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Dhanishan Indoi group leader, Shantal Holder and Patrina Ross

What is Dengue Fever?

Dengue fever is a debilitating viral disease of the tropics, transmitted by mosquitoes, and causing
sudden fever and acute pains in the joints. It is an airborne virus caused by the (Aedes aegypti).
It is a pathogen that causes Dengue fever, and can lead to Dengue shock syndrome. There are 4
serotypes of the virus that causes dengue. These are known as DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-
4.First reported in Asia, Africa, and North America

Tissue it targets
Dengue induces cytokine production in cell, Cytotoxic factor effects endothelial cells involved in
most of the following: Heart, Liver Kidneys, Lungs, Intestines, Spleen, Lymph nodes, Brain,
Skin (inflammatory rashes)

How is it Transmitted
• The dengue virus is transmitted to humans via the bite of an infected mosquito. An
infected mosquito can later transmit that virus to healthy people by biting them.
Dengue cannot be spread directly from one person to another, and mosquitoes are
necessary for transmission of the dengue virus. Aedes Mosquitoes.
Dhanishan Indoi group leader, Shantal Holder and Patrina Ross

Symptoms of Dengue Fever

• Sudden, high fever.

• Severe headaches.

• Pain behind the eyes.

• Severe joint and muscle pain.

• Fatigue.

• Nausea.

• Vomiting.

• Skin rash, which appears two to five days after the onset of fever.

Pathogenesis and infection process of Dengue

• Humans are initially infected through a mosquito vector Initial interaction with cell
occurs with the viruses ability to infect cell Primary target, Phagocytes § Virus uses cell
receptor molecule to enter cell Cell receptor molecules include: Glycosaminoglycan
Heparan Sulfate (Expressed in almost all cell types) Virus replicates in target organs
Infects white blood cells and lymphatic tissues Virus is released and circulates in blood
Alternate mosquito then bites host and receives virus

Prevention of Dengue Fever

• If you are living or traveling in tropical areas where dengue fever is common, these
tips may help reduce your risk of mosquito bites

• Stay in air-conditioned or well-screened housing. ...

• Wear protective clothing. ...

• Use mosquito repellent. ...

• Reduce mosquito habitat.

Dhanishan Indoi group leader, Shantal Holder and Patrina Ross

Stay in air-conditioned or well-screened housing.

• The mosquitoes that carry the dengue viruses are most active from dawn to dusk, but they
can also bite at night.

Wear protective clothing.

• When you go into mosquito-infested areas, wear a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, socks
and shoes.

Use mosquito repellents.

• Some types like permethrin can be applied to your clothing, shoes, camping gear and
bed netting. You can also buy clothing made with permethrin already in it. For your skin,
use a repellent containing at least a 10 percent concentration of DEET.

Reduce mosquito habitat

• The mosquitoes that carry the dengue virus typically live in and around houses, breeding
in standing water that can collect in such things as used automobile tires. Reduce the
breeding habitat to lower mosquito populations.

The impact of dengue fever regionally

• Dengue and occasionally dengue hemorrhagic fever affect most of the American
continent and several islands of the Caribbean. Dengue transmission has increased
significantly in the region in the last two decades.

• This increase has sparked numerous responses in the Caribbean region.

Response to Dengue fever

• Significant advances have been made in the development of dengue vaccines, although
they are not yet available for public health use.
Dhanishan Indoi group leader, Shantal Holder and Patrina Ross
• Vector control programs have been implemented vector c0ntrol is implement using
environmental management and chemical methods. Proper solid waste disposal and
improved water storage practices, including covering containers to prevent access by egg
laying female mosquitoes are among methods that are encouraged through community
based programs

• Individuals seek to protect themselves by using oil of lemon eucalyptus, mosquito

repellent .destroying breeding areas such as standing water in flower pots, and other such
larval habitats by changing the water frequently.

• In Trinidad and Tobago, recent dengue outbreaks have resulted in measures to enforce
the litter act and yellow fever regulations and the organization of national clean up

Social Impact of Dengue Fever

Dengue fever can be attributed to social factors such as social inequalities, poor sanitation, and
improper storage of water and climate factors. Usually out breaks in a region are caused by a
mass of people storing stagnant water which allows the mosquitoes to breed. Tourism may be
affected in a region if an outbreak is reported. Due to the tropical climate in the Caribbean, the
virus is able to nurture better. These outbreaks are usually seasonal, occurring in the warmer
months. Dengue cannot be transmitted through the air so interaction with an infected person will
not give you the disease.

Economic Impacts of Dengue

• Treatment, management and prevention of dengue impose large economic burdens on the
government and communities. There are 2 methods of weighing the economic burden of
dengue which includes cost per case and US dollars

Cost per case-This can vary throughout the Caribbean region as this is due to the variation in
prices of health visits, service of ambulance, medication and time off from work. This is usually
incurred upon the individual which has a greater impact on the family income than on the
government budget

• US Dollars- This measure is a result of the costs of vector control mechanisms,

healthcare, medication and ambulatory costs which fall into the government’s budget.
The economic cost of dengue fever varies between countries because of the differences in
the amount the government is able to spend on control programs and treatment. Loss in
tourists during an outbreak period also results in a loss of foreign exchange
Dhanishan Indoi group leader, Shantal Holder and Patrina Ross

What is AIDS
• AIDS is a disorder which damages the human body’s immune system. It is caused by the
HIV virus (human Immunodeficiency Virus). This is an RNA virus.

Process of Infection and Replication

Virus approaches a T4 lymphocyte cell

1. Virus attaches to a receptor protein in the cell surface membrane

2. Virus enters the cell by endocytosis

3. The viral RNA is released in to the cytoplasm of the host cell, together with the enzyme
reverse transcriptase

4. A Double stranded DNA copy of the single stranded virus RNA is made using reverse

5. The DNA a copy enters the nucleus and inserts itself into the host DNA. Whenever the cell
divides, it also makes a copy of the viral DNA, increasing the number of infected cells

6. After a period of inactivity known as latency period, which lasts on average 5 years, the virus
becomes active again.

7. New RNA is produced (transcription) and viral proteins are made using the host’s protein
synthesizing machinery.

8. New viral particle assemble

9. Virus particles bud of from the cell surface membrane of the host by exocytosis

10. Cell becomes infected and dies.

Dhanishan Indoi group leader, Shantal Holder and Patrina Ross

Transmission of AID’s
The HIV virus can only survive in the body fluids and is transmitted by the blood or semen. In
90% of cases the transmission is achieved by sexual contact. People can contract the disease as

• Intimate sexual contact-The disease was first associated with homosexual communities.

The disease passes from the infected partner to his/her unaffected partner and any other

• Infected blood entering the bloodstream - AID’s can be contracted by intravenous drug
users practicing self- injection by means of unsterilized needles and syringes.

Giving blood or blood products already infect with HIV.

Close contact between infected and non infected people through cuts and open wounds
has also been known to pass on the virus

• From mother to baby - An infected pregnant mother women can pass on the virus to her
baby through the placenta

Prevention Of AIDS

There's no vaccine to prevent HIV infection and no cure for AIDS. But it's possible to protect
yourself and others from infection. That means educating yourself about HIV and avoiding any
behavior that allows HIV-infected fluids — blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk —
into your body.

To help prevent the spread of HIV: Use a new contraceptive every time you have

• If you don't know the HIV status of your partner, use a new contraceptive every time
you have anal or vaginal sex. Women can use a female contraceptive.

• Use only water-based lubricants. Oil-based lubricants can weaken contraceptive and
cause them to break. During oral sex use a non lubricated, cut-open contraceptive or a
dental dam — a piece of medical-grade latex.
Dhanishan Indoi group leader, Shantal Holder and Patrina Ross

Consider the drug Truvada.

Use of the combination drug, Truvada can reduce the risk of sexually transmitted HIV
infection in those who are at high risk. Truvada is also used as an HIV treatment along
with other medications.

When used to help prevent HIV infection, Truvada is only appropriate if your doctor is
certain you don't already have an HIV infection. Your doctor should also test for hepatitis
B infection. If you have hepatitis B, your doctor should test your kidney function before
prescribing Truvada.

• Truvada must be taken daily, exactly as prescribed. Truvada should only be used along
with other prevention strategies, such as condom use every time you have sex, as it
doesn't protect against other sexually transmitted infections, and it can't provide complete
protection against HIV transmission. If you're interested in Truvada, talk with your
doctor about the potential risks and benefits of the drug.

(Truvada is an antiretroviral agent for HIV-1 and HIV-2, composed of emtricitabine and
tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. These two molecules are nucleoside reverse transcriptase

Truvada is an antiretroviral agent for HIV-1 and HIV-2, composed of emtricitabine and
tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. These two molecules are nucleoside reverse transcriptase
inhibitors. Truvada is an antiretroviral agent for HIV-1 and HIV-2, composed of
emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. These two molecules are nucleoside
reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

• Tell your sexual partners if you have HIV-It's important to tell anyone with whom
you've had sex that you're HIV-positive. Your partners need to be tested and to receive
medical care if they have the virus. They also need to know their HIV status so that they
don't infect others.

• Use a clean needle- If you use a needle to inject drugs, make sure it's sterile and don't
share it. Take advantage of needle-exchange programs in your community and consider
seeking help for your drug use.
Dhanishan Indoi group leader, Shantal Holder and Patrina Ross
• If you're pregnant, get medical care right away- If you're HIV-positive, you may pass
the infection to your baby. But if you receive treatment during pregnancy, you can cut
your baby's risk significantly.

• Consider male circumcision- There's evidence that male circumcision can help reduce a
man's risk of acquiring HIV.

Treatment and prevention

AIDS is caused be a virus and while bacteria can be controlled by antibiotics, these are
not effective against viruses. Most treatments are therefore limited to reliving symptoms.

• Restoring or improving the damaged immune system of victims-Strengthening of the

immune system will help to improve body cells to combat the virus suppressor T – cells

• Developing drugs that will stop the growth of the virus and also treat the other
infections and symptoms that result from HIV infection-

Ribavirin - Has been used against influenza and other viruses in many countries, and
against more viruses and in more animals that any other agent

• Developing a vaccine against the virus-There is no vaccine up to this date as the virus is
very difficult to combat

• In studies it has been found to inhibit replication of the AIDS virus and increase the
number of T4 cells without damaging the infected cells
Dhanishan Indoi group leader, Shantal Holder and Patrina Ross

• Economic Impacts of AIDS

• Quality of work declines with those who are infected and it causes a reduced labor

• There is a decrease in GDP which can decrease more rapidly over time

• People living with HIV/Aids will be unable to work, and require a significant amount of
medical care. It is possible that this will cause a collapse of economies of countries with a
significant HIV infected population

ARV’s are expensive, can incur cost on the individual that may lead to other aspects of life
requiring funding to be neglected

Social impacts of aids

• Many time the poor classes are exposed to Aids and are unable to buy necessary

• Aids causes the burden of families as the as parents may die and the children are sent
away to live with family members

• Households without income earners may result due to the debilitating ability of the
disease overtime.

• Loss of income, expenses related to additional care, the reduced ability of caregivers to
work, growing medical fees push affected households deeper into poverty. An

• In the work place it causes increased absenteeism.

• Those infected may face discrimination and may not be able to lead normal lives if others

• Those affected have to be careful so as not to infect others with breaks in the skin

References -A level Biological science text book and the world health organization