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UNIT 5 Macnetic EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT 5.1_ Introduction In the earlier chapter, we have studied the heating and chemical effects of an electric current. In the present chapter, we shall study the magnetic effect of an electric current. During 1819-20, a science teacher H.C. Oerstead discovered that the magnetic field is produced by an electric current in opposite to that the scientists named Michael Faraday, Andre Ampere etc. had produced an electric current from the magnetic field. It was proved from many experiments that electricity and magnetism are associated with each other. This branch of physics that covers universal study of electricity and magnetism is called electromagnetic or electrodynamics. The electromagnetic principles are widely used in loud speaker, electric motor, magnetic train (maglev), hard disk of ‘computer, communication etc. In the present chapter, we shall study the characteristics of magnetic field produced by electric current carrying conducting wire, coil, solenoid and the Faraday’s experiments induced by magnetic field. In addition, we shall obtain the primary idea about electric motor and electric generator based on the principle of magnetism, 5.2 Magnetic Field and Magnetic Field Lines ‘Students, you have seen a bar magnet in the laboratory. You have studied about it in the Standard 8. A bar magnet has two magnetic poles : (1) North pole (N) and (2) South pole (S). When a bar magnet is suspended freely through the string, the pole which becomes steady toward the north pole of an earth is called north pole (N) of a magnet and the other pole is called south pole (S). A repulsive force is resulted on bringing N-N or S-S poles of two different magnets nearer to each other while the attractive force is produced on bringing N-S poles. Magnetism of magnets is maximum at their poles. ‘The magnetic force is represented by a magnetic field. ‘A magnetic needle experiences deflection when it is placed in the region near a bar magnet. ‘Thus, a magnetic force experienced around the region of a magnet is called a magnetic field of a magnet. The magnetic ficld lines can be drawn to describe or to study this magnetic field. ‘The magnetic field lines are the pictorial representation of a magnetic field. At first, we shall see how the field lines of a bar magnet can be drawn with the help of the following activity. For this activity, you need a bar magnet, magnetic needle, a white paper, a drawing board and a pencil. Place the white paper on a drawing board, then pat the magnet in centre and mark its position with pencil. Now, place a magnetic needle near the north pole of a magnet. You will see that its south pole will be in the direction of magnetic north, pole and the north pole of magnetic needle will be in the outward direction from the magnet. “Mark the position of these two ends of magnetic needle with the pencil. In Figure 5.1 points A. and B indicate the position of south and north pole respectively. ‘Now arrange the magnetic needle such that the south pole of needle is arranged on point B. In this position, mark the position (Point C) of north pole of magnetic needle. Thus, mark the positions of north pole of magnetic needle up to south pole of magnet by arranging it atthe positions one after the other. Now draw a curve joining all of these points. This curve shows a magnetic field lines of a magnet. Draw magnetic field lines by placing a magnetic needle at different possible positions, This magnetic field lines show a magnetic field around the magnet. ‘The magnetic field lines for a bar ‘magnet are shown in Figure 5.2 Now let us see some characteristics of these magnetic field lines : (1) The magnetic field lines of a ‘magnet start from the north pole (N) and reach to the south pole (S) and these lines are in the direction from south pole (S) to Mig, 5.2 Magnetic field lines thenorth pole (N) inside the magnet. Thus, smd they form close loops. mare (2) The region in which the field Lines are at close distance to each other has a strong magnetic field and if the field lines are at far distance from each other, the region has a weak magnetic field. Near the poles of a magnet the field lines are at close distance from each other so there is a strong, magnetic field. (3) The magnetic field is a vector quantity. So it has a magnitude and a direction both. The tangent drawn at any point of a magnetic field line (that means the direction of magnetic needle at that point) shows the direction of magnetic field at that point. (4) Magnetic field lines do not intersect each other. 53 Magnetic Field Due to a Current Carrying Straight Conductor In 1819, a science teacher H.C. Oerstead in a school in Denmark investigated that when an electric current is passed through the conducting wire, a magnetic field is produced in a region around it, We shall obtain its explanation through an activity. ‘As shown in Figure 5.3 (a), connect a straight conducting copper wire in series with battery and a key. Arrange a magnetic needle on a copper wire and arrange the wire such that it remains parallel to the magnetic needle. Now make the electric current to flow through the wire by closing a key in the circuit and observe the magnetic needle, You will see the deflection in a magnetic needle (Figure 5.3 (b). On reversing the polarity of a battery in the circuit, the current will flow through the wire inareverse direction, magnetic needle will also move in the opposite direction, From this activity, we can say that, on passing the electric current through the wire it acts as a magnet and it possesses its own magnetic field so that the magnetic needle gets deflected. On reversing the direction of electric current, the direction of magnetic field is also reversed. Deflection in a magnetic needle ‘Tounderstand the characteristics of magnetic field and the field lines of current carrying conductor perform the following activity :