travel advice, had recently travel friends, as show in figure 2,
in the tourism industry of friends and friends of friends are those people are long-term
assignments in local and can provide travel advice. The long list of information provided
by Facebook will allow travelers to more fully understand the relationship between
them and the global social network. Users can also search for other points of interest,
including movies, books and music, they can search and use the Internet users to their
friends all the interest in public information. At the same time, mobile phone software
of online travel is also a new trend.

Figure 2 – Facebook search for social travel companion

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Figure 3 – Mobile phone online travel platform

2.2. The evaluation of the competitiveness of tourism


Many scholars believe that the concept of tourism strong province should be to define
from the competitive angle; the evaluation of tourism strong province also should follow
the ideas of competitiveness evaluation to construct. Therefore, the research on the
competitiveness evaluation method is the premise of constructing the evaluation index
system of tourism province. At present, the international recognition of the competitiveness
of the evaluation method is the world economic forum announced the travel and tourism
competitiveness index (TTCI) system and WTTC tourism competitiveness indicator.
Gooroochurn and Sugiyarto according to the method, use the WTTC, the World Bank,
and the United Nations figures released in 2002. With the help of AMOS4.0 software, the
tourism competitiveness of 93 countries and regions in the world was measured, found
that the United States, Sweden, Norway, Finland and Australia’s strongest competitive
destination, these countries generally have higher GDP per capita, value-added service
and trade rate. Tim Padmore and Hervey Gibson improve the diamond model of Professor
Potter; he put forward a kind of 3 factors model of industrial cluster competitiveness
as Groundings - Enterprise - market model (GEM). GEM model is the world of cluster
competition standard to 6 factors, evaluation of the competitiveness of industrial clusters.
The top brands of China’s online travel platform as shown in figure 4.
Geoffrey think that the main influence factors of tourism destination competitiveness
is a supporting resources and facilities, core resources and attractions, destination
management, destination planning and development policy, restriction and
amplification factors and so on, and based on porter’s diamond model theory, put
forward the “conceptual model of tourism destination competitiveness”, namely Crouch
& Ritchie model. Metin and Rimmington put forward a set of evaluation system of
Tourism Destination Competitiveness, based on the combination of qualitative and
quantitative indexes. They think the qualitative indicators including tourism like most
or least favorite tourism destination attributes and activities project and so on, it called
“soft” date. Dwyer & Kim model think there are a lot of destination competitiveness
indicators, both subjective attribute, also includes the objective attributes, destination

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Figure 4 – China’s online travel brand platform

market segmentation and tourism foreign exchange income. National or regional social
economy attribute index related to the main macroeconomic production, including
economic productivity levels, the overall level of employment, income of per person,
economic growth and so on.

3. Empirical analysis
3.1. Tourism market demand ability index
Based on the analysis of domestic and foreign literature, combined with the development
situation of tourism industry in Anhui Province, by brainstorming, the preliminary
conclusion is that the impact of tourism in Anhui Province construction factors, including
internal factors and external factors. Among them, the external influence factors are
mainly environmental factors, including social and economic factors, policy and legal
factors, scientific and technological progress factors, and so on. Internal impact factors
are various, mainly including supply and demand factors, specific tourism resources,
tourism location factors, human resources, capital supply factors, tourism market
factors, consumer demand factors and other factors, as shown in Table 1.

Environmental factor Social and economic factors, policies and legal


factors, scientific and technological progress
factors
Tourism Province
Supply factors Tourism resources, tourism location factors,
influential factors
human resources, capital supply factors, etc.
Demand factor Tourism market factors, consumer demand
factors

Table 1 – The influence factors of tourism strong province

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After several rounds of brainstorming, combined with the use of nominal group and
Delphi method, research group ultimately determines the tourism strong province
construction evaluation index, including five layer system elements: tourism market
demand capacity, tourism supply capacity, tourism support force, tourism security and
tourism pulling effect, which is the first class of tourism province evaluation indexes.
In order to establish the index system of evaluation index and the index factor, the task
group has carried out the further discussion to draws the following conclusions.
Tourism market demand ability is the most direct system factors that affect the
development of regional tourism industry, mainly includes the number of tourist
consumption, tourism consumption level, tourism consumption behavior, tourism
consumption potential and other factors (as shown in table 2). Tourism consumption
behavior related to the structure of tourism consumption. Among them, day tourists
per capita consumption level and the average length of tourists stay directly affects the
income of the local tourism, and the revisit rate reflects the source countries or regions
people travel frequency of tourism demand scale and ability.

System layer A System layer B System layer C


Number of domestic tourists
Number of tourist consumption
Number of foreign tourists
Domestic tourism income
Tourism consumption level
Foreign tourism income
Per capita consumption of tourists
Tourism market
demand Tourism consumption behavior Average length of stay
Revisit rate
Development potential of domestic tourism
market
Tourism consumption potential
Development potential of foreign tourism
market

Table 2 – Tourism market demand ability index

3.2. Tourism supply capability index


Tourism supply ability mainly includes the tourism resources endowment, tourism
product development, tourism enterprise development potential, tourism professional
talent supply potential and other factors (as shown in Table 3). Tourism resources
endowment is the basis of regional industrial development, directly determine the
tourism supply capacity. The ability of tourism product development determines
the development scale of regional tourism industry. Tourism enterprises are the carrier
and driving force of regional tourism industry development; tourism professionals are
the blood of regional tourism industry development and the supply potential of tourism
professionals play a very important role in the innovation and development of regional
tourism industry.

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System layer A System layer B System layer C

Quantity and characteristics of tourism resources

Popularity
Tourism resource Rare degree
endowment
Grade degree

Degree of development

Product features

Product brand
Tourism product
Tourism development Product attraction
supply
capacity Additional product

Total tourism income

Tourism enterprise tax


The development of tourism Total labor productivity of tourism enterprises
enterprises potential
Number of travel agencies

Star Hotel quantity

Talent supply potential of The quantity and quality of tourism colleges


tourism professionals The number of personnel engaged in tourism

Table 3 – The index of tourism supply capacity

3.3. Support force index of tourism strong province


The strong province of the travel support force mainly includes macro-economic
development level, the attitude of the government and management ability, cultural
development and scientific and technological innovation elements (as shown in Table
4). The macro economic development level is a measuring instrument that reflects the
development of the regional economy; it is also an internal support for the development
of regional tourism industry. Government attitude and management ability is also an
important factor affecting the development of regional tourism industry, mainly related
to the government’s credit information publicity, financial revenue and expenditure
status, the degree of legal policy, the tourism industry’s capital investment, the level of
industry management, publicity and other aspects of the factors. Cultural development
and scientific and technological innovation can not only enhance the taste and cultural
connotation of regional tourism industry, but also improve the scientific and technological
content and competitiveness of regional tourism industry.

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System layer A System layer B System layer C


GDP Per capita
Tourism added value accounted for GDP
Macro-economic
Tourism Investment
development level
Total consumption of social retail goods
Engel coefficient of urban residents
Credit information publicity
Tourism
industry Government attitude Balance of financial revenue and expenditure
support and management Degree of perfection of legal policy
force ability
The level of capital investment in tourism industry
Publicity and promotion efforts
The number of students in all kinds of schools
Cultural development The per capita funding for science and education
and innovation of The number of scientific and technological innovation
science and technology of tourism every years
The construction level of tourism information system

Table 4 – Support force index of tourism strong province

3.4. Security index and pulling effect index


The tourism security force mainly includes infrastructure construction, location,
environmental carrying capacity and other factors (such as shown in Table 5). Tourism
environmental carrying capacity is an important indicator to determine the development
potential of regional tourism industry, the tourism environmental carrying capacity is
analyzed and studied, which can guide people to reasonable management of tourism,
control the flow of tourists, prolong the life cycle of tourism products, and realize the
sustainable development of tourism industry. Tourism pulling effect is a measure of
the regional tourism development on the contribution of the regional economy and
the development of the multiplier effect of the tourism industry. The design of tourism
industry contribution factor specific targets is mainly from a consideration of the six
elements of tourism, the tourism food, housing, travel, shopping and entertainment
six elements of regional economic contribution degree basically reflect the regional
tourism industry to regional economic contribution degree (as listed in Table 6).
System layer A System layer B System layer C
Traffic line density
Toilet density in tourist area
construction of infrastructural
facilities Number of tourist facilities owned by
thousands of people
Tourism facilities density
The tourism security Location advantage
Location condition
force Transportation condition
Ecological environment carrying capacity
Tourism resources carrying capacity
Environmental carrying capacity Carrying capacity of community residents’
economic life
Psychological carrying capacity of community
residents

Table 5 – Security index of tourism strong province

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System layer A System layer B System layer C


Tourism revenue accounted for GDP
Tourism food and beverage contribution

Industry contribution Tourism accommodation contribution


Contribution of tourism and recreation
Tourism pulling effect
Tourism shopping contribution
Contribution of tourism traffic
Per million people engaged in the number of
Employment multiplier tourism related industries
The number of jobs created by tourism

Table 6 – Tourism pulling effect index

4. Evaluation index system construction


After defining the factors that influence the construction of tourist province, we need
to establish a complete set of evaluation index system, carries on the analysis and
evaluation of the construction degree of tourism strong province. Because the content
of the evaluation index system is not readily available, the relevant data are not easy to
be obtained, so the relevant principles should be followed in the study. In addition, the
index also should pay attention to the actual effect, and has certain guiding function to the
development of the tourism related policy. Article in constructing the evaluation index
system; mainly refer to the relevant experts and scholars research findings of tourism
strong province, tourism industry and Tourism Competitiveness. In the foundation of
the analysis of the factors affecting the construction of tourist province, based on the
existing statistical yearbook, tourism yearbook, social and economic yearbook, Tourism
Bureau data and other official authority data analysis and research. The main principles
of the study are:
1.  Objectivity principle: In the selection of indicators and establishment of
mathematical model, as far as possible meet factor involved in the construction
of tourism province, and considering the accuracy indices and availability, based
on original data of statistical yearbook and Tourism Bureau, as far as possible
using data directly to avoid the subjective.
2.  Systematic principle:Evaluation index system of tourism province to ensure
the logic and systematic, on the one hand, the index system can comprehensively
reflect the general characteristics of the strong province of the travel. At the
same time, it can reflect the inherent connection between the index, so that
the objectives and targets of evaluation can contact each other, constitute the
organic connection of overall.
3.  Measurable principle:The strong province of the travel on the evaluation
indicators to have measurable and index system should as far as possible, clear
and concise, data can be easily obtained, calculation method of measure can
integrates the various indicators become a comprehensive index to simple and
clear, easy to manipulate and measure, data is accurate, easy to understand.

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System level A Element layer B Index layer C


C1Number of domestic tourists;C2 Number of
Number of tourist consumption B1
foreign tourists
C3 Domestic tourism income;C4 Foreign
Tourism consumption level B2
Tourism market tourism income
demand C5 Per capita consumption of tourists;C6
A1 Tourism consumption behavior B3
Average length of stay;C7 Revisit rate
C8Development potential of domestic tourism
Tourism consumption potential B4 market;C9Development potential of foreign
tourism market
C10 Quantity and characteristics of tourism
Tourism resource endowment B5 resources;C11 Popularity;C1Rare degree;C13
Grade degree;C14 Degree of development
C15 Product features;C16 product brand;C17
Tourism product development B6
Product attraction;C18 Additional product
Tourism supply
capacity C19 Total tourism income;C20 Tourism
Development potential of tourism
A2 enterprise tax;C21Total labor productivity of
enterprises
tourism enterprises;C22 Number of travel
B7
agencies;C23 Star Hotel quantity
C24 The quantity and quality of tourism colleges
Talent supply potential of tourism
and Universities;C25 Number of tourism
professionals B8
professionals
C26 Per capita GDP;C27 Tourism added
Macro-economic development value accounted for GDP;C28 Tourism
level Investment;C29Total consumption of social
B9 retail goods;C30 Engel coefficient of urban
residents
C31 Credit information publicity;C32 Balance
Tourism of financial revenue and expenditure;C33
Government attitude and
industry support Degree of perfection of legal policy;C34 Capital
management ability B10
force A3 investment;C35 Industry management level;C36
Publicity and promotion efforts
C37 students in all kinds of schools;C38 The per
capita funding for science and education;C39
Cultural development and scientific
Number of scientific and technological
and technological innovation B11
innovation in tourism industry;C40 The
construction level of tourism information system
C41 Traffic line density;C42 Toilet density in
construction of infrastructural tourist area;C43 Number of tourist facilities
facilities B12 owned by one thousand people;C44 Tourism
facilities density
tourism strong
C45 Location advantage;C46 Transportation
province security Location condition B13
condition
force
A4 C47Ecological environment carrying
capacity;C48 Tourism resources carrying
Environmental carrying capacity
capacity;C49Carrying capacity of community
B14
residents’ economic life;C50 Psychological
carrying capacity of community residents

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System level A Element layer B Index layer C


C51 Tourism revenue accounted for
GDP;C52Tourism food and beverage
Industry
contribution;C53 Tourism accommodation
contribution
contribution;C54 Contribution of tourism
Tourism pulling B15
and recreation;C55 Tourism shopping
effect A5 contribution;C56 Contribution
C57 Every ten thousand people in the number of
Employment multiplier
tourism related industries;C58 The number of
B16
jobs created by tourism

Table 7 – Evaluation index system of tourism strong province

4.  Comparability principle: Tourism province construction evaluation


standard is evolving, the area due to inconsistent development. Its industrial
structure are not the same, in the selection index design need to consider factors
in time and space can be compared, data of different areas and in different
periods using the same standardized indicators were analyzed.
Subject starting from the elements of the strong province of the travel, the related
literatures at home and abroad were analysis and summary, based on that, preliminary
proposed 66 indexes evaluation of tourism strong province. To develop expert
consultation table, through the Delphi method to index were screened, and the correction
of some indicators, setting up a tourism province evaluation index system framework
by the tourism market demand and capacity, tourism supply capacity, tourism support
force, tourism security and tourism pulling effect of five layer system elements.

Acknowledgments
This paper is supported by Anhui Provincial Tourism Bureau key project “Study on the
indicator system of tourism”(SLYJKT201516);Humanities and social sciences research
key project of Anhui College “Evaluation and utilization of wetland tourism resources
in Northern Anhui”(SK2015A565); Anhui Province Department of education “teacher
studio”(2013jxms083).

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Hongjian, W. (2009). Research status of tourism strong province, theoretical basis and
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Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação Recebido/Submission: 14/03/2016
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

Research on Sports Tourism Resources Value and


Promotion with Skating and Skiing based on Data
Mining Method

Xianfeng Zha 1, Xiaomei Zhang 2,*

* 915428334@qq.com

1
Department of Physical Education, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
2
College of Economics and Management, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China
Pages: 158–170

Abstract: With the development of economy and the improvement of living


standards, the electronic platform provides more opportunities for tourism
industry. The tourists are change from a single sightseeing tour to all kinds of special
tourism such as sports tourism. In this paper, we analyze the ice-snow tourism
especially in Heilongjiang province, as it has climatic conditions and unique ice
and snow tourism resources. After analyzing the characteristics of ice and snow
tourist resources, we build the evaluation index system of tourism resources value.
By using factor analysis, we find out that the elements of ice and snow tourism
resources value mainly includes economic factors, cultural factors and ecological
factors. On this basis, we put forward relevant policy suggestions.
Keywords: Data mining, Sports tourism, Resources value, Skating, Online
survey, Ice-snow tourism industry

1. Introduction
Since the reform and opening up, China’s tourism industry has achieved great
development. From 1978 to 2015, China’s tourism market has expanded the scale of
66 times, the annual growth rate reached 16.8%, tourism foreign exchange income
average annual growth of 19.1%. On the other hand, with the increase of economy and
the improvement of living standards, people’s leisure time in recent years, especially in
the Spring Festival, during the golden week, domestic residents showed a strong tourism
demand. The World Tourism Organization predicts that China is expected to in 2020
to become first world tourist reception country and the fourth largest tourist country
abroad. In this context, one of the main trends in the development of tourism, tourists
are from single sightseeing tourism to the holidays and all kinds of special tourism such
as sports tourism transformation (Urioste, 2015; Lopes, 2015). Especially the 2001
World Tourism Group, the fabric and the International Olympic Committee held a world
of sports and tourism conference, sports tourism has become another focus of ecological
tourism circle. The ice tourism is an important part of sports tourism, which is one of
the most rapid development projects. Taking Heilongjiang Province as an example, the

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province due to the special geographical environment, climatic conditions and history,
have unique ice and snow tourism resources. In recent years, the development of
tourism industry in Heilongjiang province is very rapid; the provincial government put
the development of tourism as a pillar industry of the national economy, more quickly
transformed into economic advantages of tourism resources.

Figure 1 – Ice and snow tourism in Heilongjiang


At the same time, with the expansion of ice and snow tourism scale, contradictions
and problems in all aspects and levels of restricting the development of the tourism
industry to further highlight the snow (Tapsuwan, 2015; Polat, 2015; Wyss, 2014).
From a practical point of view, the ice and snow tourism in the expansion of the existing
tourism resources development at the same time, disorderly and wasted, predatory
development and operation, the serious phenomenon of repetition development
and economic benefits of ice and snow tourism such as poor. Especially the ice snow
tourism resource rich areas are located in remote, in addition the ice and snow tourism
resources development planning unscientific and unreasonable evaluation, affected the
further development of ice and snow tourism. From the theoretical point of view, the
reasons for these problems are that of ice and snow tourism resources and its law is not
clearly understood(Li, 2014; Siow, 2014). First, ice snow tourism resources relatively
vague concept, lack of unified and acknowledged definition, no consistent classification
standard and scientific classification system, lead to the ice snow tourism resources and
its value do not have a clear understanding, is not conducive to scientific and reasonable
development. The ice snow tourism resources value also awareness of the existence of
bias (González,2015; Kariminia,2013). At present, the main discussed is economic, and
ignored the tourism is also a kind of cultural activities, the essence is aesthetic pleasure,
is the tourists as the main body of tourism with the help of tourism media and other
external conditions, through the activities of tourism object dynamic, to realize their
own a need for non-domiciled in a dynamic process of complex. Therefore, the ice and
snow tourism culture is showing its importance in ice and snow tourism development
status. Secondly, no clear understanding of the mechanism on the formation of ice and

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snow tourism resources value(Liggett, 2011;Healy, 2016; Varley, 2011)). Only think of
snow and ice is the view of the nature of the product makes the understanding of the
value of the snow and ice resources stay on the surface level, the lack of other prompted
snow and ice have become with analysis of the mechanism of the value of resources,
resulting in the lack of development of theoretical research on the special resource,
which has an effect on the realization of the ice snow tourism resources value. What are
the factors to the snow and ice resources contain potential can be reflected, to realize
its value is how to effect. These problems are related to whether in the development
process of ice and snow tourism resources, bring economic, social and cultural benefits
of important problems scientifically and reasonably, the overall planning. In short, the
lack of scientific theoretical system of a complete set of ice and snow tourism resources
value, it is necessary for further discuss.

2. Data mining and neural network


2.1. Neural network
Connectionism school neural network belongs to the field of artificial intelligence, is an
application similar to the brain synaptic structure information processing model, data
mining process as shown in figure 2. Classification or regression models are constructed
in the form of tree structure. It divides the data set into smaller subsets, and the related
decision tree is gradually developed. The end result is a tree consisting of a decision
node and a leaf node. A decision node has two or more branches. Leaf nodes represent
a classification or decision. The top of the decision node is the best predictor of a root
node. Decision trees can handle categorical variables and numeric variables, the decision
tree as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 2 – Data mining

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Figure 3 – The decision tree

2.2. BPTT algorithm


Neural network computing power or “storage knowledge” is reflected in the connection
weights between neurons. Therefore, learning algorithm is the method of regulating the
network weight, that is:

wnew = wold + ∆w (1)

The computational tasks of the network are usually quantified as the optimization of
some performance function J (W), therefore:

wnew = wold + α ⋅∇ w j  (2)



k output and target output error can expressed as:

d ( t ) − yk ( t ) k ∈ T ( t ) (3)
ek ( t ) =  k 
 0, otherwise
The time of the t can be expressed as:
2
1 n
J (t ) = ∑ ek ( t )  (4)
2 k =1 
The total performance function of the network is:
t1


J ( t o , t1 ) = ∑ J (τ ) 
τ = t0 + 1
(5)

Process of Epoch-wise BPTT algorithm is as follows:

∂J ( t0 ,t1 ) t1
∂J ( t0 ,t1 )
∂wij
= ∑
τ = t0 + 1 ∂wij (τ ) 
(6)

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Conclusion using the chain rule:

∂J ( t0 ,t1 ) ∂J ( t0 ,t1 ) ∂sk (τ ) (7)



∂wij
= ∑
k∈U ∂sk (τ )
×
∂wij (τ )


Error as:



f′ ( s (τ )) e (τ ) ,τ = t
k k 1

δ k (τ ) =   n  (8)
(
 f ′ sk (τ ) )∑  wkj δ j (τ + 1 ) + ek (τ ) 

  j =1 

The gradient of the network performance function in the weight space is:

t1

∇ w J ( t 0 , t1 ) = ∑ δ (τ ) y (τ − 1 ) 
τ = t0 + 1
i i
(9)

3. Classification and characteristics of ice and snow tourism resources


3.1. Characteristics of ice and snow tourism resources
The value of all the resources itself has many functions; the added value of tourism
value is just one of the ancillary uses. The first is for minority people to pursue a
comfortable choice embodied, and then again with enhanced the scarcity of the
resources, the resources of additional value so as to continuously improve and be more
people know and choose. The selection process of the resource value, also determines
the creation and Realization of value of tourism resources. The value of tourism
resources is to meet the initial expression of a people in the process of viewing, travel
and entertainment and get to know the exotic. From an economic perspective, reflect
the value of tourism resources is more essential in a willingness to pay people for
environmental comfort, visual enjoyment or culture of infection.
From the perspective of the classification of ice and snow tourism resources, including
the natural tourism resources and cultural tourism resources, so it has the characters
of natural tourism resources and cultural tourism resources value. Compared with the
general commodity value, has its own characteristics and value of tourism resources:
1.  Scarcity: This scarcity from most of the ice and snow tourism resources is
limited, the cost of human development and protection of their human needs
and constantly increasing endless.
2.  Overall usefulness: Some features of ice and snow tourism resources as a
whole may play a role, not a change in composition of snow resources in the
system while the other factors remain unchanged.
3.  Sharing: Sharing for tourists to enjoy the ice and snow tourism resources
formed by the landscape, this property makes people in the ice and snow
tourism, it cannot exclude others to enjoy sightseeing.
4.  External: Including the external economy and external economy. External
economy shows that the tourism activities to others and the society benefit,

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while the beneficiaries do not need to pay for this, such as the promotion of
the development of the economy, driven by the improvement of infrastructure,
improve environmental quality, enhance the visibility and so on. External
diseconomy shows that tourism activities of others or social losses caused by
external diseconomies of people without paying cost. If the conflict caused by
the culture, bring inconvenience to people’s life and environment pollution.

Figure 4 – Characteristics of ice and snow tourism

3.2. Classification of ice and snow tourism resources


From the view of connotation, ice and snow tourism resources mainly include two
categories: (1) natural tourism resources: formed in the climate, geomorphology and
hydrology and other natural factors under natural resources such as snow, ice, and
other natural resources and the combination of mountain and forest caused by the
ornamental, including the snow and rime; (2) cultural tourism resources: Based on
natural tourism resources, after processing, and combined with the specific regional
culture, customs, arts and the formation of tourist attractions, including a variety of
winter sports and recreational activities as well as the characteristics of the customs,
such as ice, snow, snow, ski skating, ice and snow tourism festival activities, etc.. It can
be concluded that the snow tourism resources to tourism based on ice and climate and
the main attraction of a special form of tourism, the basic types include ice and snow
activities of two kinds of landscape. Ice snow landscape natural landscape such as snow
village, tree and snow and other artificial landscape such as ice, snow and ice snow
sports activities including entertainment. The ice and snow entertainment including
skating skiing, sailing, ice and snow sports including hockey, winter swimming, skating,
hunting in the winter, skiing and other. In addition, the ice carried out based on the
different forms of economic activities, attract many people to participate, not only to
promote economic development, and promote the development of the third industry,
the objective is also part of the ice and snow tourism resources. Such as the use of ice
and snow tourism area personnel intensive advantages, hold various forms of trade

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fairs and expositions, etc.. But we should also see, it is owing to the differences in the
nature tourism resources of diversity and different resources between the existences,
any classification will not be exhaustive or covers all types of resources. In addition,
the non-uniqueness of classification principle, determine the classification results
between different and incompatible cross. Therefore, the classification of ice and snow
tourism resources should not be advised to Jane fan, wide should not narrow, should
develop and utilize directly reflects the value of resources.

Figure 5 – Cultural tourism and snow tourism


The traditional definition of natural tourism resources and cultural tourism resources is
its connotation and core. With the development of the tourism industry to the depth, the
connotation of tourism resources will be more and broader; the type will be more and
more. On this basis, the classification system of CSSR ice and snow tourism resources
has been developed, including:
1.  Core resources: that is constitute the core of ice snow tourism resources,
those can be developed to be meet ice and snow tourist specific or comprehensive
traveling motivation, tourism resources of the ice and snow tourist core
interests need to type products. Core tourism resources elements: the snow
and ice resources of high grade (usually special grade), distinctive theme, rich
connotation, long life cycle, transportation accessibility is good, tourists carrying
large amount.
2.  Supportive resources: refers to the formation of ice snow tourism more
direct support resources, to directly support the ice snow tourism to mold, the
ice snow tourism line construction, rich ice and snow tourist visit content and
function, strengthen the ice and snow Tour theme, providing a more diverse
service resources.
3.  Subsidiary: resources: it is a supporting snow tourism resources of the
indirect support resources belong to the ice and snow tourism. Although in
tourism to more peripheral regions, but in the corridor of tourist traffic routes, to
core resource nodes provide meet the need and multiple interests and the depth

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of experience, the increase in ice and snow travel sojourn time, to construct the
ice snow tourism broadband, spheres or network system resources.
4.  Reserved resources: refers to the formation of ice snow tourism to reserve
resources, have a certain grade, value of development and utilization, but because
in the same or similar core resources, alternative energy sources, resources and
seize the opportunity of the shadow covered resources. These resources are
increased by the presence of ice and snow tourism resources abundance, the
market capacity and scale, can be reference for all kinds of resources, alternative
funds in the future.

4. Empirical analysis
4.1. Elements
Ice and snow tourism resources can be divided into natural tourism resources and
cultural tourism resources, so it has the general nature in addition to the value of
tourism resources, has its unique value. In order to determine the elements of the ice
snow tourism resources value, this paper follows the some indexes of natural tourism
resource value evaluation both at home and abroad, such as size and abundance.
According to the characteristics of regional, seasonal ice and snow tourism resources
outstanding, set the appropriate travel range and appropriate travel cycle variables. In
addition, the ice snow tourism resources as a kind of humanities tourism resources, a
strong cultural connotation, including the contents of the snow art, architectural culture
of ice and snow, ice and snow dress culture, diet culture of ice and snow, ice and snow
entertainment culture and ice science and technology and culture, an important level
is the art of ice and snow from the form, source, such as in the fifteenth day lantern
show ice art. Then we extract snow landscape design art of indicator variables. The
ice snow tourism facilities, tourism resources, tourism products and ice snow tourism
managers in the management process reflected the cultural connotation, called snow
tourism object culture. We make evaluation on the ice and snow tourism object culture
from the following several indicators to measure, as shown in table 1. A complete
evaluation index system can reflect the ice and snow tourism resources value aspects. As
to elements of ice and snow tourism resources value recognition accurate, here follow
as comprehensive as possible to the principle of constructing evaluation index system.

Index Variable Index Variable


Landscape peculiar X1 project design X9
Ecology X2 suitability X10
Artistry X3 travel cycle X11
Recreational degree X4 travel range X12
Abundance X5 Service quality X13
Visibility X6 integrity X14
heterogeneity X7 Environment X15
theme X8 coordination X16

Table 1 – The evaluation index system of ice and snow tourism

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4.2. Factor analysis


According to the framework of the index system of the construction designs the
questionnaire, were selected and the Heilongjiang Province four ice snow tourism to
a total of 400 visitors a survey and interview, investigating the use of Likert 5 scale
table, please be investigated according to their own experience on the ice snow tourism
resources value for each index score, for each indicator from the “very low” to “very high”
degree, set 1-5 a total of five digital said, one that is very low, 5 indicates a very high. The
survey data obtained by the factor analysis method for processing, the factor analysis is
some perplexing relationship variables attributed to several comprehensive factors, in a
multivariate statistical relationship between the reproduction of the original variable and
factor analysis method. The factor analysis method can classify the variables according
to different factors, a statistical method which belongs to multivariate analysis process
of dimension reduction. The basic idea is through the study of the internal structure
variable correlation coefficient matrix; find the control variables a few random variables
to describe the relationship between several variables.

Variables Tourist Ⅰ Tourist Ⅱ Tourist Ⅲ Tourist Ⅳ

X1 0.253 0.136 0.154 0.171

X2 0.352 0.229 0.254 1.014

X3 0.025 0.586 0.046 -0.344

X4 0.032 0.241 0.092 -0.326

X5 0.855 -0.105 0.445 -0.072

X6 -0.742 -0.079 0.245 0.943

X7 0.265 0.163 0.177 -0.434

X8 0.491 0.729 0.469 0.286

X9 1.396 0.581 0.461 0.344

X10 1.472 0.549 0.069 0.362

X11 1.032 -0.075 0.138 0.235

X12 0.566 0.079 -0.046 0.217

X13 0.113 -0.037 -0.069 -0.325

X14 1.799 0.597 0.161 0.109

X15 -0.289 0.229 0.223 0.642

X16 -0.327 -0.628 0.107 0.199

Table 2 – Standard data evaluation of tourism resources

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Serial Characteristic value Variance contribution Cumulative contribution


rate% rate%
1 8.532 49.561 49.561
2 3.386 22.045 71.606
3 1.561 20.192 91.798
4 0.704 2.286 94.084
5 0.682 1.817 95.901
6 0.453 1.152 97.053
… … … …
16 0.015 0.423 100.000

Table 3 – Eigenvalue and cumulative contribution rate


Through factor analysis shows that the three major factors of evaluating the value of
resource of travel of ice and snow, which factor 1 has seven indexes higher load, the
seven indexes in turn is unique landscape level, suitable for recreation degree, size
and abundance, visibility and influence, the appropriate travel period, the appropriate
travel scope, quality of service, these indicators in largely reflects the value of ice snow
tourism resources in the economy, so called for economic factors. Factor 2 in the
five indexes higher load, the five indexes in turn is landscape design art, tourism and
cultural heterogeneity, the theme of cultural conception, project design in culture, show
the suitability, these indicators reflect the is value of resource of travel of ice and snow
culture, so called for cultural elements. Factor 3 has four indexes higher load, the four
indexes in turn is landscape ecology, ecological resources of integrity, environmental
protection, ecological environment of coordination, and these indicators reflect is ice
snow tourism resources and ecological value, so called as ecological factors.

Factors High load indicators Named


Factor 1 X1、X4、X5、X6、X11、X12、X13 economic factors
Factor 2 X3、X7、X8、X9、X10 cultural elements
Factor 3 X2、X14、X15、X16 ecological factors

Table 4 – Load factor classification


Through the above analysis of cultural elements are important elements of ice and snow
tourism resources value, show that the ice and snow tourism resources value has a strong
cultural connotation. This conclusion is not explicitly put forward the former research
institute. Economic factors mainly refer to as exotic landscape level, suitable for recreation,
appropriate travel period reflect elements of ice snow tourism resource economic value;
cultural elements mainly refers to like the concept of landscape design art, tourism and
cultural heterogeneity, the theme of cultural reflect ice snow tourism resources value and
culture value elements; ecological factor mainly refers to as landscape ecology, ecological
resources of integrity, environmental protection etc. reflect ice snow tourism resources
ecological value elements.

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5. Conclusions
The ice and snow tourism resources as the research object, to explore the formation,
implementation and promotion of ice and snow tourism resources value from
theoretical and empirical perspective. To identify the elements of ice and snow tourism
resources value, establish the system of ice and snow tourism resources value. Based on
the analysis of ice and snow tourism resources and the value concept, through factor
analysis, pointed out that the elements of ice and snow tourism resources value including
economic factors, ecological and cultural elements. Accordingly, we make the analysis
system of ice and snow tourism resources value from economic value, ecological value
and cultural value, which belongs to the practical value of economic value, ecological
value and cultural value of the potential value. To construct the system of ice and snow
tourism resources value, clarifies the structure of the ice and snow tourism resources
value, to further lay a good foundation for further analysis. Especially the cultural value
into the value system highlights the particularity of ice and snow tourism resources
value, which is of great significance for expanding the meaning of value.

5.1. Enhance the Ice and snow tourist culture connotation


Ice and snow tourism national characteristics and regional characteristics of
the special cultural background of ice and snow tourism, which once formed it has
relative independence and stability, has become the main motive of tourist experience of
snow tourism. The shape of ice and snow tourism image connotation is to create a culture
of ice and snow tourism culture, national characteristics and local characteristics of
tourism special cultural theme. Therefore, whether it is the natural landscape and human
landscape should have its definite theme or by refining the design theme, the theme will
be after the particular concept has become the soul of tourism. Theme tourism culture
has laid the foundation for the building of tourism resources development and tourism
culture. In turn, by designing the shape of the tourism image, can shift the cultural
theme and connotation of tourism destination for tourists cognitive image. Specifically,
the theme positioning of the tourist destination is through tourism and culture to fully
evaluate the tourist to find local tourism culture and culture tourism other differences,
based on the local culture of tourism. And, because of the culture in the development of
tourism, cultural tourism is not immutable and frozen, need to adhere to the innovation
of tourism culture in the theme positioning.

5.2. Improving the ice-snow tourism industry system


In the Heilongjiang ice snow tourism resources development process to emphasize the
standardization, vigorously regulate the market, establish good word of mouth publicity
and encourage tourists to travel again and drive the surrounding people to travel here
and the project has been developed. In addition to the development of a variety of snow
tourism products, tourism reception quality is another important factor. The level of the
destination reception includes tourist service facilities and service quality. The tourists
from ice and snow tourism market in Heilongjiang Province mainly from Hong Kong,
Guangzhou, Beijing, Shanghai and other places. These places are the economically
developed areas, the service facilities and service level are higher than the province,
accustomed to the service quality of the tourist reception facilities and service quality

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is very sensitive. For example, the tableware cleaning, cooking dishes degree greasy,
hotel shower facilities, public toilet hygiene, are very sensitive. Therefore, in order to
develop tourism market, enterprise should make particular attention to the quality of
the reception facilities.

5.3. Strengthen the government’s macro-control


Because of geographical reasons, the Heilongjiang provincial government in the ice
snow tourism resources development process occupies very important role, with the
development of market economy, the government needs to change function, further
strengthen macro-control and management in the industry, to focus on strengthening
the development of ice and snow tourism resources of macro planning, snow tourism
market management norms, eliminate redundant construction and vicious competition
phenomenon. Because the ice and snow tourism activity is very challenging and
dangerous, so must keep in mind the concept of safety first. This requires strengthening
the government supervision mechanism, develop hard and soft conditions of ice and snow
tourism business activities of enterprises, and in strict accordance with the standards of
examination and approval. Long term then tourism enterprise must consider from the
development of the tourism industry, attaches great importance to the safety problem
of ice and snow tourism activities, to ensure that the property and personal safety of
tourists. In addition, a sound legal system of tourism in Heilongjiang province is ice and
snow tourism development need to solve the problem as soon as possible.

5.4. Develop regional tourism projects


With the improvement of people’s living standards, urban residents changed the
holidays; travel has become a new choice of many families, however, long distance
tourism by the transportation, accommodation, time and other factors limit, short ice
snow tourism of urban residents is more attractive to potential. Liaoning Province,
Jilin province and Heilongjiang province some city population is numerous, has a great
demand for ice and snow tourism. In addition, in all kinds of schools during the summer
vacation, the students have to choose the appropriate venue for ski snow sports, enrich
the basic requirements of life. So according to market levels, the development of regional
tourism project has to meet local tourists. Heilongjiang Province in the development of
ice and snow, there are two main categories of resources, in view of the snow resources
development with open space, large environmental capacity, participation, the thrills
of, can arouse the broad masses of ice and snow tourist interest, and therefore should
be to focus on the snow, can proper consideration add some strong participation, low
price of tourism products, to meet the Heilongjiang Province of ice snow tourism of
increasing demand.

Acknowledgments
This paper is supported by Heilongjiang Province philosophy social science planning
projects: “The study of folk sports into the physical education curriculum in rural schools
in Heilongjiang province” (15TYE01). Heilongjiang higher education reform project:
“the construction of teaching model of college sports club”, (JG2014011190).

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Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação Recebido/Submission: 14/03/2016
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

Design of Forest Tourism Resources Evaluation


System based on GIS

Chuanming Yang, Xiaomei Zhang*

* 915428334@qq.com

Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, Heilongjiang, China


Pages: 171–181

Abstract: Geographic information system (GIS) platform can make the evaluation
of forest resources combined with geographic information, and some indexes of
forest resources evaluation can be obtained through the spatial analysis and query
function of GIS. And at present, the forest tourism industry as an important part
of the green industry, forest leisure tourism has gradually become the of China’s
tourism market. Through quantitative evaluation, the results show that the weight
of resources value is 33.4, the main factors are ornamental value and experience
value. Tourists choose the category of tourist resources in order to take a vacation
and eco-tourism, travel time is mostly selected in the individual off holiday, and half
of the tourists are willing to travel with friends and relatives.
Keywords: Geographic information system, spatial data, forest tourism, leisure
vacation

1. Introduction
Forest tourism has been more and more people attention. At the same time, productivity
has been great development, people’s living standards have markedly improved,
the increase in disposable income and leisure time increasing, the concept of leisure
gradually formed (Mattheus,2013; Petr,2015; González, 2015). The leisure tourism is
being accepted by more and more people. Leisure tourism has gradually become the main
trend of the development of China’s tourism industry. Data show that in the developed
countries of the world tourism, leisure tourism is the main body of the tourism market,
accounting for 50% of the total market (Kostas, 2013). At present, an important content
of modern forestry and forest tourism industry as a green industry is an important part
of the essential, leisure tourism in China accounted for only about 20% of the overall
market, forest leisure tourism has gradually become an important direction of the
mainstream and tourism to the tourism consumption in China. Therefore, it is of great
significance to study the development of forest leisure tourism products for our country
to develop the leisure tourism market and realize the goal of the world tourism power
(Sandro, 2013; Shihong, 2015; Ashutosh, 2015). Forest tourism product is the subject of
forest tourism enterprises of all business activities, deeply and systematically research
and development of its, is not only the forest tourism marketing of the starting point
and basis for formulating relevant strategies, but also to ensure that the competition

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invincible important guarantee of enterprise in the fierce competition in the market


(Romain, 2015; Mukesh, 2015). This study reviewed the connotation, development and
products of forest tourism, leisure tourism, forest leisure tourism, and so on.

Figure 1 – Forest leisure tourism


In the forest resources assessment work, the general means of using manual methods
for data collection and analysis. Because of the particularity of forest resources,
the more difficult to implement, requires a lot of manpower and resources, and the
calculation result of long cycle, the evaluation results lag relatively strong. At the same
time, most of the evaluation index data need to go through multiple steps of statistical
calculation; manual computation also has poor precision and low efficiency. Moreover,
the evaluation of forest resources manual implementation results are only abstract
figures could not be associated effectively with the actual geographic information, there
is no evaluation of spatial information support of the difficult for the forest resources
management decision-making support with the development of the country. “Digital
forestry” project as well as the technology matures, the forestry informationization has
become an inevitable trend. In recent years, although the For the evaluation of forest
resources information has been studied and achieved some results, but the combination
of GIS and is relatively small. And the GIS platform support can make the evaluation of
forest resources combined with the geographical information display, more intuitive,
and the evaluation of forest resources through some indicators of spatial analysis of
GIS query to obtain the function. Therefore, based on the GIS evaluation system of
forest resource construction for real work is particularly important. The forest resource
evaluation system based on the data of forest resources survey, therefore, the basic unit
classes as the forest resources assessment. According to the demand, the system adopt
value evaluation method, the full range of data value of wood charcoal the output value
of forest products, the output value, the value of water conservation, soil conservation
value, forest carbon fixation and oxygen release value, air purification value evaluation
etc. At the same time, in order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of evaluation, to
provide support for forest management and decision-making.

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2. Spatial analysis of Geographic Information System (GIS)


2.1. Geographic Information System
ARC/INFO is developed by the United States environmental system research, at present,
the world is widely used to promote the use of more typical general GIS software,
has been more than 30 years of history, applied to more than 100 areas. Arc / info is
described by the feature map and the topological relations of arc system and recording
properties data of relational database management system NIFO combined with “such a
mixed data model taking into account the characteristics of spatial data and non-spatial
data, the two different kinds of data, effectively realized the operation of two different
kinds of data, processing and management. In the structure of the software using the
basic module of the toolbox to achieve the input! Analysis, management and display
output functions, is an ideal tool for GIS. W is the United States Environmental Systems
Research Institute in recent years to meet the new computer technology development of
new products, can be used for personal computers and computer workstations, but the
majority of personal computer users ARCV. It uses the window menu system, the user
does not have to remember thousands of complex commands, and therefore is a user
friendly system. It can be directly read into the data generated by ARC/NIFO, so the two
can interact with the use of. Data input, editing, topological relations and spatial overlay
of raster data, digital elevation model (DEM) are completed in ARC/NIFO, the other is
carried out in ARCVEIW.

Figure 2 – Geographic Information System

2.2. Layer management


Layer is entity files of the GIS spatial data, from the perspective of graphic management,
according to the characteristics of forestry will have the same feature primitives are
put together to form layers. The layer is strictly divided into three types: point layer,
line layer, and surface layer. Project is a collection layer file, it contains the name of
each layer, layer properties and layer state, save the drawing environment of all kinds
of information such as symbol library, color library, help management in a complete
mapping of the shell, the project file through often does not directly manage the spatial

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data. To the forest resources spatial database based, using the map editor and secondary
development tools, form a thematic map of forest resource, forest terrain forest map.

Figure 3 – GIS simulate landscape

Figure 4 – GIS software

3. Forest leisure tourism


3.1. General categories
Tourism products, which are based on the development of natural tourism resources,
which are based on the forest tourism resources or the forests, are called the forest
tourism products. The types of forest tourism products are rich and varied; focusing
on the participation of people involved in the product can reflect the function of forest
leisure tourism products. These include forest leisure, forest recreation, forest health and
leisure, forest recreation and leisure, forest adventure and leisure and forest ecological
education and leisure.

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Level one Level two content Material carrier


Natural tourist Primitive forest landscape, geological Natural landscape
Sightseeing type landscape, fountains, waterfalls, etc. resources
tourism Enhance tourism Botanical garden, wild animal park, bird Animal and plant
type garden, butterfly resources
Tent Inn, Log
Country play Cabins, tent, camping, picnic and barbecue
House Hotel
Skiing, skiing,
Exercise fitness Water sports, mountain sports
hunting field
Forests,
Health care and
Forest bath, mountain convalescence hot springs,
recuperation
Activity mountains
participation recover one
tourism ‘s original Hiking, fruit picking, farming Forest, wilderness
simplicity
Adventure,
Adventure Cave exploration, speed boats, high-altitude
mountain, virgin
stimulus landing
forest
Popular Science Production of specimens, animal and plant Botanical garden,
Education knowledge botanical garden

Table 1 – The ordinary type of forest leisure tourism products

3.2. Characteristics of forest leisure tourism products


•• Comfort: forest leisure tourism should be a real relaxation, entertainment and
enjoyment of the process, is a special kind of tourism experience. Forest leisure
tourism products of comfort are different from other tourism products, more
emphasis on tourists psychological relaxes and physical health, so that tourists
can not only enjoy the comfortable environment and tourism reception facilities,
can enjoy quality services and facilities of the leisure entertainment facilities,
and rich activities. Experience a relaxed, relaxed atmosphere, to achieve a
complete relaxation of the body and mind. Forest leisure tourism products of
the comfort requirements of forest tourism facilities more complete more rich,
more quality services.

Figure 5 – Tents, camping

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•• Participation: forest leisure tourism is a special kind of tourism experience,


and it is an important way for tourists to get the experience. Through a fancy
sightseeing tour to make tourist get real tourism experience, tourists only to take
part in the forest tourism activities, such as sports fitness, sports exploration to
merge with the casual atmosphere, a pleasurable experience. The psychological
demands of the participatory forest recreational tourism product requirements
of forest recreation activities and visit the design consideration of tourism can
form the interaction between tourists and tour operators, tourists and tourism.

Figure 6 – Forest sports adventure

•• Selective: Forest leisure tourism has certain randomness, tourists prefer to


arrange trips and activities, for more and more fit, this is particularly important.
Forest tourism must be carried out according to the route, but the forest leisure
tourists can arrange themselves, participate in which leisure and entertainment
activities, choose which reception facilities, etc.. The daily activities arranged
by the tourism managers should be just a set of recommendations, and the
forest leisure tourists can design a plan according to their own preferences.
The selectivity of forest leisure tourism products require tour operators to
provide facilities, services and activities project varieties more abundant types;
requires visitors to tourism in the forest of time is more abundant, flexible travel
arrangements for the trip room.
•• Periodicity: Compared to periodic and rely on manpower development of
tourism products, forest tourism product generally has a longer cycle of,
participate in the experience tourism products is sightseeing type products have
a longer life cycle, and in tourism, nature tourism product life cycle and longer
than the man-made landscape tourism products.
•• Seasonal: Because forest tourism mostly occurs in the field, the impact of
climate change on forest tourism products show a strong seasonal. Due to the
non storage of products, seasonal severe impact on the utilization of resources
and the annual production potential of the product, so seasonal is an important
factor affecting the development of products. So that the forest tourism products
can be divided into seasonal reasons: the forest tourism resources which
constitute the products change with the change of climate, the seasonal. Such as

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flowers, forest bath, ski. One is the product depends on the forest environment
with climate change and changes in product performance of the seasonal. Such
as climate change caused by changes in water temperature and drifting cannot
be consumed in the colder weather.

Figure 7 – Waterfall view

•• Forest leisure tourism products of tourist attraction survey shows, fashion


leisure tourism projects to tourist attraction is the largest, accounting for 49.1%,
mountain climbing and other sports and leisure projects is more popular in the
leisure projects and other leisure and tourism projects accounted for roughly
the same; in the preferences of the survey of shopping and leisure products,
visitors of tourist souvenirs of process love, travel food and local specialties.

Shopping
Tourist resources Ratio (%) Leisure travel Ratio (%) Ratio (%)
products
Fresh air and forest Mountaineering,
27.3 31.6 Tourism food 36.7
landscape forest exploration
Chinese herbal
Landscape scenery 23.6 Boating, fishing 22.4 21.0
medicines
Camping, farm
Drift, rock climbing 49.1 24.3 Keepsake 42.3
farming

Table 2 – The attractive investigation of forest leisure tourism products

4. Quantitative evaluation
4.1. Index weight
Quantitative evaluation of the intrinsic quality of all kinds of independent sites,
landscape entity, evaluates the expert evaluation method of analytic hierarchy process
(AHP). Only in this way can the complex of tourism resources is decomposed into
several levels and layer by layer analysis, one by one compared to establish a tree
type structure, obtained the weight value and evaluation, the subjective judgment in
quantitative expression and processing can be, is a combination of quantitative and
qualitative methods. In which the weight value is determined by the average weight

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Design of Forest Tourism Resources Evaluation System based on GIS

method, that is, the evaluation of the comprehensive evaluation of the value of the
resources are 0.33, with a total score of 100 to give the weight of each factor scores, the
quantitative evaluation of ecological tourism resources in table 3.

Comprehensive Highest
Evaluation project Score Evaluation factor Score
evaluation score
Ornamental value 11.1 Pleasant sensation 3.7
novelty 3.7
Experience value 11.1 Exercise fitness 2.8
Adventure stimulus 2.8
Resource value 33.4
Country play 2.8
Popular Science
11.2 Cultural inside story 5.6
Education
Scientific value 5.6
Scale of scenic spot 6.6
Biological species 6.7
Tourism
33.3 forest coverage 6.7
environment
Tourism comfortable
6.6
period
Traffic communication 8.3 convenient 4.2
security 4.1
Tourism condition 33.3 Board and lodging
8.3
condition
Travel expenses 8.3

Table 3 – The attractive investigation


According to the parameter list to each factor classification and grading, and gives the
score standard, this paper uses the fuzzy score method to comprehensive evaluation
of a scenic spot, landscape entity score calculation model using the following
mathematical model:
n
E= ∑Q P
i =1
i i

In the above formula, E is the comprehensive evaluation value of tourism resources:


Qi is I evaluation factor weight; Pi is the first I evaluation factor; n is the number of
evaluation factors.

4.2. Factor analysis


Forest leisure tourism doesn’t from the traditional sightseeing tourism. The difference
between them is not only reflected in the purpose of consumption, consumption behavior,
consumption level, the consumption pattern, and also reflect in the difference of tourism
product, service, service system and quality demand. Therefore, to develop leisure

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tourism, we must first fully understand the objective situation of leisure tourism market
and the real needs of the market. Only in this way can we develop the suitable leisure
tourism products, guide and cultivate the consumer market. According to the forest
leisure tourism market survey research methods draw the following conclusion: visitors
choose tourism resources category to recuperate Resort and eco-tourism based, travel
time most of the election in a personal vacation, in favor of the majority of the people
above the two-day trip, half of the tourists willing to relatives and friends traveling; most
of the tourists every year in tourism spent more than 2000 Yuan, expenses mainly for
entertainment project participation and tourism commodity purchase, more than half
of the visitors to the tourism services in the convenient transportation and shopping
and entertainment aspects of concern; and little feature, lack of tourism attraction and
tourism projects in experience is discourage tourists travel the main reason. From it can
be seen that leisure travel more and more people like to participate in the experience of
the project market space is very large.
Tourism Intention classification Ratio (%)
weekend 18.4
Travel time holiday and vacations 23.1
Vacation 25.8
Personal travel 13.2
Travel agency organization 18.1
Way of traveling
Unit organization 16.5
Family or friends 50.9
<500 9.9
500~1000 24.1
Travel expenses
1000~2000 39.7
>2000 26.3
Attractions tickets 8.1
Entertainment project 43.8
Tourism service concerns
Dining room and board 19.1
entertainment 31.1

Table 4 – Tourism intention characteristics


In the investigation of the purpose of tourism, 45.3% of the tourists with the purpose of
leisure, the proportion was significantly higher than the tourism, and the other tourist
destination with a larger distance. At the same time, the result of this example is basically the
same as that of the tourist destination (Table 5). This shows that the demand for leisure and
vacation is constantly improving, and forest tourism is indeed an attractive leisure resort.

Tourist Leisure sightseeing Exercise visiting Conference shopping


destination vacation fitness family business
Percentage (%) 45.3 38.6 8.7 1.9 2.9 1.5
number 227 193 43 9 15 8

Table 5 – Tourist in the purpose

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In the setting of forest leisure tourism product type, 31.5% of the people want to
experience leisure sports, followed by leisure, theme park, leisure tourism and other
types of industries. People of this kind of different ways of the degree of the demand
is different, the difference is obvious, show a wide range of leisure tourists, visitors to
the leisure product selection is more likely to participate in the experience type. From
these two aspects to consider, you can set the product toward leisure, freedom of form,
a variety of ways to develop, to participate in the experience of products based, while
focusing on creating an atmosphere of leisure tourism. From the trend of should extend
the product in time, at the same time according to the needs of tourists difference set up
multiple topics and the contents, types, number of participants, in the way to optimize
the combination of, rich products, establish complete product package namely multi day
tour of leisure tourism products.

5. Conclusions
Forest tourism has been more and more people attention. The leisure tourism is being
accepted by more and more people. Leisure tourism has gradually become the main trend of
the development of China’s tourism industry. At the same time, it gathers the large number
of geology, sky, water, culture many different types of tourism resources. Forest tourism
product in a broad sense, that is a general concept, it is not only for a certain purpose
and provide material products and service products, but to in order to achieve a tourism
activities, tourists of tourism supply and in the direction set to eat, live, transportation,
travel, shopping, entertainment in the combination of various physical products and
service products from the perspective of tourism, forest tourism product is forest tourism
in order to obtain material and spiritual satisfaction by spending a certain period of
time, cost and energy of a forest tourism experience. The narrow forest tourism product
is in the area of forest tourism with good forest landscape and ecological environment
development, to meet the needs of the tourism product individual tourists or a variety of
forest tourism demand, it has natural wilderness, participation and the experience, interest
and knowledge leisure recreational, popular science and educational characteristics.
Application of GIS spatial analysis technology of forest tourism resources is a kind
of feasible method and technology, forest tourism resources are products of the
forest and its dependence on forest resources, forest has obvious spatial distribution
characteristics, and it controls the forest ecological benefits spatial distribution, studies
in the past due to backward technology, rarely involving spatial distribution of forest
ecological benefits. Today has been in the digitalization, visualization of the information
age, scientific and accurately quantify and visualization of ecological benefits provides
technical conditions. The research results show that, the GIS spatial analysis technology
and its application in the research of forest tourism resources has very broad prospects
for development.

References
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using AHP & GIS. The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science, 18,
181–193.

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González, M., González, L. (2015). The co-creation as a strategy to address IT governance


in an organization. RISTI-Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação,
(14), 1–15.
Kostas, K., Nikolaos, A. (2013). Virtual Fire: A web-based GIS platform for forest fire
control. Ecological Informatics, 16, 62–69.
Mattheus, C. R., Norton, M. (2013). Comparison of pond-sedimentation data with a
GIS-based USLE model of sediment yield for a small forested urban watershed.
Anthropocene, 2, 89–101.
Mukesh, S., Vít, V. (2015). Land use/cover disturbance due to tourism in Jeseníky
Mountain, Czech Republic: A remote sensing and GIS based approach. The Egyptian
Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science, 18, 17–26.
Petr, V., Jan, K. (2015). GIS tool for optimization of forest harvest-scheduling. Computers
and Electronics in Agriculture, 113, 254–259.
Romain, L., Jagannath, A. (2015). R as a GIS: Illustrating Scale and Aggregation
Problems with Forest Fire Data. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 27, 66–69.
Sandro, S., Isabella, D. (2013). Bioenergy production and forest multifunctionality:
A trade-off analysis using multiscale GIS model in a case study in Italy. Applied
Energy, 104, 10–20.
Shihong, D., Fangli, Z. (2015). Semantic classification of urban buildings combining
VHR image and GIS data: An improved random forest approach. ISPRS Journal of
Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 105, 107–119.

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Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação Recebido/Submission: 15/03/2016
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

Research on the Fluctuation of RMB Exchange Rate


based on Data Mining Method

Ying Ye, Yirong Ying

2180378643@qq.com

College of Economics, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, China


Pages: 182–194

Abstract: Foreign exchange risk is an important part of financial market risk, it


will not only directly affects the capital flows and international balance of payments,
but also has a certain impact on the currency circulation and inflation. In this paper,
we present an exchange rate anomaly detection method by combing phase space
reconstruction and sequence anomaly. The result of this method could effetely
reflect the fluctuation of the RMB exchange rate. Through the structural equation
model, we find that effect of price level, interest rate level, central bank monetary
policy intervention , economic growth and the international balance of payments on
RMB exchange rate are - 0.19, 0.20, 0.69, - 0.45, - 0.58. The result proves that the
central bank’s monetary policy has the greatest impact on the RMB exchange rate,
the price level and the interest rate has small effect on RMB exchange rate.
Keywords: Artificial neural network, RMB exchange rate, purchasing power
parity, anomaly detection

1. Introduction
Exchange rate is the main regulating and controlling means and economic lever of
macroeconomic. It is not only a direct impact balance of foreign trade, capital flows and
the balance of payments, but also have a certain impact on the currency and inflation,
to a country’s finance, investment and allocation of resources occurred in. With the
collapse of the seventies of the 20th century “Bretton Woods system”, in a free floating
exchange rate system to promote, price fluctuations in the exchange rate becomes
more and more complex and dynamic, research on the exchange rate issue is facing
new challenges (Edwin,2000; Obstfeld,2000). Exchange rate behavior anomaly makes
for more speculation in foreign exchange markets in various countries, the monetary
policy and foreign exchange management has received the serious interference, some
even complete failure, and the foreign exchange market to bring huge risk (Samuelson,
1968; González, 2015). Foreign exchange risk is an important part of financial market
risk, if the monetary authorities to the lack of enough understanding, lax management
and control may lead to currency crisis, and can even cause more serious financial crisis.
In this sense, it is very important to accurately grasp the exchange rate behavior. It has
a strong theoretical and practical significance to monitor the risk of foreign exchange by
studying the abnormal exchange rate changes.

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In view of the fact that the RMB exchange rate in the international financial market and
Chinese market economy the importance, this paper studies RMB exchange rate behavior
and its internal operation rules and on the basis of reveal the underlying factors of the
abnormal fluctuations in the impact of the RMB exchange rate, its theoretical value and
practical significance mainly reflected in the following aspects (Ramsey, 1997; Sarantis,
2000; Catherine,2006). For RMB exchange rate behavior of the research provides a new
idea and vision. The basic analysis and technical analysis of the traditional exchange rate
research is mainly concerned with the characteristics of most of the data in exchange rate
time series. However, the noise of a person may be another person’s signal; the abnormal
data may contain very important information. Therefore, it is extremely necessary to study
the abnormal data (Brock, 1996). The general method of exchange rate time series analysis
is based on statistical theory of time series analysis method, it is also the main content for
the modern econometric theory, mainly based on the mathematical statistics model as the
foundation, through hypothesis model, parameter estimation and model testing means and
technology to obtain a mathematic model to describe the rule of exchange rate time series.
From the macro and micro perspectives to grasp the operation of the exchange rate of the
RMB exchange rate, the exchange rate policy and related policies to develop and adjust.
The traditional exchange rate determination theory to analysis of the relationship between
exchange rate and its related macro and micro economic variables from the economic
equilibrium framework, and time series analysis only from the changes in exchange rates of
the application of mathematics and logic method of the future changes in the exchange rate
for prediction and analysis.

2. Data mining and anomaly detection


2.1. Parameter method
Most of the econometric model method is based on all the observed values to establish
a global model to describe the behavior of the system, without taking into account the
complexity and nonlinearity of exchange rate behavior. To this end, more and more
scholars use more non parametric methods and nonlinear methods to predict exchange
rates, which include artificial neural network (ANN) model, wavelet analysis (WBA)
model, genetic algorithm (GA) model, and so on.Artificial neural network is consists of
a large number of simple processing elements are widely connected components of the
complex network, is achieved in the brain tissue of modern biological research on the
basis of the results of the proposed and used to simulate human brain’s neural network
structure and behavior. In 1993, Refenes and other first try to use the neural network
method to predict exchange rate movements. In recent years, more and more research in
this area, and in the traditional neural network prediction model has been improved in
many aspects, has made a lot of progress. Artificial neural network as a massively parallel
processing nonlinear system, it has a lot for the regulation of parameters and strong
nonlinear simulation operation ability, so that it can precisely describe the nonlinear
dynamic process, and prediction on the trend of changes in the exchange rate provides a
brand-new way of thinking
Wavelet analysis method is a kind of window size is fixed but its shape can be changed,
the time and frequency windows may change the time frequency localization analysis
method, known as “mathematical microscope”. At present, some scholars use wavelet

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Figure 1 – The neural network

analysis method to analyze the exchange rate data, using wavelet multi-scale analysis of
the characteristics of the dollar and yen exchange rate analysis, found that some of the
inherent laws. Genetic algorithm is a computational model for simulating the biological
evolution process of natural selection and natural selection. It is a global probability
search algorithm based on natural selection and genetic variation. Genetic algorithm
is mainly used in exchange rate behavior research, and often combined with neural
network and other methods to build a model, which can effectively improve the accuracy
of short-term exchange rate forecasting, and achieve better forecasting results.

2.2. Anomaly detection method


Outlier mining can be formalized description: given a containing N data points, or
schema objects collection, and expected abnormal data number k, collection and the
rest of the data compared to the significantly different, abnormal or inconsistent with
the top k objects. On statistical methods based on the idea of statistical outlier mining
method comes from, the commonly used method is first for a given data set assuming a
distribution or the probability model, then according to the model, the inconsistent test
to determine the abnormal data. The method needs to know the data set parameters, the
distribution parameters (such as the mean, standard deviation, etc.) and the number of
abnormal data. In order to solve the shortcomings of statistical methods in dealing with
large data sets and multidimensional problems, the concept and method of distance
based outlier data is introduced in the research field of data mining. Distance based
approach is to detect anomalies by the distance between the data points or objects.

3. Abnormal data detection of RMB exchange rate time series


3.1. RMB exchange rate nonlinear correlation structure
At present, it is generally believed that the exchange rate system of observation time series is
nonlinear, and the traditional linear analysis method cannot describe the change of exchange
rate. Nonlinear correlation is the time series of the observed data with nonlinear dependence,
nonlinear correlation structure of the existence of time series to show a variety of complex
nonlinear characteristics. According to the theory of nonlinear dynamics mechanism of any

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time series can be as a determined by a nonlinear mechanism of input and output system, the
complexity of the system and the possible nature of the uncertain factors and so on, the time
series generated is difficult to understand. However, the nonlinear correlation structure of
time series may be generated in a deterministic nonlinear system, and it is also possible that
it is a stochastic nonlinear system.
Chapter empirical data from a sample of RMB against the dollar exchange rate daily
central parity data, the sample interval selected 2011 January 1st to September 30,
2015. With the advance of the reform process and the market, changes in the RMB
exchange rate flexibility and uncertainty also increasing, which makes the issue of
RMB exchange rate in many fields especially have attracted worldwide attention in the
field of international trade, and even become talks on economic cooperation between
China and other countries or trade groups often relates to the key issues. Due to exchange
rate fluctuations on the world economy and the international financial risks of the
reaction has a good timeliness and sensitivity, the academic community generally adopt
exchange rate fluctuations to study exchange rate behavior. In order to guarantee the
data integrity and the information is sufficient, the first order difference of the natural
logarithm of the original data sequence of RMB exchange rate is {Pt}:

Rt = ln Pt − ln Pt −1 (1)

Among them, Rt means t days of exchange rate volatility,Pt means t daily exchange rate
middle price,P t- 1 means the middle exchange rate of t-1. In addition, the application of
nonlinear test needs to use a stationary sequence, so the analysis of the original time
series before the need for a smooth processing. In this paper, the most commonly used
ADF unit root test on the sequence analysis of stable. The results show that the price
series of natural logarithm, then first-order poor branch of volatility series can satisfy
the stability requirement.

Figure 2 – Sequence of RMB exchange rate fluctuations


From table 1 can be seen two kinds of exchange rate series obviously does not obey normal
distribution, JB statistics values were much larger than any reasonable significance

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level of critical value: χ2 (2, 0. 01) =9.21, accompanied probability p 0. The kurtosis of
exchange rate fluctuation is greater than 3, skewness is not 0, showing a more obvious
“fat tail” feature. The stronger the end of the heavy tailed, the stronger the continuity
of the state, the more important it is to predict the trend of exchange rate. It further
shows that the clustering of exchange rate volatility, that is, a large range of fluctuations
concentrated in certain periods, while the small amplitude fluctuations are concentrated
in another period of time.

standard Maximum minimum


sequence mean value
deviation value value
The price of collateral 7.49101 0.49408 8.11280 6.80090
wave -0.00018 0.00085 0.00301 -0.00405
sequence skewness kurtosis JB statistic P value
The price of collateral -0.22929 1.41922 108.593 0.00000
wave -0.60618 5.72317 355.789 0.00000

Table 1 – Descriptive statistics of RMB exchange rate

3.2. Principle of phase space reconstruction


It is generally believed that chaos is a seemingly random phenomenon in the deterministic
system. We know that for stochastic systems, the value at any given moment from a given
point is not known at any point in the future, that is, the system is unpredictable in the
short term. The chaos and stochastic difference is that disorder of chaos is not simple, but
there is no obvious period and symmetry. It has rich internal levels of ordered structure,
nonlinear system, a new form of existence. According to the mathematical definition of
chaos, we find out the characteristics of the chaotic behavior of the nonlinear system. The
most commonly used test of chaos is the singular attractor and Lypaunov exponent of
chaos. Attractor is the convergence performance of the system, whether a stable dynamic
system is chaotic, in most cases can use an attractor to describe the system equilibrium
state or time limit path, a nonlinear system will eventually evolve into two different
attractors: indifferent attractor and strange attractor. The ordinary attractor has three
modes, the fixed point, the limit cycle and the integer dimension, which correspond to the
equilibrium, periodic and almost periodic motion of the non-chaotic systems. Everything
that is not a common attractor is called a strange attractor, which corresponds to a non-
periodic, seemingly random, disordered and steady state motion pattern in a chaotic
system. The C-C algorithm is mainly based on the correlation integral:

1 t   N  m N 
S ( m, N , r , t ) = ∑ C s  m, , r ,t  − C s  1, , r ,t   (2)
t s =1   t   t 

The description of the correlation of nonlinear time series, and the statistics for time
delayτand embedding dimension M as:

1 t
S ( m, r , t ) = ∑ C s ( m.r.t ) − C m ( 1.r.t )  (3)
t s =1  s 

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Select the maximum and minimum two radius r, defined as the deviation of the
corresponding value:

{ } { }
∆S ( m,t ) = max s ( m, r ,t ) − min s ( m, r ,t ) (4)

Usually m, N, R has a certain range of choices, for all the S (R, m, t) for the average:

1
S (t ) =
m ⋅ j
∑ ∑ S ( m,r,t ) (5)
m j

All the S (m, t) averaging:

1
∆ S (t ) =
m ⋅ j
∑ ∆S ( m,r,t ) (6)
m

Defined statistics:

Scor ( t ) = ∆ S ( t ) + ∆ S ( t ) (7)

It is desirable to the minimum value as the optimal delay time windowτw values, and
calculate the optimal embedding dimension m:

m = τ w / τ + 1 (8)

Using matlab7.0 software to over C-C algorithm programming, the simultaneous


estimation of RMB exchange rate volatility series delay parameter tau D and optimal
delay time window tau W, the maximum time delay parameter t value is 100, to prevent
the time delay caused by small information loss. Run the program to get a curve on the
t as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3 – RMB exchange rate time series C-C algorithm curve

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3.3. Characteristics of forest leisure tourism products


The algorithm of data processing in accordance with data input sequence, in order to
reduce the influence of the orderliness of data can be pre given parameter m, run the
algorithm m times and before each run on data sets do random sort, in M, the final
results of the abnormal concentration of choosing the smoothing factor value to do the
most for I the set of exceptions. In addition, the length of the sequence S in the algorithm
is n=|I| and n. Algorithm can be described as follows:
{
I={ i1}; DS(I1)=0;
for each ij∈(Ij−Ij−1)
{
Ij=Ij−1∪ {ij};
dj=Ds(Ij)-Ds(Ij-1);
}
if max(dj)≤0
exit;
else p=label{ij};
for each ik∈(I−Ip)
{
dk0=Ds(Ij-1∪{ik})-Ds(Ij-1)
dk1=Ds(Ij∪{ik})-Ds(Ij)
if dk0-dk1≥dj
Ix=Ix∪{ij};
}
return Ix;
}
The marked point represents a set of action points that are generated by the abnormal
points in the time series, which indicate some kind of change before the exception occurs.

Figure 4 – Corresponding to the abnormal points in one dimensional sequence

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Here, the appearance of abnormal structure seems to be no obvious rule, some of the
smaller fluctuations of the points may also be the composition of this structure change
points, however, they must hide some important information. To cause the abnormal
structural changes, single from time series itself is more difficult to find the inherent
reasons, so in carries on the analysis to the abnormal patterns in the sequence, not just
rely on performance in time series, and should proceed from the angle of macroscopic
systems, from decided to exchange rate system, the factors to consider, only in this way
can we deeply understand abnormal data generating mechanism.

Figure 5 – Structure change point

4. Empirical analysis
4.1. Structural equation model
Abnormal behavior of the RMB exchange rate is not spontaneous, but by the impact of
the operation of the economic system, because of the relationship between economic
variables often complex structure by general statistical analysis methods often fail
to reveal the inherent relationship between them. SEM overcomes the deficiency of
traditional statistical analysis method, multiple regression, path analysis and verification
factor analysis statistical technology integration, can excavate complex structure relation
between the large amounts of data effectively, the reference exchange rate theory and
scholars point of view, combined with the actual situation of the Chinese economy,
summarizes that the macroeconomic factors that affect the RMB exchange rate changes
mainly in five aspects.
•• Price level: from the perspective of purchasing power parity, long-term
since the RMB exchange rate has been underestimated, exchange rate to the
purchasing power parity regression appreciation is stronger than by the inflation
rate high depreciation pressure, coupled with the balance of payments often
account and capital account surplus, so that the exchange rate returns to the
purchasing power parity is very natural. This can partly explain the renminbi in
the continued appreciation of the past two years.

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•• The level of interest rates: with the deepening of the economic crisis, domestic
inflation pressure has slowed, economic decline, in this context, lower interest
rates, despite the decline in the international balance of payments surplus,
but the appreciation of the renminbi against the dollar is still no devaluation,
and always maintain a steady rising trend. However, with the advancement of
the Chinese market, it can be predicted that the impact of interest rates on the
exchange rate will continue to strengthen. In addition, in recent years, China’s
short-term capital inflows for the purpose of arbitrage increased, it is possible
to strengthen the impact of the RMB interest rate on exchange rate movements.
•• Balance of payments: the direct cause of exchange rate changes in a country.
International balance of payment mainly includes three parts, one is current
account, including goods trade account, pay interest and profits, and service;
the second is the capital account, record all capital flows; three is the official
reserves. Affected by the impact of the financial crisis in 2008, China suffered
a large number of trade barriers, trade friction intensified, coupled with export
enterprises financing difficulties and financing costs rise and the pressure of
RMB appreciation and other various aspects of factors, resulting in the end of
the year exports decreased.
•• Economic Growth: economic growth is the main measure of a country’s
economic growth rate, economic growth rate of a country’s exchange rate
changes produced by impact is in many aspects, economic growth rate is high,
which means to increase revenue, improve the level of domestic demand will
increase imports from the country, leading to the current account deficit, will
make its currency down. The impact of China’s economic growth on the RMB
exchange rate is mainly through its impact on the import and export volume,
although this effect is not direct, its effectiveness can not be ignored.
•• Monetary policy intervention: the central bank intervention on the
exchange rate of RMB exchange rate decision has a very far-reaching impact,
this intervention mainly through monetary policy. Over the past few years,
the asset structure of China’s monetary authorities has been a huge change,
an important manifestation of the central bank’s foreign net assets in its total
assets accounted for the proportion of rising. The rapid deterioration of the
international financial crisis, in order to ensure economic growth and stabilize
the market confidence, the central bank has taken the moderately loose
monetary policy, this a series of adjustment makes inflation rate has been
effectively suppressed, the RMB exchange rate at a reasonable and balanced
level remain basically stable.

4.2. Theoretical model and its parameters


This choice of RMB exchange rate and economic growth factors, price level factors,
interest rate factors and factors of international revenue and expenditure and the
intervention of the central bank monetary policy factors as latent variables studied,
SEM is established for the purpose of reveal the structural relationship between the
latent variables. With regard to the choice of measurable variables, the theoretical
circles in the study of macroeconomic phenomena, the various variables which have
some research results.

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Latent variable type Latent variable Observed variables


X1 (consumer price index)
ξ1 price level
X2 (inflation rate)

exogenous latent X3 (Chinese interest rate)


ξ2 Interest rate level
variable X4 (Sino US spread)
ξ
Monetary policy X5 (M2 variable momentum)
ξ3 intervention
X6 (foreign net assets accounted for)
η1 RMB rate Y1 (exchange rate volatility)
η2 economic growth Y2 (industrial added value)
Endogenous
latent variable Y3 (foreign exchange reserves)
η International balance of
η3 Y4(actual use of foreign investment)
payments
Y5 (difference between import and export)

Table 2 – Variable definition table


On the basis of this theory, the factor analysis conducted a number of computational
experiments, investigates the correlation between the latent variables, determined
to do the price level, the level of interest rates and the central bank monetary policy
intervention as exogenous latent variables, the RMB exchange rate, economic growth and
the international balance of payments as internal students latent variables, ultimately
selected for the following research hypothesis to establish initial theoretical model, and
path diagram representation such as in Figure 6.

Figure 6 – Model path and its parameters

4.3. Evaluation model


In this paper, the evaluation of the research model is carried out from three aspects:
the test of parameters, the degree of fitting of the whole model and the evaluation of the
explanatory power of the model. In the overall model fit test, χ2 tests was also called the
absolute fit index, is the most basic indicators of overall assessment model:

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(
χ 2 = ( N − 1 ) min F ~ χ 2 1 / 2 ( q ( q + 1 ) ) − k )
Through the study of the RMB exchange rate structural equation model, the structural
relationship between the RMB exchange rate and the economic latent variables is found,
and the role of the exchange rate is found. According to the estimated results of the final
model, the direct effects, indirect effects and the total effect of the latent variables on
the RMB exchange rate are summarized in Table 3. Indirect effect is the indirect effect
of exogenous variables on endogenous variables by affecting one or more intermediary
variables. When only a intermediary variable, the indirect effect of size is the product
of two path coefficient; when more than an intermediary variable, indirect effect is all
the exogenous variables of by one or several intermediary variables after the end in the
endogenous variables “chain of arrows” path numbers product.

route Direct effect Indirect effect Total effect


Price level→RMB exchange rate −0.24 0.05 −0.19
Level of interest rate→ RMB exchange rate 0.18 0.02 0.20
Central bank intervention→RMB exchange 0 −0.69 −0.69
rate
Economic growth→ RMB exchange rate 0 −0.45 −0.45
International balance of payments → RMB −0.58 0 −0.58
exchange rate

Table 3 – The effects of various latent variables on RMB exchange rate


Standardized effects of RMB exchange rate changes in the price level, the level of
interest rates, the central bank’s monetary policy intervention, economic growth and the
international balance of payments latent variables were: - 0.19, 0.20, and 0.69, and 0.45,
and 0.58, the coefficient of is that the impact is positive, and the coefficient is negative
indicates that its influence is negative, coefficient of absolute value is that the effect is
greater. According to the size of the force, this paper divides the factors into three categories:
1. The biggest impact on the RMB exchange rate is the central bank’s monetary
policy intervention, its direct effect on the RMB exchange rate is not obvious,
the impact of all the effects from indirect effects. As can be seen, the central bank
intervention mainly through the impact of economic growth and the international
balance of payments to achieve the purpose of affecting the RMB exchange rate
changes. Effect value is negative, and then the effect of intervention is mainly
from the stability of the RMB exchange rate.
2. The impact of the RMB exchange rate is more obvious on the international
balance of payments and economic growth factors. The international balance of
payments has a direct impact on the RMB exchange rate, which is determined
by the current account, capital account and foreign exchange reserves as a
comprehensive measure of the overall balance of the balance of payments.
Economic growth factors and the RMB exchange rate does not exist direct path,
but its indirect effect cannot be ignored, it is mainly through the impact of the
international balance of payments and thus affect the RMB exchange rate.

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3. Price level and the interest rates of RMB exchange rate effect is small, and the
effect mainly comes from the direct effect. This is also corroborated purchasing
power parity and the interest rate parity explanatory power in China is not
strong this conclusion.

5. Conclusions
Outlier data mining is an important branch of data mining, which is different from
other data mining methods. It is concerned with a small part of the data set. In many
applications, this kind of abnormal data often contains more important information and
knowledge than most of the data, so it has more research value. This paper discussed
in detail based on the actuality of the current exchange rate behavior research methods
and time series data mining, cut from the “abnormal” this new angle, using data mining
method to study the RMB exchange rate behavior. Through comparative analysis of a
variety of commonly used anomaly detection method, and considering the exchange
rate data of order and nonlinear, is proposed in this paper combining phase space
reconstruction with the sequential exception technique of outlier pattern detection
method of the RMB exchange rate series of anomaly detection, and from the macro view,
using SEM method to study the system of the various factors interaction mechanism,
and then find the deep reason of abnormal data of RMB exchange rate.
Traditional exchange rate determination theory to analysis of the relationship between
exchange rate and its related macro and micro economic variables from the economic
equilibrium framework, and time series analysis only from the changes in exchange
rates of the application of mathematics and logic method of the future changes in the
exchange rate are pre measured and analyzed. The former concerned about the reasons,
the latter is concerned about the results, there is no obvious intersection between the
two. In the analysis of exchange rate behavior, we should not only consider the micro
exchange rate price changes, but also should consider the impact of macroeconomic
factors, so the need to combine the two methods. Abnormal data mining using data
driven approach to explore the macro law, mining abnormal data hidden behind the
information, you can have a more comprehensive and profound understanding of the
mechanism of exchange rate.

Acknowledgments
This paper is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (71171128) and
Research Fund of Program Foundation of Education Ministry of China (10YJA790233).

References
Brock, W., Dechert, W. (1996). A test for independence based on the correlation
dimension. Econometric Reviews, 15(3), 197–235.
Catherine, K., Apostolos, S. (2006). Univariate tests for nonlinear structure. Journal of
Macroeconomics, 28(1), 154–168.

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Edwin, M., Raymond, T. (2000). Distance-based outliers: algorithms and application.


The VLDB Journal, 8, 237–253.
González, M., González, L. (2015). The co-creation as a strategy to address IT governance
in an organization. RISTI-Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação,
(14), 1–15.
Obstfeld, M., Rogoff,K. (2000). New directions for stochastic open economy models.
Journal of International Economics, 50(1), 117–153.
Ramsey, J., Zhang,Z. (1997). The analysis of foreign exchange data using waveform
dictionaries. Journal of Empirical Finance, 4(2), 341–372.
Samuelson, P. (1968). What classical and neoclassical monetary theory really was.
Canadian Journal of Economics, 1(1), 1–15.
Sarantis, N. (2000). On the short-term predictability of exchange rates: A BVAR time-
varying parameters approach. Journal of Banking and Finance, 30(8), 2257–2279.

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Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação Recebido/Submission: 16/03/2016
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

Study on Wireless Data Transmission System based


on GPRS and ARM

Mingyu Zhang *, Yuling Wang, ShuLan Gong

*mingyuofzhang@sdjzu.edu.cn

School of information & electrical engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101, China
Pages: 195–206

Abstract: With the development of wireless communication technology, wireless


data transmission technology is more and more used in environmental monitoring,
life and production. By analyzing ARM microprocessor, embedded real-time
operating system and GPRS, we proposed a wireless data transmission system based
on ARM and GPRS. This system combines the advantages of GPRS high network
coverage rate, and the low power consumption and strong practicability of ARM
microprocessor; it could be widely used in the field of remote data transmission.
The GPRS network and the Internet as the data transmission channel, the system
can realize the remote wireless transmission of data from the gateway node to the
monitoring center, and we give the gateway node and server hardware architecture
and the software realization process.
Keywords: Wireless data transmission, GPRS, ARM, system design

1. Introduction
Data transmission system is widely used in home security, equipment monitoring,
environmental monitoring, remote meter reading and other areas that require
unattended. Most of the traditional data transmission system based on Internet, optical
network, and other cable networks, common transmission medium are cable, twisted
pair, coaxial cable, the system technology is mature, stable performance, but cable
network in the building need dug trenches and wear, wiring, complex construction, high
cost of construction, network maintenance difficult(Ionel, 2012; Wancheng, 2012). In
the special geographical environment, such as ports, mountains, etc., the construction
of the cable network cannot be carried out. In addition, when the need to add new users
on the wired network, but also need to re wiring, system scalability is poor(ElFgee, 2014;
González, 2015). The rapid development of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) solves
the problem of wired network cabling, which makes it possible to transmit remote wireless
data. GPRS is a GSM network to 3G broadband mobile communication, the transition
of 2.5G mobile communication system, it perfectly combines the data communication
technology and mobile communication technology, can make many users at the same
time, the use of channel resources, improve the utilization rate of wireless resources, in
the GSM to 3G transition process plays a very important role. GPRS data transmission
in a packet (Packet), the user’s burden is the cost of its transmission unit of computing,

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not using its entire frequency band, and therefore relatively cheap (Liu, 2014; Fan, 2011;
Dehua, 2012). GPRS breaks through the GSM network can only provide circuit switched
communication mode, only need to the increasing of the corresponding functional
entities and the existing base station system is part of the transformation can be a packet
switched, this transformation of a small investment, data transmission rate. GPRS
network does not need an intermediary converter, so it is convenient to connect and
transfer. GPRS network has the following characteristics:
•• Make full use of the existing resources: the use of China Mobile’s
GSM wireless network covering the whole country, without wiring, can be
convenient, fast and low cost into a local user data terminal to provide remote
access network functions.
•• Transmission rate is high: GPRS transmission rate is up to 171.2Kbps
in theory, but the current rate can reach 20 ~ 30Kbps, due to the network
configuration and the limitation of the time slot of the GPRS module.
•• Access time is short: packet switching time is less than 1s, can provide fast
and timely connection, can quickly establish connection with Internet, and
improve the transmission efficiency.
•• Provide real-time online features: the user equipment will always be in
the connection and online state, which will make users access to the network has
become very simple and fast.
•• Billing according to the flow: GPRS users only send or receive data only
during the occupation of resources, users can always online, according to the
user to receive and send data packets to the number to the charges, no data
traffic transmission, the user even online but also do not charge a fee.
GPRS data transmission service can be applied to the entire low and medium rate data
transmission field. GPRS network can be used to maximize the use of existing public
network resources, reduce network construction costs, improve the quality of data
communication, and extend the communication distance. In this paper, the wireless
data transmission system based on ARM and GPRS technology, they are the current
rapid development of cutting-edge technology, theoretical and practical value is very
high (Zhang, 2006; Kang, 2006). On the one hand, the application of low power
consumption of ARM microprocessor and embedded operating system to realize
wireless data transmission between the data acquisition terminal and the control center,
save engineering wiring, reducing the damage to the environment, in line with China’s
construction of a resource-saving and environmental friendly society of national policy.
On the other hand, the GPRS network is easy to upgrade, high stability, wide coverage,
and communication costs low and not subject to geographical restrictions, etc., to reduce
the cost of network construction, increase the distance of communication, in line with
the strategic target of the construction of a conservation oriented society of our country.

2. Overall system architecture


2.1. System components
Based on arm and GPRS wireless data transmission system relies on the GPRS network
of China Mobile, the whole system is composed of monitoring terminal, including

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detectors and a data transmission module, GPRS wireless access and monitoring center
(PC, mobile phone). Wireless data transmission system, as shown in figure 1.

Figure 1 – Wireless data transmission system


Monitoring terminal is placed in remote monitoring, ARM microprocessor control sensors
to collect field data, and then use the GPRS module for data modulation, through the GPRS
network and wireless network operators network server to access the Internet. GPRS
wireless access, which is provided by Mobile Corporation GPRS network, it establishes
a seamless connection between the monitoring terminal and Internet, to achieve data
transmission between the monitoring terminal and the monitoring center. The monitoring
center is composed of one or more PC machines, the PC machine is connected with the
Internet, which is used to receive the data transmitted by the monitoring terminal and
process the data. Staff can monitor the site immediately to understand the situation.

2.2. GPRS structure analysis


GPRS uses the existing GSM network base station subsystem(BSS), but corresponding
updates to its software and hardware; BSS and service GPRS at the same time supporting
the Serving GPRS support node node(SGSN) is connected and need to increase new
GB interface, and GB interface will lead to GSM network circuit switching equipment
cannot be used. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the data packet control unit (PCU)
and mobile station (MS) to support GPRS service. GPRS network structure, as shown
in figure 2.2. GPRS network in the GSM network based on the increase of PCU, SGSN,
gateway GPRS support node (GGSN) and other network equipment, the functions of
these devices are as follows:
•• PCU: PCU separates the data service from the GSM voice service quantity, has
increased the grouping function, realizes to the wireless link control, allows
many users to access the same wireless resources. PCU through the Gb interface
with the SGSN connection.
•• SGSN: SGSN for the user and GGSN to provide packet routing functions, it will
be the base station controller (Controller BSC, BaseStation) sent the packet sent

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to other SGSN or via GGSN external Internet network transmission. The SGSN
through designed Gn interface connected to the GGSN.
•• GGSN: GGSN is the key equipment of GPRS network connecting other
networks. GGSN sent to the SGSN packet data sent to the Internet network;
from the Internet logo has a mobile terminal address of the IP package, also
received by the GGSN, and then forwarded to the SGSN, and then transmitted
to the mobile terminal. GGSN through Gi interface with Internet connection.

Figure 2 – GPRS network structure

3. The system hardware design


3.1. ARM microcontroller
Arm is a general-purpose 32-bit RISC (reduced instruction set computer computer, RISC
processor with high performance, integrated very typical RISC structure characteristics,
has simple structure, small kernel, low power consumption and high performance
characteristics. RISC is a kind of instruction set corresponding to Instruction Set
Computer CISC (Complex) with complex instruction set. With the development of
information technology, CISC has introduced a lot of complex instructions, which lead
to more and more complex structure. 1979 University of California, Berkeley, David
Patterson Professor research have found that about 20% of a typical operational process
instruction is used repeatedly and completed 80% of, and another 80% of the instructions
are rarely used, he based on results are presented RISC concept and developed the RISC
I type machine and RISC type II machine. The main features of RISC and CISC are
shown in table 1.

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Comparative content CISC RISC


Command system complex simple
Number of instructions Greater than 200 Less than 100
Instruction format Greater than 4 Less than 4
Addressing mode Greater than 4 Less than 4
Instruction length Not fixed As long as
Program length Short longer
Software development time Short longer
Instruction usage frequency Relatively large difference Little difference
Accessible memory instruction Without limitation LOAD/STORE directive only
Instruction execution time Great difference Most completed in one cycle

Table 1 – RISC and CISC characteristic contrast


From the table 1, compared with the CISC, RISC software development is difficult, but
due to the small number of instructions, the average instruction execution cycle shorten
and improve the working frequency of computer; extensive use of general-purpose
registers, can greatly increase the speed of program execution.

Figure 3 – ARM micro controller

3.2. Serial communication circuit


LPC2210 has two serial ports, UART0 and UART1, respectively. UART1 adds a modem
interface based on UART0. RS232 is a full duplex communication standard, which can
perform data reception and transmission at the same time. The standard is used in the
early computer and MODEM link, MODEM and then through the telephone line for
remote data transmission. The RS232 standard includes a main channel and an auxiliary
channel, in most cases, the main channel is used, that is, TXD, RXD, GND three signals.
Programming by configuring the PINSEL0 register to determine whether to use the
Modem UART1 interface. Due to the electrical characteristics of the RS232 standard,
the standard logic 1 corresponds to the voltage of -5 ~ -15V, and the standard logic 0

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corresponds to the voltage of 5 ~ 15V. Therefore, when using the Modem interface, the
TTL level should be converted to the RS232 level to connect and communicate with
Modem. Communication, the use of hardware flow control, the use of SP3243E chip
level conversion. UART1 port level conversion circuit, as shown in figure 4.

Figure 4 – UART1 Level conversion principle

3.3. GPRS module circuit design


GPRS module is responsible for the connection of GPRS network and data transmission.
Module M23 range of working voltage is 3.3V ~ 4.5V, but working current is not stable,
the average current in the standby state less than 6mA, 230-260mA state average current
during a phone call, the maximum current in the GPRS slightly less than 250mA. At the
same time calls and GPRS transmission of the current maximum 1.7A. Therefore, in the
choice of voltage conversion chip to consider the voltage and current, in particular, to
pay attention to the current can meet the need, otherwise it will lead to GPRS module
can not read the SIM card, can not send data, etc.. Power supply voltage conversion chip
select National Semiconductor Corporation Ns LM2576, the chip output current up to
3A, the output voltage of DC3.8V, can meet the needs of GPRS module. Because M23
can only read the 3V and SIM 5V card, so SIM card power supply circuit needs a separate
power supply, the voltage conversion chip selected SPX1117 and set its output to 3.3V.
Therefore, the power supply circuit of the module divided into two branches, the path
lm2576 conversion 3.8V output, the path SPX1117 conversion for 3.3V output. Input
voltage from the external +12V DC regulated power supply, but also to ensure that the
DC regulated power supply is greater than the average current 500mA, or plug in the
GPRS card after the SIM module will not read the SIM card. Between the core board and
M23 through the serial port for communication, generally using RS-232 port, LPC2210
through the UART1 to send AT commands to operate the module. Due to the need to
use the GPRS M23 function, data flow control to take the hardware, so we should use
all the serial signal pins, including DTR, RTS, DCD, CTS, RXD, TXD, RI and GND. M23
and LPC2210 communication need conversion, the conversion chip using ICL3238, as
shown in figure 5.

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Figure 5 – M23 serial level conversion

3.4. Flash interface circuit


Flash can be lost in the case of long-term storage of data, is a non-volatile memory,
storage characteristics equivalent to the hard disk. The device has the advantages of
small size, low power consumption, strong earthquake resistance and the like, and is
the preferred storage device in the embedded system. Flash memory is divided into
Flash Nand and Flash Nor. Flash Nor in the implementation of the program can be run
directly on the Flash Nor and do not need to copy the program to RAM, read fast, high
transmission efficiency, the interface is simple, but the price is higher. Flash Nand to
block as a unit of storage, cell density and high storage density, large capacity, write
and wipe out the speed of fast, erase unit is small, and the price is low. However, stored
procedures need to read the program to read the memory to run, manage complex,
and need a special interface. System Flash Nor selection of SST company production of
CMOS multi-function Flash chip SST39VF160, the storage capacity of 2M, data width of
16, the use of parallel interface. SST39VF160 pin function, as shown in table 2.

Symbol Pin name Pin function


A19—A0 Address input Block erase, A15 - A19 is used to select blocks.
DQ15—DQ0 Data input/output Sector erase, A11 - A19 used to select sectors;
Write cycle data within the internal latch OE# or CE# for high
CE# Chip enable output for the three state read cycle output data, write cycle
input data
OE# Output enable CE# start work for low time start
WE# Write enable Gating signal of data output buffer
VDD Power Supply Control write operation
V SS land Supply power supply: 2.7 - 3.6V

Table 2 – SST39VF160 pin description

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4. System software design


4.1. Hardware driver layer
Hardware drivers are usually written in assembly or C language, the program on the part of
the operation to function for the package, for the upper level program call. System I2C bus,
UART1, A/D interface and Flash Nand and other parts need to write driver. I2C bus and
uart1 drivers use with LPC2210 development of I2C bus and modem driver middleware,
application must pay attention to I2C and URAT1 vectors of interrupt initialization, and add
the interrupt service routine. LPC2210 has 10 8 bit A/D interface, using A/D control register
(Control Register A/D, ADCR) to select the working mode, A/D data (Data Register ADDR)
(A/D) to save the collected data. Before using the ADC module first through a pin setting
registers set the channel as a function of the A / D, and then set the channel mode, channel
conversion, conversion clock, conversion of the control mode using the adcr register etc. and
start the ADC conversion. By querying the highest level of the ADDR register to determine
if the AD conversion is complete, if the highest ADDR bit 0 is converted to an end. A/D
converter basic clock by the ultra large scale integrated circuit peripheral bus (Peripheral Bus
VLSI, VPB) clock to provide, and gradually adjust it to 4.5MHz, the clock frequency formula
as shown in formula:

FPCLK
=
CLKDIV −1  (1)
FADCLK
Bit15~bit6 ADDR for the data bits, using the data must be converted before conversion
formula as shown in formula (2):

VRe f
=
V AD × ADDR  (2)
CA
In the operation of the Flash Nand usually need to load the memory technology driver
(Drivers MemoryTechnology, MTD), which is an important difference between Flash
Nand and Flash Nor. Flash MTD Nand is mainly to read, write and erase, the main
driver of the work is the preparation of ReadOnePage (), WriteOnePage (), EraseBlock
() three underlying functions. The operation of the K9F2808 is achieved by writing the
corresponding instruction data to the device instruction register. K9F2808 instruction
and timing definitions see table 3.
Busy time acceptable
function First cycle Second cycles
command
Read data register (data area) 00H/01H 
Read data register (free area) 50H 
Read device ID 90H 
reset FFH  O
Write data 80H 10H
Block Erase 60H D0H
Read state 70H  O

Table 3 – K9F2808 instruction and timing

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In the process of data transmission reliability, accuracy and data loss problems affected
by various aspects such as: GPRS network signal strength, geographical environment,
GPRS network to transfer protocol and other factors will cause the data there is a certain
deviation. At present, almost all of the mainstream operating system and more and more
GPRS the communication module (such as GTM900, SIM100 etc.) have built-in TCP /
IP protocol stack, and therefore do not need to write your own TCP / IP protocol reduces
the software part of the workload. Only the selected data transmission protocol used
in wireless transmission are analyzed in the GPRS network transmission control layer
consists of TCP and UDP two transmission protocol.

Figure 6 – TCP/UDP data transmission

4.2. μC/OS-II operating system transplant


μC/OS-II is a complete, concise, portable, can be cut, cured preemptive multi task real-
time embedded operating system can be used for a variety of microprocessor systems,
is designed for embedded applications in the design of a embedded real-time operating

Figure 7 – μC/OS-II operating system

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system. Most of the operating system code is written in ANSI C language, users as long
as the standard ANSI C cross compiler, assembler, linker, software tools, you can C/
OS-II transplanted to the development of products. C/OS-II has the characteristics
of high efficiency, small footprint, good real-time performance, high scalability, fixed
task execution time, stability and reliability, the kernel can be compiled to 2KB. C/OS-
II kernel is the basic functions of a based on scheduling priority preemptive real-time
kernel, task management, task scheduling, time management, memory management
and task communication and synchronization.

4.3. Design of user application layer program


Application layer program, located in the top layer of the system, users according to the
system requirements set a series of tasks to modular programming, CPU according to
the priority of these tasks turns service to these tasks in a. This mode of operation is very
much like the former background system, but there are many background tasks. Multi
task operation makes application modular, CPU utilization rate is high, the application
program is easy to design and upgrade. When the program is run first initialize the
system hardware, and then calls the function OSInit) (initialization operation system of
all variables and data structures, and then call the function OSTaskCreate) (create user
task, the call OSStart () start multi task. At this point the operating system takes out the
highest priority task from the task ready list.
File manipulation tasks of the main function is to wait for other tasks of reading to write the
message, once it receives the message is added storage devices, create a file, looking for a
location in memory and according to the information content to implement different read and
write API function. File operations using the ZLG/FS file system related functions, according
to the different file operation commands to read and write data. File manipulation task is:
first wait for the read and write command, the operating command is added at the bottom of
the flash drive, or continue to wait; then according to the command corresponding operation;
at last, delete the bottom of the flash drive. After executing the file write operation, call the
OSAllCachewriteBack function (), if the Cache full time still did not execute the command, the
user operation failed. The key code of the file operation task is as follows:
void TaskFile (void *pdata)
{
HANDLE FHandle;
pdata = pdata;
while(1)
{
comd=(uint8 *)OSMboxPend(FileBox,0,&err);
OSAddFileDriver(FlashCammand);
FHandle = OSFileOpen(FileName, “rw”);
OSFileSeek(FHandle,0, SEEK_END);
switch(comd[0])
{
case DISK_RDAD:
OSFileRead(ReadBuf,256,FHandle);
break;

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case DISK_WRITE_I2C:
OSFileWrite(WriteFileData,sizeof(I2C_Data),FHandle);
break;
case DISK_WRITE_Adc:
OSFileWrite(WriteFileData,sizeof(Adc_Data),FHandle);
break;
default:
break;
}
OSFileClose(FHandle);
OSAllCacheWriteBack();
OSRemoveFileDriver(0);
}
}

5. Conclusions
This paper analyzes the research status of wireless data transmission system, studies the
ARM microprocessor, embedded real-time operating system and GPRS technology, and
proposes a wireless data transmission system based on ARM and GPRS network. On the
hardware of the system, the LPC2210 is chosen as the main controller, the LM75 acquisition
temperature information is selected, the Flash Nor and Flash Nand are extended respectively
for storing program and data, and the GPRS module M23 is used as the data transmission
device. In the hardware circuit design, choose LPC2210 ARM7 microprocessor as the main
controller, the expansion of NOR flash, NAND flash were used to store programs and data,
selected GPRS module M23 embedded TCP/IP protocol stack as data transmission module,
through at commands to operate the TCP/IP protocol to connect to the Internet, reduced
the difficulty of programming, shorten the development cycle.
In the software design, the μC/OS-II real-time operating system and ZLG/Fs file system
transplant to the LPC2210, when first initialize the hardware and operating system, and
then start acquisition program, and the collected data is saved to NAND flash. System
in the transmission of data to detect whether the network is clear, if the network is clear
from the Flash Nand to remove the data and through the M23 module GPRS to send
data to the remote control computer. The system is stable, reliable and low cost, and
the test shows that the system can meet the actual needs of wireless data transmission.

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Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

Research on the Appraisal Index System of Real


Estate based on BP Neural Network

Jia Liu1,*, Xiaode Zuo1, Mingjian Xu2

*ampmbm@163.com

1
Management school, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510000, China
2
Guangzhou kanyi trade ltd, Guangzhou 510000, China
Pages: 207–216

Abstract: On the basis of the theory of real estate appraisal, this paper introduces
various methods of real estate appraisal. In reference to the previous experience and
the characteristics of examples, we choose 8 key factors to establish a price influencing
factor index of residential real estate. At the same time, we point out the defects of
the traditional market method, which is the degree of subjective assessment is high
in determining the weight of influencing factors. In order to overcome the defects
effectively, the BP neural network is established to train the index set. Through the
data forward propagation and error back propagation, the experimental results show
that the model has a good effect on the data fitting.
Keywords: Appraisal index, BP neural network, real estate, predicting price

1. Introduction
In recent years, the total investment and construction area of real estate development have
increased significantly, which is accompanied by the prosperity and development of the real
estate market, especially in the residential property market. In order to suppress caused
real estate prices too rapid growth to return to rational, the state promulgated the a series of
policy, strengthen the supervision on the market, curb excessive demand and standardize
order in the real estate market, but also for the real estate valuation industry provides a
healthy, transparent social atmosphere(Mark, 1991; West, 2000). With the growing
maturity of the real estate market, real estate sale, exchange, gift, leasing, etc. economic
activities are on the increase, these economic activities must take place to professionals on
the value of the real estate of assessment on the basis of the results, which is in line with the
provisions of the law of our country, but also can guarantee the fair, protect the interests of
the parties is not compromised (Ionel,2012;González,2015). This objective to promote the
development of real estate appraisal industry, also makes the real estate appraisal theory
has a strong practical value. The most commonly used methods of real estate appraisal
market law, income method, and cost method. Because of the maturity of the residential
real estate market, the market law is the best choice for the assessment of real estate.
However, real estate and ordinary goods are different, and its non-mobility makes every
case of real estate is unique, which gives the assessment increased the difficulty of the work.
Therefore, the use of market approach, the key is to large collection and assessment of

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the real estate is similar to the real estate transaction examples, using a modified version
of the influencing factors of real estate price, the value of property in the valuation date
to be assessed(Qi, 2005;Hu, 2006). However, the traditional market method has some
limitations in reflecting the nonlinear relationship between real estate price and real estate
price. Therefore, this paper establishes comprehensive real estate price influence factors
of evaluation index system, the artificial neural network is introduced to the traditional
market research method, using MATLAB software to establish the model, through the
establishment of a real estate evaluation model of artificial neural network (ANN) based
on, and for the real estate evaluation provides a new operation method.
Real estate assessment of the principle, the so-called real estate assessment, is to
consider the specific assessment of the purpose of professional personnel, the real estate
at a certain point in price estimates(Sun, 2010). When evaluating the assessment, the
assessment must be subject to the constraints of the industry standards. These principles
include the most effective use of the principle, the principle of legality, the principle of
price point, the substitution principle, the principle of fairness and prediction, and so on.
•• The most effective use principle: For the same real estate, it can be used for
industry, can also be residential, different purposes will have different benefits.
Make real estate to achieve the maximum benefit is the most effective use of. The
most effective use must be in compliance with the provisions of laws and regulations,
but also by the constraints of urban planning. In the real estate market developed
circumstances, the real estate can be used to achieve the most effective use of
competition(Meng, 2009). Therefore, the assessment of real estate should not only
consider the real purpose of real estate, if the real estate to achieve the most effective
use, should be the most effective use of the proceeds to assess the real estate prices.
•• Principle of legality: Real estate assessment of the primary premise is to check
whether the real estate property has a legitimate right to use and legal rights
and other legal rights. When calculating the net income of the real estate, the
operating purposes should be legal, for example, is not allowed to use the casino
in the mainland of china. When urban planning for commercial land, only by
commercial land revenue to assess, even if the residential land may be its best use.
•• Alternative principles: according to the principle of economics, the same
product with the same value, real estate is a commodity, but also follows this rule.
Namely in the unified market, the function of similar real estate prices should also
be similar. In determining the assessed value of the real estate, no matter adopt
what kind of method(Zhang, 2009). Finally, the need to and or similar market
transactions example, or real estate income examples, or is real estate development
examples were compared to be estimated in real estate prices do not deviate
significantly from these examples of real estate prices.
•• Principle of the price point: Price point is also known as the assessment
date, the real estate market price is fluctuating over time, lost the concept of
time, the results of the real estate assessment is meaningless. Therefore, in
the assessment of a real estate price, all the assessment data collected, the
information should be sorted to determine the assessment point in advance.
•• Principle of equity: Real estate assessment should be carried out in a fair,
impartial and objective principle, so as to ensure the legitimate rights and interests
of the transaction, while maintaining the authority of the asset appraisal work.

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•• Prediction principle: In real estate appraisal, not only to consider the real
estate in the past, and now the price, but also to form rational expectations of
future prices for real estate, in order to ensure the accuracy of the prediction,
prediction based on to realistic. The analysis of many problems in real estate
appraisal cannot be separated from the principle of prediction.

2. Artificial neural network theory


2.1. Artificial neural network
The essence of the human brain is the most complex in the known universe, most
effective and most functional information processing system, for a long time, people
use biology, neurology, cognitive science, mathematics, computer science and a series
of scientific of neural network research, trying to explain the working mechanism of
human brain, understand the way the nervous system for information processing,
which is designed with similar to the human brain function of intelligent information
processing system. The artificial neural network is a neural network which can realize
the function of information processing based on the understanding of the structure and
function of the human brain. Artificial neural network is a complex network which is
composed of a large number of simple neurons, which is highly nonlinear and can be
implemented in complex logic operation and nonlinear relation. It has absorbed many
of the advantages of biological neural network, artificial neural network each neuron
accepts input of a number of other neurons, through treatment and influence the output
of other neurons, the mutual influence and restriction of mode to realize the nonlinear
mapping from input to output. Network performance is a simple superposition of the
overall performance rather than local performance. BP neural network has an input
layer, the output layer and the hidden layer of the network structure. With I input nodes,
a hidden layer and an output layer of the 3 layer BP neural network as shown below:

Figure 1 – Artificial neural network

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Artificial neural network (ANN) through their own network structure to realize the
memory ability of information, these memories are stored in the weights between
neurons, using a distributed storage, only from the single weight is cannot see the
information content, which makes the network has good fault tolerance. Neuron is the
most basic unit of artificial neural network, and it is a nonlinear element with multiple
input and single output. Neuron output will be affected by several aspects, including
input, network weights and thresholds.

Figure 2 – single neuron model

2.2. Hierarchical structure


The artificial neural network consists of an input layer, an output layer and a number of
hidden layers, the number of hidden layers can be equal to 1, or more than 1, according
to the actual need to determine. The hidden layer is 1 network, which is called the single
hidden layer neural network, and the rest is called the multi hidden layer neural network.
The input layer node and the hidden layer node and the hidden layer node and the output
layer node are connected through the right, the hidden layer and the output layer each
node has its own threshold. Actually, the input layer representation is the input signal
and the output layer and the hidden layer is parallel neuronal ensembles, hidden layer
and output layer of each node represents a neuron, when the input signal, followed by
through each hidden layer reaches the output layer. The activation function is the core of
an artificial neural network, and the ability of the network to solve the problem is largely
determined by the activation function used in the network. The threshold type activation
function is characterized by converting arbitrary input hard into 0 or 1 of the output:

 1, w∗P +b ≥ 0
A = f (w ∗ P + b) =  (1)
0, w∗P +b < 0
The output of the linear activation function is equal to the weighted input and the
threshold value is added, function as:

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A = f ( w ∗ P + b ) = w ∗ P + b (2)

Figure 3 – Data prediction and analysis

3. Real estate evaluation model based on BP neural network


In the BP neural network, the determination of the number of hidden layer nodes is
closely related to the performance of the network. If the hidden layer node number
is too small, will lead to the lack of available mapping information, at this time, the
network does not have the learning ability and the ability of information processing,
fault tolerance will also reduce the, is difficult to complete the training; if the implicit
layer node number, makes neural network structure complex, increasing the number
of iterations and longer training time, network is very easy to fall into local minimum,
but also reduce the capacity of network generalization. Also a most widely used in the
actual method is repeated training method, for the same sample, the same learning
rate, the same accuracy was achieved when the training step of the least number of
network hidden layer nodes is the optimal number of nodes. Here, in order to select
the optimal number of hidden layer nodes, this paper takes the last approach, based
on past experience; the number of nodes in the hidden layer is 10, 20, 30, 40, 50,
respectively. The error precision of network training is set to 1e-3, and the learning rate
is set to 0.01, and the standard BP algorithm is adapted to study. The following 5 graph
is the choice of the hidden layer of the number of nodes in the MATLAB approximation
of the interface.
Above figures and tables can be clearly seen MATLAB in training the network hidden
layer nodes for network training times and mean square error effect, compared with the
number of training and mean square error, can see, when the hidden layer node number
is 40, number of training least and are square error smallest, so that we set up in the
network implied layer node number 40.

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Figure 4 – The hidden layer node number 10 to 50

hidden layer nodes Training times Mean square error MSE (e-004)
10 6698 9.99733
20 6909 9.99993
30 3850 9.99997
40 1762 9.99555
50 2070 9.99881

Table 1 – Different number of hidden layer nodes network

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4. Empirical research
4.1. Data standardization
In the process of writing this article, through some area in a city real estate market,
intermediary companies and a number of units of visits to research, collected 10 cases
have been traded real estate case, due to the different indexes with different quantization
standard, the gap between the individual indicators greatly, such as the original data
without finishing the inputs to the neural network, cannot reflect the relations of equality
index, therefore, must be in front of the network input the data of standard finishing, the
normalization method for data standardization:

x − min
x′ =
max − min

index Prosperity traffic environment infrastructure renovation Apartment floor orientation Unit Price
layout

1 0.50 0.55 0.55 0.72 0.30 0.50 0.10 0.35 20673.00

2 0.70 0.77 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.80 0.30 0.65 23589.00

3 0.55 0.60 0.70 0.70 0.30 0.70 0.60 0.55 21621.00

4 0.70 0.77 0.76 0.75 0.80 0.80 0.60 0.90 23571.00

5 0.76 0.88 0.77 0.85 0.85 0.50 0.20 0.40 26250.00

6 0.65 0.65 0.75 0.73 0.90 0.50 0.20 0.90 23000.00

7 0.86 0.85 0.77 0.85 0.90 0.50 0.65 0.90 25329.00

8 0.70 0.77 0.74 0.80 0.90 0.80 0.30 0.30 23588.00

9 0.75 0.80 0.69 0.85 0.82 0.70 0.80 0.40 23928.00

10 0.85 0.91 0.80 0.85 0.75 0.90 0.90 0.90 28437.00

Table 2 – Factor score sheet

4.2. Operation model


Using newffh () function or newcf () function to establish the network, this function
can be network initialization, automatic selection of weights and thresholds. According
to the introduced in front of the BP neural network parameter selection method and
validation of the hidden layer activation function selected logsig and output layer
activation function purelin function selection, algorithm selection secant quasi Newton
algorithm trainoss.
net=newff(minmax(p),[3,1],{‘logsig’,’purelin’},’ trainoss’);
net.trainparam.show=100;
net.trainparam.epochs=10000;
net.trainparam.goal=0.001;
net.trainparam.lr=0.05;
[net,tr]=train(net,p,t);

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Figure 5 – The network training error curve


Test network:
Out=sim(Net,p_test);
Q=mse(T_test-out);
[M,B,R]=postreg(out,T_test);
Plot(p_test,T_test,’+’,p_test,out,’bo’);

Figure 6 – Test data fitting

Test and training network performance Y=sim(Net,p) ;


Plot(p,T,’+’,p,Y,’bo’);

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Figure 7 – Training data fitting

4.3. Result analysis


The data obtained after the test results of anti-normalization. From the above experiments
we can see that after training the BP neural network is simulated the relationship
between the various types of real estate price influence factors and real estate prices,
forecast and actual prices close to that BP neural network in function approximation has
excellent performance, after 72 steps of training reached accuracy requirements.

Serial Actual transaction Network forecast Actual error relative error


price price
28 24839.00 24756 -83 -0.00334
29 23774.00 23573 -201 -0.00845
30 23075.00 22867 -108 -0.00468

Table 3 – Comparison between actual output and desired output

5. Conclusions
In this paper, the real estate market development trend in recent years as the background
to the theory of real estate appraisal, detailed introduction of a variety of ways to assess
the real estate. The article points out the defects of the traditional market method, that is,
the weight of the real estate price influencing factors to determine the subjective degree is
relatively high, so as to affect the accuracy of the evaluation results. In order to overcome
this defect, this paper establishes BP neural network the index set for training, through
data spread forward and backward error transfer automatically correct the weights
and thresholds of the network, until the network accuracy to meet the requirements
so far. Selection of neural network structure and parameters were obtained from the
experiments, determine the number of nodes in the hidden layer, hidden layer of

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10,20,30,40,50 neural network is tested, and the results show that when the number
of hidden layer nodes is 40, the convergence speed and accuracy of the network are the
best; in determining the learning function, the traditional BP algorithm, were compared
comprehensively, when using the secant algorithm Newton optimal performance of the
network, so the number of output nodes of BP neural network used in this paper is 9, the
number of hidden layer nodes is 40, the output layer node number is 1 and the hidden
layer activation function was S function, the output layer activation function is linear
function, learning algorithm for Newton secant algorithm. Experiments show that the
model has a good effect on the data fitting.
The current residential real estate evaluation index system contains the content is
not clearly defined, can according to the characteristics of the case for an increase
in the number of evaluation index, in detail described in detail in real estate related
characteristics, improve the evaluation index system; expert scoring method with
a certain degree of subjectivity, its precision is not high, the accuracy of the model is
improved by increasing the number of samples.

References
González, M., González, L. (2015). The co-creation as a strategy to address IT governance
in an organization. RISTI-Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação,
(14), 1–15.
Hu, Z. (2006). Prediction of real estate price index based on neural network. Sun Yat-
sen University Graduate journal, 27 (2), 100–113.
Ionel, R., Vasiu, G. (2012). GPRS based data acquisition and analysis system with mobile
phone control, Measurement, 45, 1462–1470.
Mark, B., Fishman ,D. (1991). Using neural nets in market analysis .Technical Analysis
of Stocks& Commodities, 9, 18–21.
Meng, Q. (2009). BP neural network real estate project risk assessment research.
Business economy, 7,115–116.
Qi, X. (2005). Research on real estate price evaluation based on fuzzy neural network.
Journal of Wuhan University of Technology, 27 (11), 113–114.
Sun, A., Peng, C. (2010). Prediction of real estate price index based on Grey Theory and
BP neural network. Enterprise economy, 4, 124–126.
West, D. (2000). Neural network credit scoring models. Computers &Operations
Research, 27, 1131–1152.
Zhang, X., Zhou, F. (2009). Research on real estate appraisal model based on neural
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research, 1, 23–25.

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Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação Recebido/Submission: 18/03/2016
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

Empirical Analysis on the Efficiency of Financial


Governance based on Computer-aided Data Mining

Chao Ma

* xingshengkey@sina.com

Dongling School of Economics and Management, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing
100083, China
Pages: 217–226

Abstract: Enterprise has accumulated a lot of financial data in the process of


information development, but the commercial value of these financial data has not
been fully excavated and utilized. The main feature of data mining is to extract,
transform and analyze all kinds of financial data, making problem solving approach
more efficient. In this paper, the author constructs the appraisal model of financing
efficiency, and makes the empirical analysis by using DEA method. The input
index as total assets, asset liability ratio and total operating cost, results showed
that 45% corporate financing is effective. Therefore, the application of data mining
technology in financial analysis has a good analysis and evaluation results.
Keywords: Financial governance, data mining, asset liability ratio, technical
efficiency

1. Introduction
Enterprise has accumulated a lot of financial data in the process of information
development, but the commercial value of these financial data has not been fully
excavated and utilized. Traditional financial diagnosis just simply use financial and
statistical method of small amount of financial data analysis based on the evaluation,
but for enterprise for many years of historical financial data and industry tens of millions
of information processing is difficult, the current situation is the massive financial data
information about the potential depth is not enough in-depth traditional diagnostic
methods and using (Kaplan, 1996; Bebchuk, 2010; Nini, 2012). Data mining as an
efficient tool, its advantage is the ability to quickly from a large number of missing,
noisy, fuzzy and random data in the capture of valuable but not known information
(Shleifer,1997; González, 2015). On this basis, the unique business rules behind these
data, and these rules are summarized into a model. Modern enterprise financing theory
originated from the famous MM theory. This theory started the modern enterprise
financing efficiency theory of the first of its kind. A profound discussion is put forward
in the article, which has attracted the attention of many scholars in the theoretical
circle. The article points out that the enterprise market value and the choice of the
way of financing the enterprise is not related, that is to say the different financing
methods will not cause the difference in the market value of the enterprise (Aghion,

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2011; Acharya, 2013). This thesis puts forward a perfect market system, which is
put forward under the condition of strict hypothesis, that is, there exists a perfect
competition market and the existence of information symmetry. It can be known that
it is not possible to fully meet these assumptions in the real environment. So the theory
has great limitation in practical application (Edmans, 2011;Jenkinson, 2012). But if we
only consider its theoretical significance, the basic framework of modern enterprise
financing theory is put forward. It can be said that after the scholars for the theoretical
study provides a way of thinking. So many scholars have made further research on the
enterprise financing problems on the basis of the development of the theory on the
basis of the theory, which makes the theory has been extended.
Corporate finance refers to the behavior of the listing Corporation to raise funds from the
inside and outside of the company to realize the organization goal. As a kind of special
form of enterprise organization, listing Corporation’s financing behavior has its own
characteristics, but also has the characteristics of general enterprises. Comprehensive
analysis, listing Corporation financing behavior has the following characteristics.
With diversified financing target, listed company’s diverse financing goal is mainly
manifested in two aspects: one, if in order to enhance the value of the company for
the purpose of, so the financing behavior of listed companies sub goal can be diverse,
including obtaining long-term stable money supply, lower capital cost, adjust the
capital structure. With flexible financing, listed companies because it directly faces to
the capital market, and have a strong financing autonomy, while the listed company
can be flexible use of financial instruments, such as bank credit, bonds, and stocks to
raise capital. With complex financing decision-making mechanism, phase due to the
listed company’s financing decision as an important financial decision, usually need
after discussion of managers, and then to vote by the board of directors and the general
meeting of shareholders to through. The relatively large size of the listed company,
the financing way is flexible, the stakeholders involved in the financing behavior more
influence on society.

Figure 1 – Data mining system

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2. Data mining applications


2.1. Data mining
Data mining is to extract knowledge from a large amount of data. According to the
comprehensive analysis of the data mining system, the whole system structure of
the data mining is shown in Figure 1. Data management module in the chart is the
foundation, the function of the instruction and the model evaluation. Mining operation
module is the core of the algorithm, which involves: association analysis, decision
tree induction, Bias classification, regression analysis, a variety of clustering analysis.
The model evaluation module is the result of data mining. The main applications of the
model include association patterns, classification patterns, clustering.

2.2. Clustering method


The information obtained from financial analysis can provide decision basis for investors
and managers. The financial analysis mainly includes the analysis of financial data
distribution, the structure factor and the index ratio. The main feature of data mining
is that it can solve the problem of model and high efficiency by extracting, transforming
and analyzing all kinds of financial data. This requires enterprises to comprehensively
analyze the internal and external business development situation and trends, the
effective disclosure of financial information. Therefore the use of data mining technology
for the company’s financial analysis and diagnosis is efficient and important. This paper
on the basis of research results of scholars proposed data mining in the financial analysis
diagnosis mainly used in: one is the use of cluster analysis combined with financial
ratios analysis can be sample enterprises are classified according to the clustering and
grouping variables standard, can use comprehensive financial ratios, such as Z value
comprehensive scores. Second to find the strong association rules, namely in the
clustering analysis based on, enterprises will be different according to the condition of
financial divided into several classes, then, use association analysis algorithm, to find the
effect of each enterprise’s financial situation of a variety of factors, through the inductive
analysis, the strong association rules.

Figure 2 – cluster analysis

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Decision tree is a tree like structure that is similar to the flow chart, and it is an inductive
learning algorithm based on an example. Using the decision tree method to classify, can
be more intuitive to see the classification rules from the decision tree. The decision tree
method has the advantages of high speed, high precision and easy to generate results
when processing a large number of data sets. Decision tree technology can be classified
in this paper and the study of the case of the company’s financial situation. From the root
node to a leaf node of the recursion calculation and comparison tests in the process of
attribute values, by different attribute value down recursive judgment, and ultimately in
the leaf node of the decision tree obtained relevant conclusions by decision tree algorithm.
Decision tree algorithm can be divided into two categories: Based on information theory
(including the ID series algorithm and C5.0 algorithm) and the minimum GINI index
algorithm (including CARPT, SLIQ and SPWNT algorithm).

Figure 3 – Data processing and analysis

3. Financing efficiency evaluation model


3.1. Construction of input output index
In the selection of the input indexes of corporate financing efficiency, considering the
company gets financial capacity of input indicators should be the inclusion of asset size,
capital structure, financing cost. These three aspects respectively for the total assets of
the company, assets and liabilities rate, total operating costs.
•• Total company assets (Xl): The larger the size of the company, it is easier to
raise funds to meet the needs of the company’s production and operation. And
then the scale of the company needs to raise the cost of financing the lower the
company’s financing efficiency is higher. Therefore, the index represents the size
of the company’s assets, can reflect the company’s overall financing situation.
•• Asset liability ratio (X2): Asset liability ratio, also known as the financial leverage
coefficient, from the perspective of the capital structure reflects the impact on
the efficiency of corporate finance.

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•• Total operating cost (X3): Total operating cost is the company’s daily operations
and production activities, all costs must be put into operation. And the cost of the
company’s investment will affect the number of output, thus the size of the total
operating cost determines the size of the profit. The company’s financing costs
and the company’s ability to fund operations can be represented by the index.
In order to clearly evaluate the efficiency of corporate finance output indicators, this
paper from the company’s operating performance and efficiency of the use of funds to
reflect the two aspects. Companies to raise funds for the use of funds efficiency, net
assets yield as an indicator to represent, and operating performance is used to represent
the net profit and operating income of the two indicators.
•• Net profit (Y1): Net profit is the final result of a company’s production and
operation. The more often the net profit is, the better the performance of the
company’s production and operation performance is, and the less the net profit
is, the worse the performance of the company’s production and operation is.
The net profit is the main index to measure the performance of the production
and operation of the listing Corporation.
•• Total revenue (Y2): Operating income is the main business of the company, is
an important guarantee for the company to make profits. The indicators can be
integrated into the capital, the results of production and business activities.
•• Return on net assets (Y3): Refers to the profit margin and the average
shareholder’s equity ratio, the higher the index means the higher the income
of the investment, and the higher the index, the weaker the profitability of the
owners’ rights and interests. The indicator reflects the company’s ability to
obtain net income from its own capital. It’s an important indicator to measure
the profitability of listing Corporation.

3.2. Descriptive statistics


Through preliminary statistics and finishing this paper selected 20 manufacturing listed
companies in 2013 to 2015 annual financial report, to the selected input indicators (total assets,
assets and liabilities rate, business total cost) and output indicators (net profit, operating
revenues, net assets income rate), simple data processing. Results are shown in Table 1 and 2.
year
Input index statistical indicators
2013 2014 2015
Maximum value 31720299 31863318 28504460
Total assets minimum value 271030 226854 163688
average value 3590843 3365043 2984349
Maximum value 0.91 0.9017 0.9069
Asset liability ratio minimum value 0.3008 0.3203 0.3256
average value 0.59245 0.59774 0.62247
Maximum value 45708769 40624659 34344447
Total operating costs minimum value 225003 239829 196513
average value 3957860 3737180 3331653

Table 1 – Manufacturing listing Corporation DEA investment indicators

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year
Input index statistical indicators
2013 2014 2015
Maximum value 2075176 2022186 1372852
Net profit minimum value 2173 3104 3956
average value 181360 191583 172718
Maximum value 48097967 43480394 31337628
Total operating income minimum value 232039 9573121 200756
average value 4106747 3918217 3244227
Maximum value 0.966 0.4058 1.5996
Return on net assets minimum value 0.0036 0.0301 0.07
average value 0.14888 0.14602 0.27801

Table 2 – Manufacturing listing Corporation DEA output indicators

4. Empirical research
4.1. DEA evaluation model
First, assuming that there are n decision making units (DMU), any one of the decision
making units has an input vector X, an output vector Y. The decision making unit (DMU),
which satisfies the axiom of minimal and ineffective, can be produced:

 n n 
=T ( X ,Y ) ∑ λ j X j ≤ x , ∑ λ j Y j ≤ y  (1)
=  j 1 =j 1 

The following DEA model can be obtained:

   m − s + 
min θ − ε  ∑ si + ∑ si  
  =  i 1 =r 1  
 n
 s.t . ∑ xij λ j + si− = θx
 j =1
(2)
 n

 ∑i =1
yrj λ j − sr+ = yr

 θ , λ , si− , si+ ≥ 0
θ is a scalar, λ is the N×1 dimension constant vector. The θ is the DMU efficiency value,
0≤θ≤1. If these θ=1, then the DMU in the efficiency frontier, which indicates that the
DMU is in active state. Get technical efficiency (TE), through the comparative observation
and analysis of manufacturing listing Corporation, if the level of technical efficiency

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is relatively high, it shows that it will be a variety of integration into the ability of the
output in the middle level. By increasing investment, any enterprise can be proportional
to expand production scale, which is returns to scale invariant (CRS) assumptions
underlying meaning, namely technical efficiency value is not affected by the size of the
enterprise. This does not conform to the actual situation. Therefore, based on the basic
model of the previous DEA, we try to build the BCC model of financing efficiency.

 n n n 
T=( X ,Y ) ∑ λ j X j ≤ x , ∑ λ j Y j ≤ y, ∑ λ j =
1, λ j ≥ 0  (3)
= j 1 =j 1 =j 1 
And then we can get the following DEA model:

   m − s + 
min θ − ε  ∑ si + ∑ si  
  =  i 1 =r 1  
 n
 s.t . ∑ xij λ j + si− = θx
 j =1

 n
(4)
 ∑ yrj λ j − sr+ = yr
 i =1

 n

 ∑ λj = 1
 j =1
 θ , λ , si− , si+ ≥ 0

4.2. Calculation result


Under the above the DEA evaluation model on financing efficiency, through the use
of data envelopment analysis software MaxDEA5.2 on the collected data processing,
first of all to get 2013-2014 20 manufacturing listed company’s overall efficiency, the
technical efficiency (TE), pure technical efficiency (PTE) and scale efficiency (SE),
specific calculation results are shown in Table 3 shows:
TE Score PTE Score SE Score RTS
No
2015 2014 2013 2015 2014 2013 2015 2014 2013 2015 2014 2013
1 0.912 0.917 0.891 1.000 1.000 0.952 0.912 0.917 0.936 irs irs irs
2 0.842 0.904 1.000 0.851 0.912 1.000 0.989 0.991 1.000 drs drs -
3 1.000 0.838 0.915 1.000 0.839 0.916 1.000 0.998 0.999 - irs drs
4 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 - - -
5 0.849 0.873 0.867 0.859 0.877 0.875 0.989 0.996 0.990 irs drs drs
6 0.901 1.000 1.000 0.903 1.000 1.000 0.998 1.000 1.000 drs - -
7 0.749 1.000 1.000 0.947 0.990 1.000 1.000 0.791 1.000 irs - -
8 0.880 0.895 0.894 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.895 0.880 0.894 irs irs irs

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TE Score PTE Score SE Score RTS


No
2015 2014 2013 2015 2014 2013 2015 2014 2013 2015 2014 2013
9 1.000 1.000 0.985 1.000 1.000 0.985 1.000 1.000 1.000 irs - drs
10 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 - - -
11 0.842 0.904 1.000 0.851 0.912 1.000 0.989 0.991 1.000 drs drs -
12 1.000 0.838 0.915 1.000 0.839 0.916 1.000 0.998 0.999 - irs drs
13 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 - - -
14 0.849 0.873 0.867 0.859 0.877 0.875 0.989 0.996 0.990 irs drs drs
15 0.901 1.000 1.000 0.903 1.000 1.000 0.998 1.000 1.000 drs - -
16 0.749 1.000 1.000 0.947 0.990 1.000 1.000 0.791 1.000 irs - -
17 0.880 0.895 0.894 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.895 0.880 0.894 irs irs irs
18 1.000 1.000 0.985 1.000 1.000 0.985 1.000 1.000 1.000 irs - drs
19 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 - - -
20 1.000 0.933 0.894 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.933 0.894 - irs irs

Table 3 – Overall efficiency measurement results


According to the estimated results of the financing efficiency of the 20 manufacturing
listing Corporation before the calculation results, this paper is divided into the statistics
and classification, the results see table 4.

TE Score PTE Score SE Score


year Sample Firms
no Proportion no Proportion no Proportion
effective 7 35% 10 50% 8 40%
2015
Non effective 13 75% 10 50% 12 60%
effective 8 40% 11 55% 8 40%
2014
Non effective 12 60% 9 45% 12 60%
effective 9 45% 12 60% 11 55%
2013
Non effective 11 55% 8 40% 9 45%

Table 4 – Financing efficiency


The effective ratio of financing efficiency of China’s manufacturing listing Corporation
is relatively high. Among the 2013, 20 manufacturing listing Corporation, there are 9
companies are both pure technology effective and effective, accounting for 45% of the
number of all enterprises, while the financing efficiency of non-effective enterprises
accounted for 55%. In the 2014 year, 20 manufacturing listing Corporation, there are
8 companies are both pure technology effective and effective, accounting for 40% of
the number of all enterprises, while the financing efficiency of non-effective enterprises
accounted for 60%. It can be known, 2013-2014, the overall efficiency of the efficiency
of the overall financing of the listing Corporation to maintain a relatively high level, but
with a slight downward trend.

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5. Conclusions
The survival and development of enterprises mainly rely on their own management
ability, an enterprise wants to grow and develop, and it must have a high degree of
understanding of its own ills and potential crisis, corporate financial data, in particular,
need to pay attention to. With the development of enterprise, the importance of
financial diagnosis for enterprise management is becoming more and more important.
With the advent of the information age, information technology and application, the
enterprise has entered a period of rapid development, if the information is the lifeline
of the enterprise; the data is the blood flow. Enterprises in the development process
has accumulated a large number of business data, mining of these data will affect the
business managers in a timely and accurate way to get the information needed for
financial decisions. But at present, the commercial value of these business data has
not been fully excavated and utilized. Therefore, the use of data mining technology in
the financial diagnosis of a large number of financial data, from which to obtain an
effective early warning, planning information, is the development trend of risk oriented
enterprise financial management.
The perfect capital market and financial market system play a fundamental role
in the financing decision of the listing Corporation. Therefore, various measures
should be taken to optimize the capital market and financial market. First, continue
to promote the reform of the state-owned commercial banks. The key to improve the
safety and efficiency of bank loan funds is to promote the reform of the state-owned
commercial banks. Second, enhance the bank’s ability to control the camera. The
bank’s camera management mainly includes the prior reverse selection criterion,
the moral hazard control in the event and the ex post reorganization. Enterprise
more by the internal financing turn for the stock market financing, which means
that in the enjoyment of a wide range of social resources at the same time, and
also to accept from the external supervision of market, the financing of enterprises
not only to be more transparent in the data and also on the independence of the
challenge. Generally speaking, financing enterprises should expand financing
channels, such as bonds, multi joint role, to provide effective protection for the
development of enterprises.

References
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over the past 25 years? The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 25, 181–197.
Acharya, V. (2013). Corporate governance and value creation: Evidence from private
equity. Review of Financial Studies, 26, 368–402.
Bebchuk, V. (2010). The state of corporate governance research. Review of Financial
Studies, 23, 939–961.
Edmans, A. (2011). Governance through trading and intervention: A theory of multiple
blockholders. Review of Financial Studies, 7, 2395–2428.

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González, M., González, L. (2015). The co-creation as a strategy to address IT governance


in an organization. RISTI-Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação,
(14), 1–15.
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control. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 8, 1–10.
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Harvard business review. 74, 75–85.
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Shleifer, A., Vishny, R. (1997). A survey of corporate governance. The journal of finance,
52, 737–783.

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Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação Recebido/Submission: 19/03/2016
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

Research on Fuzzy PID Control Strategy for


Brushless Direct Current Motor

Lili Jing 1, Hua Ge 1, Yang Nie 1, 2

* 15847418543@163.com

1
Department of Physics, Jining Normal University, Inner Mongolia, China
2
Digital Engineering Center, Communication University of China, Beijing, China
Pages: 227–237

Abstract: Towards the issues of traditional PID technology in brushless DC motor


control systems, such as bad control accuracy, poor immunity and so on. We discuss
an online self-tuning control strategy: Fuzzy PID control strategy. This control
strategy is based on the analysis and mathematical model of brushless DC motor
control principle, combining Fuzzy control and PID control technology with adaptive
factor, make it possible to adjust the controller parameters online automatically, thus
improving the performance of the controller to control brushless DC motor system.
This article also contains the fuzzy PID control strategy simulation experiment for
brushless DC motor system on the simulation platform by Model-Based Design
(MBD). Using this method, we can quickly build a fuzzy PID system simulation
model, and accomplish efficiently the system test, simulation and implementation.
Experimental results show that the accuracy and immunity of fuzzy PID control are
better than traditional PID, in brushless DC motor control systems.
Keywords: Brushless DC motor, Fuzzy PID control, Model-Based design

1. Introduction
The trapezoidal wave or square wave brushless DC motor (BLDC) is a kind of brushless
DC motor which is recognized universally (Guo, 2008; Abreu, 2015). The brushless
DC motor has a huge potential for development and application in defense, industrial,
office automation, automotive electronics, household and other areas, for its AC and DC
advantages. For the reason of wide application of the brushless DC motor and strong
market demand, the response to the national energy conservation and the call of the
green, as well as the protection to the motor supplies’ safety, stability and efficiency, the
research of high-precision control of brushless DC motor system, to improve product
performance, have important theoretical significance and market value. The fact is that
the traditional PID control technology for multi-variable, strong coupling and nonlinear
brushless DC motor control system can’t meet the demand. To solve these problems,
the paper uses fuzzy PID control strategy. It is the combination of the virtues of fuzzy
control technology and PID control technology, possessing both excellent suitability for
nonlinear and time-varying systems, but also to eliminate the steady-state error, and the
excellent characteristics of eliminating steady-state error.

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2. Model of Brushless DC Motor and Speed Control Method


2.1. Mathematical Model of Brushless DC Motor
All In the premise of no influences of control performance, Experimental assumptions
are as follows (Hemati, 1990): stator of a brushless DC motor is completely symmetrical,
three-phase windings use Y-connected style, each phase winding difference at 120。,
and each winding’s resistance and inductance are the same. At the same time, magnetic
saturation and eddy current losses are ignored, winding are distributed evenly in the
smooth surface of the stator, rotor damping effect are Ignored, the wave of rotor magnetic
field is square wave, the wave of anti-voltage is trapezoidal wave. Without considering
armature reaction effect of stator windings and the mutual inductance between the
armature windings, symmetrical three-phase winding and the rotor reluctance do not
change with the position of the rotor. Its equivalent circuit and drive circuit (Junhyuk,
2004) as shown in Fig 1.

Figure 1 – Brushless DC Motor Equivalent Circuit and Full Bridge Drive Circuit
As we can see from the figure, A, B, C are the three-phase equivalent circuits of the
motor, V1-V6 are the six power switches, using two-two conduction mode. Use the
sampled position signal to determine which two phases conduct, then supply the power
through the inverter, forms the rotating magnetic field, so as to drive the rotor to rotate.
The three-phase brushless DC motor stator voltage equation expression as follows:

ua  R 0 0  ia   L − M 0 0  ia  ea 


      d    
= ub  0 R 0   ib  +  0 L−M 0  dt  ib  +  eb  (1)
 uc   0 0 R   ic   0 0 L−M   ic   ec 

In the formula(1), ua , ub , uc are terminal voltage of three-phase stator motor (V); ea , eb , ec


are counter electromotive force (V) in a three-phase motor winding; = R R= a R=b Rc
are three-phase motor winding resistance (Ω); ia , ib , ic are three phase current of stator
motor(A); =L L= a L= b Lc are the inductance of three-phase windings of the motor

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(H); M = L= ab L=
ac L=
bc L=ba L=
ca Lcb are mutual inductance between Three-phase
motor stator winding(H). Ignore the power switch operation transition process and
the inductance of armature winding. Electromagnetic power output of the motor is
as followed:

Pe = ea ia + eb ib + ec ic (2)

Ignore other losses of the motor rotor; the electromagnetic power can be completely
converted into kinetic energy of the rotor:

Pe = Teω (3)

The electromagnetic torque equation can be obtained by formula (2), (3).

Te = (ea ia + eb ib + ec ic ) ω (4)

In the formula, Pe is motor electromagnetic power; Te is motor electromagnetic torque


( N ⋅ m ); ω is motor machinery angular velocity ( rad s ). To construct a complete motor
mathematical model, the equations of motion of the motor are also needed:


J = Te − TL − B ω (5)
dt

Where J is rotary inertia of the motor, TL is load torque ( N ⋅ m ),and B is damping


coefficient ( s −1 ).

2.2. Mathematical Model of Brushless DC Motor


According to the theory of DC motor, brushless DC motor speed can be expressed as:

U d I D − I D2 RΣ − 2∆UI D
n= (6)
2C e TD C T

In the formula, Ud is terminal voltage two-phase conducting windings. RΣ is total
resistance of the stator armature circuit. ID is the stator armature current. ΔU is voltage
drop of the power tube. Ce is internal voltage constant of brushless DC motor. CT is
internal torque constant of brushless DC motor. TD is motor torque.
Experiment with brushless DC motor uses the constant torque speed mode, internal
motor torque is constant, Motor power and speed are linear with each other. The speed
is changed by the change of internal motor armature voltage. Electromagnetic torque of
the motor does not change with the change in the motor speed.
Operating power of the motor varies with the change of the motor speed linearly at the
runtime. This speed control method has a high steady state performance, with a wide

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range of speed applications. This method can realize step less speed regulation, having a
small motor energy loss during the process of controlling speed. It can be widely applied
to the motor under the requirements of high-quality case.

3. Fuzzy PID Brushless DC Motor Control Strategy


3.1. Principle and Structure of Fuzzy PID Controller
The fuzzy PID controller of Brushless DC motor control system mainly focuses on its
characteristics of nonlinear and strong coupling. According to the system running
condition, use the fuzzy control thought to achieve the online nonlinear adjustment
of PID parameters timely. Always keep the good match of controller parameters and
controlled object, to obtain higher stability and quicker response of the system. These
virtues make it possible to meet the quality control requirements of motor supplies.
The basic principle of fuzzy PID controller is to input PID controller error e and error
change rate ec simultaneously to the fuzzy controller(Krishnan, 2009; Luo, 2009; Li,
2016), and to find out the fuzzy relationship between e, ec and PID parameters. The
aim is to achieve the real-time online adjustment of three PID parameters and amend
three parameters kp, ki and kd which are obtained by the fuzzy controller into the PID
controller, to meet the dynamic requirements of controller parameters in different e and
ec. Thus make it possible to achieve real-time control of the controller, which will enable
make the controlled object BLDCM to obtain a good dynamic and static performance
(Wang, 2003; Xia, 2009). Fuzzy PID controller structure is shown as the dashed box
in Fig 2. r (t) is a speed set value of brushless DC motor fuzzy PID control system, y (t)
is a output value of the BLDC fuzzy PID control system, n (t) is a the speed feedback
detection output value of the system, e (t) is the fuzzy PID controller input value, ec (t) is
the rate of change of speed deviation, u (t) is output value of fuzzy PID controller.

Figure 2 – Control Structure Diagram of the Fuzzy PID Controller

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3.2. Design of Fuzzy PID Controller


As can be seen from the fuzzy PID control structure, its control process can be divided into
fuzzy control and PID process control processes (Xu, 2011). Fuzzy PID control process and
control process can be seen as a serial process in each cycle. Fuzzy control process is forward.
PID control process is in the post. Their functions and objectives are different. Therefore,
the fuzzy PID controller can be designed according to the following two processes.
Fuzzy control process: firstly, the fuzzy controller input values speed deviation e and
error change rate ec converse and blur of quantized factor Ke, Kec, the corresponding
results are E and EC. Use three correction parameters △kp , △ki and △kd as output
values of fuzzy logic controller,△KP, △KI and △KD are corresponding fuzzy values
before clarity. To facilitate the design, take seven fuzzy factors to cover the fuzzy domain.
They are NB (Negative Big), NM (Negative Medium), NS (Negative Small), Z (Zero),
PS (Positive Small), PM (Positive Middle) and PB (Positive Big). The fuzzy domain of
E and EC is [-3, 3], and the fuzzy domain of △KP, △KI and △KD are [-1, 1]. The type of
membership function of fuzzy subsets was taken as Z-type, S-type and triangle-type.
Secondly, according to three different time control parameters and their interactions,
and practical experience and knowledge of operators and experts, we can get control
rules of fuzzy PID control parameters △KP, △KI, and △KD. When | E | and | EC| of
brushless DC vary, the rules are shown in Table 1.
Then according to the control rule, make △KP, △KI, △KD to be cleared, which are results
decided by Mamdani fuzzy inference engine. Use the maximum membership degree average
method(mom). Those above results are converted into a clear value △KP, △KI and △KD.
Then obtain PID corrected parameters △kp , ki and △kd by scaling factor Kup, Kui and Kud.
Finally, accumulate them with three initial parameters of PID kp0, ki0 and kd0. The
ultimate outputs of fuzzy logic controller are current values of parameter required for
conventional PID. The formulas are as follows:

kp=kp0+Kup△Kp=kp0+△kp (7)

ki=ki0+Kui△Ki=ki0+△ki (8)

|EC|
|E|
NB NM NS ZO PS PM PB
NB PB/NB/PS PB/NB/NS PM/NM/NB PM/NM/NB PS/NS/NB ZO/ZO/NM ZO/ZO/NS
NM PB/NB/PS PB/NB/NS PM/NM/NB PS/NS/NM PS/NS/NM ZO/ZO/NS NS/ZO/ZO
NS PM/NB/ZO PM/NM/NS PM/NS/NM PS/NS/NM ZO/ZO/NS NS/PS/NS NS/PS/ZO
ZO PM/NM/ZO PM/NM/NS PS/NS/NS ZO/ZO/NS NS/PS/NS NM/PM/NS NM/PB/ZO
PS PS/NM/ZO PS/NS/ZO ZO/ZO/ZO NS/PS/ZO NS/PS/ZO NM/PM/ZO NM/PB/ZO
PM PS/ZO/PB ZO/ZO/NS NS/PS/PS NM/PS/PS NM/PM/PS NM/PB/PS NB/PB/PB
PB ZO/ZO/PB ZO/ZO/PM NM/PS/PM NM/PM/PM NM/PM/PS NB/PB/PS NB/PB/PB

Table 1 –The Fuzzy Control Rules of ∆KP, ∆KI, ∆KD

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kd=kd0+Kud△Kd=kd0+△kd (9)

PID control process: the procedure uses the incremental PID control. After the sampling
period and the response factors are determined, simply enter the three measurement
bias during the process, the incremental amount of control. It represents the actuator’s
position change during two sampling time intervals. Compared with the position PID
control, incremental mode has much simpler computational algorithm, smaller amount
of calculation and it is easy to achieve by software programming, which is widely used
in the actual production. More specific implementation process of PID controller is
based on the speed error e and error change rate ec, and three fuzzy controller’s output
parameters ∆kp, ki and ∆kd generated by fuzzy inference. Finally obtain u is the control
amount of Fuzzy PID control system, through the proportional, integral, and cumulative
control processes. Note that during the PID control process, proportional, integral and
derivative control process may be not only a serial process, but also do parallel processing.
The premise is that it must be completed before the accumulation control process.

4. Modeling and Simulation of BLDC Fuzzy PID Control System


4.1. The Workflow of Model-Based Design
Model-Based Design (MBD) is innovating the way for engineers and scientists working.
In Model-Based Design, a system model is right on the center of the development process,
from requirements development, through design, implementation, and testing. Model-
based design gives us a complete product from idea to generate the code development
process. In MBD, a system model is right in the center around the development process,
from requirement’s development, through design, implementation, and testing. This
workflow is elaborated to create hardware and software partitioning, automatically
create hardware and software implementation code, and verify the hardware and
software implementations in the context of the complete system. It is not only
overcoming the defects of low efficiency and difficulty of meeting the requirements in
traditional methods of progress, but also to meet time-to-market and cost objectives.
MBD workflow is illustrated in Fig 3.

4.2. Overall System Simulation Model


In MATLAB / Simulink simulation software environment, according to the brushless DC
motor mathematical model and fuzzy PID controller structure, use a modular system
modeling idea to design and establish a general simulation model of fuzzy PID brushless
DC motor speed control system. As shown in Fig 4.
Fuzzy PID brushless DC motor speed control system simulation model includes two
parts. One is the brushless DC motor fuzzy closed-loop control system; the other is
performance evaluation system model. The brushless DC motor fuzzy closed-loop control
system includes three parts, including Speed given module n*, speed control subsystem
module F-PID and brushless DC motor model. The brushless DC motor model mainly
consists of DC power supply model DC, inverters the Universal Bridge, permanent
magnet synchronous motors and PWM pulse width modulator PWM Generator, pulse

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Figure 3 – The Workflow of MBD

Figure 4 – Fuzzy PID brushless DC motor speed control system

control unit controller. Performance evaluation system is established by IST2E, which


represent the controller’s performance of the control deviation according to “Optimal
Control”. Its empirical formula is:


J 2 = ∫ t 4 e 2 ( t ) dt (10)
o

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4.3. Fuzzy PID Controller Simulation Model


The fuzzy PID controller is the core of the whole control system. According to the design
idea of the fuzzy PID controller of the brushless DC motor, set up fuzzy PID controller
model F-PID, in the work environment of Simulink, as shown in Fig 5. The whole
controller is mainly composed of two parts, the fuzzy controller module Fuzzy and other
arithmetic units of PID.

Figure 5 – Simulation Model of F-PID Module in the Fuzzy PID Controller


At the same time, fuzzy controller module Fuzzy is the core of the whole fuzzy PID
controller. Its main function is to provide three required parameters kp, ki, kd for the
fuzzy PID controller. The simulation model is shown in Fig 6.

Figure 6 – Simulation Model Block Diagram of Fuzzy Controller Fuzzy

4.4. Parameter Settings


Brushless DC motor control system simulation model parameter settings are shown in
Table 2.

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Stator resistance
The magnetic field flux 0.1848Wb
Rs=4.76 Ω
Stator inductance
Field width 120o
Ls=0.0085H
Brushless DC Motor
Number of pole pairs
Moment of inertia p=2
J= 0.0001051kg▪m2 rated power
P=5.5KW
rated power DC Ud=300V
Torque Reference TL=3N▪m
Amplifier Simulation Algorithm
G1=0.1
Gainl ode45

Table 2 – Parameter List of the BLDCM Control System


Use the traditional empirical method to obtain initial PID three parameters kp0=40,
ki0=1,kd0=0.0101, according to the principles of fuzzy PID controller aforementioned. To
realize the fuzzy control, calculate the input variables e and ec quantization factor Ke = 0.002,
Kec = 0.000007 according to the basic domain to fuzzy domain conversion formula. The scale
factors of output variables △Kp, △Ki, △Kd are that Kua = 0.065, Kui = 1.15, Kud = -0.00015.

4.5. Simulation Results


To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the application of brushless DC motor speed
control of fuzzy PID control strategy in brushless DC motor speed control, apply directly
to the brushless DC motor speed control system. Make the necessary settings and model
parameters and embed the corresponding program file, make sure the system is running,
and record the results.
With load TL3N-m, white Noise and 0.05s sudden load torque disturbance, the waveform
of brushless DC motor system traditional PID control and fuzzy PID control are shown in
Fig 7. In traditional PID control, brushless DC motor speed overshoot 12.3%, the adjusting
time is 5ms. In Fuzzy PID control of brushless DC motor, speed doesn’t overshoot, settling
time is 4ms. After 0.1s, change the given speed, it changes to 1000r / min rapidly. Fuzzy
PID’s ability is significantly better than PID regulator’s. After 0.05s, give the sudden
disturbance torque, the former is slightly better than the latter, but not very obvious.

Figure 7 – Speed Waveform of BLDCM of Fuzzy PID Control and PID Control

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Compare the performance of Fuzzy PID controller and conventional PID controller,
simulation results are shown in Fig 8.

Figure 8 – Performance Comparison between Fuzzy PID Controller and PID Controller
As can be seen from Fig 8, fuzzy PID controller’s optimize performance is significantly
better than conventional PID controller’s in the control of BLDC control system. It
indicates that the control system using the former method has a faster response, a better
ability to inhibit the larger deviations. At the same time, the transition time is shorter,
and the controller parameters have better selectivity.
In summary, compared with the conventional PID control, Fuzzy PID controller achieve
a fast speed tracking control of brushless DC motor in the case of variable speed,
improving responsiveness and immunity of the overall system.

5. Conclusions
Brushless DC motor is actually a multivariable, strong coupling time varying nonlinear
system. The traditional PID control is only an approximate control within a certain
range, with low accuracy and limited performance. It is only adapted to cases which have
low control accuracy and performance requirements. To optimize motor performance,
we need to improve motor control accuracy further. According to the characteristics
of brushless DC motor, this article combine both advantages of fuzzy control and PID
control technology and design a brushless DC motor fuzzy PID control strategy. Using
MBD method, we can quickly build a fuzzy PID system simulation model, and accomplish
efficiently the system test, simulation and implementation. The simulation results show
the feasibility of fuzzy PID controller for brushless DC motor speed control system and
improvement in its performance, meeting the high accuracy requirements of brushless
DC motor. At the same time, this strategy is easy to adjust the policy improvements for
on-line control of different conditions, with good promotional value.

Acknowledgments
We would like to thank the members of the project team for the great efforts of scientific
research projects. Moreover, we greatly appreciate the reviewers’ comments that lead to

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an improved presentation of the results. This work was supported by Research Program
of science and technology at Universities of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
(NJZZ14288).

References
Abreu, A., Rocha, Á., Cota, M. P., & Carvalho, J. V. (2015). Caderneta Eletrónica
no Processo Ensino-Aprendizagem: Visão de Professores e Pais de alunos do
ensino Básico e Secundário. RISTI-Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de
Informação, (16), 108–128.
Guo, Q., Zhao, X. (2008). Brushless DC motor Principle and Application. China Electric
Power Press, 14–16.
Hemati, N., Thorp, J. (1990). Robust Nonlinear Control of Brushless DC Motors for
Direct-Drive Robotic Applications. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics,
37, 498–501.
Junhyuk, C., Chang, P. (2004). Development and control of BLDC motors using fuzzy
models. Proceedings of Robotics, Automation and Mechatronics, Singapore, 1,
1180–1185.
Krishnan, R. (2009). Permanent Magnet Synchronous and Brushless DC Motor Drives.
CRC Presss, Florida, 20–29.
Luo, W., Liu, J. (2009). A New Approach to the Modeling and Simulation of Brushless
DC Motors Based on Fuzzy Control. Computer Engineering & Science, 31, 147–149.
Li, Y., JIANG, L. (2016). Research on torque ripple suppression method for BLDCM
speed control system. Modern Electronics Technique, 7, 142–144.
Wang, X., Li, Q. (2003). Analytical calculation of air-gap magnetic field distribution and
instantaneous characteristics of brushless dc motors. IEEE Trans. Energy Convers,
18, 424–432.
Xia, C. (2009). Brushless DC motor control system. Science Press, 50–55.
Xu, W., Cao, J. (2011). Fuzzy PID Control of Brushless DC Motor. Science and Technology
Information, 7, 9–10.

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Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação Recebido/Submission: 20/03/2016
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

Research on the Mobile Internet Fragmentation


Economic based on Support Vector Machine

Hong Jiang*, Hong Zhao

* honganmy@126.com

College of Economics, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387, China


Pages: 238–248

Abstract: The modern life is more busy and tense in mobile internet era, People
like to make full use of many scattered time during waiting, dining. And in these
fragments of time, people’s demand for mobile and Internet products has increased
and thus promoting the Internet fragmentation economy. In this paper, the
authors analyze the mobile internet user behavior preference based on support
vector machine method and discrete choice model. The result shows that the main
factors affecting the user’s mobile Internet access as network speed, price; Wi-Fi
convenience and data plan. Also we make classification of mobile Internet user
behavior preferences using support vector machines, and put forward suggestions
on the development of mobile Internet according to the relevant user preferences.
Keywords: Support vector machine, data mining, internet fragmentation,
user behavior

1. Introduction
In the mobile Internet era, modern life more busy, people will wait, meals and other
many scattered time to be fully utilized, and these pieces of time in the application of
mobile Internet products gave birth to the Internet debris in the economy. China has
527 million mobile phone users, with large user populations in the development of
Internet debris in the economy; and the mobile Internet applications in rising stage,
and has huge potential for development of Internet debris in the economy, fragments
of the Internet economy development will also become the mobile era under the new
economic growth point (Tim, 2008; Anna, 2015). Fragmentation of intent to complete
things broken into many zero block, it is described in the current context of China’s
social communication an image of the argument, that is using the fragmentation of time,
namely, the completion of each application in a very short time, incomplete and start
each time is random(Ronan, 2014; Delgado, 2015; Jiménez, 2015). And in the mobile
era, the powerful function of the Internet will be the fragmentation of time completely
covered, more people in the on the way to work, dining, leisure, wait for the fragments
of time using the network, the fragments of time has been more and more products are
now flooding the Internet network, and thus push the Internet debris in the economy
also play its endless potential, has brought immeasurable business value.

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Figure 1 – Internet fragmentation economy


In the traditional mode, people of information access limited to newspapers, television
and other traditional media, and limited most of these traditional media forms of
communication, such as television requires people to watch the news in a specific time,
specific space, and access to information; newspaper is every day has fixed the issuing
time, unable to meet the sudden information timeliness. The application of Internet
technology in the mobile era has completely broken the mode, it has no limit to the
mode of information dissemination, people can get information at any time, any space
through the network to get information (Georg, 2013; Eleonora, 2014). At the same
time the Internet has brought huge amounts of information also allows people to higher
selectivity of information, attention is more dispersed, is the access to information more
widely, based on the amount of information the larger, and the information acquisition
time less tolerant, may be the last just use to eat, sit car fragments of time to get the
information (Stefan, 2014; Nils, 2015). In busy modern life, people’s working time not
only to work 8 hours, in order to adapt to the rhythm of the high, high competition,
high efficiency of modern society, people must constantly use his spare time learning,
to enrich themselves, must be for the family to family effort, pay time, thus truly
considered leisure time will be more limited, more fragmented, showing a characteristics
of “fragmentation”. And in the fragments of time enhance mutual exchanges between
friends, through the network is undoubtedly the best way, blog, micro blogging, micro
channel, QQ and other series can be the application of social software in the fragments of
time has become a necessity of modern life, which is the Internet fragments in modern
life in an important manifestation of economic.

2. Support vector machine method and discrete choice model


In the analysis of mobile Internet user behavior preference, under the background
of big data, data mining is popular, and after a lot of literature proof, compared the
commonly used data mining methods in Bayesian classifier, decision tree and neural
network algorithm and support vector machine algorithm, accuracy than support
vector machine algorithm to get high, and the key is to support vector machines on the
generalization ability has a huge advantage, also has many other advantages, especially
in solving nonlinear and multidimensional pattern recognition and its advantages

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more prominent. And through the previous chapter analysis of the characteristics of
the mobile Internet users, give full consideration to the fragments of mobile Internet
user behavior analysis data in the level of performance is nonlinear and complexity in
data analysis level performance for high dimension cross, based on using support to the
amount of machine method can give full play to the nonlinear and high dimensional
pattern recognition in the performance of many unique advantages, but also conducive
to future mobile Internet user behavior analysis on the promotion.

Figure 2 – Support vector machine

2.1. Support vector machine method


From the beginning, the support vector machine is proposed to classify the. First by
seeking the optimal classification hyper plane, support vector machine (SVM) was
originally developed for binary classification problems, the basic idea is to find a can the
different samples were separated from the optimal classification hyper plane, so that
the generalization ability of the best. In order to make the empirical risk and confidence
interval are minimal, and ultimately make the actual risk to meet the requirements.
Linearly separable support vector machine, some of the literature is also called hard
margin support to airsickness, we trained in the correct partition set in the correlation
plane, according to the method of interval, to obtain the optimal hyper plane.

Figure 3 – Optimal hyper plane

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The optimal plan is represented by the mathematical model:

1 1
min ϕ ( w ) = w = (w ⋅ w)  (1)
2

2 2
Constraint conditions are:

yi (( w ⋅ x ) + b) − 1 ≥ 0  (2)

The original problem is transformed into dual problem, and the Lagrange function is
introduced to solve this problem.

∑α ( y ( ( w ⋅ x ) + b ) − 1 ) 
m
1
L ( w, b, a ) =
2
w − i i
(3)
2 i =1

Firstly, the partial derivative of Lagrange’s function on W and B can be derived from the
extreme condition.

∇b L ( w, b, a ) = 0  (4)

∇ a L ( w, b, a ) = 0  (5)

Can be concluded:
m
∑α y
i =1
i i =0 (6)

w= ∑α y x
i =1
i i i  (7)

The dual problem for the original optimization problem is:


m m m
1
max a −
2
∑∑ ai a j yi y j xi ⋅ x j + ( ) ∑a j  (8)
i =1 j =1 j =1

m
s.t . ∑a y ( x ⋅ x ) 
i =1
i i i j
(9)

The solution of the original problem is obtained according to the following calculation:

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m
w* = ∑a y x
i =1
i i i
 (10)

m
b* = y j − ∑a y ( x ⋅ x ) 
i =1
*
i i i j (11)

2.2. Discrete choice model


In the classical econometric model, the explanatory variables are usually assumed
to be continuous variables. However, when we analyze and model the data, we can
meet the explanatory variable Y is not a continuous variable, but a discrete variable.
Because the variable is discrete, this kind of regression model is called the discrete
choice model. Because the number of variables and for the values of variables, discrete
choice model has several situations are as follows: (1) if for variable value only two,
known as the binary choice model, including repeated observations can get the binary
choice model and repeat observation value and will not be able to get the binary choice
model. (2) If the dependent variable is more than two, it is a multi-choice model,
including a general multiple choice model and a sort of multiple choice models. In real
life, when in the face of economic to choose, then there may have a variety of options
for the, people may be confused in the end is selected metal or real estate investment;
the same in the choice of the employer, this confusion, people do not know to choose
private or state-owned enterprises; the same in the selection of a communication
network also have a variety of options, whether to choose China Unicom and mobile
telecommunications is also are a kind of choice.
Thus, the discrete choice model is mainly refers to the individual in decision making,
from a series of options to choose a model for their own, when these options are
not is random, subject to the following points: first in quantity cannot be unlimited,
second option must be in set of options to find. Finally, an option is mutually exclusive,
individual to choose an option can no longer go select other options. At the beginning,
the discrete choice model is only used in traffic demand, and later with the development
of the need, the method has been involved in various industries. By the random utility
theory can be seen that consumers make decisions are based on the principle of the
maximum utility of the utility, so the probability of J product selection for consumers to
use the following formula:

(
P = Pr Vnj + ε nj > Vnk + ε nk  ) (12)

ε is assumed to be out of touch in the MNL model, and its distribution is in accordance
with a class of extreme value. The distribution function of the density function and the
application of the distribution function are shown in the following two formulas:

( ) ( )
f ε nj = exp −ε nj exp − exp −ε nj ( ( ))  (13)

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The probability that the j product is selected by the consumer n can be calculated
according to the following formula:

Pnj =
(
exp V ε nj )
J  (14)

k =1
exp (V ε nk )

3. Mobile Internet user behavior preference


3.1. Data collection
In this paper, the most intuitive user contact user interface User Interface (UI) were
studied by the interface of the operating habits of users to mobile Internet user behavior
analysis of preference for the user interface (UI) research on user behavior preference,
must through the application on the terminal of mobile Internet the user terminal
application variety, Baidu, NetEase, Tencent news client is representative and largest
of several other domestic news client, news client mode are similar, and the news
browsing in the text and pictures is an important part of the mobile phone users of
mobile Internet traffic consumption, so the research on Baidu, NetEase. The actual data
of Tencent news client based on mobile Internet environment the user about the news
reading model, first we respectively All the news of the show (PV) and the amount of
clicks (Dick) conducted a statistical analysis, found the following rules. For the amount
of news show to do statistical analysis, the basic statistical distribution table is as table1.
The table show the number in less than 10 about 77%, show in less than 20 accounted
for about 88%, perform the higher number of 50 news proportion only 0.0011, in which
the overall show the number, minimum 1, maximum value of 650, the mean of 11.1, with
a median as 4.

Cumulative Cumulative
Show Show
number news distribution number news distribution
times times
rate rate
1 30531 0.2054 0.2054 11 2868 0.0193 0.7893
2 20113 0.1353 0.3408 12 2390 0.0160 0.8054
3 15659 0.1053 0.4462 13 2141 0.0144 0.8198
4 12294 0.0827 0.5289 14 1905 0.0128 0.8326
5 9742 0.0655 0.5945 15 1633 0.0109 0.8436
6 7662 0.0515 0.6461 16 1440 0.0096 0.8533
7 6229 0.0419 0.6880 17 1256 0.0084 0.8618
8 4866 0.0327 0.7207 18 1174 0.0079 0.8697
9 4033 0.0271 0.7479 19 1095 0.0073 0.8770
10 3289 0.0221 0.7700 20 1006 0.0067 0.8838

Table 1 – Statistical analysis of news

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3.2. Mobile Internet user segmentation


The premise of the subdivision of the user is to select the dimension of user segmentation,
this dimension is determined according to the actual target of data mining projects.
In mining the data to determine the success, not all the data can predict the ideal
results, data quality is good or bad directly determines the success of the model, only
to meet the requirements of the quality of the data to get the ultimate success of the
model. When determining the integrity of the project indicators, the index system of
the mobile Internet is very important, it directly affects the project indicators. To meet
the requirements of the variables selected out, and then produced into an analysis
of the wide table variables, the wide table can be included into all the variables, this
time, ready to work basically completed, the next step is to carry out data mining. The
establishment of user index system directly affects the success of data mining.

business Proportion
Appstore, Android 20.3%
Micro-blog; 25.6%
QQ, MSN, fetion; 50.3%
WeChat、 27%
Happy, everyone, on campus 10.3%
SkyDrive 5.7%
Mobile reading 26.7%
Online game; 16.7%
Listen to or download music online 29.7%
Watch or download videos online 18.3%
buy goods online 15%
Send and receive mail 16.7%
Search or browse information 34.7%

Table 2 – Mobile Internet service statistics


From the table can be seen mobile phone Internet users access to most business QQ,
Fetion business, and search and browse information is more also. Users are using WIFI
mobile Internet WIFI Internet access is now an important feature of the mobile Internet,
the characteristics of different traditional mobile phone users, so we regard WIFI as a
research aspect

business Proportion
Often used; 21%
Occasionally use 29%
No, the phone does not have the WIFI function; 9.3%
No, the phone has a traffic package 6.3%
No, there’s no hot spots around WIFI. 19.7%

Table 3 – WIFI mobile Internet Statistics

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4. Internet user behavior classification


With the increasingly fierce competition in the mobile Internet market, how to make
customers satisfied and let users more for the mobile Internet pay has become the
mobile Internet business, especially the core task of telecom operators, at the time of
purchase, the needs and desires of consumers determines they buy, enterprise value,
but by offering consumers, different user for the enterprise to provide the value also
differ. According to statistical analysis, we know, most of the profits in enterprises is
caused by the small number of people. That is to say most of the customers are unable
to create profit for enterprise’s, and even let enterprises in the loss of the state, so to the
enterprise, find out the small part for enterprises to create the customer’s profit is very
important. When it comes to carry on the classification to the user the, but because too
many external factors considered in the classification, and the internal relations between
these factors is also very difficult to figure out. At the same time, for the number of users
increasing. We identify the six significant factor affect the user is willing to increase
mobile Internet access charges, three of which are relevant, three negative correlation,
users think that Internet speed is more important that the CMCC use cumbersome and
expensive the positive influence on the mobile Internet users are willing to increase
the cost of the mobile Internet will, think the phone traffic packages will be enough,
mobile Internet service for the social networking site (Kaixin, Renren, school, etc.), non-
internet related businesses the negative to affect the willingness of mobile Internet users
are willing to mobile Internet payment. We put the six main dimensions as we support
vector machine of main dimensions, such as follow-up research predicts the relationship
process, saving the cost of the investigation, and at the same time, can improve the
success rate and efficiency of classification research and the six dimensions can also
label free quantification in the operator’s background, not through direct investigation
of user classification prediction, under the background of big data, to more accurately
grasp the user’s individual needs. Users value the phone Internet speed; remember
for user as A. valued win hotspots using convenience; remember to user as B. for WiFi
hot price sensitivity as C. users think enough phone traffic packages; remember for D.
mobile phone users access to business for social networking sites, as E. mobile phone
user’s access to business for non-internet related business, recorded as F.

A B C D E F category
0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 0 1 1
1 1 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 1 0
0 1 0 1 0 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 1 0
0 1 1 0 0 1 0

Table 4 – Part of the training sample

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In this paper the experimental part is implementation of packet libsvm software SVM
based on the, libsvm developed by National Taiwan University researchers, as a software
program, in pattern recognition and regression is simple, quick and effective. Also the
program and a great advantages can not only performed in the windows operating
system, but also can be implemented in the Linux operating system, at the same time,
the procedure of transplantation with good performance, through the pledge of relevant
code of the software provided by the modified can achieve its transplantation. Set known
training set:

T= {( x , y ),( x , y )( x , y ) ∈ ( X × Y ) } 
1 1 2 2 i i
m
(15)

Select the appropriate kernel function K and the appropriate parameter C to construct
and solve the optimization problem:
m m m
1
max
2
∑∑a a y y K ( x ⋅ x ) − ∑a
i =1 j =1
i j i j i j
j =1
j  (16)

Select a* of a less than positive classification, and calculate:

m
b* = y j − ∑a y ( x ⋅ x ) 
i =1
*
i i i j
(17)

The decision function is constructed as:

 m 

 i =1

f ( x ) = sgn  ai yi K ( x ⋅ xi ) + b*  

(18)

For different kernel functions in SVM, we compare the prediction classification accuracy
of the test set, and the parameters are selected on the segment to get the parameter
C = 2, g = 0.1, as shown in table:

kernel function Classification accuracy Svmtrainparameter options


Radial Basis Function 98.6667%(148/150) c = 2, g = 0.l
linear 95.3333%(143/150) c = 2, g = 0.1
sigmoid 58.6667%(88/150) c = 2, g = 0.1
polynomial 98.6667%(148/150) c = 2, g = 0.1

Table 5 – Comparison of different kernel functions


We use and Rand C and Rand G the two procedures of randomly generated parameters
c and G, and the use of this set of parameters to train the SVM, finally burst prediction
and classification accuracy is obtained, and through the parameter to obtain the optimal
classification accuracy compared, as shown in the following table, from the table can
be seen, random selection of the parameter C and G cannot guarantee the classification
accuracy, sometimes can be chosen empirically to more appropriate parameters,

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but there is no guarantee that this is the best parameters, even if it can make correct
classification rate reached the highest. But the research on the algorithm to find the
parameters to ensure the sense and the best classification accuracy rate is higher.

Running times Random parameter C Random parameter g Classification


accuracy
1 36.6754 89.8734 44.6667%
2 60.4562 5.2753 91.3333%
3 3.8756 79.2386 45.3333%
4 77.5109 21.8952 54.6667o/o

Table 6 – Comparison of different parameters

5. Conclusions
Mobile Internet users is always the core and key of enterprise research, but also the
future of mobile Internet companies and telecommunications operators to sustainable
development and competitive source. How to explore and understand the preferences of
the user’s behavior and to provide personalized service is a business concern and willing
to invest capital research important topic. The research in the theory of support vector
machine (SVM), discrete choice model were reviewed and summarized in this paper based
on is discussed in detail. The development of mobile Internet and user behavior research,
through in-depth analysis of the statistical learning theory and support vector machine
(SVM) of the basic theory and characteristics, will support vector machine (SVM) theory
is introduced into the mobile Internet user behavior research field, an effective solution
to the problem of empirical research in complex nonlinear and high dimensional pattern,
and to improve the generalization ability of the learning machine, breaks through the
traditional user behavior research methods and ideas.
In the discrete choice model to obtain the significant influence factors based on, using
support vector machine (SVM) to classify the mobile Internet user behavior preferences,
give full consideration to the fragments of the mobile Internet in the data analysis the level
of performance is nonlinear, mobile Internet behavior of complex of the data analysis level
performance for high taboo of cross, on the basis of this, give full play to the SVM method
in nonlinear and high dimensional pattern recognition exhibit many unique advantages.
Using MATLAB software to carry on the analysis, selection of C-SVM binary classification
machine, taking with RBF kernel function and parameter of the model and kernel
function with cross validation method for optimizing, after training the classification
correct rate satisfactorily, and comparing the different kernel functions and parameters
of the classification accuracy. The results show that the method of this study, research
shows that the support vector machine method for mobile Internet user behavior, and
use SPSS MODELER software to analyze the importance of each predictor variable, and
mobile phone traffic packages can meet the user is one of the most important prediction
variables, divided by six significant dimensions of performance finally the level of the
user is divided into four groups, which focus on the efficiency of business professionals
and white-collar workers, are sensitive to the price of a high degree of migrant workers,
service personnel, pay attention to mobile phone traffic packages is enough students, and

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not sensitive to price but the pursuit of the user experience of the individual boss, each
class the groups showed their unique preferences and behavior patterns, and according
to user preferences related to the development of mobile Internet is proposed.

References
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framework at financial institutions. RISTI-Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias
de Informação, (15), 51–67.
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issues. Computer Communications, 54, 1–31.
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systems: a fuzzy approach. RISTI-Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de
Informação, (15), 83–100.
Nils, W. (2015). Qualitative indicators for smart city business models: The case of mobile
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trigger for activity fragmentation and multi-tasking. Futures, 62, 155–163.
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Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação Recebido/Submission: 21/03/2016
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

Research on Teaching Evaluation of College Physical


Education Based on Data Mining and Network Survey

Zhengdao Lu 1, Yibo Zhao 2,*

* zyb@vip.163.com

1
Sports Institute, Lang Fang Teachers University, Langfang 065000, China
2
Sports Institute, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024, China
Pages: 249–259

Abstract: With the rapid development of the data mining technology, network
data analysis begins to play a significant impact on statistical analysis, especially the
performance evaluation. Balanced iterative educing and clustering using hierarchies
(BIRCH) is an integrated hierarchical clustering algorithm, its biggest characteristic
is to complete the efficient clustering of large data sets by using limited memory
resources, so that the BIRCH data mining algorithm can be applied to large data sets
and data flow. In this paper, the author put forward a new method for evaluating
the sports education by using online survey, the result shows that the new method
is more effective in training exercise habits. The main goal of physical education is
to enhance students’ physical fitness, improve sports skills and increase the spirit
of cooperation. The result shows that more than 82.4% students satisfied with the
evaluation content of new physical education, 33.8% students agree that the new
method is conducive to improve the sports skills. Through the students’ physical
quality test, the result shows that after the implementation of the new evaluation,
physical education promotes students’ interests and hobbies, and improves the
students’ enthusiasm for learning and exercise.
Keywords: BIRCH algorithm, physical education, data mining, sports skills

1. Introduction
Physical education teaching evaluation is an important link in the teaching of physical
education, physical education teaching evaluation is directly related to the basic concept
and orientation of physical education, which is related to the progress and development
of the students, and the realization of the goal of college physical education teaching.
Serious deviation in current colleges and universities sports teaching evaluation mode,
there is a singular assessment content, and assessment tools and methods monotone
problems, these problems and physical teaching evaluation ideas, methods, contents,
index and unreasonable has a close relationship (Basu, 1987; Djelassi,2013). This should
provide the correct guidance, service and incentive function of physical education
teaching evaluation to a large extent bound up the reform of the hands and feet, hinder
the implementation of quality education and the realization of the goal of physical
education. Damage to many students’ self-esteem and self-confidence, and dampen the

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enthusiasm of many students’ sports learning, hinder the progress of students’ sports
learning and development, seemingly objective, in fact, is not fair to students (Eijck,
2008; Delgado, 2015). There are also teachers’ teaching performance ability, while
ignoring the performance of their creativity and the degree of students’ participation
in physical education and sports activities. The ordinary universities sports teaching
evaluation system lag has become a constraining bottleneck of the physical education
reform and development of China’s colleges, P.E. teaching evaluation reform is
imperative under the situation. Therefore, to build a accords with the requirements of
the times really promote the development of the teachers and students in Colleges and
universities sports teaching evaluation system and has the advantages of reliability, the
corresponding evaluation index system is very necessary.
The main goal of college physical education teaching is to enhance students’ physical
fitness, improve health, improve the ability of physical education and lifelong physical
training, and cultivate the habit of lifelong physical education and physical exercise. The
traditional evaluation of students’ physical education only focuses on the physical and
sports skills, ignoring the other aspects of the development of students, using a unified
single evaluation methods and standards to evaluate all students (Varley, 2011; Li,2014).
On the evaluation of classroom teaching objective is also emphasis in “identification”
and “classification” belongs to a reward and punishment evaluation, evaluation results,
mainly used to determine whether the teacher possesses a reward or punishment
conditions, these have a direct impact on the realization of University’s sports teaching
goal (Wei, 2012). With the continuous deepening of the reform of physical education
and the renewal of educational ideas, it is imperative to reform the teaching evaluation
of physical education. Study on teaching evaluation of physical education in Colleges
and universities in China, mainly in the late 1990s, sports teaching experts and scholars
on the concept of school physical education evaluation in our country, reform target and
evaluation method were theoretical research and exploration, has made great progress.
The research on the reform of College Students’ physical education performance
evaluation is also reported, but only from different perspectives with different research
methods on the existing physical education teaching evaluation of a certain aspect of
reflection and discussion.

2. Large scale data set mining algorithm


2.1. Sampling methods
Data mining is an important part of knowledge discovery. It is found that the data
mining is done through the establishment of the mining model and the corresponding
algorithm. Nowadays, many kinds of models and algorithms of association rules,
classification, clustering, and decision tree and so on are provided in order to select and
use. Sampling is a classical statistical technique, has been studied for over a hundred
years of history, especially the random sampling technique, there are many basic
principles, and describes the effectiveness of random sampling.
In the field of data management, a small part of a subset of data sampling can capture
the basic features of the data through extraction to represent the total data set, and

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Figure 1 – Data mining process

according to the sample set to obtain approximate query results, or based on the data
mining of the sample set. Figure 1 is a representative sampling method of classification
in data mining. The probability is selected according to the data items are the same, the
sampling method can be divided into uniform sampling and sampling bias of two. As the
name suggests, in the uniform sampling each data item in the same probability of being
selected in the sampling bias, selected probability of different elements may be different.

2.2. BIRCH algorithm


If the original data set is very large scale that not a complete read into memory cluster,
you can first on a data set of data identification, summarizes some of the data, in order
to reduce the memory space occupied by the data, realize the clustering of large data
sets. Iterative educing and Clustering Using Hierarchies Balanced is an integrated
hierarchical clustering algorithm. Its biggest feature is the use of limited memory
resources for efficient clustering of large data sets, while minimizing the cost of I/O.

Figure 2 – CF (cluster feature) tree

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BIRCH algorithm firstly stores the data set in a compact compressed format (clustering
feature tree), and then directly on the compressed data structure, and does not need
to cluster the original data set. The I/O cost of the algorithm is linear with the size of
the data set. In general, the single pass scan data set can get better clustering results.
Optional follow-up of multiple scan can further improve the quality of clustering. In the
micro clustering stage, the BIRCH method is characterized by CF (Feature Clustering)
to describe a cluster, forming a CF tree. CF tree cannot be more than the amount of
information loss in the premise, compression hierarchical structure of the cluster.
The core of BIRCH method in the micro clustering stage is the construction of CF tree.
Assume that the data object is a data set of P n dimension. CF tree is a 3 dimensional
vector, which contains the information of the data objects. Its definition is as follows:

CF = ( n, LS , SS ) (1)

n
LS = ∑ xi (2)
i =1

n
SS = ∑ x 2 (3) i

i =1

The use of CF (cluster feature) can be derived from a part of Statistics:


n

∑x
i =1
i
LS
=
x0 = (4)
n n

∑( x − x0 )
2
i
i =1 nSS − 2 LS 2 + nLS
=R = (5)
n n2

n n

∑∑ ( x )
2
i − xj
=i 1 =j 1 2nSS − 2 LS 2
=d = (6)
n (n − 1) n (n − 1)

Among them, the radius of R and diameter of d are reflected closely around the centroid
of the cluster. The radius of R measurement the average distance to the centroid of the
members, the average distance of the objects in the cluster was measured by d.

SS1 SS2 2 LS1 LS2


d* = + − (7)
N1 N2 N1 N2

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3. Physical education evaluation system


3.1. Evaluation system construction
With the research of deep people, more and more researchers believe that the real sense
of learning is the process of learners’ active construction. Therefore, valuable learning is
considered to be the main role of the learner based, emphasizing the cognitive activities
of new knowledge , emphasize the knowledge and skills of the application, transfer,
emphasizes the process and experience of teaching methods, emphasizes the important
effect of interactive teaching in the subject of emotion, attitude and value outlook index
and. At the same time, the model of human development, to understand the relationship
between education and human development is the core of the education idea, namely
respect individual and individual differences, teaching students in accordance of their
aptitude realize the whole person education, lay the foundation for lifelong learning in
the individual. Accordingly, accordingly, new evaluation concept arises at the historic
moment. Evaluation is not to complete a task, but a continuous process; evaluation is
used to support education, it is to teach and learn the main, the essence of a component,
integrated throughout the teaching activities of each link. The basic goal of the evaluation
is to education, and promotes the student’s performance, not just to check the students’
performance; evaluation is of service learning, the purpose is to improve the efficiency
of learning, is the power and source of learning; evaluation is for people’s lifelong
development. Evaluation should pay attention to the individual situation and needs,
respect and reflect the individual differences, to stimulate the spirit of the individual, in
order to promote each individual to achieve their own value.
1.  Physical education learning evaluation criteria: social development not
only require students to have a strong physique and a certain level of motor skills,
also require students to have healthy psychology and good social adaptability,
and this requirement is the traditional unified sports learning evaluation
standard can’t satisfy the. Therefore, the sports learning evaluation criteria
necessary to diversify, the diversification of the evaluation standard of the sports
study not only can improve the reliability and validity of the evaluation result
to a great extent, but also can give a good evaluation of the incentive function.
According to the requirements of the physical education curriculum teaching
guide, it can be divided into the standard of the absolute standard, the relative
standard, the standard of the individual difference. Therefore, in order to make
the evaluation can really play an effective role in promoting students’ learning,
the educational value of the body can be better realized value, the evaluation
of physical education should be based on the individual internal standard, and
combined with the absolute standard, the relative standard to evaluate.
2.  Learning evaluation of physical education: traditional sports learning
evaluation model is based on students’ physical quality and the movement ability,
heavy summative evaluation, process evaluation, repressed the development of
students’ personality and hobbies of the play, not for each student to provide
different degrees of successful experience, which restricts the most of the students
physical and mental health of sustainable development, a serious impediment
to the implementation of quality education. Sports Curriculum Teaching
Instruction Summary attaches great importance to comprehensive evaluation of

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students’ physical learning, emphasize the development in students’ evaluation


of physical fitness and sports skills at the same time, pay more attention to
the evaluation of students’ learning attitude, emotion and ability and so on, in
order to truly embody, all student oriented education concept, truly reflects the
assessment of the fairness and the education function.

3.2. Research tools and methods


The evaluation standards and contents to the students, but also design and make the
corresponding evaluation tools. In most cases, these evaluation tools usually appear in the
form of evaluation table. Not only to reflect the students’ sports performance evaluation
table, and evaluation should also reflect the students learning process and learning
attitude scale. The student sports basic theory knowledge evaluation can take oral, written
examination, knowledge contests and other forms, according to the assessment results are
converted into the score of the student’s basic theoretical knowledge of sports learning. In
order to simplify the examination procedures and workload, the students physical fitness
test and score can be combined with school each year to implement the “Student Physique
Healthy Standard” to, the student sports study physical scores and with reference to the
health standard of students’ physique three physical quality score conversion into a. The
choice of assessment content according to the nature and characteristics of sports skills
assessment project, adopt the method of quantitative or qualitative results make the
corresponding evaluation table. Physical and motor skills progress evaluation method,
first of all, according to the student physical fitness and sports skills raw scores and test
scores, to measurement result is subtracted from the original scores for the progress and to
progress points control table compiled by physical and motor skills improved evaluation
physical and motor skills progress performance assessment.
By using different evaluation and measurement methods, can collect different types of
data and evidence. Commonly used methods are: standardized test, standard reference
test, based on the results of the evaluation, student work sample, the performance of the
students observation, survey and interview. Teachers need to collect the data and evidence
for analysis, the formation of a student’s physical learning situation analysis results, and
the objective description of the current learning situation of students. To pay attention
to the following questions in the analysis: coping in the appropriate team to collect data
for analysis; response from the data of various assessment methods for comprehensive
analysis, in order to fully describe the state of development of the students. If there is a
longitudinal data, including trend analysis and if I can get the comparative data of other
groups, through comparative analysis of the development of students.

4. Empirical analysis
4.1. PE learning evaluation
First, we should evaluate students’ learning is a learning process and evaluation,
including physical fitness and motor skills, cognition, learning requires attitude and
behavior, communication and the spirit of cooperation, such as the performance of
the situation, in favor of the principle of operation , determined by the expert opinion

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to assess student learning sports more appropriate five aspects: (1) physical and (2)
motor skills (3) basic theoretical knowledge Sports (4) learning attitude (5) the spirit
of cooperation. Then apply the key features of the survey prepared by the PE learning
the five evaluation, please Colleges 40 PE teachers to express their views, and then
select the content according to the five “very important” Number Percentage (see Table
1), weight content calculated for each weight, calculated for each content selection
is to look “very important” in the five percentage content selection percentages very
important number in proportion. Followed by another four to calculate the weight of
the contents were 0.24,0.21,0.21,0.13 and give scores result: physical and motor skills
20 points; physical fitness and motor skills’ progress 30 points; 20 points physical
basic theoretical knowledge; learning attitude 20 points; show affection and spirit of
cooperation 10 points.

Physical Theoretical Learning Spirit of


Evaluation Motor skill
fitness knowledge attitude cooperation
Number 35 39 35 34 21
Percentage 87.5 97.5 87.5 85 52.5

Table 1 – Evaluation in PE learning content


Students’ modern and new sports learning evaluation content and value questionnaire
results show (see Table 2), the students of the new sports learning evaluation content
and value satisfaction rate was 82.4, and current only 35.3, suggesting that the vast
majority of students to reflect the development as the goal, pay attention to sports
learning effect and process, dilute the evaluation results of the new physical education
learning evaluation of the content of the affirmation and approval, so as to implement
the new sports learning evaluation system has laid the main foundation.

very Very
content factor satisfied General Dissatisfied
satisfied dissatisfied

Current Number 2 13 35 48 44
Evaluation percentage 1.4% 9.2% 24.6% 33.8% 30.9%

New Number 11 74 32 18 7
Evaluation percentage 7.8% 52.1% 22.5% 12% 4.9%

Table 2 – Students’ satisfaction with the current evaluation

Students’ modern and new sports learning incentive effect investigation of evaluation
method. The results show in table 3: that the new sports learning evaluation methods
form of conscious exercise habits and lifelong sports consciousness, grasp the method
and the skill, to improve physical fitness, to experience the fun of sports and work sense;
have an incentive to form good sportsmanship and teamwork spirit, identity of student
evaluation approach to new incentive effect was significantly better in the current
evaluation method.

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Current Evaluation New Evaluation


Factor
effective commonly invalid effective commonly invalid

Physical 18 43 47 61 14 10
fitness 12.7% 30.3% 33.1% 42.9% 9.9% 7%
35 17 20 48 20 7
Motor skill
24.6% 12.7% 14.1 33.8% 14.1% 4.9%

Theoretical 16 23 19 18 38 17
knowledge 11.5% 15.2% 13.4% 12.1% 26.7% 11.9%

Learning 13 26 41 27 45 9
attitude 9.1% 18.3% 28.9% 19% 31% 6.3%

Spirit of 16 24 18 34 18 4
cooperation 11.3% 16.9% 12.7% 24.6% 12.5% 3.9

Table 3 – Students’ recognition of the motivation

4.2. Improvement of teaching performance


Physical fitness and motor skills evaluation should first follow the progress of the case
of biological evolution “use and disuse” principle, fully reflected in the same period of
physical and motor skills of students with different sport levels the rate of progress
was generally slow down the growth of the law, that the more low levels of student
movement, the greater the level of increase, the opposite is the small, according to the
principle of progressive score, combined with the actual preparation of PE teaching
physical and motor skills rate of progress evaluation form. Reflect students’ progress
and better incentives for student rates are above 95%, while the rate applicable to the
various colleges and universities, compared with 35.5% agreed. The results show in
Table 4, the vast majority of teachers in this table design methods and ideas have a
positive attitude, but believed to be actually develop appropriate evaluation methods
and evaluation forms according to the teaching of the school.

content very good good commonly Not so good Not so good


18 16 2 2 0
Design ideas
45 41 5 5 0

Students 15 18 6 1 0
progress 37 45 15 2.5 0
8 13 17 2 0
Incentive effect
20 32.5 42.5 5 0
0 3 11 25 1
Applicability
0 7.5 27.5 62.5 2.5

Table 4 – Evaluation of physical fitness and motor skills

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Through physical education teachers pick him think very important indicators and sort,
more than 50% of the number of the first five indexes were chosen (Table 5): sports class
attendance; consciously take the initiative to participate in sports activities; in sports
activities to dedicate; proactive thinking to achieve the goals and repeated practice;
conscientiously accept the teacher guidance. Choice of learning attitude of the five
evaluation index from the point of view, the basic can reflect the students to participate
in sports learning attitude, to set up students’ understanding of sports and promote
students to form correct and active attitude to sport.

factor Attendance participation involvement practices instruction


Number 37 34 31 24 21
percentage 92.5 85 77.5 60 52.5

Table 5 – Evaluation of learning attitude

Students to use new sports learning evaluation method of evaluation of physical performance
and the current evaluation method of evaluation results were compared, results show in
Table 6, application of new ways to assess students sports scores of pass rate, average scores
than applying the current ways to assess student sports scores were significantly improved,
and the rate of excellent and good, excellent rate both had no significant difference. Indicating
that new ways for students with poor physical fitness and motor skills base provides through
its own efforts to pass the opportunity, overcome the horizontal movement of a high starting
point, no drawbacks need through the efforts can get high marks, better play the positive
role of learning evaluation of physical education and sports.

Content fail pass good excellent Average score

Current 13 31 71 27
77.9±8.59
Evaluation 9.2% 21.8 50 19

New 2 22 77 41
81.0±6.32
Evaluation 1.4 15.5 54.2 28.9
P value <0.01 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.01

Table 6–Comparison of PE learning evaluation 4.3. Effective of evaluation index

Students’ quality test results in Table 7, were significantly increased compared with the
implementation of new evaluation scheme for the end of the school year three quality test
scores and the beginning of the semester diagnostic test results, statistically significant
differences, the author thinks that although there are many reasons to improve the
quality of students, but the main reason is after the implementation of new sports
learning evaluation methods, physical education promotes the students’ personality and
interests play, also for each student to provide varying degrees of success experience, has
greatly promoted the students in and out of the PE curriculum of physical education and
exercise actively and consciously.

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project Standing long jump (m) 1000m/800m Shot-put (m)


Gender male female male female male female
Early semester 2.20±0.12 1.68±0.13 239.72±81.92 240.57±8.24 6.83±1.73 4.81±0.44
After a year 2.41±0.14 1.76±0.12 221.34±67.43 231.21±7.46 7.21±1.52 4.93±0.37
P value <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05 <0.05

Table 7 – Student’s achievement comparison

target effective commonly invalid


16 18 0
Reflect the teaching process
40 45 0
18 19 0
Promote teachers’ progress
45 47.5 0
21 17 0
Improve learning interest
52.5 42 0
15 14 0
Improve sports skills
37.5 35 0
25 14
Interaction
62.5 35 0

Table 8 – Survey results of effectiveness of classroom teaching

Physical education teachers chosen for the study of classroom teaching evaluation of
the validity of the questionnaire survey results show that in Table 8, it is investigated
in the teacher the classroom teaching evaluation index reflected in the elements of the
teaching process, promoting the progress and development of teachers, is conducive to
the performance of the creativity of Teachers, improve the learning interest of student
sports, help to improve the students’ physical fitness and sports skills, is conducive to
the recognition of the role of interaction between teachers and students and the effective
rate was 100%, thus scientific implementation teachers’ classroom teaching evaluation
and teachers’ consciousness to participate in evaluation and lay a good foundation.

5. Conclusion
The research method on the basis of the theory of building college sports teaching
evaluation system with promote all-round development of students and teachers to
improve the concept of education evaluation, is also in line with the requirements of
“National Ordinary University Sports Curriculum Teaching Instruction Summary” and
lifelong sports goal orientation, with certain scientific and theoretical role, to adapt to
the trend of the development of College PE teaching evaluation. On the basis of the
learning evaluation of physical education and sports content, results of an empirical
study of the index evaluation contents, indicators, and the weight of the evaluation table

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and existing evaluation methods, compared with a certain objectivity, effectiveness and
operability, reflecting the promote all-round development of students and teachers
constantly improve the evaluation concept, in line with to promote the all-round
development of students not only pay attention to the students’ physical fitness, physical
and mental health, but also to discover and develop the potential of students, including
the development of the students in various aspects of moral character, physical education
learning desire and ability, cooperation and communication, personality and emotion,
not the athletic performance as the main means of evaluation requirements.
The establishment and implementation of the new evaluation system of physical education,
teachers’ ideas are the key to renew, we must vigorously promote the transformation of
the concept of education, the unity of people’s ideological concept. So that the evaluation
system of the development and implementation of a teacher’s conscious action, to
promote quality education, improves the quality of physical education teaching process.
Learning evaluation of physical education and sports is a service in the sports teaching,
to serve the students development must change the past that kind of attention to the
evaluation and selection approach, the evaluation activities become students self-learning
progress required of a feedback, diagnosis and incentive means. The purpose of teacher’s
classroom teaching evaluation is to promote teachers’ progress and improve the quality
of teaching. Evaluation should give full play to the main role of teachers, the evaluation
work and the teacher’s personal development plan. Teacher’s self-evaluation should be
one of the most important forms of classroom teaching evaluation.

References
Basu, K., Jones, E. (1987). The growth and decay of custom: The role of the new
institutional economics in economic history. Explorations in Economic History,
24, 1–21.
Djelassi, S. and Decoopman, I. (2013). Customers’ participation in product development
through crowd sourcing: Issues and implications. Industrial Marketing
Management, 42, 683–692.
Delgado, A., Velthuis, M. (2015).Proposal for a continuous improvement IT governance
framework at financial institutions. RISTI-Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias
de Informação, (15), 51–67.
Eijck, K., Lievens, J. (2008). Cultural omnivorousness as a combination of highbrow,
pop, and folk elements: The relation between taste patterns and attitudes concerning
social integration. Poetics, 36, 217–242.
Li, G. (2014). Destination island effects: A theoretical framework for the environmental
impact assessment of human tourism activities. Tourism Management Perspectives,
10, 11–18.
Varley, P. (2011). Ecosophy and tourism: Rethinking a mountain resort. Tourism
Management, 32, 902–911
Wei, C. (2012). Application of Multimedia–Aided Project–Teaching Mode in Cultural
Education, IERI Procedia, 2, 538–542.

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Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação Recebido/Submission: 22/03/2016
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

Research on the Competency Model of Innovative


Entrepreneurial Team based on Network
Information Data Mining Technology

Jia Liu *

*Liujiacheery@163.com

Science and engineering research institute, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080, China
Pages: 260–272

Abstract: Since the 20th century, with rapid development of information


technology, the enterprise competition more embodied in the product technology
competition. Product technology innovation, integration of resources, and create a
team of technical innovation has become an important way to improve enterprise
R&D. In the process of innovation, entrepreneurial team plays an important role, but
also should pay attention to cultivate entrepreneurial team competency. By using
data mining method, the author constructs the evaluation index of the Innovation
and entrepreneurial team competency. And find out three dimensional indexes
as innovation dimension (0.123), team dimension (0.557) and entrepreneurial
dimension (0.320). In the team dimension, entrepreneurial team should focus
on improving team cooperation ability; in the aspect of entrepreneurship,
entrepreneurial team should enhance relationship ability.
Keywords: Information technology, innovation ability, team competency,
entrepreneurial dimension, data mining

1. Introduction
Since twentieth Century, with the development of society and economy, the competition
of enterprises is more and more reflected in the competition of product technology.
Through product technology innovation, integration of resources, to create a team of
technical innovation, has become an important way to improve enterprise R&D capabilities
(Antonio,2014; Abreu,2015). With the gradual maturity of team theory and practice, the
technology innovation team has been accepted and applied by more and more enterprises
(María, 2012; Freixo, 2014). In the process of innovation, entrepreneurial team plays an
important role, in order to transform the results of innovation, but also should pay attention
to cultivate entrepreneurial team competency (Yuzhu, 2011; Hung, 2012). The so-called
entrepreneurial team refers to the two or more than two members of the company’s strategic
decisions have a direct impact, and to a certain extent, to enjoy or occupy the ownership of
the enterprise. To cultivate a very important point for the innovation and entrepreneurial
team is to improve the ability of innovation and achievement transformation rate. In the
process of corporate entrepreneurship, outstanding entrepreneurial team to achieve long-
term performance requirements of the ability, skills, knowledge and other characteristics,

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and have a fully capable of entrepreneurial task, is the entrepreneurial team competency. In
general, and the team competency should possess the following several points: encouraging
attitude to effective team performance, on behavior and skills needed to effectively perform
the tasks, as well as the team task concept, principles and relevant knowledge. And in
the aspects of learning, emotional control, commitment ability, strategy, relationship
coordination, knowledge sharing, innovative thinking, the opportunity to grasp, they have
reflected the entrepreneurial competency (Olimpia, 2014). Entrepreneurial spirit, member
heterogeneity, management collaboration innovation, technical experts, knowledge
team and other innovative entrepreneurial team features. Therefore, the entrepreneurial
team can be regarded as entrepreneurial spirit, because it can be a team collaboration
and recognition, recognition of entrepreneurial opportunities to share. And risk sharing,
collaborative spirit, collective innovation, and sharing and team entrepreneurship cognitive
level dimensions. After study the entrepreneurial team competence, in the innovation
environment, compared to the traditional team entrepreneurship, innovation and
entrepreneurial team competence is entrepreneurial team to obtain high entrepreneurial
performance should have the qualities and entrepreneurial ability, skills, and knowledge as
a whole (Luis, 2014).
The idea of innovation and entrepreneurship is constant innovation, the new business
as the cornerstone of a reasonable change of innovation, and then the correct
understanding of business opportunities, and identification, open drill business.
Innovative dimensions, dimension and team entrepreneurship dimensions constitute
the following indicators, respectively is: collective innovation capacity, technology
trend judgment, learning ability, risk sharing, cooperation ability, cognitive share.
Especially the collective innovation and technology trends judgment and ability to
learn from the expert interviews and research; Risk-sharing, cooperation ability and
cognitive share in the study of table to team up to power; and organization ability,
relationships, cooperation, strategic skills, opportunity comes from table unremitting
research to entrepreneurial competence power. In terms of dynamic development
perspective, a 3D space respectively by the three dimensions of team dimensions,
dimensions of entrepreneurship and innovation dimensions constitute, thus forming
a innovation and entrepreneurial team competence. With the development of the
enterprise day after day, taking the entrepreneurial dimension as the premise, the
birth of innovation and entrepreneurial team competence, the team dimension and
innovation dimensions maintain a positive momentum.

2. Data mining technology


Data mining is a process from a large number of incomplete, noisy, fuzzy and random real
data to extract the hidden information and knowledge. From the data mining definition
can see that data mining is an important technology in the field of knowledge discovery.
It involves artificial intelligence, machine learning, pattern recognition, statistics and
other high technology fields, specific technology including characterization, association,
clustering, and prediction analysis. Data mining in the field of Internet, mobile Internet,
telecommunications, finance, scientific research has been widely used, such as Facebook
friends recommended, recommended am AZON and Taobao goods, Bank of the anti-
fraud analysis etc.. The traditional data mining technology based on relational database

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and data warehouse, the data were calculated, to find the hidden in the data model and
relation, and in the large scale data the calculation data access and statistics was made,
the whole data mining process need to consume a large amount of computing resources
and storage resources,
The emergence of cloud computing, making the data mining platform has a new direction
of development, but also makes a new generation of data mining platform has become
possible. Cloud computing is a computing platform that can provide dynamic resources,
virtualization and high availability. Cloud computing platforms can be used to develop
high performance applications. But for data mining, the massive data itself has the
problem of noise, heterogeneous, complex algorithm, technology, and so on, and now
the cloud computing platform does not provide data reduction and other functions. From
the industry’s understanding of cloud computing, cloud computing dynamic, scalable
computing capabilities make it possible to efficiently massive data mining. Cloud computing
SaaS function understanding and standardization, making the data mining based on
SaaS has the support of technology and theory, but also makes the data mining for the
popularization and enterprise oriented. Cloud computing platform based on data mining
services, mining algorithm parallelization, mining algorithm based on the perspective of
the construction of data mining SaaS platform. The cloud based data mining platform
structure adopts a hierarchical thought: first supporting the bottom of the cloud computing
platform, and the use of cloud computing platform provides a distributed storage and
distributed computation ability data mining computing power of parallel implementation;
secondly the data mining platform in the design uses a distributed, pluggable components
of ideas, support multi algorithm deployment and scheduling; finally data mining platform
provides ability of the algorithm to employ the services of external exposure and support
different business system calls, and achieve the business system recommended, mining
and other related functional requirement is convenient.

Figure 1 – Cloud computing


Cloud computing distributed storage and distributed computing to promote the new
generation of data mining platform for change. Figure 2 is cloud based data mining

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platform architecture. Considering the parallel and distributed algorithm of mining


algorithm and recommendation algorithm is a special and big topic, so the article does
not include the parallel and cloud content of the specific algorithm.

Figure 2 – Cloud based data mining platform architecture


Data mining methods used in user behavior classification are neural network, bayesian
network and decision tree method.
•• Decision tree: Decision tree is also called a classification tree or a regression
tree. It is also a machine learning method, which is developed by Quinlan.
Decision tree is utilized to approximate the discrete value function classification
and evaluation method of an inductive learning system, decision tree has the
advantages of simple structure and convenient operation, and has anti-noise
robustness and can clearly express the learning results, is currently a widely
used machine learning algorithms. But the disadvantage of the decision tree is
that there is no better way to prevent the data, and it is not very good to solve the
overlapping problem, and it is difficult to optimize.
•• Bayesian network: Bias network is a probabilistic network, which is a graphical
network based on probabilistic reasoning, and the Bias formula is the basis of
this probability network. Bayesian network is a mathematical model based on
probabilistic reasoning, called probabilistic reasoning is through some of the
variables of the information to obtain other probabilistic information, based
on a probabilistic inference in Bayesian network (BN) is proposed in order
to solve the uncertainty and incomplete, it to solve complex equipment does
not cause the uncertainty and correlation of the fault has great advantages, in
many fields obtained widely application. Bias theory shows that the subjective
belief should follow the principle of probability, the correct induction should
be based on the independent way of reasoning and spread through the Bias
network, it is the fault of the network structure of the training is too complex
•• Artificial neural network: Neural network source of interdisciplinary research
in physics, psychology and neurophysiology, Neural networks are classified
according to the network structure and learning methods, which include:
feedback network, random neural network, competitive neural network and
single layer forward network, multi layer forward network. Currently used the
most widely used neural network is BP network. It belongs to multi layer to
the network, the technology is mature and has powerful computing ability,

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but the complexity of the statistical model but also to artificial neural network
processing problems bring some negative effects. The disadvantages of artificial
neural network is its generalization capability is relatively weak, lack the ability
to explain, it is difficult to use explain the network each node of the decision and
method to determine whether the network is feasible, and due to the algorithm,
artificial neural network is very easy to fall into local minima.

Figure 3 – Bayesian network


Approximate linear separable support vector machines, also known as soft interval
support vector machines, is established in the case of linear separable, that allows the
existence of the wrong sub samples. Here we only consider a loss function of SVM,
the original problem is converted as:

m
1
φ ( w,ξ ) = ∑
2
w + C ξ i (1)
2 i =1

The problem is to minimize the constraints, That is:

(2)

yi (( w ⋅ x ) + b ) − 1 ≥ 0 (3)
Then carries on the derivation of the dual problem, need to introduce the original
problem of Lagrange’s function:

∑α ( y ( ( w ⋅ x ) + b ) − 1 + ξ ) (4)
m m
1
L ( w, b, a ) = ∑
2
w + C ξi − i i i
2 i =1 i =1

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First find the Lagrange function on the W, B, ξ Partial derivatives derived from extreme
conditions:

∇b L ( w, b, a ) = 0 (5)

∇ w L ( w, b, a ) = 0 (6)

∇ξ L ( w, b, a ) = 0 (7)

Calculated:
m
∑α y
i =1
i i = 0 (8)

m
w= ∑α y x
i =1
i i i
(9)

C − α i − β i = 0 (10)

Take into the plane equation, get the decision function:

 m 

f ( x ) = sgn  ai yi ( x ⋅ xi ) + b *  (11)
 i =1 

3. Construction of index system


3.1. Index System
Based on the technological innovation and entrepreneurial team characteristics,
entrepreneurial team competence research, we believe that technological innovation
and entrepreneurial team competence is the sum in the environment of innovation of
science and Technology entrepreneurial team achieves high entrepreneurial performance
required knowledge, skills, abilities and qualities. Compared with the traditional team
entrepreneurship, science and technology innovation and entrepreneurship stressed the
continuous generation of new innovation, innovation and transformation of the new
business, and identify business opportunities to produce commercial results.
So in the entrepreneurial team qualified for the force of the dimensions of
entrepreneurship and team dimensions based on, increasing the innovation dimensions
constitute, technological innovation and entrepreneurial team competency: from
the three dimensions of the dimensions of entrepreneurship, dimension and team
innovation dimensions, a total of 10 indicators, in particular: opportunity competence,
strategic competence, ability, organization ability, cognitive sharing, cooperation ability,

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Figure 4 – Entrepreneurial team competency

risk sharing, learning ability, the technical trend of judgment and collective innovation
capacity. The opportunity ability, strategic capabilities and relationships, the ability
to organize main reference entrepreneurial competence table study; shared cognition,
cooperation ability and risk sharing main reference team competence table study;
learning ability, the technical trend of judgment and collective innovation can force
mainly refer to the relevant innovation research and expert interviews.

first-level indicators second-level indicators third-level indicators


Learning ability C1
Innovation dimension B1 Technology trends C2
Collective innovation capability C3

Innovation and Cognitive ability to share C4


entrepreneurial Team dimension B2 Cooperation ability C5
team competency
evaluation The risk sharing capacity of C6
A Opportunity capability C7
Strategic capability C8
Entrepreneurial dimension B3
Relation ability C9
Organizational capability C10

Table 1 – Index system


Analytic hierarchy process to determine the decision maker’s experience to quantify, a
decision-making problem is described as a hierarchical model, and then quantitative
analysis and calculation. With respect to a CGI elements, we use 1 ~ 7 scaling the expert
assignment method each element of B interlayers in pairwise comparison and judgment
to determine the intermediate layer B element of a CGI elements relative importance,
construct pairwise comparison judgement matrix A. Judgment matrix A (relative
importance of each factor relative to the scientific and technological innovation and
entrepreneurial team competence), see table 2.

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A B1 B2 B3
B1 1 1/4 1/3
B2 4 1 2
B3 3 1/2 1

Table 2 – Judgment matrix A

3.2. Index weight


Calculate the geometric mean of all the elements in the matrix A.
n
wi = n ∏aj =1
ij (12)

We can obtain:

( )
T
wi = w1 , w2 , w n (13)

To be normalized, that is to calculate:


n

wi = wi ∑w
j =1
i (14)

Obtain:

w = ( w1 , w2 , Kwn ) (15)
T

This is the relative weight of each element of Bi to B:

( ) = (0.123,0.557,0.320)
T T
w = w1 , w2 , w 3

Calculation of the maximum eigenvalue of theλmatrix A Max


n
( AW )i
λ max = ∑
i =1 nwi

Among them (AW) i is the first i element of vector AW:

 1 1 / 4 1 / 4   0.123  0.369 
    
AW = 4 1 2   0.557  =  1.688 
 3 1 / 2 1  0.320  0.967 

n
 AW 
λ max = ∑   = 3.01832
i =1  nwi 

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Judgment matrix to calculate the judgement matrix, the largest eigenvalue corresponds
to the characteristic to (weight), and then calculate the consistency checking and ratios,
if C. R < 0.1 that matrix consistency test requirements, if not satisfied, continue to
modified until can meet only.
The consistency check of the calculation results is C.I, the formula and the calculation
result is:

C ⋅ I = ( λ max − n ) ( n − 1 ) = 0.009162

Identify the corresponding R.I = 0.58 by Table 3.

n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
R.I 0 0 0.58 0.90 1.12 1.24 1.32

Table 3 – Average random consistency index R.I


The random consistency ratio, the formula and the result are calculated:

C .R = C .I ( R.I ) = 0.009162 0.58 = 0.01579 < 0.1

According to the random consistency ratio C. R < 0.1, indicating that the consistency
of the judgment matrix A can be accepted, the middle layer B of CGI a weight value
w = (0.123, 0.557 ,0.320), t is acceptable. Similarly, compared with the middle layer
B elements, we use 1 ~ 7 scaling the expert assignment method of the elements of
the underlying C for pairwise comparison and judgment to determine the relative
importance of underlying C elements of B elements of middle layer, we construct
pairwise comparison judgment matrix B 1, B 2, B 3, B 4 can also be obtained the weight
of all elements in the third layer, and the judgment matrix consistency test, see table
4 and table 5 and table 6.

B1 C1 C2 C3 W1
C1 1 3 1/2 0.334
C2 1/3 1 1/3 0.142
C3 2 3 1 0.525

Table 4 – Calculation of weight in the second index system C1, C2, C3

B2 C4 C5 C6 W2
C4 1 1/3 2 0.252
C5 3 1 3 0.589
C6 1/2 1/3 1 0.159

Table 5 – Calculation of weight in the second index system C4, C5, C6

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B3 C7 C8 C9 C10 W2
C7 1 5 1/3 2 0.245
C8 1/5 1 1/7 1/2 0.063
C9 3 7 1 5 0.572
C10 1/2 2 1/5 1 0.119

Table 6 – Calculation of weight in the second index system C7, C8, C9, C10
The bottom element C for the synthetic weight goals of A, each index weight see table 7.

first-level indicators second-level indicators third-level indicators


C1 (0.334)
Innovation dimension B1
C2(0.142)
(0.123)
C3(0.525)
C4(0.252)
Innovation and Team dimension B2
entrepreneurial team C5(0.589)
(0.557)
competency evaluation A C6(0.159)
(1.000)
C7(0.245)

Entrepreneurial dimension B3 C8(0.063)


(0.320) C9(0.572)
C10(0.119)

Table 7 – Each index weight

4. Innovation and entrepreneurial team competency


fuzzy evaluation
Fuzzy evaluation method arises from the existence of fuzzy phenomena. In real life, the
deterministic and random phenomena are things were more common in the two kind
of way of existence, the fuzzy phenomenon is between two common ways, it is difficult
to of the precise and quantitative description of the phenomenon, a comprehensive
evaluation method of fuzzy mathematics for us provides a measure of the tool. A fuzzy
comprehensive evaluation method is based on fuzzy mathematical basis, the application
of fuzzy mathematics in the “fuzzy comprehensive evaluation” to carry out safety
evaluation method, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method according to the fuzzy
membership degree theory of the qualitative evaluation into quantitative evaluation.
In the evaluation of scientific and technological innovation and entrepreneurial
team competency assessment indicators are divided into two levels, the first level of
3 indicators, the 10 layer of the second indicators, reviews are divided into 5 levels.
According to the calculation of the analytic hierarchy process, the weight of each index
is known. This paper selects Institute of science and technology innovation experts and
outstanding entrepreneurial team members consisting of 10 evaluation group, according
to 10 bits of advice given the influence the ability of global impression of each index fuzzy
comments, see Table 8.

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Very
Domain Weight Good General Poor
Domain U Weight A Good
Ui Ai (V2) (V3) (V4)
(V1)
U11 0.041 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.1
Innovation
dimension 0.123 U12 0.017 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.1
U1
U13 0.065 0.4 0.5 0.1 0
U 21 0.140 0.1 0.5 0.3 0.1
Team dimension
0.557 U 22 0.328 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2
U2
U 23 0.089 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2
U 31 0.078 0.3 0.4 0.1 0.2
Entrepreneurial U32 0.020 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.1
dimension 0.320
U3 U 33 0.183 0.3 0.5 0.1 0.1
U 34 0.038 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.1

Table 8 – Comments of index grade in S&T entrepreneurial team

The index weight vector A of the Ui obtained from the above calculation is evaluated by
the fuzzy evaluation of the object with respect to each index.

Ri = rgh
i
k ⋅m

Fuzzy transformation is carried out as follows:

Bi = Ai ⋅ Ri = bi 1 , bi 2 , Lbim 

Calculation of fuzzy reviews relative to the first layer of each indicator U:


0.3 0.5 0.1 0.1 
 
Bi = Ai ⋅ Ri = 0.034, 0.180, 0.095  0.3 0.34 0.2 0.1 
0.3 0.5 0.5 0 
= 0.038 0.060 0.020 0.006 

Normalized calculation can be:

B1 = 0.305 0.486 0.162 0.048 

B2 = 680.175 0.486 0.182 0.175 

B31 = 0.287 0.457 0.131 0.124 

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According to the evaluation results we can see that membership of the index system
in three innovative dimensions, dimension and team entrepreneurship dimensions for
the evaluation of good and better respectively 0.791 and 0.643, 0.744, the evaluation is
quite reasonable. At the same time, we can see clearly, for the analysis of technological
innovation and entrepreneurial team competence and evaluation results pointed out that
the team dimensions (0.557) and entrepreneurial dimensions (0.320) should be very
prominent, in specific three-dimensional refinement indicators, collaboration (0.328),
relationship ability (0.183) and collective innovation capacity (0.065) in technological
innovation and entrepreneurial team competence has an important role.

5. Conclusions
Through the analysis of the evaluation results of science and technology innovation
and entrepreneurial team competency, entrepreneurial team in addition to focus on
their own overall competency upgrade, the specific can start from three aspects of team
dimension, entrepreneurship and innovation dimensions. The ability to cooperate is
based on the cooperation of team members, team members are complementary, and the
ability to work on the basis of trust. Teamwork ability helps to enhance team innovation
ability. Enhance team collaboration capabilities to each team members take the initiative
to understand the positive qualities of the other members hold a tolerant attitude,
personal ability to fully integrate into the team, to enhance the team’s cohesion, sharing
of resources, improve the team cooperation ability. Relationship ability refers to the
ability to interact among team members, social organization and memory environment,
including the ability to establish and coordinate with the surrounding environment with
the help of social relations, communication and interpersonal communication. Ability to
more emphasis on the relationship between team members and external environment,
for technological innovation and entrepreneurial team, each member of the team find
opportunities and capital operation, social resources and the accumulation of experience
and the relationship between entrepreneurial team valuable resource in organization
in that team members to through the accumulation of past personal experiences and
resources, in Entrepreneurship and development process, by continuous with team
members to share, exchange and the establishment of new organizational resource to
upgrade team ability.
In the entrepreneurial team to grasp the technical trend judgment, play collective
innovation capacity for the sustainable development of enterprises is particularly critical,
such as the executive team discuss new product research and development, the use of
the collective wisdom of perfect market development programs, the collective decision-
making access to resources scheme etc., which will meet the requirements of scientific
and technological innovation in knowledge innovation, technology innovation and
management innovation three aspects, to technological innovation and entrepreneurial
team competent force plays a crucial role.

Acknowledgments
The work of this paper is supported by the humanities and social sciences research
project of Heilongjiang provincial education department in 2013(12532065).

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Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação Recebido/Submission: 23/03/2016
Iberian Journal of Information Systems and Technologies Aceitação/Acceptance: 04/07/2016

Study on the Coordinated Control System of Urban


Traffic Trunk Line based on Particle Swarm Optimization

Chengtao Cao1,*, Feng Cui1, Lunhui Xu2

* Jncct@163.com

1
Guangdong Communication Polytechnic, Guangzhou 510650, China
2
South China University of Technology, Gu