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Z. L.

Gong
A Constitutive Model for Metals
Monac International Corp.,
Winnipeg Manitoba, Canada R3B 1Y6 Subjected to Cyclic Creep
This paper presents a constitutive model which can be used to predict creep strains
T. R. Hsu and rupture lives of engineering materials undergoing entire creep process, including
Professor and Head, primary, secondary, and tertiary stages. The model is constructed on the basis of
Department of Mechanical Engineering, two evolution rules: (1) the continuum damage evolution, and (2) the evolution
University of Manitoba, of internal stresses. It can be used for materials subjected to either static or cyclic
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N2.
Mem. ASME
creep loadings. Excellent correlations of computed results from the proposed model
and those measured from specimens made of 316L stainless steel and 2024-T4
aluminium alloy were obtained.

1 Introduction
Many machines, such as gas turbines, supersonic aircraft constitutive models have been proposed by researchers to sim-
engines, and nuclear reactors, are designed to operate at high ulate the behavior of materials under specific circumstances.
temperature and are subjected to varying loading conditions. Hart [9], Miller [10], Mroz [11], Mura [12], Leckie and Hay
Structural integrity of these machines must be maintained dur- hurst [13], and Krajcinovic [14] are just a few of them. The
ing operation times. Cyclic creep involving frequent loading bulk of the studies reported, however, have dealt with creep
and unloading in structural materials has thus become a major rules for secondary creep or cyclic creep with short hold and
concern in the design process. dwell times. Little work has been done in the area of cyclic
Many researchers have found that the creep behavior of a creep rupture involving cyclic creep acceleration at elevated
material under cyclic loading is different from that under con- temperature and long dwell times.
stant loading. Cyclic creep acceleration is one of such behaviors In this study, a phenomenological model has been developed
observed in aluminum [1], copper [2], and high temperature from mechanical tests and microstructure examinations on two
alloys[3,4]. Meshii et al. [5] tested aluminum, copper and iron selected engineering materials. This model can be used to sim-
at different stresses, temperatures and cycle periods. Their test ulate the creep deformation and cyclic creep acceleration of
results indicated that cyclic creep acceleration generally existed materials at elevated temperature under cyclic loading.
when the applied stress and temperature were above certain
levels. The effect of dwell times on the creep behavior of
materials was investigated by Lubahn [3], who tested Cr-Mo- 2 Experimental Observations
V steel at 534 °C for a two-step loading case. The results showed A number of cyclic creep tests on aluminum alloy and stain-
that after 96 hours of recovery at zero stress, the material less steel were conducted under various stresses, temperatures,
became less creep resistant. The creep strain rate after reloading and loading histories. The completed experimental work is
was higher than that prior to unloading. Similar phenomenon reported elsewhere [15, 16], Following is a brief review of the
were observed by Matlock et al. [6] from their tests on single
phase aluminum and multiphase copper. Their results indicated results.
that under repeated creep at elevated temperature, a large For aluminum alloy under cyclic loadings, a transient creep
amount of transient creep strain was observed after reloading. period was recorded when the specimen was reloaded after a
A significant increase in minimum creep rate during steady- long period of dwell time. Similar with that observed by Mot-
state creep after reloading can also be observed in Fig. 5 of lock [6], the transient creep strain was found to be much greater
reference [6]. The measured transient creep strain was thirty than the anelastic strain produced during the zero load dwell
times larger than the anelastic strain. Similar results were also time. The minimum creep rate following the transient creep
obtained by Brown [7] on an aluminum alloy at elevated tem- period showed significant increase over that in the previous
perature under multiaxial cyclic stress conditions. loading cycle. As a consequence of the accumulation of the
transient creep strains and the increase of minimum strain rate,
Design analysis involving creep or cyclic creep may be solved the material exhibited substantial acceleration in their creep
by using computational methods, such as the finite element deformations in subsequent cycles. Figure 1 shows the creep
method. In such case, the validity of the analytical results is strains in aluminum alloy under cyclic and constant loadings
dependent on how accurately the constitutive model can predict measured in the authors' laboratory. One may readily observe
the actual material behavior under these service conditions, that significantly higher creep strains were measured under
especially under cyclic loading conditions [8]. A number of cyclic loading case. Experimental results also showed that a
longer period of dwell times resulted in more creep deformation
Contributed by the Materials Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF
of the material and accelerated the creep process. Creep ac-
ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received by the Mate- celeration not only affected the total creep strain of the ma-
rials Division May 14, 1990; recused manuscript received January 3, 1991. terial, but also reduced the rupture time of the specimen as

Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology OCTOBER 1991, Vol. 113/419


Copyright © 1991 by ASME
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r~ ff 94MP0, 2 0 0 C is based on an assumption that the state of the material is
defined in terms of the current dislocation structures and the
distribution of micro-cavities. Dislocations are introduced into
/CYCLIC the material by a series of cutting, displacing, and resealing
0 8 38 46 76 84 (hr) / operations, which usually occur during inelastic deformation.
The nucleation and growth of micro-cavities are considered to
T=200°C / STATIC / be the primary factors which influence the resistance of ma-
terial in a geometrical sense, as one may imagine the material
being scooped out from these cavities and spread evenly along,
in most cases, the grain boundaries. This is what is generally
called the damage process.
TERTIARY CREEP y^ ^ y ^
START 7*. ^ S ^ ^ Various forms of damage theories have been widely dis-
cussed by many researchers [17, 20]. Different definitions of
the damage, in the form of macroscale parameter, are proposed
by a number of individuals [21]. The damage parameter used
/ - < l , 1 i 1 i l i 1 i 1 I l l
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 in this study is to describe the general degradation of the
LOADING TIME ( hr ) material under creep stress.
Fig. 1 Creep strain curves under constant and cyclic loadings For materials crept at elevated temperature, the damage
parameter D may be assumed as a scalar quantity. This implies
illustrated in Fig. 1. It was observed that the longer the dwell that the degradations of the material are uniform throughout
time the shorter the rupture life of the material. the entire structure.
Measured peak internal stresses during the secondary creep From the strain energy point of view, damage is an irre-
of each loading cycle showed a continuous reduction in mag- versible dissipation process. A damage process in a material
nitudes after every subsequent loading cycle. The reduction of during creep deformation must be accompanied by strain en-
the internal stresses is considered as an explicit factor for cyclic ergy dissipation. In other words, the variation of energy dis-
creep acceleration. sipation may reflect the physical process in creep damage.
Examinations of microstructural change in crept specimens Based on this view and assume the total strain energy in a unit
showed that repeated stress in a cyclic creep test can result in volume during creep is U,, with the following relationship
an increase of the mobility of dislocation segments. Remo-
bilization of dislocations provides the means that is required U,= Ue+Up (1)
to overcome obstacles in the slip plane. Cross slip of primary in which Ue and Up are the respective elastic and plastic strain
mobile screw dislocations in a cyclic creep test may be aided energy, the damage strain energy rate may be defined as
by the internal stress during the unloading portion of a loading
cycle. Dislocations impeded by microdefects, such as precip- dU,
1=
itates, may bow out under high stress after reloading, and 3D
finally form dislocation loops around them. The areas around
precipitates become the regions with high concentration of
dislocation. As a result, cavities are initiated in the intersection dUe dUp
(2)
of matrix and precipitates. The nucleation of voids adjacent ' dD + 3D
to the precipitates reduced the coherency between the matrix
The first term in the right-hand side of (2) represents the
and precipitates. This caused degradation and reduction of
elastic damage strain energy release rate [21]. Let us call this
creep resistance of the material, resulting in creep strain ac-
term the brittle damage, and express the brittle damage force
celeration. One may thus conclude that creep acceleration is
induced by two mechanisms. The first relates to the density Pi as
of mobile dislocations, and the second is the increasing of
nucleation rate of cavities. 'Pl~2dD (3)

A constitutive model is proposed on the basis of extensive Following Lemaitre [22], equation (3) may be expressed as
creep testing on 316L stainless steel and 2024-T4 aluminum
alloy. A kinematic variable is introduced in the model to reflect a1
-Pr- (4)
the damage in the material. Another parameter, internal stress 2E(\-Dy
R, is introduced for the description of the effects of the mobile
The second term on the right-hand side of (2) represents the
dislocation density.
ductile damage. The ductile damage force P2 is defined as
3 The Damage Law 1 dUD
-Pi = (5)
Constitutive relations based on the concept of material dam- n 3D
age during creep deformation have evolved from works by where Up = <jij'efj is the dissipation energy rate. Considering
Rabotnov [17], Krajcinovic [19], and Leckie [18]. This concept that only the active creep process may affect damage accu-

Nomenclature
D = damage parameter
E = modulus of elasticity Ttemperature
Pi = brittle damage force U,total strain energy
P2 = ductile damage force Ueelastic strain energy
R = internal stress plastic strain energy
Rs = internal stress at steady state
uP
a applied stress
creep ec creep strain
Ru = internal stress after full recov- ' c creep strain rate
e
ery A, B, k, n,p, r0, a, (3, X = material constants

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mulation, the creep strain rate for a simple one dimensional 4 Constitutive Model for Cyclic Creep
case may be expressed as A constitutive model which can be used for materials
undergoing all three creep stages under either static or cyclic
- (BY loadings is proposed. It is evolved from both the damage con-
cept as presented above and the flow rate evolution equation
which leads to: such as the well-known Norton's law. This constitutive model
takes the form:
Up = akc = A
a-R
--A sign(a-R) (13)
l-D
By differentiating the above .expression with respect to D and
substituting it into (5), one will obtain: where R is the internal stress, D is the damage parameter, A,
n are material parameters which are functions of temperature,
-R and "sign" is the sign function which is defined as: sign(X) = 1,
(6)
l-D l-D i f ^ > 0 ; s i g n ( A O = - l , i f A r <0.
For the case of isotropic damage of material in which the If one assumes the internal stress, R, to be dependent on
potential function of dissipation involves four variables, 0*(Pi, inelastic deformation and the viscous recovery process, then
P2, e, 7), the damage rate can be expressed by the normality the evolution rule should represent both creep hardening and
property of the potential function as softening behavior and also reflect the plastic and viscous
recovery processes. By following the suggestion by Mroz [25],
the evolution rule may be expressed as
(
dPi~ dP, dP2 '
R = Bl(Rs-Rf 6C (14)
Considering the potential as a power function of P\ and P2
and ensuring the nonexplicit dependency of D on time, one where Rs is the maximum value of R reached during the steady
has: state creep under the stress a; Bt and p are material parameters
which are functions of temperature.
During the primary creep process, R increases from an initial
(8)
3 /o+l value and gradually approaches Rs. Once the maximum value
is reached, it will remain unchanged unless the applied load is
where \i, X, and r0 are material parameters. The damage law
changed. The maximum value, Rs is kept in the material mem-
can thus be derived from (7) as
ory as a new creep process commences.
,A f1 a a -R\r°n ( a V° During an active creep process, R reaches an asymptotic
T±-—- l-D + Xi
D = IE l-D l-D (9) value, Rs, which in general is a function of applied stress, a.
Thus, for any fixed stress level, the material tends to deform
where \\ = \A. by following a steady creep process with a constant creep rate.
The first term on the right-hand side of equation (9) rep- If, on the other hand, the active creep process is interrupted
resents the brittle damage controlled by mechanisms as dif- by unloading and the creep recovery process proceeds, a new
fusion controlled void growth and the second term represents count of Ru should be made starting from zero. For a completed
ductile damage induced by the accumulation of mobile dis- unloading case, i.e., the load is completely removed, creep
locations and cavitations due to plastic sliding, etc. The ap- recovery takes place. The evolution rule for the recovery of
pearance of the internal stress, R, in the damage rule implies the internal stress R may be modified to the form:
that the damage rate of a material is affected by the accu-
mulation of the mobile dislocation density. The parameter, r0, Ru = B2(Rr-Ruf (15)
known as the ductile damage index, may vary from zero to where Ru is the internal stress recovery rate; Rr = R0-Rj is the
unity. internal stress reached at the onset of unloading; R, is the
For the extreme case, in which rQ = 0, equation (9) is reduced irrecoverable internal stress developed during the active creep
to the form: process; and B2 and k are material parameters which are func-
tions of temperature.
D- /* :+X, (10) The recoverable internal stress Ru increases steadily during
2EI-D the recovery process until it reaches a value that is equivalent
. This is a linear relation between the stress and damage rate to the fraction of the recoverable internal stress developed
D. Similar models were suggested by Ashby and Dyson [23], during active creep. At this moment the residual internal stress
and Hutchinson [24] to describe unconstrained and diffusion should have a value of R0 - Ru.
control damage growth. For the case of r0=l, equation (9) As observed in our experimental results, strength of a ma-
becomes terial is affected by dwell times under cyclic creep. These dwell
a-R times are considered as major contributors to the softening
D= JL + Ai (11) behavior of a material during the creep unloading events. The
l-D IE l-D
duration of dwell times is considered to influence the maximum
-R internal stress after reloading. When a material is reloaded
Usually, X, » — - , so equation (11) may be ex- after a period of dwell time Atd, the evolution rule of R in
l-D 2E equation (14), remains unchanged for the subsequent active
pressed as Creep process, but the value of Rs is modified by the following
rule
-R
D = \, (12)
l-D l-D
R^ = R?] 1+0 At, (16)
or
-R where / ? f is the peak value of the internal stress from the
D= \ previous loading cycle, a„, is the threshold creep stress for
l-D cyclic softening, and (3, a are material parameters. If (3<0,
This expression is similar to the model proposed by Lemaitre material softening occurs, otherwise the material hardens due
[22] for ductile damage of materials at high temperature. to the stress cycling.

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Substituting the value R(sl) determined in equation (16) into Table 1 Material parameters for aluminum alloy and stainless
equation (14), one will get the evolution rate of the internal steel
stress during second loading cycle. parameters a l u m i n u m alloy stainless steel
R^BiR^-Rfe0 (17) A (MPaTir""1 ) 6.85e-12 5.16e" 1 5
n 4.6 5.8
This procedure can carry on to obtain the evolution rate of 5 1 (MPa'-' p ) 580.2 75.2
internal stress in the subsequent loading cycles. P 0.79 0.78
Equation (15) can also be used for partial unloading during r0 0.98 0.88
a creep process. In this case Rr is represented by: C, ( M P a ^ ' h r 2.05e-10 2.15e-'4
C2 (MPa-'o*"-* », 1.17e- 1 2 2.61e~ 1 5
Rr = R0-R% a 0.87 0.56
0 (MPa~'hr- ') -0.032 -0.018
where R% is the peak internal stress corresponding to the B2 (MPa - *) 0.81
subsequent applied stress.
30
5 Determination of Material Constants COMPUTED RESULTS
27
" o 234 MPa
OOOEXPERIMENTDATA
The material parameters appeared in equation (13) can be
determined from a group of constant creep test in which creep
24 - of o / 221 MPa
strains are recorded as a function of time. The normal pro- 5? 21 o.
o/ Oi 193 MPa
cedure to obtain A and n is from the curves plotted in terms Z 18
of log(es) versus log(<j-i?) by assuming D » 0 at the beginning °s
of the steady state creep. Thus n can be determined by the
<
Z '5
slope of the curve and A is determined by the interception of in
Q. 12_ /
the curve to the Y-axis. Here, e s is the strain rate during steady UJ
state creep. w „
CC 9 165 M P a ^ .
O
Determination of parameters Bx and p in equation (14) is o C" 5
6
not straightforward, as the evolution of the internal stress ^«——o" —5 "
cannot be measured continuously during a cyclic creep process. 3
In such case, one needs to rewrite equation (14) as A. &* 1 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1
0 33 66 9 9 132 165 198 231 264 297 330 363
dR=Bi(Rs-Rfdec (18)
TIME (hr)
By integrating the above equation and noting that R=RS at Fig.2 Creep curves of stainless steel under constant loadings at 650°C
the inception of the steady-state creep, one will obtain a linear
relationship:
where t0, Rso are the respective rupture time and peak internal
(l-p)logRs = logBl(l-p) + logec0 (19)
stress corresponding to the stress, <J0.
in a logarithm coordinate system. By plotting the lines in terms By plotting the values of log(^// 0 ) against those of
of logCRj) versus log(eo), in which eji is the creep strain at the
inception of the steady-state creep starts, one can determine 1°§ (~~7 vi—)» o n e c a n obtain the value of r0 from the
the values/? and B\. \ <.o-Rs) a )
The parameters, B2 and k, in equation (15), are selected by slope of the line and then find X through equation (21).
a trial and error approach to fit the computed curve to the Material parameters for 2024 aluminum alloy and 316L
experiment data measured after a complete unloading. The stainless steel were determined following the procedures as
damage parameter D was taken to be constant in this case. described above. Numerical values of these parameters are
The least square technique can be used to fit the data plotted presented in Table 1.
in term of internal stress versus dwell time, Atj for the deter-
mination of the parameters, a. and /3, in equation (16). 6Description of Creep Deformation
The conventional technique for determining the parameters Comparisons of the computed results using equation (13)
in the damage law is to use creep rupture data. A simple case and experimental data for stainless steel under uniaxial con-
will be presented to illustrate this procedure. stant creep are shown in Fig. 2. The predicted results closely
As discussed in the previous section, the first term of equa- match the experimental data for a wide range of stress levels.
tion (9) may be neglected for a ductile material, so the damage These results also demonstrate an important fact that the pro-
evolution rule may be rewritten as: posed model is capable of describing entire creep histories of
(1 - Z>)'o<"+ ». dD = \(a - R)"r° • </<>dt (20) materials including primary, secondary and tertiary stages.
The creep recovery behavior of the aluminum alloy is de-
Assuming the variation of internal stress at the primary stage picted in Fig. 3 for a case in which the specimen was loaded
is negligible, i.e., R can be treated as a constant. Equation for 8 hours proceeding a complete unloading.
(20) can be integrated to yield: Computed results for an 8-hour/45-hour (8-hour hold time-
an r followed by a 45-hour dwell time) are presented in Fig. 4.
-•\(a-RY a °t (21) There is a clear evidence of creep acceleration in the specimen
r0n + r0+l
after it was reloaded after a 45-hour dwell time.
When rupture takes place at D = 1, the rupture time can be Comparison of the computed results for the Al-alloy under
found from the above equation with the substitution of Rs to cyclic creep with 8-hour/30-hour and 8-hour/60-hour loading
R, resulting in: patterns are depicted in Fig. 5. The recovery processes during
the dwell periods have not been plotted out. Only the envelope
1
tn
R = (22) of active creep is presented.
(r0n + r0+l)\(a-Rsy<>'V<> The rupture life of a material may be predicted by this model
through numerical computation. The rupture criterion used in
the prediction is D~DC, in which the Dc is defined as the critical
(aQ — Rso) Co damage parameter. A total material failure is assumed when
\og(tR/t0) = r0log (23)
{.a-Rs)"a this condition is satisfied.

422 / V o l . 113, OCTOBER 1991 Transactions of the ASME

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O O EXPERIMENT DATA A COMPUTED

COMPUTED RESULTS O EXPERIMENTAL

< o
Q.
S
<S> 100 -
»^b

STR
STRESS DROP = 94 MPa

i
= 108 MPa

i
i
_1_ _1_ _1_
) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 i i i l , , i l l i I I

3
100 500
TIME (min)
RUPTURE TIME (hr)
Fig. 3 Anelasfic strains for Al-alloy at 200°C
Fig. 6 Correlation of computed and measured rupture time for Al-alloy
at 200°C
-
120
o.
• OOO EXPERIMENTAL DATA 1o no
" COMPUTED RESULTS 1o
/° °/ O EXPERIMENTAL
o / o/
- 1° 0 / A COMPUTED

At = 6 0 h r 1° °/ A/t = 30 hr
o /
)/STATIC
/
a.
o

o ° 7 i , 1 . 1 , 1 , 1 1 1 1 1 1 , 1 ,
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
LOADING TIME (hr) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Fig. 4 Cyclic creep behavior of Al-alloy with a loading pattern of 8-hr DWELL TIME ( hr)
hold/45-hr dwell cycles. Fig. 7 Correlation of computed and measured rupture time for Al-alloy
under cyclic creep loadings at 94 MPa, 200°C

3.8 percent occurs in the case of 60 hours dwell time. A minimum


3.2 9 4 MPc , 2 0 0 ° C error of -1.6 percent is predicted for the case of 30 hours
ooo EXPERIMENTAL DATA dwell time.
g2'8 COMPUTED RESULTS
Z 2.4 7 Summary and Conclusions
< The proposed constitutive model is established on the basis
f 2.0
of the continuum damage theory. This model involves two
evolution rules: the evolution rule for internal stress which
UJ
S 1.2
describes the hardening and recovery behavior of materials
under cyclic loading, and the damage evolution rule which
0.8 includes both brittle and ductile creep damage processes. Under
cyclic creep, the internal stress variation contributes signifi-
0.4
cantly to the ductile damage process. The acceleration of strain
O 30 60 90 120 ISO 180 210 240 270 300
rate observed during reloading is perceived as a result of a
TIME (hr)
decrease in the maximum internal stress occurred during the
proceeding loading cycle.
Fig. 5 Comparison of computed and measured creep strains for Al-
alloy under static and cyclic loadings at 94 MPa, 200°C The constitutive law derived from this model has shown to
be useful for the study of cyclic creep and creep rupture. It is
capable of describing creep deformation of engineering ma-
The critical value Dc may differ from one engineering ma- terials during entire creep process including the primary, sec-
terial to another. Numerically, it may vary from 0.2 to 1.0, ondary, and tertiary states. Creep recovery, creep acceleration,
depending on the material and the temperature. The values of and rupture life of the materials under cyclic loading can also
Dc for aluminum alloy and stainless steel are selected as 0.8 be predicted. Correlations of computed results from the pro-
and 0.9, respectively. The predicted rupture time for Al-alloy posed model with experiment data were excellent.
under monotonic loads (65 MPa, 94 MPa and 108 MPa) are The one-dimensional model as presented in this paper can
presented in Fig. 6. Deviations from the predicted rupture times be readily extended to handle three dimensional cases [15].
are 5.6, 4, and 9.5 percent, respectively. The predicted rupture Determination of the parameters in three-dimensional cases
times for the aluminum alloy under cyclic loading with various and the implementation of this model into a finite element
dwell times are presented in Fig. 7. A maximum error of 12.5 program will be the future development of this research.

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Acknowledgment tonic and Cyclic Loading," ASME JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND
TECHNOLOGY, Apr. 1983, Vol. 105, pp. 113-118.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support 12 Mura, T., Novakovic, A., and Meshii, M., " A Mathematical Model of
by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Cyclic Creep Acceleration," Mater. Sci. and Engine, Vol. 17, 1975, pp. 221-
Canada to this research work. They also wish to thank Dr. 225.
13 Leckie, F. A., and Hayhurst, D. R., "Constitutive Equations for Creep
Dutton of Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment for his Rupture," Acta. Metall., Vol. 25, 1977, pp. 1059-1070.
valuable advice on the metallurgical aspects of this investi- 14 Krajcinovic, D., and Selvaraj, S., "Creep Rupture Of Metals—An Ana-
gation. lytical Model," ASME JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGY,
Vol. 106, Oct. 1984, pp. 405-409.
15 Gong, Z. L., " O n the Constitutive Equations for Selected Engineering
Metals Subjected to Cyclic Creep," Ph. D. thesis, Univ. of Manitoba, Canada,
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