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Acknowledgements

This report was produced in the Policy Analysis and Research Branch of UNODC, under the supervision of
Sandeep Chawla, Angela Me (Statistics and Surveys Section) and Thibault le Pichon (Studies and Threat
Analysis Section).

Field research:
Kendra Spangler and Rogelio Quintero (Data collection and research for Mexico, Central America and the
Caribbean); Marina Oliveria and Adriana Maia (Data collection and research for South America); Thierno
Gueye and Olatunde Olayemi (Data collection and research for West and Central Africa); Nihal Fahmy and
Shereen Soliman (Data collection and research for North Africa and the Middle East); Sarah Simons (Data
collection and research for East Africa); Carol Allais (Data collection and research for Southern Africa);
Hayder Mili and Cheryl Brooks (Data collection and research for Eastern Europe, Central Asia and Afghani-
stan); Deepika Naruka and Marie Erickson (Data collection and research for South Asia); Alexia Taveau (Data
collection and research for East Asia and the Pacific); and Kauko Aromaa, Anniina Jokinen, Martti Lehti,
Elina Ruuskanen, Terhi Viljanen and Minna Viuhko from HEUNI (Data collection and research for Western
and Central Europe, Canada and United States of America).
Particular appreciation and gratitude go to the UNODC Field Offices Representatives and staff for the sup-
port they provided during the data collection phase.

Research coordination and report preparation:
Fabrizio Sarrica (Lead researcher, data collection coordination, data analysis and global overview), Michael
Jandl (Consultant, data analysis and coordination) and Cristiano Borneto (Intern, data entry).
Anja Korenblik (Programme and publication management), Shannon Brown (Contractor, language editing),
Suzanne Kunnen (design and desktop publishing) and Kristina Kuttnig (design and desktop publishing).
The support and inputs of Anna Alvazzi del Frate, Philip Davis, Theodore Leggett, Steven Malby and
Wolfgang Rhomberg are also gratefully acknowledged, as well as the contributions from other colleagues in
the UN.GIFT Secretariat at UNODC, the Anti-Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling Unit of UNODC
and the Organized Crime and Criminal Justice Section of UNODC.
UNODC reiterates its appreciation and gratitude to Member States for the reports and the information that
provided the basis for this publication, as well as to the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Inter-
national Organization for Migration (IOM) and the many non-governmental organizations around the world
which kindly shared their information with UNODC.
UNODC would also like to thank UN.GIFT and the United Arab Emirates for the financial support provided
for the preparation and publication of this report.
Coverphoto: © UNICEF
Explanatory notes

This report has been produced without formal
editing.
The designations employed and the presentation
of the material in this publication do not imply
the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the
part of the Secretariat of the United Nations
concerning the legal status of any country, terri-
tory, city or area of its authorities, or concerning
the delimitation of its frontiers and boundaries.
Countries and areas are referred to by the names
that were in official use at the time the relevant
data were collected.

The following abbreviations have been used
in this report:
CIS Commonwealth of MENA Middle East and Nord Africa
Independent States
NGO Non-governmental Organization
CTS United Nations Surveys of Crime
OSCE Organization for Security and
Trends and Operations of Criminal
Co-operation in Europe
Justice Systems
TiP Trafficking in Persons
ECCAS Economic Community of Central
(Human Trafficking and Trafficking
African States
in Human Beings are also used)
ECOWAS Economic Community of West
UN.GIFT United Nations Global Initiative
African States
to Fight Human Trafficking
FBI Federal Bureau of
UAE United Arab Emirates
Investigation
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
HEUNI European Institute for Crime
Prevention and Control UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs
and Crime
ILO International Labour Organization
Interpol International Criminal Police In the report the terms children, boys and girls
Organization refer to people under 18 years old, and the terms
IOM International Organization for adults, men and women refer to persons who are
Migration 18 years old or above.

3
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

A knowledge crisis about a crime that shames us all
The term trafficking in persons can be mislead- First, over the past few years, the number of
ing: it places emphasis on the transaction aspects countries that have taken steps to implement the
of a crime that is more accurately described as foremost international agreement in this area -
enslavement. Exploitation of people, day after the UN Protocol against Trafficking in Persons
day. For years on end. - has doubled. However, there are still many
countries, particularly in Africa, that lack the
After much neglect and indifference, the world
necessary legal instruments.
is waking up to the reality of a modern form of
slavery. The public and the media are becoming Second, the number of convictions is increasing,
aware that humans prey upon humans for but not proportionately to the growing aware-
money. Parliaments are passing appropriately ness (and probably, size) of the problem. Most
severe laws. The judiciary is facing its anti-slav- convictions still take place in only a few coun-
ery responsibility, with more prosecutions and tries. While these countries may have human
convictions. Civil society and (to a lesser extent) trafficking problems more serious than others,
the private sector are mobilizing good-will and they are doing something about them. On the
resources to assist victims. other hand, as of 2007/08, two out of every five
Hearing this wake-up call, politicians as well as countries covered by this report had not recorded
ordinary people ask me two sets of questions. a single conviction. Either they are blind to the
First, they want to know how big the crime of problem, or they are ill-equipped to deal with it.
human trafficking really is: how many victims I urge governments and other stakeholders to
are there? Who are the traffickers, what are their call on UNODC expertise, including the recently
routes and their gains? What are the trends, published Toolkit to Combat Trafficking in Per-
namely is the problem getting ever more severe? sons, to show their commitment.
Why and where?
Third, sexual exploitation is by far the most
Second, people want to know what to do, indi- commonly identified form of human trafficking
vidually and collectively. Why aren’t govern- (79%), followed by forced labour (18%). This
ments and the United Nations, why aren’t we all, may be the result of statistical bias. By and large
doing more? Some people are even willing to the exploitation of women tends to be visible, in
mobilize personal resources to fight this crime: city centres, or along highways. Because it is
but for whom and how? more frequently reported, sexual exploitation
The first set of questions needs to be answered has become the most documented type of traf-
as a matter of priority. Only by understanding ficking, in aggregate statistics. In comparison,
the depth, breadth and scope of the problem can other forms of exploitation are under-reported:
we address the second issue, namely, how to forced or bonded labour; domestic servitude and
counter it. So far we have not attained much forced marriage; organ removal; and the exploi-
knowledge and therefore initiatives have been tation of children in begging, the sex trade, and
inadequate and disjointed. Policy can be effec- warfare.
tive if it is evidence-based, and so far the evi-
Fourth, a disproportionate number of women
dence has been scanty.
are involved in human trafficking, not only as
UNODC first attempted to identify human traf- victims (which we knew), but also as traffickers
ficking patterns in April 2006. This second report (first documented here). Female offenders have
goes a step further, cataloguing and analysing the a more prominent role in present-day slavery
world’s response, based on criminal justice and than in most other forms of crime. This fact
6 victim assistance data from 155 countries. A few needs to be addressed, especially the cases where
observations stand out, in lieu of conclusions. former victims have become perpetrators.
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Executive Summary
In 2007, UNODC conducted, in the frame- Another 16% had passed anti-trafficking laws
work of the United Nations Global Initiative to that cover only certain elements of the Protocol
Fight Human Trafficking (UN.GIFT), a study definition.2 In 2003, only one third of the coun-
on the state of the world’s response to the crime tries covered by this report had legislation against
of human trafficking. This report offers an human trafficking; at the end of 2008, four-
unprecedented view of the available information fifths did. The number of countries having anti-
on the state of the world’s response to human trafficking legislation more than doubled
trafficking, including near-comprehensive data between 2003 and 2008 in response to the pas-
on national legislative and enforcement activity. sage of the Protocol. In addition, 54% of
Over the course of a few months in 2007 and responding countries have established a special
2008, UNODC gathered information concern- anti-human trafficking police unit, and more
ing 155 countries and territories. With a few than half have developed a national action plan
notable exceptions, nearly all of the larger states to deal with this issue.
participated. This report summarizes this infor-
mation, starting with a discussion of the global Percentage of countries covered by this report
and regional figures and closing with country that have introduced a specific offence on traf-
profiles for participating nations. ficking in persons into their legislation

Of course, data on the response of states to 100%

human trafficking are only indirect indicators of 90%
28%
20%

the nature of the underlying problem. Countries 80%

with well-resourced criminal justice agencies 70% 65%
may show a great deal of activity even when 60%
human trafficking is relatively rare, while coun- 50%
tries with larger problems but less capacity may 40% 80%
72%
be unable to muster a proportionate response. 30%
But the material gathered here does illustrate 20% 35%
that, in a remarkably short time, tremendous 10%
progress has been made in combating a crime
0%
that was only recently widely acknowledged. It 2003 2006 Nov-08
also demonstrates that sharing human traffick- No specific offence
ing data on a global basis is possible and can Specific offence of trafficking in persons
yield valuable insights, despite the inherent lim-
itations of the criminal justice figures. Source: UNODC/UN.GIFT

The response to trafficking in persons Given that this legislative framework is very
new, it is remarkable that 91 countries (57% of
The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish
the reporting countries) reported at least one
Trafficking in Persons only came into effect in
human trafficking prosecution, and 73 countries
December 2003, but it has inspired widespread
reported at least one conviction. A core of 47
legislative response. As of November 2008, 63%
countries reported making at least 10 convic-
of the 155 countries and territories this report
tions per year, with 15 making at least five times
had passed laws against trafficking in persons
this number.
addressing the major forms of trafficking 1.

1 These laws criminalize, at the very least, sexual exploitation
8 and forced labour and have no restriction regarding the age or 2 For example, laws that are limited to sexual exploitation or
gender of the victim. only apply to female or child victims.
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

remain undetected. On the other hand, a large the destination countries. Based on the data col-
number of case studies can provide some inter- lected for this report, most of the offenders were
esting insights when compared across a range of citizens of the country where they were arrested.
countries and across time. The following sec- This suggests that local criminal networks acquire
tions discuss some of these insights. the victims and sell them to criminal networks
based in destination countries. This stands to
Gender, citizenship and forms reason since many source countries are relatively
of victimization poor with small foreign populations. Offenders
often endeavour to win the trust of the victims
Crime, organized crime in particular, is typically and use their local connections to threaten retal-
a male activity. Men make up over 90% of the iation against family members if victims resist.
prison populations of most countries and are Local people are better situated to acquire and
particularly over-represented as perpetrators of control victims.
violent crime. It might be assumed that human
trafficking, where violence and threats are keys However, in cases where the arrest took place in
to the business, would likewise be overwhelm- a high-income destination country, the offend-
ingly male dominated. But, surprisingly, the ers were more likely to be foreign than when the
data on the gender of those convicted for traf- arrest took place in a source country. In many
ficking in persons do not support this premise. instances, diaspora populations from source
regions may be used as a conduit for moving
The data gathered on the gender of offenders in victims into the countries where they will be
46 countries suggest that women play a key role exploited. This phenomenon also is seen in other
as perpetrators of human trafficking. In Europe, forms of transnational trafficking.
for example, women make up a larger share of
The data also can give some tentative insights
those convicted for human trafficking offences
into the profile of the victims. Victims of human
than for most other forms of crime.
trafficking were identified through the criminal
The criminal justice figures also shed light on justice process and through victims’ assistance
the nature of the transnational networks involved. organizations. Over 21,400 victims were identi-
To date, it has remained unclear whether human fied in 2006 among the 111 countries reporting
trafficking enterprises were driven primarily by victim data for that year. As with the offenders,
networks situated in the source countries or in the profile of the victims is highly influenced by

Proportion of females in convictions for trafficking in persons and for all crimes combined in Europe

60%
53%
50%

40%
30% 32%
30% 26% 28%
22% 23% 23%
21%
20% 18% 18%
12% 13% 14% 13%
9% 8% 9% 10% 9%
10%

0%
Germany

Slovakia

Czech

Cyprus

France

Latvia
Netherlands

Romania

Portugal

Hungary

Republic

TIP-Average 2003-2006 all crimes -average 2003-2006
10 Source: UNODC/UN.GIFT
Executive Summary

local laws and priorities, which often focus on their home country, was reported by 32 coun-
child victims and victims of sexual exploitation tries but is likely under-detected due to restric-
(usually women). With this caveat in mind, in tive definitions of trafficking or the greater
the 61 countries where the gender and age of the visibility of foreign victims. Even in countries
victim were specified, two thirds of the identi- reporting domestic trafficking, foreign victims
fied victims were women and 13% were girls. were almost always more numerous.

Profile of victims identified by State authorities Cross-border flows are not necessarily long dis-
in 61 countries where information was collected, tance flows. Much of the cross-border traffick-
aggregated for 2006 ing activity was between countries of the same
general region, particularly between neighbour-
ing countries. But there was also evidence of
Girls
13% intercontinental trafficking. Most remarkably,
Men victims from East Asia were detected in more
12%
than 20 countries in regions throughout the
world, including Europe, the Americas, the
Boys
9% Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. This sug-
gests that the trafficking of East Asians is a bit of
Women a phenomenon in itself and worthy of detailed
66% study. Other long distance flows include the
trafficking of African victims to locations in
Europe and North America; the trafficking of
Latin American victims to North America and
Europe; the trafficking of Central European,
Source: UNODC/UN.GIFT Eastern European and Central Asian victims to
Europe and the Middle East; and the trafficking
of South Asian victims to the Middle East.
In the 52 countries where the form of exploita-
tion was specified, 79% of the victims were sub- The need for continued monitoring
jected to sexual exploitation. While it remains
likely that labour exploitation and male victims Aside from these insights, the primary value of
are relatively under-detected, the over-represen- this report has been to assess the information
tation of sexually exploited women is true across available, to highlight what is not known and to
regions, even in countries where other forms of suggest how information-gathering systems
trafficking are routinely detected. could be improved. Looking at the data received,
there is a clear need for an international stand-
Human trafficking flows ardization of definitions along the lines sug-
gested by the Protocol. Too often, even similarly
Criminal justice data alone cannot give a sense
situated countries with compatible legal systems
of the scale of human trafficking flows, but it
are counting different things. There is also a
can give some idea about source and destination
need to encourage Member States to collect
countries. Victims and perpetrators may be
more and better information on the state of
detected in source, transit or destination coun-
human trafficking in their countries. Some
tries. The criminal justice data therefore provide
countries could cite the number of victims or
several independent sources of information on
offenders, for example, but had no data on the
where victims are being acquired and where they
are being transported. gender, age or citizenship of these people.
Domestic crimes that are tantamount to traf-
In most of the reported cases, victims were ficking are not being tallied in national totals.
moved across international borders. Domestic By setting the accounting agenda, it is possible 11
trafficking, or the exploitation of citizens in that lagging states could be encouraged to meet
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

their obligations to pass appropriate laws and in collection of the sort gathered in the present
thinking about the human trafficking problem survey (data on legal and institutional frame-
strategically. works; criminal justice statistics; and victim
service information). Such a mechanism also
One of the key unanswered questions remains: could work toward gathering more information
Just how big is the human trafficking problem on the market context for these crimes, includ-
globally? Without a sense of the magnitude of ing data on price and demand. Coordinated
the problem, it is impossible to prioritize human efforts require collective information systems,
trafficking as an issue relative to other local or and the global struggle against trafficking in
transnational threats, and it is difficult to assess persons needs knowledge to inform strategic
whether any particular intervention is having interventions.
effect. While coming to an estimation based on
the present data would be premature, it is incum-
bent on the international community to gather
the information necessary to fill this gap. Far
more knowledge is needed before the true size of
the market for human beings can be estimated,
but this information could be gathered through
a sustained programme of data sharing.
This report has demonstrated that international
monitoring of human trafficking trends and pat-
terns is possible and that a surprising wealth of
information is available. But it remains a pilot
for a project, one with much greater potential to
track the global phenomenon of human traffick-
ing and our collective efforts to address it. An
international mechanism to monitor trends and
patterns of trafficking in persons needs to be
established with the object of continuing data

Number of countries making data available to UNODC by topic
200

180

160

140

120

100

80 155
141 134
60 120 114
40
71
20

0
Legislation on Data on Data on Data on Data on Data on
TiP investigations prosecutions convictions identified victims sheltered victims
of TiP of TiP
12 Source: UNODC/UN.GIFT
Introduction and methodological note

the activity itself. Criminal justice data do not
Introduction and accurately represent the nature or the extent of
methodological note the underlying activity any more than a fisher-
man’s catch represents the state of the fish in the
It has been five years since the Protocol to Pre- sea. Some countries do not have specific legisla-
vent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Per- tion on human trafficking or do not criminalize
sons, Especially Women and Children 3 came some elements of the definition agreed in the
into effect, and the time is ripe for an assessment Protocol. Even countries with the appropriate
of progress. In March 2007, UNODC con- legislative framework vary tremendously in the
ducted, in the framework of the United Nations resources available for enforcement and the way
Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking these resources are targeted. Also, countries with
(UN.GIFT), a study on the state of the world’s the largest amounts of State activity may be
response to the crime of human trafficking. The atypical, their data far from being representative
research looked beyond the ratification of the of the global scene. Governments may legiti-
Protocol to ask how many countries had formu- mately note that the higher visibility of traffick-
lated national legislation and created supporting ing in a national criminal justice system may be,
institutions and how many investigations, pros- in large part, due to the significant importance
ecutions and convictions these efforts had pro- and priority a State places on responding to traf-
duced. This report presents the information ficking in persons.
gathered by 10 UNODC researchers from 155
countries and territories from September 2007 Nonetheless, it is of the utmost importance to
until July 2008. The information itself pertains our collective efforts to combat human traffick-
to the period 2003 to 2007. ing that data be shared over time in an interna-
tionally standardized way. A poor indicator is
These data show that the efforts of the interna- better than no indicator as long as it is not rep-
tional community to promote action on human resented as more than it is. Over time, the col-
trafficking resulted in a tremendous amount of lection of information from so many different
national activity, much of it very recent, to perspectives can, in aggregate, make up for many
combat the trade in human beings and to amel- of the deficiencies of the data itself. Our global
iorate its effects. At the same time, the research data set, reviewed time and again, can indeed
also revealed two related problems. The first is tell us something more about the trends and pat-
that some countries are not collecting even basic terns of the problem. This information is vital so
data, and many are not collecting data in a way that, in a world of limited resources, efforts can
that facilitates insight into the national situa- be focused for maximum effect.
tion, let alone meeting standards of international
comparability. The second problem is that the This research project has shown that many
information gathered does not shed light on the countries are willing to share data and that many
most fundamental question: Have all these have data to share. In addition to documenting
efforts been successful in reducing human traf- the substantial commitment a wide range of
ficking worldwide? countries have made to stop the trade in per-
sons, some modest insights can be gained into
This report is about the collective global response the hidden world of human trafficking. Institu-
to human trafficking. Due to the nature of the tionalizing this information-gathering in an
information collected, it can say much less about ongoing cooperative programme, similar to that
undertaken for drugs or to that used to monitor
3 The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organ- the implementation of the Trafficking Protocol
ized Crime and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish
Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, sup- within the framework of the Conference of the
plementing the United Nations Convention against Transna- Parties to the United Nations Transnational
tional Organized Crime can be downloaded at http://www.
unodc.org/pdf/crime/a_res_55/res5525e.pdf and http://www.
Organized Crime Convention, is clearly a pos- 13
unodc.org/pdf/crime/a_res_55/255e.pdf sibility and potentially an invaluable one.
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

1. Collecting the data data on more countries than has ever been assem-
bled before in one place. A complete listing of the
Collecting global data on any issue is no small countries covered, represented in Map 1, is
undertaking, and the process is more compli- appended to this report (Page 10).
cated still when the topic is one as controversial
and complex as human trafficking. In order to 2. What the data represents
break the picture down into manageable pieces,
10 researchers were assigned geographic regions The first category of information gathered – leg-
and were placed in appropriate UNODC field islative and institutional arrangements to combat
offices around the world.4 In addition, the UN- human trafficking – is at once simple and com-
affiliated European Institute for Crime Preven- plex. With regard to the national laws, one meas-
tion and Control (HEUNI) was asked to gather ure is for countries to be grouped into those with
data for Europe and North America. These a specific offence that criminalizes at least traf-
researchers contacted the relevant national gov- ficking in persons for the purposes of sexual
ernments and non-governmental organizations exploitation and forced labour and that have no
with the purpose of collecting the available data restriction regarding the age or the gender of the
under three subject areas: victim; those whose specific offence on traffick-
ing in persons is restricted to some forms of
Q Information on legislative and administra-
exploitation and to some category of victims
tive frameworks, including the status of anti-
trafficking laws; the creation of government (e.g., trafficking for sexual exploitation, child
victim protection and support programmes; trafficking) or without a clear definition of the
the establishment of special law enforcement offence; and those criminalizing trafficking in
units on trafficking in persons; and the draft- persons through other offences due to the absence
ing of national action plans to deal with the of a specific offence on trafficking in persons.
human trafficking problem. Beyond this basic measure, a more detailed legis-
Q Criminal justice data, including the number lative analysis than that made in this report
of investigations, arrests, prosecutions and would be necessary to evaluate the compliance of
convictions. the States’ laws with the Trafficking Protocol.
The purpose of gathering this category of infor-
Q Information on victim services, including the
number of victims identified by public au- mation was to establish whether countries crimi-
thorities and sheltered by service providers; nalize the minimum forms of exploitation
and the number of foreign victims returned included in the Trafficking Protocol.
to their home countries.
The second category of data has the advantage
In the end, information was collected for 155 of being quantifiable and is thus more concrete.
countries and territories, some more complete This category captures the application of the
than others. Still, this is a remarkable coverage laws, which is important because while interna-
rate given the topic, the timeframe and the tional pressure can compel legislative action, it is
resources available. It is difficult to generalize largely symbolic if the executive arm of govern-
about the countries that were not covered by this ment does not follow up. The goal is to provide
research. In some instances, researchers may not genuine deterrents to transnational anti-social
have been persistent enough, focusing their atten- activity, and this is not accomplished until some
tion on other countries. In other cases, countries offenders are actually convicted. It is impossible
formally declined to participate or failed to pro- to convict traffickers where there are no traffick-
vide all the available information. A few countries ers to convict, of course, and since there are no
had no information to contribute. In general, reliable estimates about the scale of human traf-
however, the researchers were able to gather more ficking, it would be thereby senseless to pre-
scribe some model level of criminal justice
4 The researchers were placed at UNODC field offices in Abuja,
14 Bangkok, Brasilia, Cairo, Dakar, Mexico City, Nairobi, New
activity. On the other hand, there are many parts
Delhi, Pretoria and Tashkent. of the world where human trafficking is known
Introduction and methodological note

to exist but where there is little or no law enforce- number of incidents compared to other coun-
ment response. tries. Even within a particular country, it is dif-
ficult to say whether a trend towards a greater or
These data also give us important clues about
lesser number of convictions is a result of true
the activity of human trafficking itself. Each
changes in the number of offences occurring or
charge laid gives some indication that a particu-
whether these variations are due to changes in
lar form of trafficking is present. Both the
the amount of attention given to the issue or the
offenders and their victims have an age, a gender
mechanisms for reporting the data. In the end,
and a nationality, so any given case provides an
the amount of criminal justice activity is a highly
example of who is trafficking whom. It is of
great interest to those involved in law enforce- ambiguous indicator.
ment that people from one corner of the world Luckily, criminal justice data are not the only
are becoming victims in another, perhaps source of information on trafficking. Another
brought there by people from another region set of institutions – those dedicated to providing
altogether. Even if the number of cases is small, services to victims – is capable of keeping its
if they persist across time, this suggests an issue own set of figures and observations. These
ripe for international cooperation. groups gather detailed information about the
What these data fail to demonstrate is the amount people they serve and, while not collected under
of trafficking that is actually taking place. This is oath, this information may be more reliable due
because quite a few things need to happen before to the use of a victim-centred approach and the
a human trafficker is ever sentenced to prison. non-adversarial context in which it is garnered.
The country concerned must have laws prohibit- Victim information – the topic of the third
ing the activity, and it must have a law enforce- heading of data collected for this report – can be
ment apparatus capable of − and willing to − detect compared and contrasted with that collected in
crimes of this sort. It helps if this apparatus is the criminal justice process.
supported by a public that reports suspicious
activity and a legal/social service structure that 3. Countries covered
encourages and supports victims to step forward
and testify against their trafficking offenders. UNODC accessed information on legislation,
Provided that offenders are tried and jailed, there criminal justice statistics and data on offenders
still needs to be some system of data collection and victims identified by State authorities and
that registers this event as a human trafficking other institutions for 155 countries and specially
conviction. Finally, the government in question administered territories for the period 2003-
must decide that it is willing to share this infor- 2007.
mation with a body like the United Nations.
Given time and budget constraints, some coun-
As a result, very little can be concluded from the tries and some information could not be cov-
criminal justice data alone as to where the prob- ered. For other countries, the information was
lem is most acute or whether the response of any too difficult to collect, either because it was not
given country is proportionate to the challenge accessible to competent authorities or the infor-
it faces. There are a few countries that regularly mation could not be supplied because it simply
return large numbers of human trafficking con- did not exist. Additionally, some countries pre-
victions, and it can safely be concluded that ferred not to share their information.
these countries have both a problem and are
taking action to address it. But equally troubled The results and analysis presented in this report
countries may do little in response and thereby are based on the available information collected
produce no statistics. Others may have relatively from these 155 countries and specially adminis-
small markets for the trafficking and exploita- tered territories. Table 1 lists the countries and
tion of human beings, but through diligent territories covered in this report, grouped by 15
investigation, detect a disproportionately large region.
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Table 1: Countries and territories covered in this report, by region

Africa and the Middle East Americas
North Africa West and Central
East Southern North South
and Central America and
Africa Africa America America
Middle East Africa the Caribbean
(total: 9) (total: 11) (total: 3) (total: 9)
(total: 10) (total: 16) (total: 12)
Algeria Benin Burundi Angola Canada Costa Rica Argentina
Bahrain Burkina Faso Djibouti Botswana Mexico El Salvador Bolivia
Egypt Chad Eritrea Guatemala Brazil
Democratic United States
Iraq Cote d’Ivoire Ethiopia of America Honduras Chile
Republic of Nicaragua Colombia
Israel Gabon Kenya
the Congo Panama Ecuador
Morocco Gambia Mauritius
Ghana Rwanda Lesotho Barbados Paraguay
Oman
Dominican Peru
Qatar Guinea Tanzania Malawi
Sudan Liberia Uganda Republic Venezuela,
Mozam- Bolivarian
United Arab Mali bique Haiti
Republic of
Emirates Mauritania Saint Lucia
Niger Namibia
Saint Vincent
Nigeria South Africa and the Grena-
Senegal Swaziland dines
Sierra Leone Zambia Trinidad and
Togo Zimbabwe Tobago

Asia and the Pacific Europe and Central Asia
South and South- Eastern Europe
East Asia and the Western and Central Europe
West Asia and Central
Pacific (total: 27) (total: 38)
(total: 8) Asia (total: 12)
Australia Afghanistan Armenia Albania Luxembourg
Brunei Darussalam Bangladesh Azerbaijan Austria Malta
Cambodia Bhutan Belarus Belgium Montenegro
Indonesia India Georgia
Japan Bosnia The
Maldives Kazakhstan and Netherlands
Lao PDR
Nepal Kyrgyzstan Herzegovina
Malaysia Norway
Pakistan Moldova,
Mongolia Bulgaria Poland
Myanmar Sri Lanka Republic of Croatia Portugal
New Zealand Russian Cyprus Romania
The Philippines Federation
Czech Serbia
Korea, Republic of
Singapore Tajikistan Republic Kosovo (Serbia)
Thailand Turkmenistan Slovakia
Timor-Leste Ukraine Denmark Slovenia
Viet Nam Uzbekistan Estonia Spain
Cook Islands Finland Sweden
French Polynesia France Switzerland
Kiribati Germany
The FYR of
Micronesia, Federated Greece Macedonia
States of Hungary
Nauru Iceland Turkey
New Caledonia Ireland
Niue The United
Italy Kingdom
Palau
Western Samoa Latvia
Solomon Islands Lithuania
16 Tuvalu
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

4. The potential for progress how might it be recognized? Without an answer
to these questions, appropriation of scarce
The massive pool of information collected for resources becomes guesswork, and measurement
this report is both profoundly informative and of progress very unreliable. Sound information
fundamentally unsatisfying. It provides a sound is needed to support decisions on a topic as
baseline that calls out for sustained supplemen- important as human trafficking. This report
tation. Many countries have only recently passed shows that this information can be gathered
human trafficking-specific legislation or created economically and quickly. The international
supporting institutions. The number of human community cannot afford to go without it.
trafficking convictions and the recorded number
of victims assisted have increased every year 5. Limitations of the data
during the period examined. As these numbers
For the most part, the information used to com-
grow, so does the depth and accuracy of the data
pile this report was collected by national institu-
collected.
tions, mostly for their own administrative
This report should stand as a pilot for a much purposes. The data were thus not originally
needed barometer of human trafficking activity. compiled for the purposes of this research.
It provides a preliminary snapshot of the situa- These data are affected by a number of limita-
tion but has the potential to become much more. tions, as a result of which they do not provide
To have real meaning, this undertaking needs to full coverage of the phenomenon and cannot be
be sustained through inclusion in a regular data systematically compared. The first limitation
collection exercise. The periodical United relates to differences in national legislation.
Nations Survey of Crime Trends and Operations National law is the basis for the official registra-
of Criminal Justice Systems (CTS), and the tion of the crime, and the data are clearly affected
instruments adopted to monitor the implemen- by the existence, scope and moment of entry
tation of the United Nations Convention on into force of such legislation. In addition,
Transnational Organized Crime within the national criminal justice systems differ from
framework of the Conference of the Parties to country to country, with different procedures
the convention can be used to regularly collect implemented in the context of different legal
such information. systems. As a consequence, the volume and form
It is now known that at least 155 countries and of investigations, prosecutions or convictions
will also necessarily reflect each country’s legal
territories are willing to contribute information
and procedural system.
on human trafficking to a common database.
Some inputs were better than others, but at least The second limitation relates to the ability of
Member States have been put on notice as to the the criminal justice system to detect criminal
kind of information that should be collected. activities. For various reasons, not all crimes
And, as this collection becomes regularized, it committed are discovered (the so-called ‘dark
may be possible to gather more data. For exam- number’ of undetected crimes). Thus, a large
ple, many countries can say how many victims share of human trafficking activities is not
and offenders of any given citizenship passed detected by national authorities or other institu-
through their systems, but these two groups of tions. As a result, comparing criminal justice
people are not currently cross-linked. statistics across countries is highly problematic,
since it means comparing an unknown and vari-
Ultimately, the goal should be to provide a data-
able mix of phenomena, including the actual
base robust enough that questions of concern to
prevalence of the crime, the ability of law
the international community can be answered:
enforcement agencies to detect it and other fac-
What are the specific trafficking trends, and tors.
18 what are the main trafficking patterns and flows?
Where is trafficking in persons most acute and The third limitation comes from the nature and
Introduction and methodological note

functioning of data recording systems. The level
of efficiency of existing systems that record
human trafficking cases has a clear impact on
the statistics provided in this report. The volume
of victims and offenders officially recorded can
be heavily influenced by the performance of the
recording mechanisms.
For these reasons, it is not possible to interpret
the data collected for this report as representing
the true extent or magnitude of human traffick-
ing. The figures used cannot be compared across
countries, either to represent the severity of
human trafficking or the different levels of per-
formance of countries responding to the phe-
nomenon.
Not all the information targeted by this research
was available in all the countries covered. Con-
sequently, when information on some relevant
aspects of the trafficking situation is not repre-
sented for a country, the data can be considered
as unavailable to UNODC. In addition, some
information may be partial. For instance, infor-
mation on the number of shelters available for
victims of human trafficking, their capacities
and the number of victims sheltered may not
necessarily include all the shelters existing in a
particular country but only those that could be
identified when preparing this report. Similarly,
court statistics might be partial when the absence
of a centralized data depository system caused
the team of researchers to seek information from
each relevant court separately.
Finally, a margin of uncertainty exists related to
the information presented for a limited number
of countries where different authoritative sources
(e.g., police and public prosecutors) provided
different figures for the same indicator. In some
of these cases, decisions had to be made by
UNODC on which of these sources should be
used.

19
Global Overview
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

1. Status of the legislation on trafficking in persons
a. The push of the United Nations Trafficking Protocol

By November 2008, 98 (63%) of the 155 coun- The data shows that, during 2003-2007, a min-
tries and specially administered territories cov- imum of 20% (N: 19) of countries having spe-
ered by this report had adopted a specific offence cific offences in their criminal codes have
criminalizing trafficking in persons at least for systematically used offences other than traffick-
the purposes of sexual exploitation and forced ing in persons to prosecute trafficking episodes.
labour with no restriction regarding the age or This number, in fact, is likely to be greater since
the gender of the victim1. Twenty-seven (17%) information on this issue was provided by a
of these countries have a specific offence of traf- limited number of countries.
ficking in persons restricted to some forms of
exploitation and to some categories of victims It must be stressed that while using trafficking-
(e.g., trafficking for sexual exploitation, child related offences can provide some recourse to
trafficking) or without a clear definition of the justice for victims, applying legislation that is
offence. Thirty (20%) of the countries covered not specifically in line with the UN Trafficking
by this data collection did not have a specific Protocol raises the difficult issue of victim pro-
offence on trafficking in persons in their legisla- tection, which is normally not considered within
tion as of November 2008. However, most of the context of trafficking-related offences.
these countries reported that they criminalize Map 2 represents the status of the criminaliza-
forms or aspects of trafficking through other tion of trafficking in persons. A large part of the
offences, such as sexual exploitation, child pro- world does have a specific offence criminalizing
tection or labour-related offences. trafficking in persons at least for sexual exploita-
This use of other offences to prosecute traffick- tion and forced labour. There are a few coun-
ing is also quite common among countries that tries, however, that criminalize only part of the
have a specific and comprehensive offence on phenomenon or do not clearly define trafficking
trafficking in persons. In practice, many crimi- in their legislation. Other countries prosecute
nal justice systems find it difficult to prove some some forms of trafficking in persons through
important elements of the definition of traffick- other offences, because the specific crime of traf-
ing, such as deception, abuse of vulnerability or ficking in persons is not included in their
even exploitation. As a consequence, some sys- national legislation.
tems prosecute trafficking cases through offences One of the elements emerging from the col-
like pandering, slavery, child protection or even lected data is that most legislative frameworks
by making use of labour laws to punish clear on trafficking in persons have been developed
cases of trafficking in persons for forced labour. only within the last few years. The real impact of
the Protocol appears through a time-analysis of
the dates when countries first introduced traf-
ficking in persons legislation. The UN Protocol
entered into force in December 2003. The data
shows that the majority of countries did not
1 The fact that the offence of trafficking in persons criminalizes
have any sort of trafficking in persons legislation
at least trafficking in persons for the purposes of sexual exploi- prior to that year and that most of the current
tation and forced labour and has no restriction regarding the laws criminalizing human trafficking were estab-
age or gender of the victim does not imply that the legislation
is in line with the Protocol.The compliance of each country Section 0s lished after 2003.
legislation to the UN Trafficking Protocol can only be assessed
22 through an in-depth legal analysis. This type of legal analysis is
out of the scope of the present research.
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Western and Central Europe Eastern Europe and Central Asia
(total: 38) (total: 12)
Before 2003 24 countries 6 countries
2003-2006 12 countries 4 countries
After 2006 1 country 1 country
No offence in
force as of 1 country 1 country
November 2008

Fig. 1: Percentage of countries that have intro- The charts in Figures 1 and 2 present the per-
duced a specific offence on trafficking in centage of countries in each region that had leg-
persons into their legislation islation on human trafficking in 2003, 2006 and
100% 2008. While in some countries the legal concept
90% 20% of trafficking in persons is not new, many other
28%
80% countries only adopted a specific offence of traf-
70% 65%
ficking in persons after December 2003, when
60% the UN Trafficking Protocol entered into force.
50%
About 35% of the countries included in this
40% 80%
72% report adopted a specific offence on trafficking
30%
in persons prior to 2003, but the UN Traffick-
20% 35% ing Protocol generated a wave of amendments to
10% criminal codes introducing this offence. Forty-
0% five per cent of the countries covered in this
2003 2006 Nov-08
report adopted an offence of trafficking in per-
No specific offence sons for the first time during the period 2003-
Specific offence of trafficking in persons
2008. These countries are mainly in East Asia
Source: UNODC/UN.GIFT and the Pacific, Central America and the Carib-

Fig. 2: Percentage of countries that have introduced a specific offence on trafficking in persons into
their legislation, by region

Eastern Europe and Central Asia
Western and Central Europe

South and South West Asia

East Asia and Pacific
South America

Central America and The Caribbean

North America
Southern Africa

East Africa

West and Central Africa
North Africa and Middle East

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Before 2003 From 2003 No Offence in force in November 2008
24 Source: UNODC/UN.GIFT
Global Overview

bean, and West Africa. While 65% of the coun- A few more countries have specialized police
tries had no specific anti-trafficking legislation dealing with organized crime matters, in gen-
before 2003, this figure was reduced to 20% by eral, or with human rights or child protection
November 2008. issues that deal directly or indirectly with the
crime of trafficking in persons. Similarly, about
Additionally, after 2003 many of the 35% of 76 countries adopted a specific national plan of
countries with long-standing anti-human traf- action on trafficking in persons prior to Novem-
ficking provisions amended their criminal codes ber 2008, and other countries adopted plans of
to include more forms of trafficking (i.e., crimi- action for related matters, such as child protec-
nalizing trafficking for forced labour and traf- tion. A country without a national action plan
ficking in adults). to combat trafficking in persons might, however,
About 25% of the countries in this report (N: not necessarily be less efficient than those that
39) either introduced a new anti-trafficking law have one in place. Nevertheless, the adoption of
or amended their existing provisions between a national action plan can generally be seen as a
2006 and November 2008. This number is likely sign of the importance that trafficking in per-
to increase by the end of 2008, because at the sons has in a country’s political agenda.
time of publication of this report, many coun- Figure 4 represents the increase in the number of
tries had proposed amendments that were still national action plans for trafficking in persons
awaiting approval by competent authorities. adopted after the entry into force of the UN
The relatively new development of comprehen- Trafficking Protocol.
sive legislation addressing trafficking in persons
might be a key explanation for the low level of Fig. 4: Percentage of countries that adopted a
national action plan on trafficking in
conviction rates in some parts of the world.
persons before and after 2003
The data collected during the reporting period 100%
also shows an increased political commitment to 90%
combat trafficking in persons. About 52% (N: 80%
47%
81) of the countries established a special anti- 70%
human trafficking police unit or a similar body
60%
that was actively functioning in November 2008. 95%
50%

Fig. 3: Percentage of countries having a traf- 40%
ficking in persons offence in force in 30%
November 2008 53%
20%

10% 5%

0%
25% 2003 2008

Action Plan was adopted No Action Plan in place

54% Source: UNODC/UN.GIFT

21%

No Offence in November 2008

Offence established before 2006 and not modified

Offence established or amended during the period
Jan 06 - Nov 08
Source: UNODC/UN.GIFT
25
Global Overview

South America
Almost all South American countries covered by Map 8: Specific offence for Trafficking in Persons – status of national
this report have adopted specific provisions in legislation – (November-2008)
their legislation to combat trafficking in per-
sons. Between 2005 and 2008, several countries
in the region introduced new anti-trafficking
laws or modified provisions that previously had
covered only international trafficking for sexual
exploitation.
By mid-2008, a specific offence of trafficking in
persons covering all or most forms of exploita-
tion had been adopted by Argentina, Bolivia,
Colombia and Peru. In Brazil, the specific
offence of trafficking in persons covered only
     

sexual exploitation, however trafficking for   
forced labour was criminalized through other    
 
offences.     

    
 
During the period considered by this report, the
laws in Chile and Paraguay did not include a Source: UNODC/UN.GIFT
specific offence of trafficking in persons, but they Cover most/all forms: Countries where the specific offence of trafficking
in persons is in force, criminalizing at a minimum sexual exploitation and
both criminalized illegal entry into the country forced labour, with no restrictions concerning the profile of the victim.
for the purpose of prostitution, implying that Partial: Countries where the specific offence of trafficking in persons is in
force, but legislation does not criminalize all or most forms listed in
these two countries criminalized only interna- Article 3 of the UN Trafficking Protocol or does not define trafficking in
persons.
tional trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploi- No specific offence: Countries where forms of trafficking in persons are
tation. In 2008, both Chile and Peru were at the criminalized through other offences due to the absence of a specific traf-
ficking in persons offence.
stage of introducing new and comprehensive traf-
ficking in persons offences into their criminal
codes. The law in force in Ecuador in 2008 did In this region, all states covered by this overview
not include removal of organs as a possible pur- have had a working group or national focal point
pose for trafficking in persons. In Colombia, in place since 2005 to coordinate anti-trafficking
Ecuador and Peru, forced begging was included policy and assistance to victims. Bolivia, Brazil,
in legislation as one of the forms of exploitation Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay and Peru all
of trafficking in persons, and specific programmes adopted national plans of action in 2005. Sev-
and protocols exist for victim assistance. eral federal states and some municipalities in
Brazil have drafted their own local plans of
It is important to note that during the reporting action.
period, most forms of human trafficking for the
purposes of labour exploitation, slavery and ser-
vitude were covered by other offences in the
penal codes or by labour laws, and not always
under the offence of trafficking in persons. These
laws were often used in lieu of anti-trafficking
legislation, for example in slavery cases in Brazil.
While this provides a quick way out of slavery
and limited compensation for victims, it raises
the difficult issue of specific victim support and
protection and precludes a forceful criminal jus-
tice response.
31
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Criminalization of the offence of trafficking in persons
The lack of specific and/or adequate legislation on trafficking in persons at the national level is one
of the major obstacles in the fight against trafficking. There is an urgent need to harmonize legal
definitions, procedures and cooperation at the national and regional levels in accordance with inter-
national standards. The development of an appropriate legal framework that is consistent with the
relevant international instruments and standards will also play an important role in the prevention
of trafficking and related exploitation. The UN Trafficking Protocol requires the criminalization of
trafficking in persons. The UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, Article 5 of the
Trafficking Protocol, also requires the criminalization of the full range of conducts related to traf-
ficking in persons as defined in Article 3 of the Protocol. In other words, it is not sufficient to
criminalize some underlying offences of human trafficking, but human trafficking in its entirety
needs to be criminalized. Additionally, the UN Trafficking Protocol requires the criminalization of
the attempt to commit trafficking, participation as an accomplice, and organizing or directing others
to commit trafficking.

Extract from the Toolkit to Combat Trafficking in Persons, Global Programme against Trafficking in
Human Beings, United Nations, 2006.

Core results − Global baseline
data on legislation
Q Before 2003, 35% of the countries had legis-
lation and 65% did not.
Q As of November 2008, 80% of the countries
had legislation and 20% did not.
Q By November 2008, 17% of countries had a
specific offence criminalizing only some forms
of trafficking.
Q At least 20% of the countries with a specific
offence on trafficking in persons also use oth-
er offences to prosecute trafficking cases.

36
Global Overview

2. The criminal justice response to trafficking in persons
a. A large area of impunity

As more countries introduce the specific offence Conversely, Eastern Europe and Central Asia
of trafficking in persons and show an increased was the region where a larger share of countries
political commitment, more prosecutions and registered increasing trends in the number of
convictions are expected to be recorded. convictions during the period 2003-2007.
Figure 5 shows the trend in the number of con-
Fig. 6: Trends in the number of recorded con-
victions recorded by the countries considered in victions* in Eastern Europe and Central
this report. Asia, percentage of countries

Fig. 5: Trends in the number of recorded con-
victions*, percentage of countries (for
at least three years between 2003 and Stable or no clear
2007) trends
25%

Decreasing
trends
17%

Stable or not clear
trends, 71%
Increasing Trends
58%

Increasing
trends,
21%
Source: UNODC/UN.GIFT
Decreasing trends,
8% * When trends in convictions were not available, trends concerning
prosecutions or investigations were considered.

Source: UNODC/UN.GIFT
* When trends in convictions were not available, trends concerning Fig. 7: Trends in the number of recorded con-
prosecutions or investigations were considered. victions* in Western and Central
Europe, percentage of countries

About 21%5 of countries registered an increase
in convictions during 2003-2007, while 8%
recorded a decrease in the absolute number of
Stable or no clear
persons convicted. In the other countries where trends
this trend analysis was carried out, the level of 48%
convictions remained stable during the period
considered. Increasing
Trends
Western and Central Europe was the region 26%

where more countries had decreasing trends in Decreasing
trends
the number of criminal proceedings for traffick- 26%
ing in persons during the period considered.

5 A time series analysis on the absolute number of convictions
Source: UNODC/UN.GIFT
was possible when countries registered convictions for at least
three years during the period considered. Time series statistics * When trends in convictions were not available, trends concerning
prosecutions or investigations were considered.
37
were supplied by 141 countries.
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Overall, the number of prosecutions and convic- Table 3 indicates the number of countries where
tions recorded in a large part of the world was no prosecutions for the specific offence of traf-
very limited. This is likely due to the absence of ficking in persons were recorded through mid-
legislation or the fairly recent status of most of 2008. Prosecutions conducted under non-specific
the legislation addressing trafficking in persons trafficking in persons offences are not consid-
in many countries. ered in this table.
A large number of the countries covered by this Table 3 shows that, during the reporting period,
report did not record even a single conviction 50 countries recorded no prosecutions for the
under the specific offence of trafficking in per- specific offence of trafficking in persons – the
sons. equivalent of about 32% of the countries cov-

Table 3 Prosecutions for the specific offence of trafficking in persons, number of countries by region

Number of countries with no
recorded prosecutions for the Number of coun- Number of coun-
specific offence of trafficking in tries with at least tries where infor-
Regions persons (TIP) one recorded pros- mation on
ecution of traffick- prosecutions was
Countries with Countries with ing in persons unavailable
no TIP offence TIP offence
Middle East and 2 countries 2 countries 3 countries 3 countries
North Africa
West and Central 4 countries 2 countries 8 countries 2 countries
Africa
East Africa 3 countries 2 countries 2 countries 2 countries
Southern Africa 8 countries 1 country 1 country 1 country
North America 3 countries
Central America
and the 5 countries 1 country 6 countries
Caribbean
South America 1 country 7 countries 1 country

East Asia and the 4 countries 7 countries 13 countries 3 countries
Pacific

South and 2 countries 1 country 5 countries
South-West Asia

Eastern Europe 1 country 11 countries
and Central Asia

Western and 1 country 3 countries 32 countries 2 countries
Central Europe
14
Total 30 20 91 (9% of all
countries)

38
Global Overview

ered by this report6. This ratio is lower in the to the recent introduction of the offence in the
regions of Western and Central Europe, Eastern criminal code.
Europe and Central Asia, North America and
South Asia. In Southern and East Africa and in Less information was available concerning con-
the Middle East and North Africa, the majority victions. No information was collected at all on
of countries recorded no prosecutions. the number of convictions for trafficking in
persons for 11% of the countries included in
Nineteen of the countries with a specific offence this report. Convictions conducted under non-
of trafficking in persons in their criminal codes specific trafficking in persons offences are not
had not recorded any prosecutions as of Novem- considered in this table.
ber 2008. This lack of prosecutions is likely due

Table 4: Convictions for the specific offence of trafficking in persons, number of countries by region

Number of countries with no
recorded convictions for the Number of coun- Number of coun-
specific offence of trafficking in tries with at least tries where infor-
Regions persons (TIP) one recorded con- mation on
viction of traffick- convictions was
Countries with Countries with ing in persons unavailable
no TIP offence TIP offence
Middle East and 2 countries 2 countries 3 countries 3 countries
North Africa
West and Central 4 countries 5 countries 5 countries 2 countries
Africa
East Africa 3 countries 3 countries 1 country 2 countries
Southern Africa 8 countries 2 countries 1 country
North America 2 countries 1 country
Central America
and the 5 countries 2 countries 4 countries 1 country
Caribbean
South America 1 country 7 countries 1 country

East Asia and the 5 countries 8 countries 11 countries 3 countries
Pacific

South and 2 countries 2 countries 4 countries
South-West Asia

Eastern Europe 1 country 11 countries
and Central Asia

Western and 1 country 3 countries 26 countries 8 countries
Central Europe
21
Total 31 30 73 (14% of all
countries)

6 About 10 of these 50 countries are part of the small Pacific
Islands and the East Caribbean. The percentage of countries
where no prosecutions were recorded would be about 28% if
these countries and territories were not taken into consider- 39
ation.
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

About 40% of the countries covered by this It is clear that the existence and the date of
report recorded no convictions 7 during the introduction of specific anti-trafficking legisla-
reporting period. This ratio was lower in West- tion plays an important role in understanding
ern and Central Europe, Eastern Europe and the absolute levels and trends in recorded pros-
Central Asia, and South America. Very few con- ecutions and convictions. Without a specific
victions were recorded between 2003 and 2007 offence of trafficking in persons there is no basis
in East and Southern Africa. for such action, thus regions such as Southern
and East Africa where legislation is lacking have
Fig. 8: Distribution of all countries according less convictions to report. At the same time, 30
to the number of convictions recorded countries among those with legislation specifi-
for the specific offence of trafficking in
persons during the reporting period cally criminalizing trafficking in persons recorded
no convictions during the reporting period.
No
convictions One to ten
and offence convictions The situation does not improve when the abso-
per year
in force
17%
lute number of convictions is examined in coun-
19%
tries where there was at least one conviction
recorded during the reported period. About
No 30% of the countries considered in this study
convictions
because no
recorded 10 or more convictions per year (for at
offence
At least 10
least one year). Overall, about 58% of the coun-
22%
convictions tries covered by this report recorded between
per year
Data not 29%
zero and 10 convictions per year. In the entire
available African continent, only a couple of countries
14%
exceeded 10 convictions in at least one of the
Source: UNODC/UN.GIFT
years of the reporting period.

Fig. 9: Distribution of all countries according to the number of convictions recorded for the specific
offence of trafficking in persons during the reporting period, by region

Western and Central Europe
Eastern Europe and Central Asia
South and South West Asia
East Asia and Pacific
South America
Central America and The Caribbean
North America
Southern Africa
East Africa
West and Central Africa
Middle East and North Africa
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
No convictions because no offence No convictions and offence in force One to ten conviction
Ten or more convictions recorded per year Data not available per year

Source: UNODC/UN.GIFT

7 About 10 out of 61 of these countries and territories are in the
small Pacific Islands and the East Caribbean. The percentage of
countries where no convictions were recorded would be 33% if
40 these countries and territories were not taken into consider-
ation.
Global Overview

b. Regional overviews
Middle East and North Africa
There is a scarcity of criminal justice statistics in response in the region do not allow for the iden-
this region. Only Israel and Morocco have had tification of specific regional trafficking patterns
the specific offence of trafficking in persons in or trends during the reporting period.
their criminal codes long enough to analyse
trends in their criminal justice responses. Traf- Ethiopia is the only East African country cov-
ficking trends were fairly stable in both coun- ered in this report that recorded trafficking in
tries during the reporting period. persons convictions between 2003 and 2007.
These statistics do not improve even when
Egypt and Oman, as well as other countries in related offences are considered, because few con-
the region, adopted offences related to traffick- victions were recorded for offences such as “child
ing to prosecute some forms of trafficking in stealing” or “child labour” that could be used to
persons. The number of persons investigated in prosecute child traffickers.
these countries decreased during the reporting
period. The United Arab Emirates and Bahrain Southern Africa
adopted comprehensive legislation on traffick- As with East Africa, the combined absence of a
ing in persons after 2006, and convictions were specific trafficking in persons offence, the lack
recorded in both countries, but criminal justice of credible data and the low criminal justice
trends could not be identified at the time of the response do not allow for the identification of
publication of this report. specific regional trends.
West and Central Africa The only statistic that can be highlighted is that
Criminal justice statistics are generally scarce in not a single conviction was recorded for traffick-
this region mainly due to the recent nature of ing in persons in the entire Southern Africa
legislation. No clear regional trends emerge from region, and very few cases involving traffickers
the available data, although some countries have have been prosecuted to date. In the exceptional
seen an increase in investigations, and others cases where traffickers were caught and prose-
have observed stable or decreasing trends. cuted, they were usually charged with kidnap-
ping, abduction, immigration or sexual offences
Countries where information on investigations, or were deported rather than prosecuted. As a
prosecutions and convictions was available indi- result, very few convictions were recorded even
cate that convictions were low compared to the when trafficking-related offences were consid-
number of persons investigated. During the ered.
period under consideration, Nigeria and Ghana
were the only countries to record convictions North America
among those criminalizing all forms of traffick-
Canada, Mexico and the USA recorded different
ing in persons. Of the countries that only crim-
patterns in terms of criminal justice responses to
inalize child trafficking, Benin, Burkina Faso
trafficking in persons.
and Togo reported convictions. Available crimi-
nal justice statistics on the number of traffickers The available information concerning Canada
and victims are generally low compared to the reflects only the minimum number of traffick-
numbers identified by national authorities or ing cases charged and prosecuted during the
sheltered by NGOs. reporting period, because many court decisions
went unreported. Official criminal justice data
East Africa for March 2007 through February 2008 from
The combined absence of a specific trafficking the police and the courts was unavailable at the 41
in persons offence and the low criminal justice time of preparation of this report.
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

In Mexico, the number of investigations and that the domestic legislation of some countries
prosecutions rose following the adoption of leg- only defines trafficking in terms of sexual exploi-
islation on trafficking in persons in 2007. tation.
Data for the USA shows a rising trend in inves- Where data on suspected trafficking cases and
tigations, prosecutions, convictions and in the investigations was available, numbers rose
absolute number of criminal justice proceed- (Bolivia, Brazil and Peru) or remained stable
ings. (Colombia) for the 2003-2007 period. Venezu-
ela recorded a decreasing trend in convictions
Central America and the Caribbean during the considered period. Over the same
Criminal justice statistics for this region are timeframe, however, only a few dozen cases of
scarce, but the absolute number of investigations trafficking in persons were prosecuted in the
and prosecutions generally rose during the period entire South American region resulting in even
under consideration. This was the case for Costa fewer convictions in the region, although with a
Rica, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, rising trend after 2005.
Nicaragua, Panama and El Salvador up to 2007.
East Asia and the Pacific
Out of these investigations, a few dozen prose- East Asia was rich in criminal justice statistics
cutions resulted in convictions. The first convic- for the reporting period. By contrast, a very
tions for trafficking in persons offences in the limited number of cases of trafficking in persons
region were registered only from 2005 onwards, and related offences were detected in the Pacific
with the Dominican Republic accounting for area.
the largest number.
Trends indicating an increase in the number of
South America cases of trafficking and related offences were
detected in Cambodia, Indonesia, Mongolia,
Given the multitude of legal codes that can be
Timor-Leste, Thailand and Viet Nam. Some-
applied in cases of exploitation and human traf-
what stable to decreasing trends in human traf-
ficking, statistical information on the specific
ficking cases were recorded in other countries in
criminal justice responses to trafficking in per-
the region during 2003-2007.
sons is scarce and hard to put into context. Data
on investigations, prosecutions and convictions Overall, some countries of the Mekong sub-re-
refer mostly to trafficking for the purpose of gion reported numbers of criminal proceedings
sexual exploitation. This may be due to the fact that were higher than the regional average.
Fig. 10: Cases of trafficking in persons Fig. 11: Persons investigated for the offence of
investigated in Peru (2004-2007) “sale or acquisition of humans” in
Mongolia (2003-2007)
50
20
45
18
40
16
35
14
30
12
25
46 10
20
8 16
15
6
10 20 9
4
5
3 7 2 4
0 1
0 0
2004 2005 2006 2007 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
42 Source: Capital Humano y Social Alternativo, Perú Source: State Investigation Department, Mongolia
Global Overview

South and South-West Asia moderately growing trends in prosecutions and
convictions in the first half of this decade fol-
The level of criminal proceedings recorded lowed by a decrease in prosecutions and convic-
during the reporting period in the South Asian tions after 2005, and Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan
region was very high. India, especially, recorded in Central Asia experienced similar trends. In
a large number of investigations, though pro- Moldova and the Russian Federation, increasing
portionate to the population of the country. investigations and prosecutions indicate a con-
Similarly, Nepal and Pakistan recorded very high sistent rise in the detection of traffickers. Uzbeki-
numbers of prosecutions and convictions. stan showed the same pattern based on
prosecutions recorded under the offence of
Fig. 12: Number of prosecutions for trafficking
in persons in India (2003-2006) “recruitment for exploitation”.

25000 Fig. 13: Cases of trafficking in persons
investigated in Moldova (2002-2007)

20000 300

15000 250
25844
23053 200
10000 20390
17870
150
5000 238 239 243 251
100
173
0 50
2003 2004 2005 2006 42
0
Source: National Crime Records Bureau, India 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Source: Office of the Prosecutor-General,
Where information is available for 2003-2005, Republic of Moldova
trends show a general increase in prosecutions
for trafficking in persons. These trends apply to
At the regional level during the period under
India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, but there
consideration, joint operations were frequently
are no human trafficking prosecutions recorded
conducted by law enforcement agencies of the
for the Maldives and Bhutan.
CIS countries to suppress the activities of crimi-
Eastern Europe and Central Asia nal syndicates engaged in trafficking in per-
sons.
Statistics on the criminal justice responses were
relatively abundant for most of the countries in Western and Central Europe
Eastern Europe and Central Asia during the
reporting period. The only exception was Turk- There is an abundance of criminal justice infor-
menistan where the absence of legislation is the mation on trafficking in persons for the coun-
clear cause of the lack of related statistics. tries in this region. However, as can be seen in
other regions, the statistics for some countries
The number of investigations, prosecutions and do not clearly reference the specific offence of
convictions indicated no unique trends. How- trafficking in persons, because national authori-
ever, many countries experienced a rise in pros- ties aggregate the figures for trafficking in per-
ecutions and convictions immediately after the sons together with those for other offences. An
adoption of relevant legislation, which was then additional complication is that some countries
followed by a slight reduction in later years. For have more than one authority or institution pro-
instance, some countries in the western part of viding official data on different aspects of traf-
the region (Belarus, Ukraine and Georgia) saw ficking.
43
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 14: Persons indicted for trafficking in in the number of persons investigated or prose-
persons in Bulgaria (2003-2006) cuted for human trafficking between 2003 and
100
2007. Germany, Greece and Italy also recorded
90
a decrease in investigations and prosecutions
over the last two to three years, whereas Den-
80
mark, France and the United Kingdom showed
70
a general increase in the number of criminal
60
proceedings underway involving suspected cases
50 97
of trafficking.
40
30 63
44
20 Comparing the conviction rate for trafficking
10
13 in persons with other offences
0
2003 2004 2005 2006
As of 2007, about 40% of the world had not
Source: The Supreme Cassation Prosecutor recorded a single conviction for trafficking in
Office in Bulgaria persons. Not only are traffickers not convicted
in many countries, but when convictions are
Fig. 15: Persons suspected of trafficking for the recorded, the numbers seem low compared to
purpose of sexual exploitation in Ger- the estimated number of victims. The bulk of
many (2003–2007) convictions were recorded in a few regions,
1200 mainly Western and Central Europe, Eastern
Europe and Central Asia, and South Asia. A
1000 relatively large number of convictions were
also recorded in East Asia. Nevertheless, the
800 conviction rate recorded in these areas was
rarely above 1.5 per 100,000 people. Most
600
1110 countries’ conviction rates have remained far
400 777 below this rate. In comparison, 1.5 convictions
683 664 714
per 100,000 people is the level normally
200 recorded for rare crimes, such as kidnapping in
Western European countries.
0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Source: Bundeskriminalamt Trafficking in Human Beings,
Germany

Some sub-regional trends can be clearly identi- Core results − Global baseline data on criminal
fied. With the exception of Albania and Monte- justice responses
negro, all the South-East European countries8 Q 32% of the countries recorded no prosecu-
recorded a rise in the number of persons investi- tions from 2003 to 2007.
gated, prosecuted or convicted for human traf-
ficking during the reporting period. Conversely, Q 40% of the countries recorded no convictions
from 2003 to 2007.
Albania, Montenegro and almost all the Central
European countries9 showed a decreasing trend Q 19% of the countries that had a specific of-
fence on trafficking in persons recorded no
convictions from 2003 to 2007.
8 The FYR Macedonia has recorded a decreasing trend in the
number of prosecutions for trafficking in persons but an
increasing trend in the number of persons prosecuted under
the offence of organization of a group and urging for commit-
ting trafficking in persons .
9 During the reporting period, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
44 recorded a mixed trend in the number of criminal proceedings
underway for trafficking in persons.
Global Overview

3. Trafficking in persons patterns
a. Offenders: A new gender perspective

Based on the data collected, it is possible to Fig. 16: Persons convicted of trafficking in per-
identify the major patterns of trafficking in per- sons related offences in the UAE, by
sons. This data only reflects some of the reported region of nationality (2005-2006)
cases of trafficking in persons (and related
offences) and thus represents only a part of the
Others, 2 UAE, 3
total number of trafficking cases that actually
occur. Other MENA, 1

Enough data was provided during the reporting
period to analyse the profile of trafficking
offenders. For each country included in the Eastern
Europe and
report, UNODC inquired about the gender, age South Asian, Central Asia, 6
14
and citizenship of the persons investigated, pros-
ecuted and convicted. When information on the
nationalities of those convicted was available, it
overwhelmingly showed that offenders were
nationals of the countries where the trafficking
took place.
A slightly different pattern emerges from the Source: Office of the Public Prosecution, Dubai (UAE)
data recorded in Western and Central Europe
and the Middle East, where the role of foreign
offenders appeared to be more significant than Fig. 17: Persons under prosecution for trafficking
in other regions of the world. in persons offences in Italy, by citizen-
ship (2003-2007)
Interesting results concerning the gender of
offenders emerged from the data collected for
this report. Males represent the great majority of Chinese, 49
offenders for many crimes, but females appear to Polish, 36
Nigerian,
play a prominent role in trafficking in persons 144 Thai, 11
cases. Table 5 (next page) provides a global over- Ghanaian, 9
view of the percentage of women involved in Bulgarian, 9
Albanian, 176 Ukrainian, 7
committing trafficking in persons crimes relative
to the total number of offenders (prosecuted or Others, 89
investigated when conviction rates are not avail- Romanian, 217

able) on a regional basis.
Italian, 203

Source: National Anti-Mafia Bureau, Italy

45
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Table 5: Distribution of countries according to the percentage of females among offenders convicted for
trafficking in persons, by region (2003-2007)

Middle East and West and Central
East Africa Southern Africa
North Africa Africa
(total: 9) (total: 11)
(total: 10) (total: 16)
Below 10% 2 countries
10%-35% 1 country 2 countries
35%-50% 1 country
Above 50% 2 countries

No or little infor- 8 countries 10 countries 9 countries 11 countries
mation available

Central South and
North South East Asia and
America and South-West
America America the Pacific
the Caribbean Asia
(total: 3) (total: 9) (total: 27)
(total: 12) (total: 8)
Below 10%
10%-35% 1 country
35%-50% 1 country 1 country 3 countries
Above 50% 2 countries 2 countries 2 countries
No or little infor- 3 countries 8 countries 6 countries 8 countries 22 countries
mation available

Western and Central Europe Eastern Europe and Central Asia
(total: 38) (total: 12)
Below 10% 2 countries
10%-35% 16 countries
35%-50% 2 countries
Above 50% 1 country 5 countries

No or little infor- 19 countries 5 countries
mation available

Table 5 shows the lack of general information on countries, the percentage of women convicted
the profile of offenders. For about 109 of the ranged from 10 to 50%. The number of women
countries and specially administered territories convicted was under 10% of convictions in four
among the 155 covered in this report, informa- countries.
tion was either not available or the number of
proceedings were too few to conduct an ade- The role of female offenders appears to be pre-
quate analysis. dominant in the Eastern Europe and Central
Asia region and very significant in other regions
In 30% (N:14) of the countries where the gender of the world, such as East Asia and the Pacific,
of the offender was known, more women were and Central America and the Caribbean. Most
46 convicted (or investigated/prosecuted). In 28 of the countries in Western and Central Europe
Global Overview

reported female offenders making up between data shows that that the percentage of women
10 and 35% of the total number of persons convicted for all crimes did not rise above 15%
convicted (or investigated/prosecuted). during the reporting period, whereas the per-
centage of women convicted for the crime of
These figures are even more impressive when trafficking in persons is often above 50% in the
they are compared to the overall conviction rate same region.
of females for other crimes.
Similar patterns, but with a lesser divergence,
Figure 18 shows the ratio of convictions for were found for Western and Central Europe
females compared to that for both sexes for all during the reporting period, as shown in Figure
crimes in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The 19.

Fig. 18: Proportion of females in convictions for trafficking in persons and for all crimes combined
in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

100%
90% 86% 86%
78%
80%
69%
70%
60%
60%
48%
50%
40% 34%
30%
20% 13% 13% 14%
12% 12% 9% 10% 10%
10% 6%
0% NA NA NA NA
Kazakhstan

Uzbekistan

Kyrgystan

Armenia

Tajikistan

Georgia

Azerbaijan

Moldova

Ukraine

Russian
Federation

TIP-Average 2003-2006 all crimes -average 2003-2006

Source: UNECE/UNODC-UN.GIFT

Fig. 19: Proportion of females in convictions for trafficking in persons and for all crimes combined
in Europe

60%
53%
50%

40%
30% 32%
30% 26% 28%
22% 23% 23%
21%
20% 18% 18%
12% 13% 14% 13%
9% 8% 9% 10% 9%
10%

0%
Germany

Slovakia

Romania

Portugal

Latvia
Netherlands

Hungary

Czech

Cyprus

France
Republic

TIP-Average 2003-2006 all crimes -average 2003-2006

Source: UNECE/UNODC-UN.GIFT 47
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

b. The victims: “…trafficking in
persons, especially women and
children…”
The introduction of specific trafficking in per- Fig. 20: Total number of victims identified by
sons offences in countries where they did not State authorities in the 71 countries
exist previously and the increased commitment where information was available for
of the international community to combat traf- the entire reporting period
ficking in persons likely explains the overall

Number of victims officially identified
16,000
increase in the number of victims identified by
State authorities. Although the number of vic- 14,000
tims identified decreased in some regions, the 12,000
overall global trend increased during the report-
10,000
ing period.

14,909
8,000

13,127
12,122
11,706
Identifying global trends in the number of vic-
6,000
tims detected is a hard task. Countries have dif-
ferent legislations and different definitions of 4,000
trafficking in persons, and few were able to 2,000
supply UNODC with the sort of statistics that 0
would allow for the identification of clear trends 2003 2004 2005 2006
for the entire reporting period from 2003 to
2007. Source: UNODC/UN.GIFT

About 111 countries provided data on the
Fig. 21: Profile of victims identified by State au-
number of victims officially identified in 200610, thorities in 61 countries where informa-
which totalled about 21,400. A complete time tion was collected, aggregated for 2006
series analysis on the number of victims identi-
fied for the period 2003-2006 could be con-
ducted on a smaller sample of 71 countries. Girls
13%
The aggregate number of victims identified in Men
12%
these 71 selected countries grew from about
11,700 in 2003 to about 14,900 in 2006, indi- Boys
cating an increase of 27% during the reporting 9%
period, although it must be made clear that
these figures conceal wide variations among Women
national and regional trends. In fact, many of 66%

these 71 countries actually experienced a reduced
number of identified victims. Further details can
be found in the regional sections and in the
country profiles of this report.
Source: UNODC/UN.GIFT
Even fewer countries were able to provide a pro-
file of the victims. When available, the collected
data indicates that women and children are the
most frequently detected victims of trafficking identified females (either adults or minors) as
in persons. In particular, most of the countries the main victims of trafficking.

48 10 Fewer countries provided statistics concerning identified vic-
tims for 2007.
Global Overview

Trafficking in males − adult men and boys − is Although adult women are the most frequent
rarely represented in official national statis- victims of trafficking as reported by State author-
tics11. ities, child victims − or victims under 18 years
old – also are often identified. Child trafficking
The chart in Figure 22 shows the profile of vic- has been detected in all regions of the world.
tims officially identified by State authorities
during the reporting period. Variations recorded The aggregated numbers reported in Figures 21
during these years could be attributed to the dif- and 22 hide great differences concerning the
ferent number of countries reporting each year12, dimensions of child trafficking found around
however, the overall profile of the victims does the world. In some regions, child trafficking is
not seem to change greatly. Notably, the propor- the only form of trafficking detected.
tion of minors relative to the total number of
victims increased from about 15% to about 22% The map (Map 13 next page) shows the percent-
during the reporting period. age of victims below 18 years old compared to
the total number of victims of trafficking in
persons officially identified by State authori-
Fig. 22: Profile of victims identified by State
authorities where information was col- ties13. For 92 of the countries covered in this
lected, aggregated for the years under report, data concerning the age of victims was
analysis either unavailable or the number of identified
3% 3% 5% 9% victims were too few to draw solid conclusions.
100%
In 30% (N: 19) of the countries with available
90% 16% 13% 14% 12% information, more child victims were detected
80% 10%
70%
11% 16% 13%
than adults. For 42% (N: 26) of the countries
60%
where information was available, children made
50%
up less than 10% of the total population of vic-
40%
tims, whereas for the remaining 28% of coun-
71% 74% 67% tries, children ranged between 10 and 50% of
30% 66%
20%
the total identified victims. In regional terms,
10% child trafficking was more prevalent during the
0% reporting period in West and Central Africa, the
2003 2004 2005 2006 Mekong sub-region and some countries in Cen-
Women Girls Men Boys tral and South America.

Source: UNODC/UN.GIFT

11 The issue of trafficking in adult males is related to the issue of
trafficking for labour exploitation, which appears to be the
major form of exploitation of adult men (although not the only
form). Many experts argue that trafficking in adult men and
trafficking for forced labour are extremely underreported.
12 The number of countries reporting the profile of the victims 13 In the case of South Africa, the data concerned victims identi-
according to age and gender increased (44 in 2003; 56 in 2004; fied by IOM. In Togo, the victims were those sheltered by two 49
76 in 2005; and 61 in 2006) NGOs.
Global Overview

Detailed accounts of trafficking for domestic
servitude, child begging, forced marriage, organ
removal and ritual killings were reported by dif-
ferent State authorities. These types of cases
were only recorded episodically, but they remain
alarming since they only represent reported cases
and actual numbers could be higher.
Trafficking for begging was recorded in Western
and Central Europe, and countries in West and
Southern Africa identified cases of trafficking for
ritual killings or mystic practices. Episodes of
trafficking for organ removal were detected in
Europe, the Middle East and South Asia, and
trafficking for forced marriage was another form
of trafficking reported in quite a few Asian coun-
tries. More detailed information can be found in
the regional and country sections of this report.

Why trafficking for forced labour is less easily detected than trafficking for sexual exploitation
There is a general concern that trafficking for forced labour is less frequently detected and reported
than trafficking for sexual exploitation, and at least three considerations support this concern. The
first regards legislation. In 2008, most of the countries considered by this report had a trafficking in
persons offence in place that included the criminalization of trafficking for forced labour, but this is
a recent development. For instance, about 10 European countries expanded their definition of traf-
ficking to include forced labour during the years 2005-2008. For many years, a large number of East
Asian countries only considered trafficking for sexual exploitation, which remains the case in many
countries in the region. A similar situation exists in Latin America.

The second issue relates to the first in that law enforcement agencies, as well as the general public,
often view trafficking in persons only in the context of sexual exploitation. For many years and in
many countries, the two concepts have been almost concomitant. Hence, an episode of trafficking
for forced labour, when detected, could still be treated and recorded under another charge even when
a specific offence of trafficking for forced labour exists in a country’s criminal code.

Finally, the ‘visibility bias’ is the idea that trafficking for forced prostitution is more likely to be
detected than trafficking for forced labour. Prostitution (whether forced or voluntary) involves the
general public because it must be visible – taking place in streets, bars or public spaces in urban areas
– to attract potential clients. Conversely, most of the victims of forced labour often work in hidden
locations, such as agricultural fields in rural areas, mining camps and garment factories or within the
closed environment of a house in the case of domestic servitude. As a consequence, the detection of
victims of trafficking for forced labour is less probable than the identification of victims of traffick-
ing for forced prostitution.
51
Global Overview

Information about the type of exploitation suf- As a result of the lack of legislation, no countries
fered by victims was not always reported. When have established policies or mechanisms to iden-
information was available, forced labour emerged tify, refer or assist victims of trafficking, and very
as a prominent form of trafficking in a large part few victims were identified by State authorities
of the region. Victims – mostly children − traf- in the entire region. Data retrieved from infor-
ficked for forced labour might have been involved mation collected by shelters and by the Interna-
in activities such as slavery, domestic servitude, tional Organization for Migration (IOM) were
begging and camel jockeying (often Mauritanian the only reliable numbers regarding victims of
victims trafficked to the Middle East). Sexual trafficking in persons. However, very few shel-
exploitation also was detected in many countries ters exist that deal exclusively with trafficked
of the region, and trafficking for organ removal, persons. Trafficking victims, when identified,
ritual killings and mystic practices was detected are dealt with on an ad hoc basis and are gener-
in Chad and Liberia. ally not recorded as a separate group.

East Africa The limited information available concerning vic-
tims receiving shelter indicates that most are adult
No information was collected during the reporting
women and children of both sexes. Sexual exploi-
period on the profile of offenders, and data about
tation, forced labour, slavery and servitude were
victims was also scarce. In most of the countries of
the main forms of exploitation experienced by
the region, the number of victims identified by
sheltered victims. The recruitment of children as
authorities was zero or unknown during the report-
soldiers was identified in the Democratic Republic
ing period. Where the numbers were unknown,
of the Congo, while cases of organ removal for
victims of trafficking could not be distinguished
rituals were detected and prosecuted in Malawi.
from other persons in need of assistance or of vic-
tims of related forms of crime. Between 2003 and
2007, women and children were generally the
North America
victims of trafficking and related crimes. Information on the profile of trafficking offenders
and victims was very limited for North America. In
Southern Africa Canada and Mexico, a small number of criminal
No information was collected concerning the proceedings were carried out during the reported
profile of offenders during the reporting period. period, involving both adult and child victims.

Fig. 26: Victims of trafficking in persons shel- Fig. 27: Persons convicted under all trafficking
tered by IOM in South Africa, by form offences in the USA, by form of exploi-
of exploitation (2005-2006) tation (FY-2005 to FY-2007)
70 120

60 100
17
50 20
80 38
40
60
30
7 86
40
20 41 61
10
25 20
10
25
0 0
2005 2006 FY-2005 FY-2006 FY-2007
Sexual exploitation Forced labour Sexual exploitation Forced labour

Source: IOM’s Counter Trafficking Programme
− SACTAP
Source: Assessment of US Government Efforts to Combat
Trafficking in Persons in Fiscal Year 2007
53
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Authorities in the USA report that men, women South America
and children are trafficked into the country
largely from East Asia, Mexico and Central Convicted offenders were mostly domestic traf-
America for purposes of sexual exploitation and fickers and were citizens of the countries that
forced labour. The responsibility for identifying sentenced them. However, some offenders
and providing services to victims is spread among engaged in cross-border trafficking and were
multiple agencies. Both adult and under age from other countries in the region. Also, South-
victims were identified, with the number of ern European traffickers were found in Brazil
minors increasing during the reporting period. and Chile. In countries where information on
However, the proportion of victims who were the gender of offenders was available to UNODC,
minors is unknown. Cases of trafficking for data shows that women were just as involved as
forced labour accounted for at least 63% of the men.
victims detected in 2007.
Fig. 28: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
Central America and the Caribbean fied by State authorities in Bolivia, by
type of exploitation (2005-2006)
The limited data collected on the profile of 60
offenders in this region indicates that females 1
play a prominent role. In Costa Rica and Nica- 50
ragua, female offenders outnumbered males,
40
while female and male offenders were equal in El 2
Salvador. 30 44

Data on victims identified by State authorities 20
24
between 2003 and 2007 clearly indicates a rising
10
trend in trafficking in all countries of the region
6 7
– this includes El Salvador even though identi- 0
2005 2006
fied victims began decreasing in 2007. Hondu-
ras and Panama only reported victims for 2007. Sexual exploitation Mixed exploitation
Slavery
During the reporting period, trafficking victims Source: SEDEGES (Servicio Departamental de Gestión
Social), Bolivia
in the region were frequently children, predom-
inantly girls. Adult women were the main vic-
tims identified in Guatemala, and they were also Adult women made up the largest group of traf-
a significant group in the Dominican Republic. ficking victims recorded in Argentina, Brazil,
An increasing number of boys were detected as Chile and Paraguay, while under age girls were
victims in Nicaragua over the past two years, the main victims in Bolivia and Peru. Adult men
and a number of adult male victims were identi- made up a significant number of victims in Ven-
fied in El Salvador and Guatemala, but both ezuela, boys were frequently detected in Colom-
boys and men were less frequently reported as bia, and almost all of the victims of slave labour
victims in other countries of the region. reported in Brazil were men. In Argentina, as
well, increasing numbers of men and boys were
Most of the identified or assisted victims were recorded as victims.
trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation,
but victims of trafficking for forced labour were Trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploita-
also detected in the Dominican Republic, the tion was the primary form of trafficking in many
East Caribbean, Nicaragua and El Salvador. In countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and
these cases, forced labour took the form of Peru). This finding, however, may be a reflection
domestic servitude. of the fact that anti-trafficking laws in the region
are primarily limited to human trafficking for
54 sexual exploitation. Forced labour was a major
Global Overview

form of trafficking in Argentina and Colombia, Lao PDR and Thailand – no information was
and extremely large numbers of victims of traf- available for Myanmar) and, episodically, in the
ficking for forced and slave labour were identi- Pacific sub-region. Forced labour in the form of
fied in Brazil and, episodically, in Bolivia. domestic servitude and, to a lesser extent, forced
begging, was detected among victims trafficked
East Asia and the Pacific to Thailand from other countries and in victims
The profile of offenders was rarely available in assisted by IOM in Indonesia.
this region during the reporting period. When
information was known, detected offenders were
South and South-West Asia
more frequently men, although the number of No information was collected on the profile of
female offenders was not far behind. Addition- trafficking offenders. Additionally, data on age
ally, most offenders were nationals of the coun- and gender was rarely collected for victims iden-
try where the case was reported. tified or sheltered, making it very difficult to
create or analyse victim profiles. In countries
Based on profiles of victims identified by State where information was available (Bangladesh,
authorities or who were assisted by other institu- Nepal and Pakistan) during the reporting period,
tions, women and girls were the primary victims adult women and children of both sexes were
of trafficking in the region. It must be stressed, more frequently identified as victims. Adult
however, that during 2003-2007, most countries male trafficking victims were reported in Ban-
only had legislation criminalizing trafficking for gladesh.
sexual exploitation or trafficking in women. As
a consequence, trafficking in men and boys Among countries that collected information,
might have gone largely undetected and unre- sexual exploitation was frequently reported. It
ported. was the main form of trafficking detected in
Nepal, with large numbers also reported in India
In the Pacific sub-region, Japan, Mongolia, and other countries. Trafficking for forced labour
Indonesia and Myanmar, adult women were appears to be equally prominent in the region.
more commonly reported as victims than were From 2003 to 2006, a significant number of
minors. However, trafficking in minors was a forced labour cases were reported in India, where
more significant issue in the other Mekong it was more frequently detected than sexual
countries (Cambodia, Lao PDR and Thailand) exploitation. In Nepal and Pakistan, some child
and in the Philippines. With the exception of victims were returned from the Middle East
the Pacific sub-region where no cases of child where they were trafficked into forced labour as
trafficking were reported, the proportion of camel jockeys. A few Indian states reported vic-
minors trafficked relative to the total number of tims of trafficking in persons for the purposes of
trafficking victims rose in 2003-2007 in all organ removal and forced marriage.
countries of the region. Trafficking in men and
boys was reported in the Mekong countries In Afghanistan, the number of children (of both
(Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Thailand), sexes, equally) and adult males identified or
Indonesia and Mongolia. sheltered as victims of trafficking-related offences
was higher than the number of adult females.
Victims were predominantly trafficked for the
purpose of sexual exploitation throughout the Eastern Europe and Central Asia
region. Again, however, it must be stressed that
until very recently the legislation in many of The clear pattern that emerges from criminal
these countries only included provisions crimi- justice data from this region is that females not
nalizing trafficking for sexual exploitation. only make up a large proportion of the traffick-
ers that are investigated, prosecuted and con-
Victims of trafficking for forced labour were victed, but outnumber males in most of the
identified among those returned to Indonesia, countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
Mongolia, the Mekong sub-region (Cambodia,
55
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 29: Victims of trafficking in persons Fig. 30: Victims of trafficking in persons
identified by State authorities in identified by State authorities in Greece,
Ukraine, (2003-2006) (2003–2007)
600 300

500 250
39
400 15 52 200
14
300 150 7 4
446 29 5
200 377 393 100
1
160 31
100 198
6
50 93 104
76 64
0
0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Adults Children
Women Total Men Children
Source: Department for Combating Human Trafficking
Offences, Ministry of the Interior, Ukraine Source: Hellenic Police Headquarters

The vast majority of convicted offenders are Globally, nationals trafficking within their own
nationals of the country in which they were countries tended to represent the majority of the
detected. When foreigners were convicted or offenders suspected or convicted. However, in
prosecuted, they most often came from another some countries of this region, the registration of
country in the region. foreign traffickers (suspected or convicted) was
substantially higher than in other regions.
Information available on victim profiles indi-
cates that the majority were adult women. Only Fig. 31: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
a limited number of child victims were reported, fied by State authorities in Albania, by
but their numbers were increasing throughout type of exploitation (2005-2006)
the region during the reporting period. 100
90
Trafficking for forced labour was a frequently 80
reported form of exploitation in countries where 70 5
6
7
information was available. However, the great 60 6
majority of victims identified by State authori- 50
40
ties were trafficked for sexual exploitation. A few
30 62 57
cases of trafficking for the purpose of forced 20
marriage were detected by authorities in Central 10
Asia, and cases of trafficking for organ removal 0
were identified and prosecuted in Moldova. 2005 2006
Sexual Forced labour Begging
Western and Central Europe exploitation

Source: National Reception Center for Victims
Male traffickers were clearly more numerous of Trafficking, Albania
than females, according to available information
on the profile of offenders. The number of When information was available on victim pro-
women investigated, prosecuted or convicted files, females were clearly the majority of victims
was, proportionally, rarely more than one third detected throughout the region, and adult
of the total number of suspected offenders. women were more frequently reported as victims
Although infrequently recorded, alarmingly, than were girls. Overall, child victims were less
minors also were detected as suspected offenders common than adults in most countries. How-
56 in some Western European countries. ever, in South-East Europe the number of child
Global Overview

victims identified or sheltered was generally Q Victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation
higher when compared to the rest of Europe, accounted for about 79% of the victims de-
and in some countries of this sub-region, chil- tected in 2006, and victims of forced labour
dren were the largest category of identified vic- for about 18% (in 52 selected countries).
tims.
Male victims were episodically reported in many
countries in the region. Adult male victims were
detected in Southern and Western Europe, and
4. Trafficking in persons flows
both men and boys were reported as trafficking The data collected allows for the identification
victims in South-East Europe. of three dimensions of the flow of trafficking in
persons: trans-regional trafficking, intra-regional
Available information identified trafficking for
trafficking and domestic trafficking.
the purpose of sexual exploitation as the most
common type of exploitation, but there were Domestic trafficking affects victims who are
also a significant number of cases of trafficking citizens of the country in which they are
for forced labour. Victims of trafficking for exploited. Intra-regional trafficking occurs
forced labour were identified in Belgium, France, between different countries within the same
Romania and Spain, and forced labour was epi- region. This includes cross-border trafficking
sodically detected in the Czech Republic, Croa- and trafficking between countries geographically
tia, Finland, the United Kingdom and other close to one another. In trans-regional traffick-
countries. This suggests that trafficking for ing, victims are trafficked from one of the regions
forced labour likely exists in other countries of considered in this report to another region. This
the region as well, but goes undetected. Traffick- could be trans-continental trafficking, but it also
ing for begging is less frequently reported and involves trafficking flows to neighbouring
was found mainly in South-East Europe and in regions on the same continent, such as between
some Western European countries. Eastern Europe and Western and Central Europe,
or between Central and North America.
Croatia, Finland, the United Kingdom and other
countries. This suggests that trafficking for a. Domestic trafficking
forced labour likely exists in other countries of
the region as well, but goes undetected. Traffick- − greatly undetected?
ing for begging is less frequently reported and The data collected show that domestic traffick-
was found mainly in South-East Europe and in ing was detected in at least 32 countries among
some Western European countries. those where information was available, and in
some countries, it is a major issue. For instance,
Core results − Global baseline data on traf-
the charts in Figures 32 to 35 show the main
ficking patterns origin of victims of trafficking detected in four
Q Female offenders have a more prominent role major Indian states. Most of the victims identi-
in trafficking in persons than in other crimes. fied during the reporting period were trafficked
Q The capacity to detect trafficking victims from other Indian states or from neighbouring
increased during the reporting period − the countries.
number of victims detected increased by
27% between 2003 and 2006 (in 71 selected Interestingly, evidence indicates that domestic
countries). trafficking does not occur only in large transi-
tional countries, such as India and Brazil, where
Q Female victims represented, on average, be-
the dimensions of the country can explain the
tween 65 and 75% of all victims detected be-
existence of trafficking internally between poor
tween 2003 and 2006; child victims between
15 and 25%; and male victims around 15%. and rich areas. Domestic trafficking also exists in
relatively small and wealthy countries, such as 57
those in Europe.
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 32: Victims of trafficking in persons identi- Fig. 34: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
fied by authorities in Maharashtra, fied by authorities in Karnataka, India,
India, by area of origin (2005-2007) by area of origin (2005-2006)

Bangladesh, 25

Karnataka, 7 Tamil Nadu, 23
Maharashtra, 9
West Bengala, 13
Karnataka, West Bengala, 7
Nepal, 156 Andhra Pradesh, 4
311 Orissa, 1
Andhra Pradesh, 1
Uttar Pradesh, 19
Madhya
Pradesh, 7
Madhya Pradesh, 14
Other Indian
Rajastan, 12 States, 6

Source: Commission of Women and Child Development, Source: Karnataka Women and Child Development
Pune, Maharashtra Department

Fig. 33: Victims of trafficking in persons identi- Fig. 35: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
fied by authorities in Kerala, India, by fied by authorities in Haryana, India, by
area of origin (2005-2006) area of origin (2005-2006)

Jharkhand,
16

Tamil Nadu, 59
Andhra West Bengal,
Kerala, 610
Pradesh, 9 Haryana, Bihar, Uttar
85 Pradesh, 18
Karnataka, 3

Source: Directorate of Social Welfare, Source: Social Justice and Empowerment
Government of Kerala Department, Haryana

Table 6: Number of countries where at least one victim of internal trafficking was detected, by region
(2005-2007)

Middle East and West and Central
East Africa Southern Africa
North Africa Africa
(total: 9) (total: 11)
(total: 10) (total: 16)
At least one
victim of domes- 1 country 4 countries
tic trafficking
International 3 countries 1 country 2 countries
trafficking only
58 Little, missing 6 countries 11 countries 9 countries 9 countries
or unclear data
Global Overview

Central South and
North South East Asia and
America and South-West
America America the Pacific
the Caribbean Asia
(total: 3) (total: 9) (total: 27)
(total: 12) (total: 8)
At least one
victim of domes- 1 country 1 country 3 countries 2 countries 5 countries
tic trafficking
International 2 countries 2 countries
trafficking only
Little, missing 2 countries 11 countries 4 countries 6 countries 20 countries
or unclear data

Western and Central Europe Eastern Europe and Central Asia
(total: 38) (total: 12)
At least one
victim of domes- 11 countries 4 countries
tic trafficking
International 8 countries 3 countries
trafficking only
Little, missing 19 countries 5 countries
or unclear data

Fig. 36: Respective shares of foreigners and nationals among victims detected in three selected
European countries
Respective shares of foreigners and Respective share of foreigners and Respective share of foreigners and
nationals among (possible) victims nationals among victims of traf- nationals among victims of traf-
registered with the Foundation ficking in persons identified by ficking in persons identified by law
against THB (STV) in the Nether- State authorities in Germany enforcement authorities in Italy
lands (2005-2006) (2005-2006) (2003-2007)

Italian
German Citizens,
Dutch Citizens, 9%
Citizens, 21%
26%

Foreigners, Foreigners, Foreigners,
74% 79% 91%

Source: STV reports/The Bureau Source: Bundeskriminalamt Trafficking Source: Italian National Anti-Mafia
Nationaal Rapporteur Mensenhandel in Human Beings Bureau

In the Netherlands and Germany, domestic traf- The number of victims of domestic trafficking is
ficking accounts for about one fourth of the not always clear, so it is not always possible to
total number of victims, and when victims are estimate the proportion of domestic victims.
ranked by citizenship, citizens of these countries While domestic trafficking appears to be more
are the most trafficked within their own coun- limited than international trafficking, it is likely
tries. In Italy, the number of Italian victims that this form of trafficking is reported most of
identified ranks second among trafficking vic- the time under other offences, such as pandering
tims. or slavery. The concept of domestic trafficking is
often not clear for the criminal justice system or 59
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

origin and destination countries for trafficking Europe and the Middle East between 2003 and
victims. Others, such as Burkina Faso, Mali, 2007.
Mauritania and Sierra Leone, appeared to be
only countries of origin, while Gabon was only Southern Africa
a destination country. No information was avail-
The general lack of information does not allow
able concerning the other countries, thus it was
for an analysis of trafficking patterns, flows or
not possible to reliably identify trafficking
trends. For most countries in this region, it is
flows.
more appropriate to refer to trafficking episodes.
Fig. 37: Victims of trafficking in persons Fig. 38: Victims of trafficking in persons
sheltered by the NGO Centre Arcade in sheltered by IOM in South Africa, by
Gabon, by country of citizenship country of citizenship
(2004-2005) (2005-2006)

Mozambique, 5
Cameroon, 6
Zimbabwe, 4
South East
Other Southern
Asia, 2 Africa, 2
Togo, 76

Nigeria, 23 India, 9
Thailand, 60

Mali, 4
Benin, 80 Congo, 7
Other
West Africa, 6
South Africa, 3
Other Africa, 3

Source: Centre Arcade, Gabon Source: IOM’s Counter Trafficking Program − SACTAP

During the period 2003-2007, victims from Recorded episodes suggest that intra-regional
West Africa were identified in other regions of trafficking is common. Some countries, such as
the world, especially Europe. West African vic- Zambia and Zimbabwe, are countries of origin
tims were also detected in, or repatriated from, and destination, while Mozambique, Malawi,
North Africa and the Middle East, Southern and the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Africa and, episodically, Eastern Europe. appear to be primarily origin countries. South
Africa is mainly a trafficking destination for
The data available also indicated the existence of victims from countries within and outside the
domestic trafficking in many countries, espe- region.
cially Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria and
Togo. Too little data was available from other Victims that were detected were mostly traf-
countries to verify if they were similarly affected ficked from or to neighbouring countries. Trans-
by this form of trafficking. regional trafficking appears to involve mainly
neighbouring regions, based on the records of
East Africa East and West African victims that were shel-
tered in some countries of the region. Asian
The general lack of information did not allow
victims (East Asia, South-East Asia and South
for an analysis of trafficking patterns, flows or
Asia), however, were also identified in a few
trends. However, the small amount of available
Southern African countries.
information suggests that countries were affected
by domestic as well as intra-regional trafficking.
64 A few victims were recorded as repatriated from
Global Overview

North America that, for the most part, these were countries of
destination.
Of the victims that were detected, many were
nationals from Latin American countries and The trafficking flows detected during the report-
the Caribbean (41% of the victims detected in ing period were mainly intra-regional. This is
the USA during the fiscal year 2007), especially clearly the case for Nicaragua, El Salvador and
from Central America. African, Asian and Euro- Guatemala. When trans-regional cases of traf-
pean victims also were found in the USA and ficking were detected, they mostly involved
Canada. A limited number of South and Central countries close to South America and, in only a
American victims were identified or sheltered in few instances, more distant regions.
Mexico.
A limited number of South American victims
Central America and the Caribbean were identified or sheltered in a few Central
American countries. Dominican victims also
It is possible to draw some generic conclusions were detected and repatriated from South Amer-
on the main geographical flows of human traf- ica and Europe. Similarly, victims from other
ficking affecting countries in the region based Central American and Caribbean countries were
on an overview of the nationalities of victims identified in South America, and there were
identified by State authorities and other institu- incidences of victims from South Asia and East-
tions, as well as from an analysis of the countries ern Europe detected in the East Caribbean.
from which victims were repatriated.
South America
Fig. 39: Victims of trafficking identified by State
authorities in Guatemala, by country of
Domestic trafficking, intra-regional trafficking
citizenship (January 2006-March 2008) and trans-regional trafficking flows were identi-
fied in the region.
Guatemala, Panama, 5
24 The available data point to the existence of
domestic trafficking in Argentina, Brazil,
Nicaragua, Honduras, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. The numbers of
414 259 registered victims of domestic trafficking are
relatively low, but this is likely due to the fact
Other, 77
that many countries in the region only recently
El Salvador, adopted related legislation.
443
Data on the citizenship of identified victims
indicate a relative preponderance of intra-re-
Colombia, 4 gional trafficking. Bolivia, Ecuador and Para-
Other guay appear to be primarily countries of origin
Central &
South America, 5 for victims of trafficking at the regional level.
Bolivian and Paraguayan victims were detected
Source: National Civil Police, Guatemala
in Argentina, with Bolivians usually trafficked
for the purpose of labour exploitation and Para-
Almost all the countries from which informa- guayans trafficked for sexual exploitation. Vic-
tion on the nationalities of victims was available tims from Ecuador were found in Colombia and
appeared to be both countries of origin and des- Peru.
tination. However, the Dominican Republic and
Nicaragua were mainly countries of origin, while Argentina, Brazil and Peru are countries of origin
Guatemala was primarily a destination for traf- and destination for trafficking victims. Argen-
ficking victims. Additionally, in the countries of tinean and Peruvian victims were found in Chile,
the East Caribbean, the few cases of trafficking and Brazilian and Peruvian victims were identi-
or trafficking-like offences recorded suggested fied in Argentina. Victims from Bolivia, Peru, 65
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Paraguay and Ecuador were found in Brazil, ican victims detected in Argentina and Hondu-
although comprehensive statistics were not avail- ran victims found in Colombia. South American
able on these victims. Chile is mainly a destina- victims were also detected in Europe and North
tion country, while Colombian victims were America and, to a lesser extent, in East Asia and
detected in other regions and in Venezuela. The the Middle East. Chinese victims were identified
available information indicates that intra-re- in Venezuela.
gional trafficking often occurs between neigh-
bouring countries in the region. East Asia and the Pacific
Trans-regional trafficking from Central America It is possible to draw some generic conclusions
and the Caribbean was identified, with Domin- on the main geographical flows of human traf-
ficking affecting countries in the region based
on an overview of the nationalities of victims
Fig. 40: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
fied by various institutions and assisted identified by State authorities and other institu-
by IOM-Programme AVOT in Argenti- tions, as well as from an analysis of the countries
na, by country of citizenship (November from which victims were repatriated.
2005-2007)
The data collected indicates that East Asian
countries are affected by complex trafficking
Brazil, 7
flows. During the reporting period, many East
Paraguay, 49
Dominican
Asian countries were countries of origin for traf-
Republic, 12 ficking in persons within and outside the
Other South region.
America, 5
Central Some areas, such as the Mekong countries, were
Bolivia, 91 America, 1 destinations for cross-border trafficking within
Argentina, 8 the Mekong sub-region and, at the same time,
origin countries for trans-regional trafficking.
Thai victims, for instance, were identified and
repatriated from countries within the region and
Source: Programa AVOT (Asistencia a Víctimas de la Trata
de Personas) IOM, Buenos Aires from at least three other regions, including
Southern Africa, Europe and the Middle East.
Fig. 41: Victims identified by the public
Similarly, Vietnamese and nationals from other
prosecutor’s office in Chile, by country countries of the Mekong sub-region were
of citizenship (2006-2007) detected in different regions of the world, as well
as within East Asia and the Pacific.
The Middle East was also a destination for Indo-
nesian victims assisted by IOM, while Central
Asian countries were destinations for Mongolian
victims assisted by local NGOs.
Argentina, 11
Additionally, it should be noted that victims
from East Asian countries not covered by this
Peru, 24
report have been found in destination countries
in other regions of the world. For instance, Chi-
Other South nese victims were detected in more than four
America, 3
regions (Europe, the Middle East, the Americas,
in parts of the African continent and Asia).

66 This region recorded the widest trans-regional
Source: Fiscalía Nacional, Chile trafficking scope for countries of origin for traf-
Global Overview

ficking victims. However, East Asia and the identified by State authorities and other institu-
Pacific were mainly subject to intra-regional tions, as well as from an analysis of the countries
trafficking related to destination countries for from which victims were repatriated.
victims. For example, mainly East Asian victims
and, episodically, victims from other regions Victims of domestic trafficking were recorded in
were detected in Australia, Japan and Malaysia. Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan and Moldova.
Limited data does not allow for conclusions as
Domestic trafficking was clearly evident in three to whether domestic trafficking occurred in
countries of the Mekong sub-region (Cambodia, other countries in the region as well.
Lao PDR and Myanmar) and in Indonesia and
During the reporting period, intra-regional traf-
Mongolia. Information on internal trafficking
ficking in persons was a major issue within East-
was unavailable for the other countries of the
ern Europe and Central Asia. A significant
Mekong sub-region, but this does not necessar-
number of the victims identified in the region
ily mean that internal trafficking does not occur
were nationals of countries within the region.
in these countries as well.
Data show that almost all the countries were
both origins and destinations for intra-regional
South and South-West Asia trafficking. However, available information from
The lack of detailed information available lim- Tajikistan and Turkmenistan suggests that they
ited the possibility of analysing trafficking flows were exclusively countries of origin for traffick-
into and out of the region. Domestic trafficking ing within Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
appears to be a problem, with victims identified
in Bangladesh, India and, episodically, in Paki- The data also suggests that the Eastern Europe
stan. and Central Asia region was a source of trans-
regional trafficking. Nationals from throughout
Intra-regional trafficking was also an issue the region were repatriated from, or identified
appearing to affect Nepal and Bangladesh as in, a few specific hot spots, particularly in South-
countries of origin and India as a destination ern Europe and the Middle East. Geographical
country, especially in the rich area of the Maha- proximity also seems to play an important role
rashtra. in determining destination countries. Victims
originating from Eastern Europe were detected
Trans-regional trafficking in persons affects the in Western and Central Europe, and victims
region as well, and South Asian victims were from the region were identified in neighbouring
identified in Europe and the Middle East. On Asian countries. Eastern Europe and Central
the contrary, victims trafficked from other Asia is not a major trans-regional destination,
regions of the world were not found in South with very few victims trafficked from other
Asia. regions detected within the region.
Afghanistan appeared as a destination for vic-
tims trafficked from neighbouring countries.
Over the last few years, IOM has identified and
sheltered Chinese and Pakistani victims. The
scarcity of information does not allow for a more
detailed analysis of trafficking flows out of the
country.

Eastern Europe and Central Asia
It is possible to draw some generic conclusions
on the main geographical flows of human traf-
ficking affecting countries in the region based 67
on an overview of the nationalities of the victims
Global Overview

Core results − Global baseline data on
trafficking flows
Q Intra-regional trafficking (origin and destina- Q Victims from East Asia were found in the
tion in the same region) was detected more widest range of destinations, including Asia,
frequently than trans-regional trafficking dur- Africa, the Americas, Europe and the Middle
ing the period 2003-2007. East.
Q Domestic trafficking represented a significant Q Victims detected in Western and Central
share of recorded trafficking cases during the Europe came from the widest range of ori-
reporting period, though it still appears to go gins, including Europe, as well as Africa, East
greatly undetected. Asia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin
America and South Asia.

5. The way forward in international monitoring
of trafficking trends, patterns and flows
The statistics collected and presented in this language in Article 28 of the United Nations
report show that countries responded positively Convention against Transnational Organized
to the comprehensive data collection effort Crime, which states:
undertaken under the UN.GIFT initiative. The
quantity of information collected under this States Parties shall consider developing and sharing
research activity is the largest ever. This includes analytical expertise concerning organized criminal
information concerning more than 50,000 activities with each other and through interna-
offenders and victims of trafficking in persons tional and regional organizations. For that pur-
officially identified by the State authorities of pose, common definitions, standards and
155 countries and territories. It is necessary that methodologies should be developed and applied as
this momentum not be lost and that measures appropriate.
be taken to improve information sharing on The present survey represents a significant step
human trafficking. Without this effort, the in this direction, and the data collected so far are
international community will be fighting the impressive. A good deal can be learned from this
problem blindfolded. collective experience, as this report has shown.
The first step in tackling a transnational issue But far more could be done with a system of
must be information sharing. Today, the Member sustained information gathering. In many coun-
States lack the ability to say with any precision tries, it appears that very few data are collected,
how many victims of human trafficking there and no comprehensive analysis of this data is
are, where they come from or where they are conducted. All Member States would benefit if
going. The various estimates that have been more were approaching the knowledge problem
made have been highly controversial. Since the systematically, and the insights to be gained in
magnitude of the problem or where it is most pooling experience and sharing information
acute cannot be stated, changes cannot be would be invaluable in designing targeted inter-
tracked over time, and interventions cannot be ventions to this international problem.
evaluated for their impact. Tackling transna-
tional trafficking in human beings requires an
ongoing exchange of data. The States Parties
recognized this need when they agreed upon the
69
Global Overview

Developing this monitoring capacity could draw 2. If so, is the definition of “trafficking in per-
on the experience UNODC has gathered in sons” consistent with Article 3 of the UN Pro-
researching this report. Based on this experience, tocol? If not, how does it differ?
it would be important to determine which types 3. If no specific offence of “trafficking in per-
of information could be collected at the interna- sons” exists in the legislation of the country
tional level for statistical purposes. In principle, or if this legislation is not consistent with the
four headings are relevant for gathering informa- Protocol, what other offences exist that can
tion on trafficking in persons: be used to investigate human trafficking (i.e.,
sexual exploitation, forced labour, slavery, ser-
Q The legislative and administrative framework vitude, removal of organs)?
Q The criminal justice response
The third question is important and is one that
Q The victim services many countries may not have previously consid-
Q Data on the markets that absorb human traf- ered. Analysis based on the data collected for
ficking victims and data on the populations at this report found that many judicial systems do
risk in the origin countries actually prefer to prosecute episodes under the
offence of “pandering” that actually fit the defi-
Each of these is discussed in turn below. nition of trafficking in persons under the Proto-
col. The question of “related offences” is
discussed further below.
a. The legislative and
administrative framework
Detailed information on the laws and institu-
b. Criminal justice response
tions established to address human trafficking is Once it is clear how a given country understands
needed to interpret the criminal justice data. human trafficking, its criminal justice statistics
Countries without legislation criminalizing traf- can be more safely analysed. This information
ficking in persons cannot be expected to return remains subject to misinterpretation, of course,
any convictions in this area. Where other laws and any accounting must be qualified with
are used to deal with trafficking-related matters, strong warnings about their basic cross-national
the degree of overlap between these offences and incomparability. These are not figures that can
those covered under the Protocol needs to be be taken at face value but require careful analysis
assessed. Small variations in statutory language and expert interpretation.
and legal traditions make it very difficult to
compare offences across countries, and while For instance, some of the authorities contacted
these problems can never completely be elimi- for this global data collection had the tendency
nated, they can be ameliorated considerably by to provide criminal justice statistics concerning
understanding the legal context. Changes in the trafficking in persons aggregated with figures
legal regime or the resources dedicated to com- concerning other offences, such as sexual exploi-
bating trafficking also can aid in interpreting tation. In the context of criminal justice statis-
trends within countries. tics, this practice is quite unique to trafficking in
persons.
Towards this end, successful monitoring and
information exchange at the international level The data provided, in the case of this report,
would have to include consideration of the fol- have been cross-checked and questioned by local
lowing questions: experts in a constant interaction with the author-
ities providing the information. The goal of this
1. Does the specific offence of “trafficking in per- exercise was to provide the reader with informa-
sons” exist in the legislation of the country? tion that is as clear as possible.
71
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

As noted above, one key side effect of interna- sarial than that of the criminal justice system. In
tional data collection is to prompt national some countries, these service providers are the
actors to re-think the way they collect informa- only source of indicators on human trafficking
tion. Many will find that the information they available for the country.
need is generated by multiple agencies, is seg-
mented and scattered, and that even actors Even in countries where criminal justice and
within the country may apply different meth- social service agencies cooperate closely on the
ods, counting rules and processes. For example, issue of trafficking, they may have different
in most States, units of accounting vary across accounting rules, and so it is important to
the criminal justice sectors. While the police include both perspectives. For example, as
often count the number of investigations into regards counting victims of trafficking, NGOs
human trafficking, the prosecutor’s offices and in Austria record child victims of forced begging
the court systems are more likely to report on as trafficking victims, while the police do not.
the number of persons prosecuted and con- Definitions differ because the goals of these two
victed. Harmonizing these differences for the systems are different. Not all service providers
purposes of national statistics may be a useful distinguish clearly between possible and con-
exercise in domestic stock taking and may con- firmed victims,17 as the primary criterion for
tribute to international understanding. assistance they provide is the need, not the legal
category, of the victim.
The following criminal justice indicators may be
particularly relevant for cross-national data col- With due respect for the privacy interests of the
lection and exchange: individuals involved, standard intake question-
naires for residential care facilities could capture
4. Number of offences of “trafficking in persons” a wealth of information, which could be stan-
recorded by the police or the criminal justice dardized for national and international use. The
system by year. qualitative insights of counsellors and other
5. Number of persons arrested or identified as experts who work with victims also could be
suspects of “trafficking in persons” by the po- garnered and coded. This need not require any
lice or the criminal justice system by gender actor to become more intrusive. Rather, there
and year. simply needs to be a system for collecting and
6. Number of persons against whom prosecu- recording information already gathered in the
tion was commenced for “trafficking in per- process of assisting victims so that more people
sons” by gender and year. can be helped. Such studies in many countries
7. Number of persons convicted at first instance
have documented the phenomenon of “re-traf-
for “trafficking in persons” by gender, citizen- ficking”, where the same victim receives services
ship, type of exploitation committed and year. on multiple occasions over the years. The rate at
which this phenomenon occurs could provide
valuable insights into the state of trafficking
markets in any given country.
c. Victim services
In addition, many foreign victims of trafficking
Some States keep track of the number of sus- will eventually be repatriated in a civil process
pected victims of trafficking, whether or not the that is not necessarily captured by criminal jus-
victims decide to cooperate with the criminal tice statistics. Some countries keep records of the
investigation. In addition, however, those orga- number of their own nationals returned in this
nizations – often State or donor sponsored – way. The information gathered in this process
that provide services to victims of trafficking can also could be captured and standardized.
prove a rich source of information. These may
be specialized organizations or they may be 17 Cf. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2007), An
multi-purpose social service providers, but their Assessment of Referral Practices to Assist and Protect the
72 contact with victims is far greater and less adver-
Rights of Trafficked Persons in Moldova , UNODC, Chisinau,
Moldova, February 2007.
Global Overview

The following indicators related to trafficking d. Data on the illegal market and
victims may be particularly relevant for cross-
national data collection and exchange: on vulnerable populations
8. Number of persons identified by State au- Data of the type described above has been suc-
thorities as Victims of Trafficking in Persons by cessfully collected in the present report. The
age, gender, citizenship, type of exploitation report gives a good sense of the state of the
suffered and year. world’s response to human trafficking, but, by
9. Number of persons identified by State au- its nature, the information collected is less infor-
thorities as Victims of Trafficking in Persons mative about the crime itself. The next steps in
who were officially returned from other coun- our understanding of the phenomenon may
tries, by returning countries and year. involve moving beyond response into informa-
10. Number of Victims of Trafficking in Persons tion on the illegal market for trafficking in
sheltered by all relevant facilities over the human beings.
course of the year by age, gender, citizenship,
In the end, the data described above are limited
type of exploitation suffered and year.
to the number of incidents brought to the atten-
11. Number of Victims of Trafficking in Persons tion of the authorities. To understand the “dark
sheltered by all relevant facilities over the figure” – the proportion of victims and perpetra-
course of the year who were returned from tors who go undetected – more data on the
other countries, by returning country and economics of the crime are needed. Trafficking
year. victims are typically funnelled into one of sev-
Such data could also assist in linking informa- eral forms of forced labour, especially forced
tion on victims and perpetrators. At present, for prostitution, work in certain labour intensive
example, many countries can list the top ranking sectors (agricultural, factory or service sectors),
countries of origin of both victims and perpetra- begging, and domestic work. More information
tors in their country. However, without linkages, can be gathered about these sectors as a whole,
it is difficult to generate a picture of who is traf- and more research can be conducted to deter-
ficking whom and for what purpose. mine what share of this labour is coerced.

Another way of addressing this deficiency would For example, it is known that those who traffic
be to request a case-by-case accounting of cer- women for the purposes of sexual exploitation
tain key indicators, which could be supplied often make use of exotic dancer visas or similar
from the side of either the victim or the perpe- fraudulent claims to bring women into the
trator. In other words, each incident in which a countries of destination. Keeping track of appli-
victim or offender is detected could be recorded cations and permits issued in the adult enter-
with details of all parties concerned, the location tainment industry could provide important
where the detection was made and related mat- indicators for understanding the darker side of
ters. Data on the location of the detection could this market. The Protocol also criminalizes traf-
be plotted using geographic information sys- ficking for removal of organs. This practice, too,
tems, which have proven useful in describing represents a subset of an otherwise licit market
other forms of transnational trafficking. This whose legitimate side can be quantified with
“incident-based” accounting may sound bur- precision.
densome, but given that few countries return
More generally, the demand side of the market
more than 100 convictions in any one year, it
for human beings is little understood, and this
need not be.
gap undermines attempts to put numbers to
trafficking flows. Traffickers will sell persons
only when certain market conditions make it
profitable. Understanding more about how and
why this occurs would require price data. This 73
Global Overview

Similarly, a regional initiative for data collection
on trafficking in persons is currently in place
within the Economic Community of West Afri-
can States (ECOWAS). An Anti-Trafficking
Unit with a mandate for policy development,
coordination and monitoring was established
within the ECOWAS Commission with techni-
cal assistance by UNODC. This Unit also col-
lects and disseminates data on anti-trafficking
activities to national governments and interna-
tional organizations.
Unfortunately, the countries and regions insti-
tuting these remarkable efforts are not in the
majority. Of the 155 countries covered by this
report, there were less than three dozen with a
central database on national responses to traf-
ficking in persons, and most of these were in
Europe and Central Asia. This underscores all
the more the need for a comprehensive data col-
lection approach at the international level.

75
Country profiles
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

For the most part, the information used to com- Because of these factors, interpreting the data
pile this report was collected by national institu- used as the basis for this report to signify the
tions, mostly for their administrative purposes extent or magnitude of human trafficking would
and not originally for this research. The data are be inaccurate. The information used in this
affected by a number of factors, which renders it report cannot be compared across countries,
partial and incomparable between countries. either to represent the severity of human traf-
ficking or to measure the different levels of per-
The first of these factors is differences in national formance of countries responding to the
legislation. Because the basis for the official reg- phenomenon.
istration of trafficking in persons is national
legislation, the data are clearly affected by the The information collected and presented in the
existence, scope and moment of entry into force following country profiles was provided to
of this legislation. In addition, each national UNODC by authoritative sources, including
criminal justice system is different, follows dif- governmental institutions, law enforcement
ferent procedures and implements legislation agencies and the judiciary. The sources are clearly
within the context of different legal systems. referenced in the text, and the validity of the
The terms investigation, prosecution and con- information depends on the validity of the infor-
viction involve distinct procedural steps from mation provided by these sources.
one country to another according to their indi-
vidual criminal procedural laws and legal sys-
Methodological note

tems. As a consequence, the volume of
investigations, prosecutions or convictions will
necessarily reflect these variations between coun-
tries.
The second factor affecting the data is the “dark
number”. For a number of reasons, not all
human trafficking activities are detected by
national authorities or other institutions. Thus,
comparing the criminal justice statistics across
countries is not possible, since it would result in
comparing a mix of different phenomena such
as the extent of the crime and the ability of the
law enforcement of detecting it, and many
others.
The third factor is the nature and functioning of
data recording systems for human trafficking
cases. The efficiency of existing systems has a
clear impact on the statistics available for this
report. Thus, the volume of victims and offend-
ers that are officially registered could be heavily
influenced by better recording mechanisms.

78
Middle East and North Africa

Egypt
Institutional framework Criminal justice response
The specific offence of child trafficking was A special unit for combating traffick-
established in Egypt in June 2008. The amend- ing in children was established within
ments to the 1996 Child Protection Law approved the National Council on Motherhood
by parliaments recognize trafficking in children, and Childhood in December 2007.
distinctly and exclusively, as a crime. Authorities
report that other offences in the criminal code, as Because of the absence of a specific pro-
well as Child Protection Law of 1996, the anti- vision on human trafficking, no prosecutions
tions or
prostitution law of 1960, the labour law, and the convictions were recorded for traffickingg in per-
anti-money laundering law of 2002, are used to sons during the reporting period.
criminalize forms of trafficking in persons. Fur- The statistics reported in the charts below
ow refer
thermore, draft legislation on the transfer of to the following offences: prostitution on and
human organs is in its final stage. exploitation of women, forced labour, removal
In July 2007, the Prime Minister issued a decree of organs, deception/employment abroad, expos-
to form the National Coordinating Committee ing a child to delinquency, and exploitation of
on Combating Human Trafficking within the children. The Egyptian authorities emphasize
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The members of this that these statistics do not represent the full
committee include representatives of all relevant scope of trafficking in persons in Egypt. In this
government authorities. One of the responsibili- regard, a survey-study to accurately identify the
ties of the committee is to formulate a national scope, magnitude and root causes of the prob-
action plan on combating human trafficking lem in Egypt is being undertaken by the National
taking into account Egypt’s international obliga- Centre for Social and Criminological Research
tions. A drafting committee was created, within in full cooperation with the national coordinat-
the National Committee on Combating Human ing committee to combat and prevent traffick-
Trafficking to draft a comprehensive anti-traf- ing in persons.
ficking legislation in line with the UN Traffick-
ing Protocol.

Fig. 1: Persons investigated for offences used to prosecute trafficking in persons in Egypt, by gender
(2003-2006)
100
90
80
70
27
Egypt
60 23
50 34
40
12
30
52 49
20
33 30
10
0
2003 2004 2005 2006
Males Females

Source: Public Prosecution, Ministry of the Interior
81
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 2: Cases investigated for offences used to prosecute trafficking in persons in Egypt, by offence
(2003-2007)
35

30
2
2
25
1 8
20
5
10
15
1 26
10
18
13 11
5
5
0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Sexual Exploitation Deceptive employment abroad
Exposing a child to delinquency Child exploitation

Source: Public Prosecution, Ministry of the Interior

Services provided to the victims Fig. 3: Victims of trafficking in persons
identified by State authorities in Egypt,
State authorities provide legal protection, medi- by age and gender (2003-2006)
cal and psychosocial support, and housing and
shelter for victims. Assistance is provided through 14
social welfare institutions that are either affili-
12 1
ated with the Ministry of Social Solidarity or are
certified at the ministry in accordance with the 10
Law on Child Protection and its executive stat- 5
1 5
ute. Local NGOs provide legal protection, and 8
3
medical and psychosocial support. 3
6
The national Council for Childhood and Moth- 4
3
4
erhood announced plans to launch a rehabilita-
6
tion centre in the district of El-Salam that will 5
2
3 3
act as a shelter for child victims of trafficking.
0
Additional information 2003 2004 2005 2006

Women Men Girls Boys
In 2005 and 2006, seven persons were convicted
Egypt

for removal of organs. Source: Public Prosecution, Ministry of Interior

82
Middle East and North Africa

Sudan
Institutional framework Additional information
Sudan introduced the concept of trafficking in The National Council for Child Care in n
persons into the framework of its cyber crime cooperation with the Ministry of thee
legislation in 2007. Interior, the Ministry of Social Welfaree
for Women and Children and the Minis--
Criminal justice response try of Foreign Affairs collects data on cases
es
A new department for combating human traf- of Sudanese nationals trafficked outside de of
ficking was established in 2007; it is part of the Sudan. Other formal procedures and legal gal sup-
Cyber Crime Department, which is affiliated nistries,
port are carried out by relevant ministries,
with the General Department of Criminal Intel- enhancing cooperation with international al organ-
ligence and Investigation. The new department’s izations and NGOs and providing them em with
responsibilities are to combat prostitution and the necessary support.
sexual exploitation networks, to fight human The National Council for Child Caree also is
trafficking and to halt the trafficking of body working in cooperation with UNICEF to estab-
organs. Fifty officers are assigned to this depart- lish a central database of children who were
ment. trafficked to serve as camel jockeys. Data has
Services provided to victims been collected and work on the design of the
system for the database is underway. Addition-
State authorities provide legal protection, hous- ally, a study was conducted to analyze and survey
ing and shelter, and medical and psychosocial the situation and needs of children participating
support. in camel races who were deported back to Sudan
from Gulf countries. This study was based on a
sample of 629 Sudanese boys identified as vic-
tims of trafficking for use as camel jockeys.

Sudan

89
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

United Arab
A Emirates
Institutional framework
Institution
The specific offence of trafficking in Other offences in the criminal code (sequestra-
persons was established in the United
perso tion, debauchery, exploitation of prostitution,
Arab Emirates
E in 2006. A national action slavery and others) were used to prosecute some
plan was adopted in 2006 and renewed in forms of trafficking prior to 2006. The follow-
2008. ing statistics refer to these related offences.

Criminal justice response
Fig. 17: Persons convicted of trafficking in
A speciali
specialized division on combating human persons-related offences in the UAE,
trafficking was established in 1995 as part of
traffickin by citizenship (2005-2006)
the Human Rights Care Department of the
Others, 2
Dubai Police General Headquarters. Trafficking Em irati, 3
Other
MENA, 1
in persons also falls under the competence of the
General Department for Criminal Security of
the Ministry of the Interior and the Division on
United Arab Emirates

Combating Organized Crime of the Criminal Eastern
Investigation Department, which was estab- Europe
and
lished in 2006. About 150 officers are assigned South
Central
to trafficking in persons and related crimes. Asian, 14
Asia, 6

In 2007, at least 10 human trafficking cases were
registered, and four men and two women were
arrested for trafficking in persons. There have
been convictions in five cases, with those con-
victed receiving jail terms ranging from three to
10 years. Source: Office of the Public Prosecutor, Dubai

Fig. 18: Persons convicted of trafficking in persons-related offences in the UAE, by gender (2003-2006)
25
Men
Women
20

15
15 15

10

5 3

6 6 3
4
2
0
2003 2004 2005 2006
90 Source: Office of the Public Prosecutor, Dubai
Middle East and North Africa

Services provided to victims
State authorities and local NGOs provide vic-
tims legal assistance, medical and psychosocial
support, housing and shelter, and assistance for
reintegration into the labour force.
Fig. 19: Victims of trafficking in persons identified by State authorities in the UAE, by age and gender
(2003-2007)
45
1
40
3
35

30

United Arab Emirates
25 3

20 35

15 24
10
1
5 6 5
1
0
Women Girls Men

Source: Office of the Public Prosecutor, Dubai and Ministry of the Interior

Fig. 20: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
fied in the UAE, by citizenship (2005-
Additional information
2006) All of the victims identified in the years 2005
and 2006 were trafficked for sexual exploita-
tion.

Moldavians, 5 Three residential facilities were available in 2007
Other for victims of human trafficking, with a total
MENA, 2 capacity of more than 150 beds. Four women
Other Eastern trafficked for sexual exploitation were sheltered
Uzbecks, 16 Europe and in that year. These facilities have sheltered 21
South Central Asia, 1
victims − 20 women and one child − from 2007
Asians, 3
through February 2008.
The UAE National Committee to Combat Traf-
East Asians, 1 ficking in Persons was created in April 2007 as the
coordinating body for anti-trafficking efforts at
all levels in the seven emirates of the federation.
Source: Office of the Public Prosecutor, Dubai and Ministry
of the Interior
91
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

The following
followin countries are covered in this Any missing information concerning the
Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Cote region was either unavailable or not accessed
section: Ben
d’Ivoire, Gabon,
Ga Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, by UNODC.
Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria,
Seneg
Senegal, Sierra Leone, Gambia and
Togo.
Togo

Benin
Institutio
Institutional framework Fig. 22: Persons prosecuted for trafficking in
children and for related offences in
The spec
specific offence of child trafficking was Benin (2003-2006)
established in Benin in 2006. The law does
establishe 600
not cover ttrafficking in persons above the age
of 18. Prior to 2006, the law on the prohibition 500
of taking chil
children out of the country could have
been used to prosecute some forms of trafficking 400
in children. The law also includes the specific
criminalization of “using children in armed con- 300
flicts”.

Criminal justice response 200

Benin has a specific law enforcement unit for the 100 182
protection of minors, which also deals with traf- 96 68
36
ficking in persons cases. The Brigade de Protec- 0
tion des Mineurs has been active since 1991. In 2003 2004 2005 2006
2004, the Brigade had about 10 officers devoted Source: Ministère de la Justice de la Législation Sociale et des
Droits de l’homme
full time to the protection of minors.

Fig. 21: Persons investigated for trafficking in Fig. 23: Persons convicted of trafficking in
children and for related offences in children and for related offences in
Benin, by gender (2003-2006) Benin, by gender (2003-2006)
600
140
Women
Women
Men 66 Men
500 120
17
36 100
400
Benin

34 53 6 13
80
300
60 4
488 104
200 407
40 81 75
319 318
56
100
20

0 0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2003 2004 2005 2006

92 Source: Ministère de la Justice de la Législation Sociale et des
Droits de l’homme
Source: Ministère de la Justice de la Législation Sociale et des
Droits de l’homme
West and Central Africa

Fig. 24: Sanctions for trafficking in children and Benin has an official referral system or mecha-
for related offences (2003-2006) nism for victims of trafficking in persons and a
central database where information concerning
140 identified victims is registered. These services are
120
operated by the Observatory for Family, Women
and Child Protection.
100 39

80
Fig. 25: Victims of trafficking identified by
20 State authorities in Benin, by age
33
60 (2003-2006)
24
40 600
82 68 Children
54 500
20 36
0 400

2003 2004 2005 2006 300 612

Less then 1 year From 1 to 5 years 200 406

Source: Ministère de la Justice de la Législation Sociale et des 248
100 198
Droits de l’homme
0
2003 2004 2005 2006
Services provided to victims Source: Ministère de la Justice de la Législation Sociale et des
Droits de l’homme
State authorities provide legal protection, tem-
porary stay permits, medical and psychosocial
support, and repatriation of victims to their Fig. 26: Victims of trafficking identified by State
origin countries. Local NGOs provide legal pro- authorities in Benin, by country of
citizenship (2005-2006)
tection, medical and psychosocial support, hous-
ing and shelter, and victim repatriation. Togo,
20
Benin
Additional information Nigeria,
10
Those convicted in 2005 and 2006 of trafficking Niger, 6
in persons were mainly nationals from Benin,
Benin,
but they also included offenders from Ghana, Burkina
390
Faso, 9
Liberia, Mali, Niger and Togo.
Other
In addition to victims of trafficking in persons West
national authorities identified about 47 victims Africa, 8
of sexual exploitation in 2005 and 123 in 2006.
In 2005, 324 victims of forced labour were Source: Ministère de la Justice de la Législation Sociale et des 93
Droits de l’homme
recorded and 431 were recorded in 2006.
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Burkina Faso
Institutional framework
Institu Services provided to victims
The specific
s offence of child trafficking State authorities provide legal protection, tem-
established in Burkina Faso in 2003.
was es porary stay permits, medical and psychosocial
The law does not cover trafficking in per- support, and housing and shelter for victims.
sons abov
above the age of 18. A law covering Local NGOs and international organizations
adult traffi
trafficking was drafted in 2007, and a provide legal protection, medical and psychoso-
a
national action plan on child protection was cial support, housing and shelter, and repatria-
adopted ini 2005. tion of victims.

Criminal justice response
Fig. 28: Victims of trafficking in children identi-
In 2008, the Brigade
B de Mineurs had about 180 fied by State authorities in Burkina Faso
dedicated full time to the protection of
officers dedic (2004-2006)
minors. 1400

1200
Fig. 27: Persons convicted of trafficking in
children in Burkina Faso (2004-2006) 1000
30 800

25 600 1253
1043
921
400
20 644
200
15
0
10 2003 2004 2005 2006
16
Burkina Faso

Source: Child Protection Department of the Ministry of
5 10 Social Affairs and National Solidarity
7

0
2004 2005 2006 Additional information
Source: Child Protection Department of the Ministry of
Social Affairs and National Solidarity Those convicted of trafficking in persons in
2005 and 2006 were mainly nationals of Burkina
Faso. All the convicted offenders were punished
with administrative sanctions.
All of the identified victims were children. Vic-
tims receiving shelter were most frequently
returned from neighbouring countries, as well as
from Europe and North Africa. According to
authorities, about 10% of the victims were
exploited for prostitution; 40% for forced beg-
ging; and 50% for the worst forms of child
labour.

94
West and Central Africa

Chad
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
The specific offence of trafficking in persons State authorities provide legal protec-
does not exist in the legislation of Chad. A law tion, temporary stay permits, medical
on child trafficking was drafted in 2007 and is and psychosocial support, and housing
pending consideration by the competent author- and shelter for victims. Local NGOs and
ities. A national action plan was adopted in international organizations provide medi-
di-
2006. cal and psychosocial support and housing ng and
shelter.
Criminal justice response
National authorities in Chad identifiedd about
Because of the absence of a specific provision on 500 children in 2006 and 113 children (88 88 boys
human trafficking, no prosecutions or convic- and 25 girls) in 2007 as victims of trafficking
king or
tions were recorded for trafficking in persons related crimes.
during the reporting period. Laws criminalizing
related forms of trafficking are used to prosecute Additional information
some types of cases, including illegal adoption,
In addition to the victims of trafficking in per-
economic exploitation, forced services and
sons, more than 3,400 victims of sexual exploi-
abduction (kidnapping and rape).
tation; about 6,000 victims of forced labour;
About 40 prosecutions and 10 convictions were and more than 7,000 victims of servitude were
reported in Chad for offences related to traffick- identified by State authorities in 2007. Many
ing in persons. In addition, about 1,200 convic- cases of organs removal for mystic practices were
tions for sexual exploitation, 96 for forced labour also recorded.
and 92 for servitude were recorded in Chad in
2007 alone.

Chad

95
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Cote dd’Ivoire
Iv
Institu
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
The specific offence of trafficking in State authorities provide legal protection, tem-
persons does not exist in the legislation
person porary stay permits, medical and psychosocial
of Cote d’Ivoire, but laws criminalizing support, and housing and shelter for victims.
related forms
fo are used to prosecute some Local NGOs and international organizations
types of trtrafficking. A specific law criminal- provide medical and psychosocial support and
izing all forms of trafficking was pending housing and shelter.
with the competent authorities in 2007. A
national aaction plan on child trafficking and Additional information
child labou
labour was adopted in 2007. All identified victims were exploited for forced
labour with the exception of three in 2005 who
Criminal justice
jus response were trafficked for sexual exploitation.
Because of th
the absence of a specific provision on
human trafficking, no prosecutions or convic-
tions were recorded for trafficking in persons
during the reporting period.
About 29 men were investigated for forced
labour between 2005 and 2007, with two pros-
ecutions recorded in 2005 and 15 in 2006,
resulting in two convictions in 2006.

Fig. 29: Victims of trafficking in persons identi- Fig. 30: Victims identified by State authorities in
fied by State authorities in Cote d’Ivoire, Cote d’Ivoire, by country of citizenship
by gender (2005-2007) (2005-2006)
Cote d'Ivoire

140 Other West
Ghana, Africa, 1
120 32
Togo,
100 27 22

80 Côte
11 143
d'Ivoire, 36
60 Mali,
36
40 86
69
20 Burkina
Benin, Faso,
0 22 45
2005 2006 2007
Total Boys Girls

Source: Social Protection Department, Cote d’Ivoire Source: Social Protection Department, Cote d’Ivoire

96
West and Central Africa

Gabon
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
The specific offence of child trafficking was State authorities provide legal protec-
established in Gabon in 2004. The law does not tion, temporary stay permits, medical
cover trafficking in persons above the age of 18. and psychosocial support, and housing
Other provisions of the penal code criminalize and shelter for victims. Local NGOs
sexual exploitation and forced labour. provide housing and shelter and repa-
triation services.
Criminal justice response
During 2004-2005, the Centre Arcade in Gabon
In 2006, 20 men were investigated for child traf- sheltered 197 victims of trafficking and related
ficking, and 11 were prosecuted. Information on crimes. These victims included 137 children
ren (22
previous years as well as information related to boys and 115 girls) and 60 adults (one man and
convictions was unavailable. 59 women), all of whom were victims off forms
of forced labour, such as domestic servitude
ude and
street selling. About 84 of these victims were
repatriated to their own countries in 2005.

Fig. 31: Victims of trafficking in persons
sheltered by the NGO Centre Arcade in
Gabon, by country of citizenship
(2004-2005)

Cameroon, 6
South East
Asia,
Togo, 76 2

Nigeria, 23

Mali, 4
Benin, 80
Other West
Africa,
6
Gabon
Source: Centre Arcade

97
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

The Gambia
Institutional framework
Institution Services provided to victims
The specific offence of trafficking in State authorities provide legal protection, tem-
persons
perso was established in Gambia in porary stay permits, medical and psychosocial
2007. A national action plan on traffick- support, and housing and shelter for victims.
ing in persons
pe was adopted in 2007. Local NGOs provide medical and psychosocial
support and housing and shelter.
Criminal justice response
The 2007 Trafficking in Persons Act included
the establishment
estab of a national agency
against tr
trafficking in persons, however, it
had yet to be put in place as of 2008. A spe-
enforcement section under the Department
cial enforcem
Immigration and Child Protection Unit also
of Immigratio
deals with some forms of trafficking in persons.
No prosecutions or convictions for trafficking in
persons were recorded during the reporting
period.
Gambia

98
West and Central Africa

Ghana
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was State authorities provide legal protec-
established in Ghana in 2005. tion, temporary stay permits, medical
and psychosocial support, housing and
Criminal justice response shelter, vocational training and microfi-
The Domestic Violence and Sexual Offences nance opportunities for victims. Local cal
Unit of the Ghana Police Service is mandated to NGOs and international organizations provide
investigate trafficking in persons in addition to legal protection, medical and psychosocialial sup-
domestic violence offences. port, and housing and shelter.

The first two offenders were prosecuted for traf- Additional information
ficking in persons in 2006, with the first convic-
tion in 2007. In 2008 through May, five more Fifteen of the 20 Ghanaian victims identified
entified
persons were prosecuted. between 2005 and 2007 were repatriatedd from
other countries in West Africa and Europe, and
the remaining five were trafficked internally.

Fig. 32: Victims of trafficking in persons Fig. 33: Victims of trafficking in persons
identified by State authorities in Ghana, identified in Ghana, by country of
(2003-2007) citizenship (2005-2007)
60
Children Other, 2
50 Total
Other West
40 Africa, 4

30

20 Ghana, 20
33
10
16
2 2 8
0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Ghana
Source: Ghana Human Trafficking Management Board Source: Ghana Human Trafficking Management Board

99
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Guinea
Institutional framework
Institu Services provided to victims
The specific offence of trafficking in State authorities provide legal protection, tem-
persons does not exist in the legislation
perso porary stay permits, medical and psychosocial
Guinea. Some forms of trafficking in
of Guin support, and housing and shelter for victims.
persons may be prosecuted through the Local NGOs and international organizations
offences of “pawn of human beings” and “ser- provide legal protection, temporary stay per-
w
vitude”, which have existed in the criminal mits, medical and psychosocial support, and
sinc 1998. A national action plan on
code since housing and shelter.
trafficking in persons was adopted in 2005.

Criminal justice
ju response
Guinea’s law enforcement
e has a specialized child
protection unit
un that addresses child trafficking.
Due to the absence of a specific provision on
human trafficking, no prosecutions or convic-
tions were recorded in Guinea.
The following data refer to the offences of “pawn
of human beings” (Article 338 of the penal code)
and “servitude” (Article 337 of the penal code).

Fig. 34: Persons investigated for “pawn of Fig. 35: Persons arrested for “pawn of human
human beings” and “servitude” in beings” and “servitude” in Guinea
Guinea, by gender (2003-2006) (2003-2006)
60 60
Females
Males
50 50

40 40

30 30
Guinea

20 3 1 20

10 17 17 10 20
3 16
4 6 4 8
0 0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2003 2004 2005 2006

Source: Ministry of Social Affairs, Woman Promotion and Source: Ministry of Social Affairs, Woman Promotion and
Childhood Childhood

100
West and Central Africa

Liberia
Institutional framework Additional information
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was The Faith Consortium of Liberia
established in Liberia in 2005. A national action receives trafficked children, collects
plan was adopted in 2006. related data and transfers the children
to a shelter run by the Women and Chil-
Criminal justice response dren Protection Unit. All the victims ms
The Women and Children Protection Section reported above were Liberians, with the excep-
was established in 2005 as part of the Liberian nd two
tion of two victims from North Africa and
National Police. The section is responsible for from other countries in West Africa.
the protection of women and children and has
Fig. 37: Victims of trafficking identified byy State
responsibility for investigating cases of traffick-
authorities in Liberia, by age and gender
ing in persons as well as sexual assault, sexual (2004-2006)
exploitation, domestic violence, child abuse and
20
other related offences.
18
No convictions were recorded during the period 16 1
2
considered by this report. 14
12
5 2
Fig. 36: Persons investigated for trafficking in 10 9 1
persons in Liberia, by gender (2004-
8
2006)
6 4
20 8
4
18
Women 5
2 4
Men 1
16 0
14 2004 2005 2006
boys girls men women
12
12
10 Source: Anti-trafficking in Persons Secretariat, Liberia

8 8
10 Fig. 38: Victims of trafficking identified by State
6 authorities in Liberia, by exploitation
4 (2005-2006)
2 5 4 20
2 18
0
16
Liberia
2004 2005 2006
14
Source: Anti-trafficking in Persons Secretariat, Liberia 12
10
8 6
8
6
Services provided to victims 4 3
2
2 2 4
State authorities provide legal protection, tem-
0
porary stay permits, medical and psychosocial
2005 2006
support, and housing and shelter for victims.
Trafficking for Ritual Killings
Local NGOs provide legal protection, and inter- Servitude
national organizations provide housing and shel- Sexual Exploitation
ter. Source: Anti-trafficking in Persons Secretariat, Liberia 101
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Mali
Institutional framework
Institu Fig. 40: Internally trafficked victims identified
by State authorities in Mali, by gender
The specific
s offence of child trafficking (2000-June 2007)
was established
e in Mali in 2001. The 300
does not cover trafficking in persons
law doe Girls
above the age of 18. Other provisions crim- 250 Boys
inalize the sexual exploitation and the forced
labour of adults. A national action plan on 200
traf
child trafficking was adopted in 2002.
150
Criminal justice response 100
32 39
Eight persons − seven men and one woman − 25
27
investigated for child trafficking in Mali
were investig 50 6
76 73 66 49 7
between 2003 and 2006 (four in 2004, three in
0
2005 and one in 2006). Three persons were 2003 2004 2005 2006 Until
prosecuted during this same period, all of them June
in 2005, but no convictions were recorded prior 2007

to 2006. Source: Direction Nationale de la Promotion de l’Enfant et
de la Famille

Services provided to victims Fig. 41: Victims trafficked abroad identified
State authorities provide legal protection, tem- by State authorities in Mali, by gender
porary stay permits, medical and psychosocial (2000-June 2007)
support, and housing and shelter for victims. 300
Local NGOs and international organizations Girls
250 Boys
provide medical and psychosocial support and
housing and shelter. 200

150
Fig. 39: Victims of trafficking identified by State
authorities in Mali, by gender 100
19
(2000-June 2007) 12 19
50 11
300 58 48 5
44 32
Girls 21
0
250 Boys 2003 2004 2005 2006 Until
100
June
200 58
63 2007

51 Source: Direction Nationale de la Promotion de l’Enfant et
150 51 de la Famille
Mali

188 44
100 38
180
158
50
134 117
114 11
Additional information
81
28 All the victims identified during the reporting
0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Until
period were Malian; some were repatriated,
June while others were victims of internal trafficking.
2007 Victims were mainly repatriated from other
102 Source: Direction Nationale de la Promotion de l’Enfant et countries in West and Central Africa.
de la Famille
West and Central Africa

Mauritania
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was State authorities provide legal protec-
established in Mauritania in 2003, and new pro- tion, temporary stay permits, medical
visions were adopted in the penal code in 2007 and psychosocial support, and housing
criminalizing slavery. A national action plan on and shelter for victims. Local NGOs and
child trafficking was adopted in 2005. international organizations provide medical
cal
and psychosocial support and housing andnd shel-
Criminal justice response ter.
A special Child Police Brigade targeting child Twenty-one Mauritanian boys were repatriated
atriated
forced labour and child prostitution was estab- from the Middle East in 2006 where theyey were
lished in 2006. exploited as camel jockeys. No other informa-
nforma-
Two men were investigated for trafficking in tion was available concerning victims.
persons between 2003 and 2006. No prosecu-
tions and no convictions were recorded prior to
2006.

Mauritania

103
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Niger
Institutional framework
Institution Services provided to victims
The specific offence of trafficking in State authorities provide legal protection, tem-
persons does not exist in the legislation
perso porary stay permits, and medical and psychoso-
Niger, although some forms of traf-
of Ni cial support for victims of trafficking. Local
ficking m
may be prosecuted through other NGOs and international organizations provide
offences, such as “forced begging” and “pan- legal protection, medical and psychosocial sup-
dering”. In 2007, draft legislation was under port, and housing and shelter.
considera
consideration by the competent authorities.

Criminal justice response
Because of the absence of a specific provision
on human tratrafficking, no prosecutions or con-
victions were recorded during the reporting
period. Episodes of trafficking, however, might
have been investigated and prosecuted under
other offences, with about 150 persons suspected
under these related offences since 2003. One
conviction was recorded for sexual exploitation
in 2006.
Niger

104
West and Central Africa

Nigeria
Institutional framework
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP).
established in Nigeria in 2003. A national action NAPTIP is responsible for investiga-
plan on trafficking in persons was adopted in tion, enforcement cooperation and
2006. coordination, and the legal department
of the agency has skills in the prosecutionon
Criminal justice response of human trafficking cases. The police force
rce also
Nigeria has three different specialized police has a specialized unit to combat trafficking
king in
units dealing with trafficking in persons. The persons that coordinates its efforts with NAPTIP.
APTIP.
first is the National Agency for the Prohibition The special immigration unit to combat at traf-
f
ficking in persons concentrates most of itsts work
on interception of victims and traffickers kers at
Fig. 42: Persons prosecuted for trafficking in
persons in Nigeria, by gender
border and exit points. About 100 officers rs were
(2004-2006) dedicated full time to combating trafficking
ki in i
60
persons in 2007.
Wom en
50
All persons convicted traffickers were Nigerians.
Men

40
Services provided to victims
State authorities provide legal protection, tem-
30
porary stay permits, medical and psychosocial
20 support, housing and shelter, vocational skills
14 training, schooling, job placement and small
10 9 business start-up support for victims. Local
2 9
2 4 NGOs and international organizations provide
0
housing and shelter.
2004 2005 2006
Source: Legal and Prosecution Department, NAPTIP

Fig. 43: Persons convicted for trafficking in persons in Nigeria, by gender (2004-2008)
60
Wom en
50 Men
Nigeria
40

30

20
12

10
1 2 5 12
1
0 2 2 3
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Source: NAPTIP
105
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 44: Victims of trafficking identified by State authorities in Nigeria, by age and gender
(2004-September 2008)
1000
900 61
800
700 129

600 406
35
500
154
400 35 15
73
300 128
106
200 27 18 368
12 327
100 17 172 202
0 44
2004 2005 2006 2007 Jan-Sept 2008

Wom en Boys Girls Men
Source: NAPTIP

Fig. 45: Victims of trafficking identified by State Fig. 46: Victims of trafficking identified by State
authorities in Nigeria, by country of authorities in Nigeria, by type of exploi-
citizenship (2005- September 2008) tation (2004-September 2008)

Togo, 62 1000
Ghana, 28 900
Guinea, 6 366
800
Senegal, 5
Benin, 229 Cam eroon, 700
9 600
600
Nigeria, 2238 Mali, 13
500
Burkina
Faso, 33 400
300 628
116
Other West 208
and Central 200
Africa, 7 225 267
100 21
130
Source: NAPTIP 52
0
2004 2005 2006 2007 Jan-
Nigeria

Additional information Sept
Sexual Exploitation 2008
NAPTIP has a rehabilitation and reintegration Forced Labour
department that coordinates all organizations
Source: NAPTIP
and agencies with respect to support and services
for victims. It does this through its headquarters
and six zonal offices, each of which has a shelter The chart concerning the type of exploitation
available to care for victims. NAPTIP supervises presents figures that add up to values that are
other institutions and organizations providing greater than those concerning the profile of the
services to victims within its area of jurisdiction. victims. This is due to the fact that one victim
A central database is situated in the NAPTIP suffering mixed forms of exploitation is counted
Monitoring Centre that stores information on multiple times in the statistics based on the type
106 victims and traffickers. of exploitation.
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Sierra Leone
Le
Institutional framework
Institu Services provided to victims
The specific offence of trafficking in State authorities, in cooperation with IOM, pro-
persons was established in Sierra Leone
perso vide housing and shelter for victims. Interna-
in 2005. A national action plan on traffick- tional organizations offer legal protection,
ing in persons
per was adopted in 2006. medical and psychosocial support, housing and
shelter, and vocational training for victims. A
Criminal justice response residential facility for victims is administrated by
The Family
Fam Support Unit of the Sierra IOM.
Leone Police
Pol along with the Criminal Inves- Information concerning victims sheltered prior
tigation Division
D were established in 2005 to 2007 is unavailable, and the data for 2007
and have jurisdictional
jur responsibility for traf- only relates to victims of trafficking in persons
persons cases.
ficking in per assisted between March and November of that
IIn 2007, the Sierra Leone Anti-trafficking Task
2007 th year. During this period, 37 minors and eight
Force reported that nine cases were investigated; adults (31 females and 14 males) were assisted
three were taken to court; and one was with- by IOM. The data indicates that the most prev-
drawn or resolved in 2007. No convictions were alent forms of exploitation were domestic servi-
recorded during the reporting period. tude (14 victims) and sexual exploitation (21
victims), with the remaining victims (10) suffer-
ing other types of trafficking.
The Ministry of Social Welfare reports the repa-
triation of six victims trafficked into Sierra
Leone back to their countries of origin in other
parts of West Africa in 2007.
Sierra Leone

108
West and Central Africa

Togo
Institutional framework Additional information
The specific offence of child trafficking was estab- The citizenship of many of the victims
lished in Togo in 2005, but the law does not cover sheltered in 2005 and 2006 remains
trafficking in persons for those above the age of 18. unknown, but the above chart repre-
Other provisions of the penal code criminalize sents citizenships when the information
sexual exploitation, forced labour, child begging is available. Seventy-five per cent of vic-
and the use of children as soldiers. A national action tims sheltered by one of the NGOs were re
plan on child trafficking was adopted in 2007. girls, and girls accounted for almost all of the
victims sheltered by the second NGO. Many
Criminal justice response Togolese victims sheltered were repatriated ed from
The Brigade de Protection des Mineurs is other countries and many were traffickedd inter-
responsible for cases of child trafficking. nally. It is not possible to have an exact measure
of internal trafficking or of the countries too which
In 2007, six men were convicted of trafficking in the victims were trafficked.
persons; one for trafficking for the purpose of
sexual exploitation and five for trafficking for the
purpose of servitude. The six convicted received a
sentence of less than one year in prison. Informa- Fig. 50: Victims of child trafficking sheltered by
tion concerning previous years was unavailable. two NGOs in Togo (2003-2006)
650
Services provided to victims 640 Children
State authorities provide legal protection, tempo- 630
rary stay permits, medical and psychosocial sup- 620
port, and housing and shelter for victims. Local 610
NGOs and international organizations provide 648
600
medical and psychosocial support and housing 620
590 611
and shelter. Two residential facilities adminis- 600
580
trated by NGOs are available for victims.
570
According to the Ministry of Employment, there 2003 2004 2005 2006
were 1,758 victims of trafficking in Togo in 2003 and Sources: Esperance Centre (WAO-Afrique) and OASIS
1,301 in 2004. Most of the victims were children. (Terre des Hommes)

Fig. 49: Persons investigated for trafficking in Fig. 51: Victims of child trafficking sheltered by
persons in Togo, by gender (2004-2007) two NGOs in Togo, by country of citi-
60 zenship (2005-2006)
Wom en
50
Men Benin, Nigeria,
Togo
40 80 67
30
Ghana,
20 Togo,
50
1 350
10 21 Other
11 8 West
0 0
Africa, 6
2004 2005 2006 2007
Source: Direction Générale de la Police Judiciaire,
Tribunaux du Togo
Sources: Esperance Centre (WAO-Afrique) and
OASIS (Terre des Hommes)
109
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

The following countries are covered in this Any missing information concerning the
Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethio- region was either unavailable or not accessed
section: Bu
K
pia, Kenya, Mauritius, Rwanda, Tan- by UNODC.
zania and Uganda.

Burun
Burundi
Institutional framework
Institution Services provided to victims
The spec
specific offence of trafficking in per- NGOs provide legal protection and housing and
does not exist in the legislation of
sons doe shelter for persons in need, including trafficking
Burundi. However, an amendment to the victims. Two residential facilities were available
1981 Penal Code aimed at including
existing 198 for victims in 2007.
trafficking as an offence was under con-
human traffic
sideration bby the competent authorities in Additional information
2008.
2008 Suspected cases of trafficking-related crimes,
particularly child trafficking and forced mar-
Criminal justice response riage, were detected during the reporting period.
A specific Anti-Human Trafficking Unit and a These cases mainly involved nationals trafficked
Child Protection Unit within the Criminal internally.
Investigation Department were established in
2005.
Because of the absence of a specific provision on
human trafficking, no prosecutions or convic-
tions were recorded for trafficking in persons
during the reporting period.
Burundi

110
East Africa

Djibouti
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was NGOs provide medical services and
established in Djibouti in 2007. housing and shelter for persons in
need, including trafficking victims.
Criminal justice response
Because the legislation was adopted only in
2007, there are no statistics on trafficking in
persons available before 2008.
Three men were investigated and arrested for
trafficking in persons between January and June
2008.

Djibouti

111
East Africa

Ethiopia
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was State authorities provide legal protec-
established in Ethiopia in 2004. A national tion to victims. NGOs offer medical
action plan against trafficking in persons was and psychosocial support and housing
also adopted. and shelter.

Criminal justice response Additional information
Eighteen offenders were prosecuted and con-
Four Ethiopian victims were identified by State
victed for trafficking in persons in 2007. Eight
authorities between 2003 and 2006. Three hree of
of them, all Ethiopian citizens, were sentenced
these victims were trafficked for servitude
de and
to more than 10 years in prison, and the rest −
slavery and one for organ removal, and all were
all Somali citizens − were deported to Somalia.
repatriated from the Middle East.
All of these were cases of trafficking in persons
for the purpose of slavery. At the end of 2007, about 1,300 persons were
sheltered for various reasons in Ethiopia, includ-
Fig. 52: Persons investigated for trafficking in ing as a result of trafficking. The exact number of
persons in Ethiopia (2004-2007) trafficking victims receiving services is unknown.
40

35

30

25

20
37
33 34
15

10
16
5

0
2004 2005 2006 2007
Ethiopia
Source: National Police of the Federal Democratic Republic
of Ethiopia

113
East Africa

Mauritius
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
The specific offence of child trafficking was State authorities and NGOs provide
established in Mauritius in 2004, but the law medical and psychosocial support and
does not cover trafficking in persons for those housing and shelter to victims. There is
above 18 years of age. More comprehensive leg- no information on the number of traf-
islation was drafted and was under consideration ficking victims.
by competent authorities in May 2008.
Additional information
Criminal justice response Thirty-three residential facilities are available
able for
The Police Family Protection Unit (PFPU) and persons in need, including victims of trafficking.
ficking.
Brigade pour la Protection des Mineurs (BPM) By the end of 2006, about 450 persons ns were
work in close collaboration with the Ministry of sheltered in Mauritius for several reasons, includ-
Women’s Rights, Child Development and Family ing trafficking, but the exact number of traffick-
raffick-
Welfare and the Ombudsperson for Children’s ing victims taken care of is unknown.
Office in protecting victims of sexual abuse,
prostitution and all other forms of exploitation
involving child victims.
In 2007, three persons were arrested for child
trafficking, and two persons were convicted of
child labour.
Episodes of trafficking could be investigated and
prosecuted under the following offences: “solic-
iting for immoral purposes’’, “brothel keeping”,
“prostitution” and “debauchery”. About 100
cases have been investigated under these offences
since 2003.

Mauritius

115
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Rwanda
Institutional framework
Institution Services provided to victims
The specific offence of trafficking in State authorities provide legal protection to vic-
persons was established in Rwanda in
perso tims of trafficking. NGOs provide medical and
2003. psychosocial support and housing and shelter.
There is no information on the number of traf-
Crimina
Criminal justice response ficking victims.
The Crim
Criminal Investigations Department
(CID) of the Rwanda Police has a Transna-
Additional information
Organized Crime Unit that handles
tional Or Two Rwandan men were charged in 2006 with
human trafficking. This unit is com-
cases of h trafficking in persons for the purpose of forced
posed of ffour officers and works in close marriage. These men were accused of taking
cooperation with the INTERPOL National girls under the age of 18 across the border to
Bureau for Rwanda.
Central Burea neighbouring Uganda.
Two men were investigated and prosecuted for
trafficking in persons in 2006, but prior to that
year, no cases were detected. No convictions for
trafficking in persons were recorded during the
reporting period up through March 2007.
Rwanda

116
East Africa

Uganda
Institutional framework Fig. 54: Persons convicted of “child stealing”
g”
and other related offences in Ugan-n-
The specific offence of trafficking in persons da (2006-2007)
does not exist in the legislation of Uganda. Draft 20
legislation prepared in 2007 was awaiting pres- Child abduction
entation to parliament in 2008. During the Child stealing
reporting period, the offences of “child stealing”, 15
“child abduction” and “child kidnapping” were
used to prosecute some forms of trafficking in
children. 10

Criminal justice response
5
The draft Trafficking in Persons Act contains
clauses in Section 23 providing for the creation 1
of a specialized law enforcement agency for the 3
2
0
prohibition of trafficking in persons.
2006 2007
Because of the absence of a specific provision on Source: Ugandan Police Annual Crime Report
human trafficking, no prosecutions or convic-
tions were recorded for trafficking in persons
during the reporting period. Services provided to victims
State authorities provide legal protection to per-
Fig. 53: Cases prosecuted for “child stealing”
and other related offences in Uganda sons in need, including victims of human traf-
(2006-2007) ficking. NGOs provide housing and shelter.
20 Victims of child stealing and related offences
1 were identified by the criminal justice system.
18
16
4
14
12 Fig. 55: Identified victims of “child stealing” and
other related offences in Uganda (2006-
10 2007)
8 9
6
200
180 Child kidnap
4 14
Uganda
1 Child stealing
2 4 160 Child abduction
2
0 140 59
2006 2007 120
Disapeared-Missing children
Child kidnap 100
Child abduction 80
Child stealing 60 109
Source: Ugandan Police Annual Crime Report 1
40
6
20
30
0
2006 2007
Source: Ugandan Police Annual Crime Report
117
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

The following chart shows victims sheltered by Additional information
the Women and Youth Services (WAYS), the
Slum Aid Project (SAP) and persons assisted by The majority of the victims sheltered by both
IOM. They include only victims located in the the Women and Youth Services (WAYS) and the
city of Kampala and its urban environs. Slum Aid Project (SAP) were subject to com-
mercial (and child) sexual exploitation. In addi-
tion, victims sheltered by WAYS also were
Fig. 56: Victims of trafficking in persons and re- victims of child domestic labour, and some were
lated offences in Kampala (2004-2007) found to have run away from or were rescued
200 from slave-like working conditions.
180 During 2006-2007, IOM-Uganda provided vol-
160 untary return and reintegration assistance to
140 115 Congolese victims of trafficking to the
Democratic Republic Congo from Northern
120
Uganda where they were stranded. Seventy-nine
100 additional Congolese women and children
172
80 awaited repatriation before the end of 2007.
60 120 Four other trafficking victims were assisted by
40 84 IOM in returning to Uganda from Europe.
65
20
0
2004 2005 2006 2007
Sources: Women and Youth Services (WAYS) and the Slum
Aid Project (SAP)
Uganda

118
East Africa

The United Republic
of Tanzania
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was State authorities, NGOs and interna-
established in Tanzania in July 2008. tional organizations provide legal pro-
tection, medical and psychosocial support,
t,
Criminal justice response and housing and shelter to persons in n need,
Because of the absence of a specific provision on including victims of trafficking.
human trafficking, no prosecutions or convic-
tions were recorded for trafficking in persons
Additional information
during the reporting period. By the end of 2007, about 250 persons ns were

United Republic of Tanzania
sheltered in Tanzania for several reasons, includ-
ing trafficking. The exact number of trafficking
fficking
victims taken care of is unknown.

119
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

The following countries are covered in this Any missing information concerning the
section: Angola,
Ang Botswana, the Democratic region was either unavailable or not accessed
Repub
Republic of the Congo, Lesotho, by UNODC.
Malawi,
Mala Mozambique, Namibia,
South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia
and Zimbabwe.
Z

Angola
Institutional framework
Institutio Services provided to victims
Angola do
does not have a specific provision NGOs and international organizations provide
criminalizing human trafficking. The General
criminalizin legal protections, medical assistance, and hous-
Labour Law prohibits compulsory work and ing and shelter for persons in need, including
provisions on the prohibition of forced
includes prov trafficking victims.
labour.
labour
One victim trafficked for sexual exploitation was
Criminal justice response repatriated by IOM from South Africa in 2005.
The country has an inter-ministerial committee Additional information
to combat child labour.
According to the Southern African Police Chiefs
Because of the absence of a specific provision on Organization (SARPCCO), no cases of traffick-
human trafficking, no prosecutions or convic- ing in persons were detected in Angola in the
tions were recorded for trafficking in persons past few years.
during the reporting period.
Angola

120
Southern Africa

Botswana
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
Botswana does not have a specific provision There is no information on services pro--
criminalizing human trafficking. The Botswana vided to victims of trafficking.
Penal Code of 1964 prohibits abduction, kid-
napping, slave trafficking and the buying of Additional information
women and girls for commercial sex. There are two shelters for abused women n and
children, including trafficking victims.
Criminal justice response
Because of the absence of a specific provision on
human trafficking, no prosecutions or convic-
tions were recorded for trafficking in persons
during the reporting period.

Botswana

121
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Democra Republic
Democratic
of th
the Congo
Institutional framework
Instit Services provided to victims
The Democratic
D Republic of the Congo NGOs and international organizations provide
does not have a specific provision criminal- legal protection and medical assistance for traf-
izing hum
human trafficking. The sexual violence ficking victims. The Ministry of Social Affairs
statute pr
prohibits child and forced prostitu- supports local NGO efforts to combat traffick-
pim
tion, pimping and sexual exploitation. The ing in persons.
Dem. Republic of the Congo

cons
new constitution forbids child soldiering.

Criminal justice
j response
Because of the
th absence of a specific provision on
trafficking, no prosecutions or convic-
human traffic
tions were recorded
re for trafficking in persons
during the reporting period.
Arrests and convictions related to trafficking in
persons were recorded for “unlawful recruit-
ment of child soldiers” and for war crimes and
crimes against humanity in connection with the
recruitment of child soldiers and sexual slavery.
In the latter case, these episodes are under the
jurisdiction of the International Criminal
Court.

122
Southern Africa

Lesotho
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
Lesotho does not have a specific provision crim- Local NGOs provide medical assist-
inalizing human trafficking. The provisions of ance and housing services for traffick-
the Child Protection and Welfare Bill of 2004 ing victims. The Child and Gender
deal with the protection of children in cases such Protection Unit (Lesotho Royal Mounted
as abduction, child stealing and sexual abuse. Police) have trained staff providing psycho-
ho-
The Sexual Offences Act No. 29 of 2003 and the social care and support and play therapy apy for
provisions of the Labour Code Order No. 24 of children who have been sexually abused, as well
1992 might be applied to prosecute some forms as for other victims of abuse.
of trafficking for sexual exploitation and forced
labour.

Criminal justice response
The Child and Gender Protection Unit (CGPU)
was established by the Lesotho Mounted Police
in November 2002. Currently, the CGPU has
an office in each of the 11 police districts in
Lesotho; three officers (male and female) are
assigned to each office. Cases of trafficking of
women and children fall within the jurisdiction
of this unit.
Because of the absence of a specific provision on
human trafficking, no prosecutions or convic-
tions were recorded for trafficking in persons
during the reporting period. Three convictions
were recorded in 2005 for sexual exploitation
and one conviction in 2004 for child stealing.

Lesotho

123
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Malawi
Institu
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
Malaw
Malawi does not have a specific provi- State authorities provide legal protection and
sion criminalizing human trafficking. medical assistance for abused persons, including
Some prprovisions of the criminal code, such trafficking victims. Local NGOs and interna-
as abduc
abduction, procuring, maintaining a tional organizations provide legal protection,
brothel, fo
forced labour and slavery, might be medical assistance, housing, and rehabilitation
used to pprosecute some forms of trafficking and reintegration services for abused and
for sexua
sexual exploitation and forced labour. exploited children.
The Child Care, Protection and Justice Bill,
which defi
defines child trafficking and sets a pen- For the 10 convictions reported above for forced
alty of life iimprisonment for traffickers, has child labour between 2004 and 2007, the vic-
been drafted and was awaiting approval in June tims were all from Malawi and were exploited in
2008 by the competent
c authorities. Malawi or in neighbouring Zambia. One case
was reported of a Zimbabwean child exploited
Criminal justice response in Malawi. One Malawian woman, who was a
victim of trafficking, was repatriated from
Authorities report that about 400 child protec- Europe in 2006.
tion officers have been appointed to monitor
trafficking and child labour. A Victim Support Children have been detected as victims of organ
Unit established within the police deals with removal for the purpose of performing rituals.
abuse cases in general, including trafficking in
persons.
Because of the absence of a specific provision on
human trafficking, no prosecutions or convic-
tions were recorded for trafficking in persons.
Authorities reported about 10 convictions for
forced child labour between 2004 and 2007. In
these cases, the convicted offenders were citizens
of Malawi and Zambia. Additionally, six
Malawian citizens were arrested for organ
removal in 2006.
Malawi

124
Southern Africa

Mozambique
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
Mozambique adopted specific legislation on Local NGOs and international organi-
trafficking in persons in April 2008. Before that, zations provide legal protection, medi-
provisions in the criminal code concerning the cal and psychosocial assistance, housing
violation of labour laws, abduction or kidnap- services, repatriation and reunification
ping were used to prosecute some forms of traf- with families.
ficking in persons. A National Action Plan for
Children, which considers many forms of child Four adult women were identified byy State
abuse, was adopted by the Social Welfare Minis- authorities as victims of trafficking in 2005,
05, two
try. in 2006 and one in 2007. All were citizens zens of
Mozambique sheltered and repatriated byy IOM
Criminal justice response − six were repatriated from South Africa and one
from Zimbabwe – and all were victims off sexual
Child Protection Units were established in a few exploitation and forced labour, with h three
police stations by the Association of Defenders women trafficked for forced labour, two for
of Child Rights (ADDC). The commonly known sexual exploitation, and the other six exposed to
‘gabinetes de atendimento’ are help desks sta- a mixed form of sexual and labour exploitation.
tioned in most police stations where victims of Two children were repatriated from South Africa
trafficking and domestic violence can report to Mozambique as victims of trafficking for
their cases and get assistance. There are currently forced labour.
184 gabinetes de atendimento.
According to the Ministry of the Interior and
the police, there were no official records of cases
of trafficking in persons during the reporting
period.

Mozambique

125
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Namibia
Institu
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
Nami
Namibia does not have a specific provi- Local NGOs provide legal protection and medi-
sion criminalizing human trafficking. cal and psychosocial assistance to persons in
Kidnapping, child labour, enticing a
Kidnap need and victims of abuses, including victims of
woman to a brothel for the purpose of pros- trafficking in persons. There have been no (offi-
and other offences can be used to
titution an cial) reports of people being trafficked to, from
prosecute some forms of trafficking in per- or within the country.
sons. The Child Care and Protection Act is
awaiting adoption
a and contains specific ref-
erences to child trafficking. A draft Action
Programme oon the Elimination of Child Labour
in Namibia, w which includes proposed strategies
against child trafficking, is expected to be
adopted
d d bby the
h Ministry of Labour and Social
Welfare in 2008.

Criminal justice response
The Women and Children Protection Police
Unit is trained to assist victims of sexual assault.
Fifteen officers are part of this unit, which was
established in 2000. Because of the absence of a
specific provision on human trafficking, no
prosecutions or convictions were recorded for
trafficking in persons during the reporting
period.
Namibia

126
Southern Africa

South Africa
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
South Africa established specific offences to State authorities provide legal protec-
criminalize trafficking for sexual exploitation tion, temporary stay permits, medical
and child trafficking for a wide range of pur- and psychosocial support, housing and
poses. The Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and shelter for victims of trafficking in per-
Related Matters) Amendment Act 2007 (Act sons. NGOs and international organiza- za-
No. 32 of 2007) serves as the basis to fight the tions also offer legal protection, medical cal and
trafficking of persons for purposes of sexual psychosocial support, and housing and shelter.
exploitation, while the Children’s Act 2005 (Act IOM provides assisted voluntary return rn and
No. 38 of 2005) can be used to prosecute cases reintegration services.
of child trafficking. In addition, the South Afri-
can Constitution of 1996 prohibits slavery, ser-
Fig. 57: Victims of trafficking in persons
vitude and bonded labour. Comprehensive sheltered by IOM in South Africa, by
legislation based on the UN Trafficking Protocol age and gender (2004-2006)
has been drafted and is due to be passed by par- 70
liament in 2009.
60 3
Criminal justice response 50 14
A Trafficking Desk was established within the
40
Organized Crime Unit of the South African
Police Services. The Sexual Offences and Com- 30 7
munity Affairs Unit belonging to the National 44
20
Prosecution Service (NPS) deals with the pre-
vention of sexual offences through effective 22 25
10
prosecutions.
0
Due to the absence of legislation covering the 2004 2005 2006

South Africa
reporting period, no prosecutions and convic- Wom en Girls Boys
tions were recorded up to 2007.
Source: IOM’s Counter Trafficking Programme − SACTAP

Additional information
Three South African victims were repatriated
from Zimbabwe and the Middle East. Although
police and NGOs generally refer cases of traf-
ficking to IOM, which is the only institution
collecting data on victims of trafficking in per-
sons in South Africa, not all cases of trafficking
brought to the attention of the police are referred
to IOM.

127
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 58: Victims of trafficking in persons shel- About 12 shelters in 2006 were managed by
tered by IOM in South Africa, by form IOM in a cooperative agreement with the South-
of exploitation (2005-2006) ern African Counter-Trafficking Assistance Pro-
70 gramme (SACTAP). These shelters did not
Forced labour exclusively house victims of trafficking but also
60 Sexual exploitation cared for victims of domestic violence and desti-
20 tute women and children.
50

40

30 7
20 41
25
10

0
2005 2006
Source: IOM’s Counter Trafficking Programme −
SACTAP

Fig. 59: Victims of trafficking in persons sheltered by IOM in South Africa, by country of citizenship
(2005-2006)
Mozam bique, 5

Zim babw e, 4

Other Southern
Africa, 2

India, 9
Thailand, 60
South Africa

Congo, 7

Other African
Regions, 3

South Africa, 3

Source: IOM’s Counter Trafficking Programme − SACTAP

128
Southern Africa

Swaziland
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
Swaziland does not have a specific provision on There are no referral mechanisms for
human trafficking. A draft law, the Sexual victims of trafficking in Swaziland or
Offences and Domestic Violence Bill, which any other specific services provided by
would specifically criminalize sex trafficking and the State, NGOs or international organ-
mandate psychological services for victims, was izations.
due to be presented to Parliament in 2007 but
was still pending as of mid-2008.

Criminal justice response
The Royal Swaziland Police Service has a Domes-
tic Violence, Child Protection and Sexual
Offences Unit dealing, inter alia, with traffick-
ing cases. Because of the absence of a specific
provision on human trafficking, no prosecutions
or convictions were recorded for trafficking in
persons.

Swaziland

129
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Zambia
Institu
Institutional framework Fig. 60: Victims of trafficking in persons
sheltered in Zambia, by age and gender
Zamb
Zambia has had some provisions in (2004-2006)
place on child trafficking and human 30
trafficking since 2005, although trafficking
traffickin 1
is not spe
specifically defined in law. 25

Criminal justice response 20 13

The Task Force on Human Trafficking, 15
chaired by
b the Ministry of Home Affairs,
established within the Police Victims
was establ 10
Support Unit (VSU). The VSU’s mandate is to 13 2
5 1
offer victim ssupport in cases relating to sexual
5
violence, pro
property grabbing and trafficking in 2
0
persons and to offer legal advice to victims.
2004 2005 2006
Additionally, the Child Labour Unit, working
Girls Boys Wom en
under the Ministry of Labour, is composed of 50
officers and monitors the worst forms of child Sources: IOM-Zambia and MAPODE
labour, including girls forced into prostitution.
Fig. 61: Victims of trafficking in persons shel-
One woman was prosecuted in 2005 and two tered in Zambia, by country of citizen-
men in 2006 for trafficking in persons. No con- ship (2005-2006)
victions were recorded prior to 2006. However,
one conviction was recorded in 2005 for an epi-
sode of trafficking prosecuted through immigra-
tion offences. Zam bia, 5

Services provided to victims
East
State authorities provide legal protection for Asia, 2
victims of trafficking in persons. Additionally,
Other, 1
the State supports NGOs and international DR Congo,
organizations in providing medical and psycho- 14
social support, and housing and shelter for vic-
tims of trafficking in persons.
Zambia

Sources: IOM-Zambia and MAPODE

Additional information
The victims reported above refer to those shel-
tered by IOM plus victims sheltered by
MAPODE. The five Zambian victims were
repatriated by IOM from Angola in 2006. In
2007, two Afghani boys were returned to
Afghanistan from Zambia; they were intercepted
130 in the process of being trafficked to Europe.
Southern Africa

Zimbabwe
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
Zimbabwe does not have a specific provision on NGOs and international organizations
human trafficking. The Zimbabwean Criminal provide medical and psychosocial sup-
Code criminalizes sexual exploitation. port and housing and shelter for vic-
tims of trafficking in persons. IOM also
Criminal justice response offers business training and income gener- er-
Because of the absence of a specific provision on ating projects. In the last few years, victims
ms have
human trafficking, no prosecutions or convic- been sheltered by IOM and repatriatedd from
tions were recorded for trafficking in persons. neighbouring countries.
One Zimbabwean citizen was convicted of sexual
exploitation in 2006.

Zimbabwe

131
North America

Services provided to victims Additional information
The federal government provides temporary An Inter-Departmental Working Group on Traf-
immigration status and work permits for up to ficking in Persons (IWGTIP) brings together 17
180 days, as well as medical and psychosocial federal departments and agencies, and coordi-
support to suspected foreign national victims of nates and strengthens federal responses to human
trafficking in Canada. Longer-term immigration trafficking, including through collaboration
status is available for up to three years when with the provinces and territories.
circumstances warrant. Trafficked foreign
national victims can also access existing perma- Asia, in particular the Mekong sub-region, and
nent resident avenues. Canada’s provinces and parts of Africa and Eastern Europe tend to be
territories administer legal aid and social services the primary source regions for victims trafficked
such as emergency financial assistance and hous- to Canada. Overall, numbers for victims of
ing to those trafficking victims in need. NGOs domestic trafficking are unavailable.
also offer support and shelter to trafficking vic-
tims, whether or not they are foreign nationals.
Four victims were identified by the police (three
females and one of unknown gender) in 2006.
While Citizenship and Immigration Canada
(CIC) does not have data available on identified
victims before 2006, two foreign nationals were
issued temporary resident permits in 2006. Fur-
thermore, since May 2006, 26 temporary resi-
dent permits were issued to 18 victims of human
trafficking (inclusive of these two foreign nation-
als). These numbers include subsequent permits
issued to the same victim in order to maintain
legal status in Canada. Canada

133
North America

Additional information
those cases in which the victims and possible IOM identified six girls and six women as vic-
victims wish to be repatriated to their countries tims of trafficking in persons in 2006; seven
of origin, the INM contacts international organ- were victims of sexual exploitation, three were
izations like the IOM, as well as NGOs, to victims of forced labour and one was a victim of
assure the victims’ safe return and social reinte- servitude. Five victims were Honduran citizens,
gration. five were from other Central American countries
and two were from South America.
Fig. 62: Victims of trafficking identified by the
National Institute of Migration in IOM also sheltered two girls in 2005 and eight
Mexico (2005-2007) females, five of whom were girls, in 2006. Of
50 these 10 victims, nine were victims of sexual
exploitation and one was a victim of forced
labour. The National Institute of Migration
40
stated that 74% of the 21 victims reported from
2005 to 2007 were victims trafficked for the
30 purpose of sexual exploitation and 26% were
victims trafficked for labour exploitation.
20 The Department for Integral Development of
the Family (DIF) has shelters for minors that
10 also are available for victims of human traffick-
10 ing, and FEVIMTRA is in the process of build-
4 7
0
ing shelters that also can be used by victims of
trafficking in Mexico City, Chiapas and Chihua-
2005 2006 2007
hua. There is no official referral mechanism in
Source: National Institute of Migration place, but if the victim is a foreigner, the National
Institute for Migration refers the victim to an
Fig. 63: Victims of trafficking identified by NGO to receive shelter and assistance. IOM
the National Institute of Migration provides assistance in the repatriation and reinte-
in Mexico, by country of citizenship
(2005-2007) gration of victims of trafficking.

Other
Mexico
East Central
Other South
Asia, 2 Am erica, 4
Am erica, 2

Central
Europe, 1
Argentina, 8
Honduras, 4

Source: National Institute of Migration
135
North America

Services provided to victims
State authorities provide legal protection and There is no aggregate data available on the iden-
temporary stay permits for trafficking victims. tified victims of human trafficking for the whole
State authorities and NGOs also offer medical country because the responsibility for identify-
and psychosocial support and housing and shel- ing victims is spread among multiple agencies.
ter. However, the Department of Health and Serv-
ices records the “certification” of adult victims of
trafficking in persons, while child victims can
receive “letters of eligibility”.

United States of America
Fig. 67: Certification and eligibility letters granted to trafficking victims in the USA, by age
(FY-2003 to FY-2007)
350
Minors
300 Adults 33
250
34 20
200
6 16
150
270
100 197 214
145 147
50

0
FY-2003 FY-2004 FY-2005 FY-2006 FY-2007
Source: Assessment of U.S. Government Efforts to Combat Trafficking in Persons in Fiscal Year 2007

Fig. 68: Certification and eligibility letters grant-
ed to trafficking victims in the USA, the
Additional information
top five countries of origin (FY-2007) In 2006 certified victims originated mainly from
Thailand, 48 Latin America and the Caribbean (62%), Africa,
Asia, Europe and the Pacific Islands. In 2007
certified victims originated mainly from Latin
America and the Caribbean (41%), Asia (41%),
Europe and the Pacific Islands.

Others, 144 Mexico, 42 The charts above refer to “fiscal years” (FY). The
fiscal year indicates the 12 months from Octo-
ber to September of the following solar year.

Guatem ala,
25
Philippines,
China, 21 23
Source: Assessment of U.S. Government Efforts to Combat
Trafficking in Persons in Fiscal Year 2007
137
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

T following Central Ameri-
The Haiti, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
can ccountries are covered in this Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago.
sectio
section: Costa Rica, El Salvador,
Guatemala, Honduras, Nicara-
Guat Any missing information concerning the
gua and Panama. Caribbean region was either unavailable or not accessed
countries covered in this section
coun by UNODC.
are: Barbado
Barbados, the Dominican Republic,

Costa Ri
Rica
Institutional framework
fram Additional information
Costa Rica has specific provisions on trafficking IOM adopted a protocol for the repatriation of
in persons in its penal code. These provisions children and adolescents into the country to
have criminalized the international trafficking in support the organization’s return and reintegra-
women and children for the purpose of sexual tion programmes for victims of human traffick-
exploitation since 1970 and trafficking in minors ing.
since 1999. A national action plan against traf- There is a national 911 hotline for victims of
ficking in minors was adopted in 2005, and a violence, including victims of human traffick-
more comprehensive national action plan against ing, and a referral mechanism for potential vic-
trafficking in persons is planned for adoption in tims identified through the hotline.
2008.

Criminal justice response Fig. 69: Persons prosecuted for trafficking in
persons in Costa Rica, by gender
There are three offices within the General Pros- (2004-2006)
ecutor’s Office that may handle trafficking in
50
persons crimes: the Office for Juvenile Crime Men
45
and the Office for Attention to Victims of Wom en
40
Crime, which cover the whole country, and the
Office for Sexual Crimes and Domestic Vio- 35
lence, which only covers the capital of San Jose. 30
Costa Rica

25
There is no information on convictions for traf- 20
ficking in persons offences for 2003-2005, but 15
in 2006, a total of four males and two females 10 3
were convicted for trafficking in minors for the 5 8 2 3
purpose of illegal adoption. 3 4
0

Services provided to victims 2004 2005 2006

State authorities and NGOs provide legal assist- Source: Specialized Unit of Sexual Crimes and Domestic
Violence, Adjunct Prosecutor’s Office of Juvenile Crime
ance and medical and psychosocial support to
victims of human trafficking. Several NGOs
offer shelter to girls and women who are victims
of domestic violence or commercial sexual
exploitation, including victims of trafficking,
but there are no specific shelters for victims of
human trafficking.
138
Central America and the Caribbean

Dominican Republic Services provided
Institutional framework to victims
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was State authorities, in coopera-
established in the Dominican Republic in 2003. tion with NGOs, provide legal assist-
A draft national action plan against trafficking ance, medical and psychosocial support,
in persons is planned for adoption by the end of and housing and shelter for victims
ctims of
2008. human trafficking.

Criminal justice response
A Human Trafficking Division within the national Fig. 71: Adult victims of trafficking
ng referred to
police was established in January 2008 to investi- COIN in the Dominican Republic, by
gate cases of human trafficking. The division had gender (January 2003-April 2008)
nine officers dealing with document falsification
and illegal migration. In addition, the Anti-Traf-
Men, 7
ficking Unit of the Attorney General’s office is
tasked with investigating and prosecuting human
trafficking and related crimes.

Dominican Republic
There are no systematic criminal justice statistics
on human trafficking prior to 2007. Between Jan- Women,
uary 2007 and April 2008, the Human Trafficking 265
Division investigated five cases of trafficking in
persons: two of these cases involved the alleged
trafficking of Dominican women to Europe; one
case involved allegations of the trafficking of a
Dominican woman to Central America; one case
Source: Centre of Orientation and Integral Investigation
involved the trafficking of two adult males to Cen- (COIN)
tral America for labour exploitation; and one case
involved the trafficking of a man to a Europe.
Fig. 70: Persons convicted of trafficking in Fig. 72: Adult victims of trafficking referred to
persons in the Dominican Republic, COIN in the Dominican Republic, by
by gender (2005-2007) type of exploitation
(January 2003-April 2008)
50
45 Fem ales
40 Males Labour
Total exploitation, 11
35
30 Domestic
servitude, 5
25 Sexual
20 exploitation, Forced
Marriage, 2
15 254
10
3
5
6 4 6
0
2005 2006 2007

Source: Department of Judicial Statistics of the
Supreme Court
Source: Centre of Orientation and Integral Investigation
(COIN)
139
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 73: Adult victims of trafficking referred to Fig. 74: Child victims of trafficking referred to
COIN in the Dominican Republic, by CONANI in the Dominican Republic,
country of citizenship (January 2003- by type of exploitation (2006-2007)
April 2008) 250
Venezuela, 9
Other South 200
America, 1
Other
Caribbean, 1 150

100 205

Dominican
Republic, 50
26
260
26
0
2006 2007
Sexual exploitation Labour exploitation
Source: Centre of Orientation and Integral Investigation
(COIN) Source: Council for the Child and Adolescent (CONANI)

Additional information
Dominican Republic

There is no official referral system, but the police Of the 260 adult Dominican victims of human
and the Prosecutor’s Office refer adult victims of trafficking identified between 2003 and April
sexual exploitation, including victims of traf- 2008, 85 were officially returned from Argen-
ficking, to the Centre of Orientation and Inte- tina with the help of IOM. The others were
gral Investigation (COIN). COIN manages a returned from a number of countries in the Car-
protection centre for trafficking victims provid- ibbean, South America and Europe.
ing a number of services, including reintegration
and finding housing in various shelters for Child victims of trafficking are referred to the
female victims. Council for the Child and Adolescent
(CONANI), which administers seven temporary
shelters for minors at risk. Minors who are vic-
tims of trafficking are registered by CONANI as
victims of sexual and labour exploitation and
not human trafficking, although all of these
cases, according to the organization, are cases of
trafficking in persons. All minors identified as
victims of trafficking in persons in 2006 and
2007 were citizens of the Dominican Republic.
The nine persons convicted of trafficking in
persons offences in 2007 were all citizens of the
Dominican Republic.

140
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

EEl Salvador
Instit
Institutional Fig. 75: Persons investigated and arrested for
trafficking in persons in El Salvador, by
frame
framework gender (2003-2007)
The sspecific offence of trafficking in 100
Fem ales
persons was established in El Salvador 90
Males
in 2004. The law criminalizes all forms of human 80
trafficking as listed in Article 3 of the UN Traf- 70
ficking Protocol anand also includes trafficking for
60
fraudulent adopti
adoptions and forced marriages. A
new law on traff
trafficking in persons was being 50
20
drafted for submis
submission to the National Assembly. 40
A national plan of action for 2008-2013 is 30
expected to be adopted by the end of 2008. 13
20 14
36
2
Criminal justice response 10
1 18 14
0 0
The National Civil Police has had a specific 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Department of Trafficking in Persons within its
Border Division since 2004, with 19 officers Source: National Police
devoted full time to this department in 2007.
The Unit on Smuggling and Trafficking in Per-
sons at the Attorney General’s Office was estab- Fig. 76: Persons prosecuted for trafficking in
persons in El Salvador (2006-2007)
lished in 2004, and in 2007, the unit was made
up of four prosecutors and 10 specialized and 100
administrative staff.
90
The first convictions for trafficking in persons 80
were registered in 2006 when four citizens of El 70
Salvador were convicted for trafficking for sexual
60
exploitation. One adult male was convicted in
El Salvador

2007 for the offence of trafficking for sexual 50
exploitation. All sentences ranged between five 40
and 10 years in prison. 30
20
10 21 17
0
2006 2007

Source: National Police

142
Central America and the Caribbean

Services provided to victims
State authorities in cooperation with NGOs
provide legal assistance, medical and psychoso-
cial support, and housing and shelter to victims.
IOM provides technical support and assistance
for the return and reintegration of trafficking
victims.

Fig. 77: Victims of trafficking identified by the national police in El Salvador, by age and gender
(2004-2007)
100
90 9
80 14
70
60
50 50 27
40
30
32
20
32
10 23
14 9
0
2004 2005 2006 2007
Boys Girls Children Men Wom en Adults Total

Source: National Police

El Salvador
Fig. 78: Victims of trafficking identified by the national police in El Salvador, by country of citizenship
(2005-2007)

Guatem ala, 9
Honduras, 8
Nicaragua,
28 Colom bia, 4
Mexico, 10

Other Central
Am erica, 3
El Salvador,
130 Other South
Am erica, 1

Asia, 1
Other
unknow n, 2

Source: National Police
143
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 79: Victims of trafficking sheltered by Fig. 81: Victims of trafficking sheltered by
relevant institutions in El Salvador, relevant institutions in El Salvador,
by age and gender (2006-2007) by country of citizenship (2006-2007)

100 Nicaragua, 12
90
80 Mexico, 9
70 1
60 5
7
50 Guatem ala,
40 8
30 El Salvador,
53 Honduras,
20 60
34 7
10
0 Colom bia,
2006 2007 4

Girls Wom en Boys Men
Source: Huellas Foundation Source: Huellas Foundation

Fig. 80: Victims of trafficking sheltered by rel-
evant institutions in El Salvador, by type
Additional information
of exploitation (2006-2007) A shelter for minor victims of trafficking was
100 established in 2006 and is administered by the
90 Salvadoran Institute for the Integral Attention
80 for the Child and Adolescent (INSA) and run by
70 4 the Huellas Foundation. There is no specific
60 shelter for adult victims of trafficking.
50 19
The majority of identified victims of trafficking
40 1 with Salvadoran citizenship were internally traf-
30 3
ficked. Identified victims of other nationalities
20 43 that were trafficked to El Salvador were repatri-
El Salvador

30
10 ated to their countries of origin.
0
2006 2007
Labour exploitation
Other
Sexual exploitation

Source: Huellas Foundation

144
Central America and the Caribbean

Guatemala Additional
Institutional framework information
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was A protocol was established in
established in Guatemala in 2005. The definition the country to refer victims of trafficking
fficking
of trafficking in persons in the Guatemalan law to NGOs and international organizations
nizations
does not cover trafficking for the purpose of for assistance and services. The Secretary
cretary of
organ removal. Before 2005, the offences of Social Welfare has one shelter thatt receives
sexual exploitation, child abduction, corruption Guatemalan minors returned from rom other
of a child and aggravated pimping were used to countries, some of whom may bee victims of
prosecute some forms of trafficking in persons. trafficking. There are also shelters for migrants and
Guatemala adopted a National Action Plan for female victims of violence thatt may be used for
against Trafficking in Persons and the Integral victims of trafficking in persons.
Protection of Victims for the period 2007-2017.
In September 2007, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Criminal justice response established a call centre (hotline) for victims of
trafficking. Between September and December
The National Civil Police has had a specific Anti- 2007, the call centre attended to 42 cases of human
trafficking Section within the Division of Crimi- trafficking, 14 of which were referred to the
nal Investigations since 2004. In 2007, the national police and other institutions.
Attorney General’s office moved responsibility for
trafficking in persons offences from the Prosecu- Fig. 83: Victims of trafficking identified by State
tor’s Office of Women to the Prosecutor’s Office authorities in Guatemala, by age and
of Organized Crime. gender (January 2006-March 2008)
25
Three persons were prosecuted in 2007 for traf- 800 73 Children
ficking in persons offences. There were no con- 700 Adults
victions between 2003 and 2007, but by April 600 Men
2008, two women and one man were still being 500 Wom en
prosecuted for trafficking in persons for the pur- 400 740
pose of illegal adoption. 300 10
200 1
11
Services provided to victims 100 245
126
0

Guatemala
State authorities in cooperation with NGOs 2006 2007 Jan-March
provide legal assistance to victims of human traf- 2008
ficking. Source: National Civil Police

Fig. 82: Persons arrested for trafficking in Fig. 84: Victims of trafficking identified by State
persons in Guatemala (2006-2006) authorities in Guatemala, by country of
50 citizenship (January 2006-March 2008)
Panam a, 5
40
Honduras, Colom bia, 4
30 Nicaragua, 259
414 Other, 77
20
Other Central
10 23 & South
El Salvador,
Am erica, 5
5 443
0
2006 2007 Guatem ala, 24
Source: National Civil Police Source: National Civil Police
145
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

HHaiti
Instit
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
The sspecific offence of trafficking There is no official system in place to provide
in per
persons does not exist in the leg- assistance services to victims of trafficking. The
islation of Haiti, although a comprehen- Group against Child Trade and Trafficking in
sive anti-traffic
anti-trafficking bill was awaiting approval Persons works as a coordinating mechanism to
by Parliament in 2008. The offences of sexual improve the national response to human traf-
exploitation anand servitude could be used to ficking and to provide services to victims of
prosecute som
some forms of human trafficking. trafficking, but there are no specific shelters for
Haiti does not h have a national plan of action human trafficking victims. International organi-
against trafficking in persons. zations provide emergency support services, legal
help, medical and psychosocial assistance, shel-
Criminal justice response ter, counselling services, family tracking and
support for the return and socio-economic
The Brigade for Child Protection within the
reintegration of child victims of trafficking (i.e.,
police is in charge of child protection, including
scholarships, micro-credits).
child trafficking. The brigade consists of 14
officers.
Additional information
Very little information and no solid data on traf- In August 2007, the Group against Child Trade
ficking in persons and related crimes were and Trafficking in Persons worked on the case of
recorded during the reporting period. 47 children who were given to an orphanage in
Port-au-Prince without the consent of their par-
ents for the purpose of illegal adoption.
Haiti

146
Central America and the Caribbean

Honduras Additional
Institutional framework information
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was An Inter-Institutional Com-
established in Honduras in 2005, but the defini- mittee against Commercial Sexual
tion in this law only covers trafficking for the Exploitation of Boys, Girls and Adoles-
purpose of sexual exploitation. cents was established in 2002,, which
addresses trafficking in minors. This coa-
Criminal justice response anizations,
lition is comprised of 54 organizations,
conducts trainings on traffickingg in persons
Honduras has a Specialized Anti-Human Traf-
and works on prevention. The he government
ficking Police Unit, and four of the six divisions
expects to pass a national actionon plan against
of the national police work on sexual exploita-
trafficking in persons in 2008 to strengthen
tion and trafficking in persons cases. In 2007, a
inter-institutional collaboration.
Special Police Unit on Trafficking in Persons was
established under the Migratory Police of the Casa Alianza has run a shelter for girl victims of
Special Services Investigations Unit. human trafficking since 2003 that has the capac-
ity to assist up to 25 girls at a time.
No prosecutions and no convictions for the
offence of trafficking in persons were recorded
in Honduras between 2003 and 2006. There
were four convictions for the sexual exploitation
of children; one took place in 2004 and the
other three in 2005.

Services provided to victims
State authorities provide legal assistance to minor
victims of human trafficking. NGOs provide
legal assistance, medical and psychosocial sup-
port, housing and physical protection to girl
victims. In 2007, 25 girls were identified as vic-
tims of trafficking for sexual exploitation and
sheltered by the NGO Casa Alianza.
Honduras

147
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

NNicaragua
Instit
Institutional
frame
framework Criminal justice response
The sspecific offence of trafficking The national police established a specific unit
in persons for prostitution was established in against trafficking in persons in 2005. Six offic-
2005. In May 2008, amendments
Nicaragua in 200 ers were involved full time in this unit in 2007.
to the criminal co
code expanded the definition of The Public Prosecutor’s Office created two spe-
trafficking in pers
persons to include the other forms cialized units in 2007 that also cover the crime
of exploitation lilisted in Article 3 of the UN of trafficking in persons: the Unit on Organized
Trafficking Protocol
Protoc and went even further by Crime and the Unit on Gender and Violence.
also criminalizing trafficking for the purpose of
There is no information available on persons
illegal adoption. The first national action plan
convicted for the offence of trafficking in per-
against trafficking in persons is expected to be
sons.
passed by the end of 2008.

Fig. 85: Persons arrested for trafficking in Fig. 86: Persons prosecuted for trafficking
persons in Nicaragua, by gender in persons in Nicaragua (2004-2007)
(2005-2007)

70 70
Wom en
60 Men 60

50 50

40 40

30 30
20
20 20
8
10 8 10
13 17 14 15
11 6
7
Nicaragua

0 0
2005 2006 2007 2004 2005 2006 2007

Source: National Police Source: Public Ministry

148
Central America and the Caribbean

Services provided to victims Fig. 88: Victims of trafficking identified by State
authorities in Nicaragua, by type of ex-
State authorities provide legal assistance, and ploitation (2005-2007)
medical and psychosocial support to victims of 70
human trafficking. NGOs and international 4
Labour exploitation
organizations offer medical and psychosocial 60 Other
support, protection and reintegration assistance, Sexual exploitation
and temporary shelter for minor victims of traf- 50 16
ficking. These groups also provide shelter, hous-
40
ing and repatriation assistance.
2
30

20 41
27
10
Fig. 87: Victims of trafficking identified by State 10
authorities in Nicaragua, by age and 0
gender (2005-2007) 2005 2006 2007

70 Source: National Police and Ministry of Family
Wom en 1
60 Men 3
Boys Fig. 89: Victims of trafficking identified by State
50 authorities in Nicaragua, by country of
Girls
citizenship (2005-2007)
40

30 4
1 57

20 8

10 0 16
10 Nicaragua,
0
2005 2006 2007

Source: National Police and Ministry of Family
83
Central
Am erica,
8
Nicaragua
Other,
9

Source: National Police and Ministry of Family

149
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 90: Nicaraguan victims returned from other
countries, by country of return (2005-
2007)

Mexico, 6

El Salvador,
Guatem ala,
29
4

Costa Rica,
6 Additional information
The persons arrested for trafficking in persons in
2007 were all from Nicaragua, with the excep-
tion of seven citizens from other Central Ameri-
Source: Ministry of Family can countries.

Fig. 91: Victims of trafficking sheltered in Nicaragua, by age and gender (2003-2007)

60
Boys
50 Girls

40
13
30
1 10
20
1 27
3
Nicaragua

10 21 19
11 11
0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Source: Ministry of Family and Casa Alianza

150
South America

Fig. 94: Victims of trafficking in persons identi- Fig. 95: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
fied by various institutions and assisted fied by various institutions and assisted
by IOM-Programme AVOT in Argen- by IOM-Programme AVOT in Argenti-
tina, by form of exploitation (November na, by country of citizenship (November
2005-2007) 2005-2007)
90
80
Brazil, 7 Dom inican
70
33 Republic,
60
Paraguay, 12
50 26
49
40 Other
30 South
20 18 46
37 Am erica, 5
10
12 Central
0 Bolivia, 91 Am erica, 1
From 2006 2007
November to Argentina,
December Sexual exploitation 8
2005 Labour exploitation

Source: Programa AVOT (Asistencia a Víctimas de la Trata Source: Programa AVOT (Asistencia a Víctimas de la Trata
de Personas), IOM-Buenos Aires de Personas), IOM-Buenos Aires

Additional information
The victims reported above were identified by In addition to those reported above, one Argen-
OFAVI, which is connected to the Public
Prosecutor´s Office, as well as other government
offices, consulate services of countries of origin
and civil society organizations. These institu-
tine victim of human trafficking was returned
from Central America in 2006 and another was
returned from South Europe in 2007. Both were
assisted by IOM.
Argentina
tions have been working in partnership with
IOM-Buenos Aires in Programme AVOT (Asist-
encia a Víctimas de la Trata de Personas).

153
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Bolivia
Bolivi
Institutional framework
Instituti Fig. 97: Victims of trafficking in persons
identified by State authorities in Bolivia,
T specific offence of trafficking in per-
The by age (2004-2007)
ssons was established in Bolivia in Janu- 60
aary 2006. A national action plan was
Wom en
en
enacted and implemented for 2006- 50 Girls
2010
2010. 11
40
Criminal justice response
Crim 10
30
There ar
are specialized units within the Special 9
Forces oof La Paz, Cochabamba and Santa Cruz 20 41
dealing with trafficking in persons and the 31
smugglin
smuggling of migrants. 10 23

Fig. 96: Cases of trafficking in persons investi- 0 0
gated by the National Police in Bolivia 2004 2005 2006 2007
(2005-2007)
Source: SEDEGES
60 (Servicio Departamental de Gestión Social)

50 Fig. 98: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
fied by State authorities in Bolivia, by
40
type of exploitation (2005-2006)
60
30 1
50
20 32
40
21
10 2
30 44
0
0 20 24
2005 2006 2007
10
Source: Policia Nacional, Dirección Naciona División Trata y
Tráfico de Seres Humanos
6 7
0
2005 2006
Services provided to victims Slavery
Sexual exploitation
Sexual exploitation and dom estic servitude
Bolivia

State authorities, NGOs and international
organizations provide medical and psychological Source: SEDEGES
support and housing and shelter for victims of (Servicio Departamental de Gestión Social)
trafficking in persons.
resented in the chart above as having suffered
Additional information mixed exploitation were subjected to sexual
exploitation and domestic servitude.
Authorities reported 85 suspected cases of traf-
ficking in persons and 27 cases of possible child The only shelter available for trafficking victims,
trafficking in 2007 in addition to the ones indi- the Centro de Terapia de Mujeres, is located in
cated in the charts above. According to the Min- La Paz. This shelter is primarily designed to assist
istry of Justice, the only official system for victim adolescent victims of violence between the ages
154 identification currently in place is the police. of 12 and 18, but it also has been used to shelter
Victims identified by State authorities and rep- female (women and girls) victims of trafficking.
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 101: Cases of trafficking in persons Fig. 103: Persons convicted in federal and state
investigated by State Police in Brazil courts of trafficking in persons in Brazil,
(2003-2007) by gender (2004-February 2008)
120 120
Internal Trafficking Males
100 International Trafficking 100 Fem ales

80 80

60 60

40 40

20 21 20
1 12
1 3 2
2 3
11 10 9 11 8 4 1 10 4
0 0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2004 2006 Until
Source: International Labour Office − Estudo Proteger e Sources: Federal Police databank, Justiça February
Responsabilizar federal, local courts 2008

Fig. 102: Cases of trafficking in persons Fig. 104: Sanctions imposed by federal and state
prosecuted as a result of State Police courts for trafficking in persons in
investigations in Brazil (2003-2007) Brazil
120 120
Internal Trafficking Betw een 5 and 10 years
100 International Trafficking 100 Betw een 1 and 5 years

80 80

60 60

40 40

20 20
11 15 14
1
2 1 7 8 6 3 8 2
0 0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2004 2005 2006 2007
Source: International Labour Office − Estudo Proteger e Sources: Federal Police databank, Justiça
Responsabilizar federal, local courts
Brazil

156
South America

Fig. 105: Cases of slave labour (Article 149 of the Additional information
penal code) investigated by Federal Po-
lice in Brazil (2003-2007) All victims of trafficking identified and reported
200
above were citizens of Brazil.
180 In the context of the Labour Justice System, the
160 Federal Mobile Group targets slave labour
140 according to the labour legislation. This group
120
was formed in 1995 by the Ministry of Labour,
200 the Labour Public Prosecutor´s Office and the
100
Federal Police.
80
60 130 128 117 Fig. 107: Persons found in slave labour conditions
40 by the Federal Mobile Group from the
52 Ministry of Labour in Brazil (2003-
20 2007)
0
7000
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
6000
Sources: Federal Police databank
5000
Services provided to victims 4000

5975
State authorities and local NGOs provide legal 3000
5223

protection, medical and psychosocial support,
4348

and housing and shelter for victims of human
3417

2000
2887

trafficking. International organizations finan-
1000
cially support specific shelters in the country,
but they do not provide these services directly. 0
In 2008, the text of a new Foreigners’ Statute to 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
enable the concession of visas to trafficking vic-
Source: Ministry of Labour
tims was under consideration by Congress.

Fig. 106: Victims of trafficking in persons identi- All victims of slave labour identified by the Fed-
fied by federal and statecourts in Brazil eral Mobile Group were citizens of Brazil and
during criminal proceedings, by age almost all of them were adult males. The above
(2004-2007)
numbers only refer to workers under slave con-
120 ditions detected in rural areas. Bolivian, Peru-
Total vian, Paraguayan and Ecuadorian victims of
100 Girls
Wom en trafficking for the purpose of slave labour were
detected in the State of Sao Paulo, but the actual
Brazil
80
numbers of these victims were not available for
5 the reporting period.
60

40

3 52
20
5
11 9
0
2004 2005 2006 2007

Sources: Federal and state courts
157
South America

Colombia
Institutional framework Fig. 110: Cases of trafficking in persons
investigated in Colombia
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was (2003-September 2007)
established in Colombia in 2002, and a new law 160
was adopted in 2005. This law has a wider defi-
140
nition of trafficking in persons than included in
the UN Trafficking Protocol since the Colom- 120
bian law considers the consent of an adult irrel-
100
evant when defining situations of trafficking in
persons. A national action plan was adopted in 80
147
2005. 60
103 106 97
7
Criminal justice response 40
90

Some police officers who are part of the Group 20
for Sexual Crimes have special training to combat 0
the smuggling of migrants and trafficking in 2003 2004 2005 2006 Until
ntil
persons. The Departamento Administrativo de S ep
Seguridad (DAS) also has a group specially Source: Fiscalía General de la Nación
2007*
07*
trained for such investigations, operating under
the direction of Interpol.
Services provided to victims
The Fiscalía (Public Prosecutor´s Office) estab-
State authorities provide legal protections, tem-
lished a National Unit of Human Rights in
porary visas, medical and psychological support,
March 2007 focusing on trafficking in persons.
and housing and shelter for victims. Local NGOs
Also in 2007, as part of the Estrategia Nacional
offer housing and shelter, medical and psychoso-
de Lucha contra la Trata de Personas, the Minis-
cial support, and legal assistance. Additionally,
try of Justice and Interior and the UNODC
international organizations provide housing and
field office in Colombia implemented the Centro
shelter.
Operativo Anti-Trata de Personas (C.O.A.T.) in
order to create and develop an elite group of Fig. 111: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
public servants devoted to the prosecution of fied by State authorities in Colombia,
trafficking cases. by gender (2004-August 2007)

Three prosecutions for trafficking in persons
were recorded in Colombia from 2003 to Sep-
25

20
Boys
Girls
Colombia
tember 2007; two prosecutions were initiated in
2005 and one in 2007 (up to September); and
three convictions were recorded from 2003 to 15
September 2007.
19 19
10
1

5
6
2 2 2
0
2004 2005 2006 2007*
* up to August

Source: Instituto Colombiano de Bienstar Social
159
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 112: Victims of trafficking in persons Additional information
identified by State authorities in
Colombia, by form of exploitation The above figures on identified victims were
(2005-August 2007) provided by the Instituto Colombiano de Bien-
25
star Social (ICBF), a public institution charged
1 Other
with the protection of children and adolescents
20
Sexual exploitation that also runs the public shelters for this age
Forced labour
group.
15 In August 2007, the RITRA (Registro de Infor-
macíon de Trata de Personas) system was
10 20 launched. This system collects information from
1
the different institutions dealing with trafficking
5 2 cases, whether from a criminal justice perspec-
4
tive or from those providing direct assistance.
2
0
2005 2006 2007*
* up to August

Source: Instituto Colombiano de Bienstar Social

Fig. 113: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
fied by State authorities in Colombia,
by country of citizenship (2005-August
2007)

Other
South
Am erica,
Ecuador,
1
4
Other
Honduras, Central
19 Am erica,
1

Colom bia,
Colombia

5

Source: Instituto Colombiano de Bienstar Social

160
South America

Ecuador
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was State authorities provide legal protec-
established in Ecuador in 2005 but the legisla- tion, temporary visas, and housing and
tion does not include “removal of organs” as shelter to victims of human trafficking.
purpose of trafficking. A national action plan for With funding from the State, some NGOs
combating trafficking in persons and other run shelters in Sucumbíos and Quito for or
forms of exploitation was adopted in 2006. minors who are victims of trafficking. Religious
gious
orders, such as Hermanas Adoratrices, provide ovide
Criminal justice response housing for children and adolescent victims ms of
The National Police of Ecuador has a specific sex trafficking in the cities of Lago Agrio, Cuenca
uenca
unit investigating child trafficking that is con- and Santo Domingo.
nected to the Dirección Nacional de Policía
Especializada en Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes
Additional information
(DINAPEN) and exists in four regions of the The National Witness/Victim Protection Pro-
country. ldren
gramme and the National Institute for Children
and the Family (Instituto Nacional de La Niñez
Between 2005 and the end of 2007, there were y la Familia, INNFA) identified child victims
ms of
160 cases of various forms of sexual exploitation trafficking during the reporting period. How
How-
against children (child pornography, sex tour- ever, as the information has not yet been sys-
ism, etc.), including cases of trafficking in per- tematized, there are no statistics on identified
sons. Over the same period, there were 10 victims of trafficking in Ecuador.
convictions for these offences, six in the capital
of Quito and four in Machala, close to the Peru- The National Institute for Children and the
vian border. All cases were related to various Family (Instituto Nacional de La Niñez y la
forms of sexual exploitation, mostly with victims Familia, INNFA) has also a fund to repatriate
under 18 years of age. All persons convicted Ecuadorian minors trafficked abroad. A new
were citizens of Ecuador and received sentences shelter for child victims of trafficking is due to
ranging between six and 12 years detention. open in 2008 in the city of Machala.

Ecuador

161
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Paraguay
Parag
Institutional framework
Instituti Services provided to victims
Pa
Paraguay has a provision criminalizing State authorities provide legal protection, medi-
tthe use of force or fraud to facilitate the cal and psychosocial support, and housing and
eentry or exit of a person from or to the shelter. Local NGOs offer housing and shelter.
co
country for the purpose of prostitution.
Thi
This offence is used to prosecute some Additional information
form
forms of trafficking in persons, but it does Currently, there are two shelters funded by the
not cover
co internal trafficking and refers only State that receive minors who are victims of
to sexua
sexual exploitation. Draft legislation estab- sexual violence, including human trafficking,
lishing th
the specific offence of trafficking in per- and one shelter that receives adult victims. All
sons is pplanned to enter into force in 2009. victims of trafficking in persons identified and
National action plans are in place relating to sheltered in 2005 and 2006 were Paraguayans
traffickin
trafficking in persons for the sexual exploitation returned from other countries. Since most vic-
children and adolescents and for child labor.
of childr tims were repatriated from Argentina, they were
normally returned and provided with reintegra-
Criminal justice response
Crimina tion assistance by IOM-Buenos Aires.
Since 202005, the Public Prosecutor´s Office has
created sspecialized units for sex crimes, poten- Fig. 114: Victims of the offence “use of force or
tially including human trafficking cases. fraud to facilitate the entry or exit of a
person from or to the country for the
Information related only to the capital of Asun- purpose of prostitution” identified by
cion indicates that there were 65 cases investi- State authorities in Paraguay, by age
(2005-2006)
gated under the offence of facilitating the entry
of prostitutes. Over the same period, 19 persons 50
were investigated by the police for the same Girls
45 Wom en
offence, prosecution was commenced against 11 7
40
persons and seven persons were convicted − all
those convicted were Paraguayan. 35
30
25
20
Paraguay

37 6
15
10
16
5
0
Source: Office of the Public Prosecutor

162
South America

Peru
Institutional framework Fig. 115: Cases of trafficking in persons
investigated in Peru (2004-2007)
The specific offence of trafficking in persons for 50
sexual exploitation has existed in Peru since
45
2004. In January 2007, the criminal code was
amended to expand the trafficking offence to 40
include the other forms of exploitation listed in 35
Article 3 of the UN Trafficking Protocol. A
30
national plan of action was presented to the
government in July 2007. 25
46
6
20
Criminal justice response 15
A special investigative unit, the Departamento de 10 20
Investigación contra la Trata de Personas e Inves-
tigaciones Especiales, was created in January 5 7
3
2004. This unit has investigative responsibility at 0
the national level for trafficking in persons. 2004 2005 2006 07
2007
Source: Capital Humano y Social Alternativo
Four persons were prosecuted in 2006. In the
same year, one Peruvian male was convicted for
trafficking in persons for sexual exploitation and
received a sentence of between five and 10 years Fig. 116: Persons suspected of trafficking in Peru
(2003-September 2007)
detention. No other convictions were recorded
between 2003 and 2006. 80

Services provided to victims 70

60
State authorities and local NGOs provide legal
protections, temporary visas, medical and psy- 50
chological support, and housing and shelters.
40
71
30

20 40

10 18 13
0 0
2003 2004 2005 2006 Jan-Sept
2007
2008
Peru
Source: Capital Humano y Social Alternativo

163
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 117: Victims of trafficking in persons identified by State authorities in Peru, by age
(2004-January 2008)
120

100

80

60 112

40
21
20
1 25
2 11 10
0 2
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
(January)
Total Girls Wom en
Source: Polícia Nacional del Perú/Sistema RETA

Fig. 118: Victims of trafficking in persons identi- Additional information
fied by State authorities in Peru, by
country of citizenship (2005-2006) The RETA system was developed in the early
years of this decade. This system includes a data-
Ecuador,
4 bank that centralizes information on victims and
traffickers from the different authorities and
actors, including NGOs, dealing with traffick-
ing in persons.
All the victims identified in 2005 and 2006 were
trafficked for sexual exploitation. There is no
clear information concerning the destination of
Peru, 54 the reported victims, but it appears that a sig-
nificant portion of them were trafficked inter-
nally.

Source: Polícia Nacional del Perú/Sistema RETA
Peru

164
East Asia and the Pacific

Fig. 124: Persons placed on the Government’s Additional information
victims support in Australia, by gender
(2004-November 2008) The Australian Government’s Office for Women,
manages the Support for Victims of People Traf-
35
ficking Program. From the inception of the Pro-
30 gram in 2004 until October 2008, all victims
25 1 identified have been adults. All but fours victims
20 identified and receiving support through the
32 1 Program between 2004 and October 2008, were
15
trafficked for sexual exploitation; the remaining
10 22 22
15
18 four victims were trafficked for forced labour in
5 construction, hospitality and domestic work.
0 The AFP cooperates with a number of law
2004 2005 2006 2007 Jan- enforcement agencies in the region on people
Nov
trafficking and child sex tourism investigations.
Women Men total 2008
For example, the AFP works closely with the
Source: Office for Women, Department of Families, Com- Royal Thai Police Crimes Against Child Juvenile
munity Services and Indigenous Affairs and Women Division in relation to human traf-
ficking and child sex tourism investigations.
Fig. 125: Persons placed on the Government vic-
The AFP Bangkok office also works closely with
tims support in Australia, by country of
the Thai Department of Social Development
citizenship (2004-November 2008)
and Welfare, on issues ranging from the referral
of intelligence of suspected victims through to
the management of victims providing evidence
Australia
Other
East
as witnesses in Australian and Thai trials.
Asia, 36

Thailand Other, 6
, 69

Source: Office for Women, Department of Families,
Community Services and Indigenous Affairs 167
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Brunei Darussalam
Darussa
Institutional frame
framework Services provided to victims
The specific offence oof trafficking in per- State authorities provide temporary stay permits
sons was established in Brunei Darus- for victims of trafficking. No victims were iden-
salam in 2004. tified by authorities in Brunei Darussalam
during the period covered by this report.
Criminal justice response
respon
The Immigration Department
De and Royal
Customs and Excise are in
charge ofo investigating any
alleged offences commit-
und the trafficking in
ted under
persons llaw.
There were no investiga-
tions,
tio prosecutions or
convictions
co recorded
in Brunei Darussalam
duri
during the reporting
Brunei Darussalam

period.

168
East Asia and the Pacific

Fig. 130: Victims identified by the police in Indo-
nesia, by age and gender (2003-2007)
Additional information
According to the Indonesian National Task
Force to Combat Trafficking in Persons, identi-
600
129 fied victims were mostly Indonesians and were
500 3 mostly returned from other countries in the
400 150 region. Exact figures on the nationality and the
countries from where victims were repatriated
300 were unavailable.
496
200
18 331 There were no data available to UNODC con-
20 cerning the numbers of convicted offenders, but
100
103 125
81 authorities reported that most of the traffickers
0
were Indonesians. Foreigners convicted for traf-
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
ficking-related crimes in 2007 were from the
Women Children Men Middle East and other Asian countries.
IOM reported that it assisted 2,273 victims of
Source: Indonesian National Task Force to Combat
Trafficking in Persons trafficking between March 2005 and April 2007.
Most of these victims were adult women and, to
a lesser extent, girls. About 130 adult men and
100 boys were assisted by IOM during the same
Fig. 131: Victims sheltered in Indonesia by age, period. The majority of victims (1,312) were
(2005-May 2008) exploited as domestic workers, 352 for forced
prostitution and the rest for different forms of
600 forced labour. Most victims were returned from
neighbouring East Asian countries. About 480
500 were victims of internal trafficking, while 67 of
400 the victims assisted by IOM during this period
were repatriated from the Middle East and other
300 East Asian countries.
200

100

0
6
54
20
18
245
115
Indonesia
2005 2006 2007 Jan-May
Total Children Adults 2008

Source: Indonesian National Task Force to Combat Traffick-
ing in Persons

171
East Asia and the Pacific

Fig. 142: Presumed victims of trafficking in persons assisted by the NGO MGEC in Mongolia, by type
of exploitation (2003-2007)

Forced Labour, 41
2007 False Marriage, 28
Sex. Expl., 36
Forced Labour, 2
2006
Sex. Expl., 11

2005 False Marriage, 2
Sex. Expl.,3

2004
Sex. Expl., 4
Forced Labour, 1
2003 False Marriage, 1
Sex. Expl., 1
0 20 40 60 80 100

Sexual Exploitation False Marriage Forced Labour

Source: Mongolian Gender Equality Centre

Services provided to victims Additional information
State authorities provide legal protection for The Mongolian Gender Equality Centre
victims of trafficking. NGOs offer legal protec- (MGEC) is an NGO established in Mongolia in
tion, medical and psychosocial support, and 2002. MGEC provides legal and psychological
housing and shelter. assistance to victims of sexual abuse, exploita-
tion and human trafficking. The “presumed vic-
tims” in the charts above refer to persons, very
likely trafficking victims, receiving various types
of assistance from the MGEC.

Fig. 143: Presumed victims of trafficking in persons assisted by the NGO MGEC (2003-2007)
Mongolia
Central
Asia, 39

Mongolia
16

East Asia,
83
Other, 2

Source: Mongolian Gender Equality Centre
177
East Asia and the Pacific

Services provided to victims
State authorities provide legal protection, tem-
Fig. 157: Foreign victims identified by State au-
porary stay permits, medical and psychosocial thorities in Thailand, by type of exploi-
support, housing and shelter, and vocational tation (October 2006-December 2007)
training for victims of trafficking. (Might include also other persons in
need)
Fig. 155: Foreign victims identified by State
authorities in Thailand, by country of
citizenship (2005-2007) (Might include
also other persons in need)
Forced Other,
Labour 155
and
factory
Vietnam, 13 House
Myanmar, work,
Work, 44
334 158

China, 7
Sex
Work, 169
Lao PDR, 713
Other, 3 Begging,
Cambodia, 18
359

Source: Department of Social Development and Welfare

Source: Department of Social Development and Welfare

Fig. 156: Foreign victims identified by State Fig. 158: Thai victims trafficked abroad and repat-
authorities in Thailand, by age (October riated, identified by State authorities
2006-December 2007) (Might include (2003-2007)
also other persons in need)
700

600

500
Thailand
Adults
127 400

300

200
Minors
416 278
100 199 207
143 148
0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Thai Victim s Repatriated

Source: Department of Social Development and Welfare Source: Bureau of Anti-Trafficking in Women and Children 185
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 159: Thai victims trafficked abroad, identified
by State authorities by area of repatriation
(2005-2007)

Southern Europe,
Africa, 89 43
East Asia,
253 Pacific,
16
South
Asia, 15

Middle Other, 5
East, 212

Source: Bureau of Anti-Trafficking in Women and Children

Additional information
Thailand adopted three different referral mecha-
nisms for victims of trafficking in persons: one
at the provincial level; one in foreign countries;
and one at the central level. At the provincial
level, centres of the Department of Social Devel-
opment and Welfare are in charge of screening
victims of trafficking and referring them to one
of seven main shelters. Abroad, the embassies of
Thailand are the operational centres, and the
Bureau of Anti-Trafficking in Women and Chil-
dren is in charge at the central level for identify-
ing victims of trafficking in persons.
The statistics used in the charts above that refer
Thailand

to foreign victims identified by State authorities
were provided by the Foreign Women and Chil-
dren Trafficked Victims Section of the Depart-
ment of Social Development and Welfare. These
numbers might also include a small portion of
persons in general need in addition to traffick-
ing victims. For instance, from October 2006 to
December 2007, about 15% of the persons
reported above were not trafficking victims.
The statistics used in the charts above that refer
to Thai victims trafficked abroad and identified
by State authorities were provided by the Bureau
of Anti-Trafficking in Women and Children.
186
East Asia and the Pacific

Fig. 163: Persons convicted for trafficking in Services provided to victims
women and children in Viet Nam (2003-
2007) State authorities provide temporary stay per-
mits, medical and psychosocial support, and
700 housing and shelter for victims of trafficking.
NGOs provide medical and psychosocial sup-
600 port, and housing and shelter.

500 Statistics on victims were very limited. Authori-
ties reported the number of victims officially
400 returned from China (422 in 2007), which is
only a part of the total number of victims repat-
300 riated.

200 Additional information
297
237 Social support centres were established in most
100 208 182
175 of the border provinces to receive and take ini-
tial care of victims returned from foreign coun-
0
tries. The border check posts (reception centres
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
of border guards) also provide accommodation
for temporary stays for victims when they are
Sources: NCB Interpol and Criminal Investigation Division released.
There are over 100 Social Aid Centres, but only
Fig. 164: Sentences for persons convicted of traf-
ficking in women and children in Viet a few at the border areas have room for victims
Nam (2006-2007) of trafficking. These centres are in the following
border provinces: Lao Cai, Quang Ninh, Lang
300 Son, Yien Bai, Ho Chi Minh City, An Giang
19
and Can Tho.
250
94
28
200

150
77
Viet Nam
100 170
122

50

10 13
0 0 1
2006 2007

More than 15 years
7 to 15 years
Less than 7 years
Non-custodial sanction
Conviction upheld

Sources: NCB Interpol and Criminal Investigation Division 189
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

The following countries are covered in this Any missing information concerning the
section: Afghanistan, Bangladesh,
Ba Bhutan, region was either not available or not accessed
India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri by UNODC.
Lanka.

Af
Afghanistan
Inst
Institutional Fig. 165: Victims of offences related to trafficking
framew
framework in persons identified by State authori-
ties in Afghanistan, by age and gender
The specific
spec offence of traf- (2005-2006)
ficking in persons does not exist in the
400
Afghanistan. A draft law on
legislation of Afghan
trafficking in persons was expected to be 350
submitted to Parliament in 2008. 300

Criminal justice res
response 250

Special units to comb
combat trafficking in per- 200 180
sons were created within the police departments
150
in all provinces in Afghanistan. In practice, these 113
units so far have dealt mainly with kidnapping. 100
A new anti-trafficking section within the Crimi- 107
50
nal Investigation Directorate was established as 64
a coordinating body in 2007. 0
2005 2006
Due to the absence of a specific law, no prosecu-
Adults Children
tions and no convictions were recorded in
Afghanistan for trafficking in persons during the
400
reporting period. The criminal justice system
has used various articles of the penal code to 350
Afghanistan

prosecute some forms of trafficking in persons,
300
including the kidnapping of minors. About 370
persons − 315 men and 55 women − were con- 250
victed of trafficking-related offences in 2005, 135
200
and 393 persons − 371 men and 22 women −
were convicted of trafficking-related offences in 150
2006.
100
Services provided to victims 50
152 79

The State provides legal consultation and advo- 38
0
cacy, medical and psychological support, and 2005 2006
treatment as well as clothing and transportation.
Males Fem ales
Local NGOs and international organizations,
such as IOM, provide legal assistance, housing
Source: Criminal Investigation Directorate of the Ministry of
and shelter, and medical and psychosocial sup- the Interior
port.

190
South and South-West Asia

Fig. 166: Victims of trafficking in persons Additional information
sheltered by IOM in Afghanistan, by
form of exploitation (2005-2007) A referral mechanism for victims of trafficking
was established and includes the Ministry of the
120 Interior, the Ministry of Women’s Affairs and
the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. These
100 1 ministries refer cases to IOM in order to provide
victims with the necessary assistance. The Min-
80 istry of Women’s Affairs has four shelters to
accommodate women in situations of distress.
60 IOM is opening a shelter for child victims of
95 trafficking in 2008.
40

20
7 5
6 4
0
2005 2006 2007

Forced labour Sexual exploitation
Forced m arriage

Source: IOM-Kabul

Afghanistan
Fig. 167: Victims of trafficking in persons
sheltered by IOM in Afghanistan, by
country of citizenship (2006)

100 93
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
2
0
China South Asia

China South Asia

Source: IOM-Kabul
191
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Bangladesh
g
Institutional framework
The Suppression of Immoral
Immo Traffic Act was equal proportion. The Thengamar Mohila Sabuj
introduced
introd in Bangladesh Sangha (TMSS) sheltered about 81 victims in
in 1933.
1 The law that is three years (2005-2007), and the Dhaka Ahsania
mo widely used in
most Mission (DAM) sheltered 60 victims in 2006.
the context of human The Bangladesh National Women Lawyers’
traffic
trafficking, the Prevention Association (BNWLA) sheltered 15,000 female
Re
of Repression against victims of sexual abuse, including trafficking
Women and Children Act
(2000), deals only with the trafficking Fig. 168: Persons accused of trafficking in persons
of women and child
children for prostitution in Bangladesh (March 2005-March
2007)
and other ‘immoral’ purposes.
pur The Govern-
est
ment of Bangladesh established action plans 450

for the protection of children, including 400
trafficking in children:
childre the National Plan 350
of Action for Child
Children 2004-2009 and
300
the National Plan of ActionA Plan against
250
Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Children. 452
200 422
Criminal justice response 150

The Police Monitoring Cell for Combating Traf- 100
ficking in Women and Children in the Bangla- 50
desh police headquarters was established in
0
2004. This law enforcement body consists of a March 2005-March 2006 March 2005-March 2006
team of about 15 police officers collecting infor-
mation and statistics related to trafficking.
Source: Police Monitoring Cell
Services provided to victims
Bangladesh

State authorities and NGOs provide legal pro- Fig. 169: Persons arrested for trafficking in per-
tection, medical and psychosocial support, hous- sons in Bangladesh (March 2005-March
ing and shelter as well as rehabilitation and 2007)
vocational training for victims of trafficking in 450
persons. 400

According to the “Bangladesh Country Report 350
on Combating Trafficking in Women and Chil- 300
dren”, 208 victims of trafficking in persons were 250
identified by State authorities. These victims 200
included 96 women, 86 children and 17 men.
150
Four NGOs provided information concerning 100
victims of trafficking sheltered in Bangladesh 146
50 118
during the reporting period. The Association for
0
Community Development (ACD) reportedly
March 2005-March March 2005-March
sheltered from 20 to 30 victims of trafficking in
2006 2006
192 persons per year between 2003 and 2007. The
victims were males and females in approximately Source: Police Monitoring Cell
South and South-West Asia

victims, in three years (2005-2007). Most of the
ACD and DAM victims sheltered in 2005 and
2006 were trafficked to the border belt areas of
Bangladesh, and fewer were trafficked to India.

Fig. 170: Persons convicted for trafficking in per- Fig. 171: Cases of trafficking in persons in Bang-
sons in Bangladesh (March 2005-March ladesh concluded with a conviction
2007) (March 2004-March 2007)
450 450

400 400

350 350

300 300

250 250

200 200

150 150

100 100

50 50
36 45 52 30
0 25
0
March 2005-March 2006 March 2005-March 2006 March 2004- March 2005- March 2005-
March 2005 March 2006 March 2006

Source: Police Monitoring Cell Source: Police Monitoring Cell

Bangladesh

193
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Bhutan
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
Since 2004, the Penal Code of Bhutan (Section State authorities, NGOs and international
154) classifies trafficking organizations provide legal protection, medical
a pperson “for any pur- and psychosocial support, and housing and shel-
pos
pose” as an offence. ter for victims of trafficking in persons.
New provisions under
the proposed
p Immoral There are some shelter homes run by large
Traffic
Trafficking Act are to be NGOs that can technically house trafficking
endorse
endorsed by the National victims. According to the NGO Respect, Edu-
Assembly. A dra
draft National Plan of cate, Nurture and Empower Women (RENEW),
Action on Gender w with a section specifi- there is one temporary shelter home for emer-
cally dealing with viole
violence against women gency protection for adolescent girls and women
was pending with the competent authori- victims of violence and abuse, which provides
ties in 2008. counseling and care services. The total capacity
of this home is eight to 10 women. Since its
Criminal justice re
response establishment, the home has provided services to
49 vulnerable persons/victims of abuse and vio-
The Royal Bhutan Police eestablished a Woman
lence, including two victims of trafficking. In
and Child Protection Unit in January 2006. The
addition to this shelter, another bigger home is
unit initially included 16 police officers. It was
in the planning stages with support from the
set up in Thimphu and is planned to spread its
Government of India. Also a crisis centre was
network throughout the country through women
under construction in 2007.
and children desks in district police stations.
The unit works with NGOs and the National
Commission on Women and Children
(NCWC).
No investigations, prosecutions or convictions
were recorded for trafficking in persons in
Bhutan from 2003 to 2006.
Bhutan

194
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 174: Persons convicted for trafficking in persons in India, under the ITPA (2003-2006)

25000

20000

15000

10000

5000
6202 6341 7075
5201
0
2003 2004 2005 2006

Source: National Crime Records Bureau

Fig. 175: Persons prosecuted in India for offences related to trafficking in persons, under other sections of
the penal code (2003-2006)
1000
900
800
700
600 514
478
500 402 431
381
400 300 322
265 243
300 232
180
200 125
42 60
100 23 14
0
2003 2004 2005 2006
Buying girls for prostitution Selling girls for prostitution
Procuration of minor girls Importation of girls
Source: National Crime Records Bureau

Fig. 176: Persons convicted in India for offences related to trafficking in persons, under other sections of
the penal code(2003-2006)
1000
900
800
700
600
India

500
400
300
200
100 6 25 3 37
2 1 0 1 0 18 20 12 5 19 15 14
0
2003 2004 2005 2006
Buying girls for prostitution Selling girls for prostitution
Procuration of m inor girls Im portation of girls

196 Source: National Crime Records Burea
South and South-West Asia

Services provided to victims
Under various government programmes, legal The information is compiled, analysed and pub-
protection, medical and psychosocial support, lished in the form of annual reports.
shelter, education and training, and rehabilita-
As far as the data on victims of trafficking in
tion are provided to victims of trafficking in
persons are concerned, not all states have formal
persons. These services are often offered in coor-
mechanisms in place for referring identified traf-
dination with NGOs, which implement the
ficking victims to the relevant agencies that pro-
projects. The international agencies in the region
vide support services; however, there are informal
primarily provide funding and technical sup-
mechanisms in some cases.
port.
There is no centralized database of victims of
The Ministry of Women and Child Develop-
trafficking. Some states have stored information
ment (MWCD) in 2001-2002 launched a
under this heading, consisting of the numbers of
‘Swadhar’ scheme aimed at benefiting women in
trafficking victims in state (government) shelter
difficult circumstances, including girls and
homes, while others have a combination of fig-
women victims of trafficking. According to the
ures from various homes, beneficiaries of various
MWCD, 300 to 500 Swadhar and short-stay
government schemes and information received
homes gave shelter to more than 20,000 women
from the police on victims rescued.
in need, including trafficking victims, in all of
India during the reporting period. In 2005, the Fig. 177: Victims of trafficking in persons shel-
number of women taken care of was about tered in Andhra Pradesh, by form of
26,000 and in 2006, the number was 21,000. exploitation (2005-2006)
The services in a number of these homes are
300
provided by NGOs or NGOs run the homes 0
under these schemes. In addition to these gov- 250 28
ernment homes, a number of NGOs also run 4
smaller shelters or transit facilities, but no com- 200 52
29
prehensive consolidated numbers were available
from most of the state governments. Informal 150 59
discussions with civil society indicated that there
were inadequate shelters – both in terms of the 100
181
number of homes available and the facilities
120
available within the homes – for trafficking vic- 50
tims.
0
UNODC was able to collect some information 2005 2006
concerning victims of trafficking for a few Indian Sexual Exploitation Forced Labour
states as shown in the following charts. This Others Rem oval of Organs
information is not meant to be exhaustive and
does not represent the situation for the entire
India
country. Source: Department of Women Development and Child
Welfare, NGO CARD and NGO Strhee
Additional information
The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)
was established in 1986 and is the central agency
responsible for the maintenance of crime-related
records at the national level. The NCRB receives
information from the various State Crime
Records Bureaus and other relevant agencies. 197
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 178: Victims of trafficking in persons identi- Fig. 180: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
fied by authorities in Kerala, by form of fied by authorities in Kerala, by area of
exploitation (2005-2006) origin (2005-2006)

1
300 1
46
33 Tamil Nadu, 59
250
29
200 119
Andhra
150 Kerala, 610 Pradesh, 9

225
100
140
50 Karnataka, 3

0
2005 2006
Sexual Exploitation
Forced Labour
Forced Marriages
Others

Source: Directorate of Social Welfare,
Source: Directorate of Social Welfare, Government of Kerala Government of Kerala

Fig. 179: Victims of trafficking in persons identi- Fig. 181: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
fied by authorities in Karnataka, by form fied by authorities in Karnataka, by area
of exploitation (2005-2007 of origin (2005-2006)

300
Tamil Nadu,
250 23
Maharashtra,
9
200
West Bengala,
7
150
Orissa, 1
India

100 Karnataka, 311
9 Andhra
4 11 Pradesh, 1
50 Madhya
62 68
47 Pradesh, 7
0 Other Indian
2005 2006 2007 States, 6
Forced Labour Sexual Exploitation

Source: Karnataka Women and Child Development Source: Karnataka Women and Child Development Depart-
198 Department ment
South and South-West Asia

Fig. 182: Victims of trafficking in persons identified by authorities in Maharashtra, by area of origin
(2005-2007)

Bangladesh,
25
Karnataka,
7

West
Bengala, 13
Nepal, 156 Andhra
Pradesh, 4
Uttar
Pradesh, 19
Madhya
Pradesh, 14
Rajastan, 12

Source: Commission of Women and Child Development, Pune, Maharashtra

Fig. 183: Victims of trafficking in persons identified by authorities in Haryana, by area of origin (2005-
2006)

Jharkhand, 16

West Bengal,
Haryana, 85 Bihar, Uttar
India
Pradesh, 18

Source: Social Justice and Empowerment Department, Haryana
199
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Maldives
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
The specific offence oof trafficking in per- There are no specific programmes for the pro-
sons
son does not exist in tection and support of victims of trafficking.
the
th national legislation However, there are programmes that deal gener-
of the Maldives. There ally with victims of violence.
is a law in place that
bars children below the
o 14 from paid or
age of
hazard
hazardous work. In addi-
sex
tion, sexual exploitation and
ille
prostitution is illegal and subject to
stringent religious and societal sanctions.

Criminal justice response
re
All major investigative
investigati crimes, including
possible human trafficking
traf episodes, are
handled by the Serious Crimes Unit.
Because of the absence of a specific provision on
human trafficking, no prosecutions or convic-
tions were recorded for trafficking in persons
during the reporting period. According to the
Maldives police, the number of sexual offences
reported over the past six years ranged between
80 and 422 cases.
Maldives

200
South and South-West Asia

Nepal
Institutional framework
The Human Trafficking Control Act was estab- in 2005-2006. Convic-
lished in Nepal in 1986. The Parliament of tions of cases of traffick-
Nepal passed a new law, the Human Trafficking ing in persons in the
(Control) Act, in 2007. This 2007 Act is deemed Supreme Court numberedd
to be more comprehensive and incorporates pro- 11 in 2002-2003, 17 in n
visions for the protection and rehabilitation of 2003-2004, 16 in 2004- 4-
victims of trafficking. In addition to the Human 2005 and four in 2005-2006. 006.
Trafficking (Control) Act, other laws can be
There are no consolidated numbers on the
used to punish various forms of trafficking
nationalities of trafficking
king victims, but
exploitation, like forced labour, slavery and
according to the National Rapporteur on Traf- f
bonded labour. The National Plan of Action
ficking, available information
mation indicates that
(NPA) against Trafficking in Children and
almost all the victims weree from Nepal. In addi-
Women for Sexual and Labour Exploitation was
tion, trafficking for commercial
mercial sexual exploita-
developed in 1998 and approved in 1999. The
tion was the most frequentnt form of exploitation
NPA was reviewed in 2001 for the addition of
recorded during the reporting
rting period, followed
new issues and cross-cutting themes.
by forced labour. Other fforms off exploitation
l i i
Criminal justice response detected included slavery, sexual slavery and
forced labour for the circus.
Specific law enforcement agencies against traf-
ficking in women and children are part of the
Women and Children Service Centre (WCSC),
the Immigration Office, Interpol and the courts
of Nepal. The WCSC, located in police head-
quarters in Kathmandu, also is responsible for
collating information relating to crimes against
women and children, including trafficking. As Fig. 184: Cases of trafficking in persons recorded
of February 2008, the WCSC had 128 staff at by the police in Nepal (July 2002-July
headquarters and 25 centres around the coun- 2007)
try.

Services provided to victims 120

State authorities and NGOs provide legal pro- 100

tection, medical and psychosocial support, and
80
housing and shelter for victims of trafficking in
Nepal
persons. 60 112
97
Additional information 40
72
55 56
The government runs shelter homes in coordi- 20
nation with some of the larger NGOs. There are
a number of informal mechanisms by which 0
various agencies collaborate. 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07

There were 29 convictions of cases of trafficking
in persons in appellate courts in 2002-2003,
four in 2003-2004, 11 in 2004-2005 and nine Source: WCSC, Police Headquarters
201
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 185: Convictions of trafficking in persons in Nepal (July 2002-July 2006)

120

100

80

60

40
57 60
20 36
32

0
2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06

Source: Office of the National Rapporteur on Trafficking in Women and Children

Fig. 186: Victims of trafficking in persons identified by State authorities in Nepal, by gender and age
(July 2004 –July 2007)

350

300
82
250 16
16
200 6 50

84
150

100 218
182
118
50

0
2004-05 2005-06 2006-07
Nepal

Women Girls Boys

Source: WCSC, Police Headquarters

202
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Sri Lanka
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
Sri Lanka has had spe specific provisions in State authorities and NGOs provide legal pro-
place
plac criminalizing traf- tection, medical and psychosocial support, and
ficking in persons
fic housing and shelter for victims of trafficking in
since 1995. The Con-
sin persons.
vention on Preventing
ve
and CCombating Traffick- Additional information
ing in Women and Chil- There are no clear statistics on the number of
dren ffor Prostitution Act victims identified by State authorities. However,
introduced in 2005 and
was intro most (if not all) victims are Sri Lankan, accord-
amended in 2006 iin order to criminal- ing to the Ministry of Child Development and
ize all the forms of ttrafficking listed in Women’s Empowerment, the Sri Lanka Bureau
Article 3 of the UN T Trafficking Protocol. of Foreign Employment and informal informa-
tion from NGOs.
Criminal justice response
r
The police departm
department has a Women Shelters are available for victims of trafficking as
Colombo. This bureau
and Child Bureau in Co well as for persons in general need. These shel-
handles cases specifically dealing with women ters do not have information specifically on
and children, including victims of trafficking in human trafficking victims but include all vic-
persons. According to the police department’s tims who might have received shelter.
website, there are 36 Women and Child Bureau
Desks operating in Sri Lanka.
Fourteen cases of trafficking in persons were
recorded by the police in 2005 and 35 were
recorded in 2006. Through June 2007, 16 cases
were reported for that year. There were no con-
victions for trafficking in persons in Sri Lanka
between 2005 and June 2007.
Sri Lanka

204
Eastern Europe and Central Asia

The following countries are covered in this Any missing information concerning the
section: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, region was either
ther
Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrg yzstan, the unavailable
Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federa- or not
tion, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan accessed by
and Ukraine. UNODC.

Armenia
Institutional framework
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was Fig. 190: Persons convicted of trafficking in per-
established in Armenia in 2003. The new sons in Armenia, by gender (2003-2006)
National Plan of Action on Combating Traffick- 20
ing in Persons for 2007-2009 was approved in 18
December 2007 and followed the previous 16
national action plan for 2004–2006. 14
12
Criminal justice response 10
8 6
A special police unit on trafficking and illegal 6
migration under the Department against Organ- 4 7
ized Crime was created in 2005. Trafficking in 2 2 5
0 1 1
persons and related offences are dealt with 0
chiefly by this department. 2003 2004 2005 2006

Males Fem ales

Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Fig. 189: Persons prosecuted for trafficking in per- Fig. 191: Sanctions for trafficking in persons in
sons in Armenia, by gender (2003-2006) Armenia (2004-2006)
20 20
18
16
18
16
Armenia
14 14
12 7 12
10 1
10
8 1
8
6 6
8 8
4 8 4
7
2 2 2
0 1 1 3 1
0 0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2004 2005 2006
Between 5 and 10 years
Males Fem ales
Between 1 and 5 years
Non custodial

Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs
205
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Services provided to victims Additional information
State authorities provide legal protections, med- All the persons convicted of trafficking in per-
ical and psychological support, and housing and sons in 2005-2006 were Armenian except one,
shelter services. Local NGOs provide housing who was a citizen from another country of the
and shelter, medical and psychological support, region.
and legal assistance to victims.
The Armenian victims sheltered were repatriated
from Southern Europe, the Middle East and
other countries of Eastern Europe and Central
Asia. Foreign victims were trafficked and
exploited in Armenia.

Fig. 192: Victims of trafficking in persons identi- Fig. 193: Victims of trafficking in persons shel-
fied by State authorities in Armenia, by tered by NGOs in Armenia, by gender
gender and age (2004-2006) and age (2003-March 2007)

50 3 50

40 40
2
30 6
30
53
44 1
20 20
31
24
10 10 20
9 1
6
0 0 1
2004 2005 2006 2003 2004 2005 2006 up to
March
Women Men 2007
Females Males
Armenia

Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Source: Victims of trafficking assisted in Armenia, UNDP

206
Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Fig. 194: Age, type of exploitation and citizenship of victims sheltered by NGOs (2003-March 2007)

Minors, 3

Adults, 89

Forced
labour, 18 Uzbek, 11
Ukrainian, 4
Other, 1
Armenian,
Sexual
exploitation,
74

Source: Victims of trafficking assisted in Armenia, UNDP

Armenia

207
Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Fig. 198: Victims of trafficking in persons identi- Fig. 200: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
fied by State authorities in Azerbaijan, fied by State authorities in Azerbaijan,
by gender and age (2006-2007) by citizenship (2006-2007)
140
120
100 1
9
80
1 Other
60 Azerbaijan Eastern
100 172 Europe
40 76 and
20 Central
Asia
0 14
2006 2007
Women Girls Men

Source: Ministry of the Interior Source: Ministry of the Interior

Fig. 199: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-

140
fied by State authorities in Azerbaijan,
by type of exploitation (2006-2007)
Fig. 201: Azeri victims of trafficking in persons
identified by State authorities in Azerba-
ijan, by area of repatriation (2005-2006) Azerbaijan
South Asia,
120 14

100
9
80
Middle
South
60 East, 42
101 Europe, 75
40 77
20
0 Other/Not
2006 2007 Specified,
Sexual exploitation Forced labour 56

Source: Ministry of the Interior Source: Ministry of the Interior 209
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 202: Victims sheltered by the NGO Clean Additional information
World in Azerbaijan, by gender and age
(2004-2007) Almost all those convicted were involved in traf-
140 ficking for sexual exploitation, and one was
involved in trafficking for forced labour. Most of
120 the Azeri victims identified were returned from
100 other countries and many were victims of inter-
nal trafficking. One State-funded shelter for
80 victims of trafficking, with the capacity to assist
60 50 victims, was opened in October 2006.
2
40
2
48
20
24
10 6
0
2004 2005 2006 2007

Women Men Children

Source: Clean World and IOM

Fig. 203: Victims sheltered by the NGO Clean World in Azerbaijan, by country of citizenship
(2004-2007)

Uzbekistan
12
Azerbaijan

Other
Eastern
Azerbaijan
Europe and
31
Central Asia,
4

Source: Clean World and IOM

210
Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Belarus
Institutional framework
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was
established in Belarus in 1999, and the law was
amended in 2005 to increase the liability for this
crime. The specific offence of trafficking in per-
sons is criminalized by the article 181 of the
criminal code. In addition, other articles of the
criminal code are also used to prosecute traffick- Fig. 204: Persons
ns prosecuted for trafficking in
ing cases, namely the offences of “exploitation of persons and
d related
l d offences
ff in Belarus
l
prostitution” and “involvement in the exploita- (2003-2006)
tion of prostitution” (article 171), the offence of
“stealing persons” (article 182), and “illegal 250

actions directed to job placement abroad” (arti-
cle 187). Furthermore, the articles 173 (the 200
involvement of minor in anti-social behaviour)
and article 343 (the diffusion of pornographic 150
materials) might be used in trafficking in per- 213 214
sons cases. A national action plan was adopted 100
174
157
for 2008-2011, following a previous action plan
covering 2002-2007. 50

Criminal justice response 0
2003 2004 2005 2006
The Department for Drug Control and Preven-
tion of Trafficking in Persons was established
Source: Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Bela-
within the Ministry of the Interior. The depart- rus
ment includes a number of special units and
operates at the national, regional and district
levels. Fig. 205: Persons prosecuted for trafficking in per-
sons and related offences in Belarus, by
The following statistics refer to the specific citizenship (2003-2006)
offence of Trafficking in Persons (article 181)
and to the related offences of “exploitation of
prostitution” and “involvement in the exploita-
Belarus
tion of prostitution” (article 171), the offence of
“stealing persons” (article 182), and “illegal
actions directed to job placement abroad” (arti-
cle 187). Foreigners,
Belarussian,
55
703

Source: Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of
Belarus 211
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 206: Persons convicted for trafficking in Fig. 208: Sanctions for trafficking in persons and
persons and related offences in Belarus related offences in Belarus (2003-2006)
(2003-2006)

250 250

200 200

150 150

100 100
176 173
134 127 50 100
50 83
41 55
0
0
2003 2004 2005 2006
2003 2004 2005 2006
Deprivation of Liberty

Source: Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Source: Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of
Belarus Belarus

Fig. 207: Number of crimes registered for traffick- Fig. 209: Number of crimes registered for specifi-
ing in persons and related offences in cally trafficking in persons (art.181) in
Belarus (2003-2006) Belarus (2003-2006)

600 600

500 500

400 400

300 555 300
488
200 369 200
294
100 100 159
92 95
0 35
0
Belarus

2003 2004 2005 2006 2003 2004 2005 2006

Source: Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Source: Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of
Belarus Belarus

Services provided to victims
State authorities provide legal protections, tem- church bodies, NGOs, international organiza-
porary visas, and medical and psychological sup- tions, consular staff and other involved parties,
port. Local NGOs and international organizations who then refer them to the relevant organization
provide housing and shelter, medical and psy- providing reintegration assistance.
chological support, and legal assistance to vic-
212 tims. Victims are identified by State agencies,
Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Fig. 210: Victims of trafficking in persons identi- Fig. 211: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
fied by State authorities in Belarus, by fied by State authorities in Belarus, by
age (2003-2006) form of exploitation (2003-2006)
1200 1200 96
1000 222 1000

800 800
61 260
600 600
885 1011
400 400
564
200 350 400 200 400
350 365
0 0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2003 2004 2005 2006

Total Adults Children Sexual exploitation Forced Labour

Source: Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Source: Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of
Belarus Belarus

Belarus

213
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 213: Persons prosecuted for trafficking in per-
sons in Georgia, by gender (2005-2006)

12

10 2

8 2

Georgia 6

9
4
Institutional framework 7
2
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was
established in Georgia in 2003, and a new provi- 0
sion entered into force in June 2007. A national 2005 2006
action plan was adopted in 2006.

Criminal justice response Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs
A Division to Combat Trafficking in Persons
and Illegal Migration within the Ministry of the Fig. 214: Persons convicted of trafficking in per-
Interior was established in 2005. A special inter- sons in Georgia, by gender (2005-2006)
agency commission for the coordination of
14
activities against human trafficking and efficient
implementation of the action plan, headed by 12 3

the Prosecutor-General of Georgia, was estab- 10
lished by the National Security Council on 1
8
February 2005.
6
Services provided to victims 4 8
6
2
Fig. 212: Persons investigated for trafficking in
persons in Georgia, by gender (2005- 0
2006) 2005 2006

14 Females Males
Georgia

12
4
10
Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs
8
1
6
9
4 State authorities provide legal protection, tem-
6
2
porary visas, medical and psychological support,
and housing and shelter. Local NGOs provide
0
legal assistance to victims.
2005 2006
Fem ales Males

214 Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Fig. 215: Persons convicted of trafficking in per- 2007) that serves Eastern Georgia. Each shelter
sons in Georgia, by form of exploitation can accommodate 10 victims. Over the course
(2005-2006) of 2007, 15 persons were assisted in these shel-
14
ters, including three children (whose parents
were victims of trafficking); 11 of the victims
12
1
were Georgian and four were citizens of other
10
countries in the region.

8
Fig. 217: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
6
2
9 fied by State authorities in Georgia, by
4 form of exploitation (2005-2006)

2 4 25
1 1
0
2005 2006 20

Forced labour Trafficking in children
15
Sexual exploitation Slavery

10 19
Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs 11
5
Fig. 216: Victims of trafficking in persons identi- 0
fied by State authorities in Georgia, by 2 1
0
gender and age (2005-2006)
2005 2006
25 Unknown Forced labour
Sexual exploitation Slavery

20 2 Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs

15
1

10 19 Fig. 218: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
11 fied by State authorities in Georgia, by
5 country of citizenship (2005-2006)

0 1
2005 2006 Georgia
Girls Women Men Boys

Other
Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Eastern
Europe and
Additional information Georgia, 32 Central
Asia, 3
Most of the Georgian victims were repatriated Unknow n, 2
from Southern Europe and the Middle East.
Eight of these victims were subjected to internal
trafficking.
During the reporting period, two shelters were
in place in Georgia for victims of trafficking in
Source: Ministry of Foreign Affairs
persons; one in Western Georgia (Batumi, 215
opened in 2006) and one in Tbilisi (opened in
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Kazakhstan
Insti
Institutional
fra
framework
The specific Fig. 220: Persons convicted of offences related to
offence
offen of traf- trafficking in persons in Kazakhstan
ficking
ficki in per- (2003-2006)
sons was established in Kazakhstan in 2006.
That same year, the government adopted a 18
traffick
national action plan against trafficking in per-
16
sons. Prior to 2006, Article 128 of the criminal
14
code (“recruitment of persons for the purpose of
exploitation”) and Article 133 (“trade in minors”) 12
were used to prosecute some forms of trafficking 10
in persons. 8
6 11
Criminal justice response 4
6
A special anti-human trafficking unit was estab- 2 3 2
lished within the Criminal Police Committee of 0
the Ministry of the Interior. In total, 45 officers 2003 2004 2005 2006
from various police units were engaged in sup-
pressing trafficking-related offences during the Source: Ministry of the Interior
reporting period.

Fig. 219: Persons prosecuted for offences related Fig. 221: Sanctions for offences related to traf-
to trafficking in persons in Kazakhstan, ficking in persons in Kazakhstan (2003-
by gender (2003-2006) 2006)
Kazakhstan

20
18 14
16 12
14
10
12 4
8
10 6
7 6
8 2
4
6 4
1
4 0 1
2 3
7 1 2
2 4 0 1
3 1
0 2003 2004 2005 2006
2003 2004 2005 2006
Non custodial 1 to 5 years
Males Females More than 10 years 5 to 10 years

216 Source: Ministry of the Interior Source: Ministry of the Interior
Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Fig. 222: Victims of trafficking in persons shel- Fig. 224: Victims of trafficking in persons shel-
tered by the NGO Rodnik in Kaza- tered by the NGO Rodnik in Kaza-
khstan, by age and gender (2005-2007) khstan, by country of citizenship
(2005-2007)
50

45
Other
40 Eastern
Europe and
35 Central Kazakhstan,
30 Asia, 9 15
25
20 2 1

15 6 5 Uzbekistan,
3
10 25
5 10 11 11

0
2005 2006 2007

Women Girls Men Boys Source: Rodnik

Source: Rodnik

Fig. 223: Victims of trafficking in persons shel- Fig. 225: Victims of trafficking in persons shel-
tered by the NGO Rodnik in Kaza- tered by the NGO Women’s Resource
khstan, by form of exploitation (2005- Centre, by age and gender (2005-2006)

Kazakhstan
2007)
50 50
45 45
40 40
1
35 35 4
30 30
10
25 2
25 1
20
20 1 3 6
15
15 23 5
10 10 22
10 15 17
13 5 10
5
7 0
3
0 2003 2004 2005 2006
2005 2006 2007
Forced labour Sexual Exploitation Women Men Boys Girls
Unknown
Source: Rodnik Source: Women’s Resource Centre 217
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 226: Victims of trafficking in persons shel- Fig. 227: Victims of trafficking in persons shel-
tered by the NGO Women’s Resource tered by the NGO Women’s Resource
Centre, by country of citizenship (2005- Centre, by form of exploitation (2005-
2006) 2006)

50
45
40
Uzbekistan,
35
34 Other
30 Eastern
20 Europe and
25
Central
20 Asia, 5
11 3
15
Kazakhstan,
10 2 20
14
5 9
0
2005 2006
Sexual Exploitation Servitude
Forced Labour Source: Women’s Resource Centre

Source: Women’s Resource Centre

Services provided to victims
The State provides legal protection and tempo-
rary stay permits for victims of trafficking in
persons. Local NGOs provide legal assistance,
and medical and psychosocial support while
Kazakhstan

international organizations provide legal assist-
ance, housing and shelter, and medical and psy-
chosocial support.

Additional information
Eight Kazakhs were convicted of trafficking in
persons in 2006, as were three more offenders
from other parts of the region.
In 2005 and 2006, 14 of the Kazakh victims
sheltered by two NGOs were repatriated from
the Middle East and one was repatriated from
Southern Europe. The other 20 victims were
subject to internal trafficking. A third NGO,
Sana Sezim, reportedly have sheltered six Uzbeks
in the Southern Kazakhstan Oblast in 2008.

218
Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Kyrgyzstan
Institutional framework
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was
established in Kyrgyzstan in 2003, and the leg-
islation was amended in 2005 in order to crimi-
nalize all forms of trafficking as listed in Article
3 of the UN Trafficking Protocol. Prior to 2003,
only the recruitment of persons for the purpose
of sexual or other exploitation committed Fig. 229: Persons investigated for trafficking in
through deception was a criminal offence. A persons in Kyrgyzstan, by gender (2007)
draft State Programme to Combat Trafficking in
Persons (2008-2010) was under consideration
by the government in 2008.

Criminal justice response
A special unit to combat kidnapping, trafficking Males 13
in persons and crimes against foreign nationals
was established in 2004 under the Criminal Fem ales
Investigation Department of the Ministry of the 19
Interior. In 2005, a special sector within the
State Committee on Migration and Employ-
ment was established to combat the smuggling
of and trafficking in persons.

Source: Ministry of the Interior

Fig. 228: Persons investigated for trafficking in

40
persons in Kyrgyzstan (2003-2007)
Fig. 230: Persons prosecuted for trafficking in

40
persons in Kyrgyzstan (2005-2006) Kyrgyzstan
35 35
30 30
25 25
20 20
36
33 32
15 15
21 24
10 10 21
5 7 5
0 0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2005 2006

Source: Ministry of the Interior Source: Ministry of the Interior
219
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Services provided to victims Fig. 233: Victims of trafficking in persons shel-
tered by IOM, by country of citizenship
The State provides legal protection, temporary (2005-2006)
stay permits and housing for victims of traffick-
ing in persons. Local NGOs and international 120

organizations offer legal assistance, housing and
100
shelter, medical and psychological support, and
vocational training. Victims of trafficking are
80
referred to relevant NGOs or shelters by IOM or
its partner NGOs, law enforcement agencies or
60
the State Committee on Migration and Employ-
ment.
40

Fig. 231: Persons convicted of trafficking in per- 10
sons in Kyrgyzstan (2005-2006) 20
2

40 0
35 Kyrgyzstan Kazakhstan Uzbekistan

30 Source: IOM-Kyrgyzstan
25
20
15
10
5
7
3
0
2005 2006

Source: Ministry of the Interior

Fig. 232: Victims of trafficking in persons identi- Fig. 234: Regions from which victims of traffick-
fied by State authorities in Kyrgyzstan ing in persons sheltered by IOM were
Kyrgyzstan

(2005-2006) returned (2005-2006)

160

140
Other
3
1
1
Eastern
1
120 5 Europe and
46 1
24 Central
100 47 8
Asia, 24
80 25
South
60 Europe, 55
90 Middle East,
40 85
72 70 19
20

0
2003 2004 2005 2006

Wom en Men Girls Boys
220 Source: IOM-Kyrgyzstan Source: IOM-Kyrgyzstan
Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Moldova
Institutional framework
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was
established in Moldova in 2001, and the legisla-
tion was amended in 2005 to criminalize all
forms of trafficking as listed in Article 3 of the
UN Trafficking Protocol. The amended legisla-
tion contemplates a specific provision for traf-
ficking in children. A national action plan was Fig. 236: Cases of Trafficking in children investi-
adopted in 2005. gated in Moldova (2003-2007)

Criminal justice response 300

A special section for combating trafficking in 250
persons was established within the Ministry of
the Interior in 2000. A specific unit on traffick- 200
ing in persons was created in 2005 within the
structure of the Office of the Prosecutor-Gen- 150
eral, and the Centre on the Fight against Traf-
100
ficking in Persons was established in the same
year. The centre is a specialized body of prosecu- 50
tors, investigators, analysts and support person- 53 61 47
41
15
nel created to combat trafficking in persons. The 0
total number of police personnel involved in 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
anti-trafficking activities ranged from 50 to 100
officers in 2007. Source: Office of the Prosecutor-General

Fig. 235: Cases of trafficking in persons investi- Fig. 237: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
gated in Moldova (2002-2007) fied by State authorities in Moldova
(2003-2006)
300
300
53 47
250

200
250

200
41 Moldova
15
150 150
251 238 239 251
238 239 243
100
100 173
173
50
50
42 0
0 2003 2004 2005 2006
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Adults Children

Source: Office of the Prosecutor-General
Source: Centre to Combat Trafficking in Persons 221
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Services provided to victims Fig. 238: Areas from which Moldavian victims
identified by State authorities were
State authorities provide legal protections, med- returned (2007)
ical and psychosocial support, and housing serv-
ices. Local NGOs and international organizations Moldova,
offer housing and shelter, medical and psychoso- 9
cial support, and legal assistance to the victims.
The Ministry of Family, Youth and Children Eastern
coordinates victim identification, reintegration Europe
South and
and rehabilitation through multi-disciplinary
Europe Central
teams consisting of representatives from differ- 172
ent State authorities and NGOs set up in each Asia, 68
district.

Additional information South
East
During the reporting period, about 10 cases of Europe
Other
trafficking for the purpose of organ removal 19
Europe
were investigated in Moldova.
14
Most of the victims sheltered by IOM are women
and girls. Thirteen men were sheltered in 2005- Source: Office of the Prosecutor-General
2006.

Fig. 239: Victims of trafficking in persons sheltered by IOM in Moldova (2003-2006)

350

300
31
250 16
24
21
200

150
264
232 248
Moldova

100 211

50

0
2003 2004 2005 2006

Adults Children

Source: IOM-Moldova

222
Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Fig. 240: Victims of trafficking in persons sheltered by IOM in Moldova, by form of exploitation
(2005-2006)

Labour
purposes,
11%

Begging, 4%

Combined
forms of
exploitation,
Sexual
3%
exploitation,
82%

Source: IOM-Moldova

Fig. 241: Areas from which Moldavian victims sheltered by IOM were returned (2005-2006)

Middle East,
56

South East
Europe, 45

South Moldova
Eastern
Europe, 288
Europe and
Central
Asia, 95

Other
Europe, 10

Source: IOM-Moldova

223
Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Fig. 244: Cases of forcing to engage in prostitu-
tion (art.240) detected in the Russian
Federation (2006-2007)

700

600

500

400
655
300 584

200

100

0
2006 2007

Russian Federation
Source: Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the
international organizations in Vienna

A rehabilitation centre for victims of trafficking
(Russian nationals who have returned from des-
tination countries and citizens of Eastern Europe,
Central Asia and other countries who are
exploited in Russia) was opened in April 2007 in
Moscow offering comprehensive medical and
psychological assistance and other services. The
centre is able to assist 19 persons at a time.
Eleven specialists work at the centre, including a
doctor/therapist, a psychologist, a social worker,
a nurse and technicians.

225
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Tajikistan
Institu
Institutional
framework
fram
The specific Fig. 246: Persons prosecuted for trafficking in
offen of traf-
offence persons in Tajikistan, by gender (2004-
ficking in persons 2006)
was established in Tajikistan in 2004 and
100
the law was amended in January 20 2008 to also
include trafficking for the purpos
purpose of organ 90
17
removal. In 2006, the government adopted a 80
national action plan against trafficking in per- 70
sons for 2006-2010. 18
60

Criminal justice response 50
40
The special Unit to Combat Racketeering, Kid- 30 62
napping and Human Trafficking was established
20 4 40
in April 2004 as part of the Department for the
Fight against Organized Crime within the Min- 10
12
istry of the Interior. In 2007, the unit had about 0
17 full-time police officers. 2004 2005 2006

Females Males

Source: Office of the Prosecutor-General

Fig. 245: Persons investigated for trafficking in Fig. 247: Persons convicted of trafficking in
persons in Tajikistan (2004-2006) persons in Tajikistan, by gender (2004-
2006)
100 100
90 90
Tajikistan

80 80
70 70
60 60
10 12
50 50

40 79 40

30 58 30

20 20 38 35
2
10 10
16 9
0 0
2004 2005 2006 2004 2005 2006

Females Males

Source: Office of the Prosecutor-General
226 Source: Office of the Prosecutor-General
Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Fig. 248: Sanctions for trafficking in persons in Fig. 249: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
Tajikistan (2004-2006) fied by State authorities in Tajikistan, by
age and gender (2005-2006)
60 4
5
140
50
120

40 17 17 100

6
80
30
142 6
60
20 24 21
40
1 70
10 2 1 20
8 6 9
0 0
2004 2005 2006 2005 2006

Non custodial Less than 1 year Women Girls Boys
1 to 5 years 5 to 10 years
More than 10 years

Source: Office of the Prosecutor-General Source: Office of the Prosecutor-General

Services provided to victims
The State provides legal protection and medical
and psychosocial support for victims of traffick-
ing in persons. Local NGOs provide medical
tims of sexual exploitation. IOM-Tajikistan
sheltered victims of trafficking in persons in
2005 and 2006; all were Tajik, mostly women
Tajikistan
and psychosocial support, while international but also men and children.
organizations provide legal assistance, housing
The Inter-Ministerial Commission on Combat-
and shelter, and medical and psychosocial sup-
ing Human Trafficking under the Government
port.
of Tajikistan, together with IOM and some
Additional information NGO partners, recently established a provisional
referral mechanism.
In 2005 and 2006, all those convicted of traf-
ficking in persons offences were Tajik citizens.
Victims of trafficking identified by State author-
ities in 2005 and 2006 were all Tajik citizens
returned from the Middle East and all were vic- 227
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Turkmenistan
Institu
Institutional
framework
fram Services provided to victims
A law on com- There is no official referral mechanism in place
batin traffick-
bating for victims of trafficking in persons.
ing iin persons
Between 2003 and 2006, there were no victims
was adopted in Turkmenistan and entered
of trafficking in persons identified by State
into force in December 2007, but th the law does
authorities.
not specifically establish trafficking in persons as
an offence. A registered NGO conducted prevention and
sheltering activities for trafficking victims during
Criminal justice response the reporting period. All victims sheltered in
Turkmenistan has no specific police unit for 2005 and 2006 were adult Turkmen citizens
combating trafficking in persons, though the returned from abroad. Four women were shel-
State Service for Registration of Foreigners tered in 2005, and seven women and one man
(SSRF) is the de facto leading agency on com- in 2006. Three of them were trafficked for forced
bating trafficking in persons. labour (in 2006) and the remaining were traf-
ficked for sexual exploitation.
During the reporting period, no prosecutions
and no convictions for trafficking in persons
were recorded in Turkmenistan. One case of
sexual exploitation was prosecuted in 2005 and
concluded with a conviction.
Turkmenistan

228
Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Ukraine
Institutional framework
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was victims. In
established in Ukraine in 1998. The criminal addition,
code was emended and in 2001 the new offence housing
of trafficking in persons was established under allowances,
the article 149 of the Criminal Code. This arti- micro-enter-
cle was amended later in 2006. A National prise grants, educa-
Action Plan has been adopted for the period tional grants, vocational
ocational training and p h y s i c a l
2007-2010. therapy also are provided
id d bby the
h SState andd NGO
NGOs
as well as IOM.
Criminal justice response
Fig. 251: Victims of trafficking in persons
The Department for Combating Human Traf- identified by State authorities in
ficking of the Ministry of the Interior was cre- Ukraine, by age (2003-2006)
ated in 2005. Regional branches, divisions and 600
units of the department were established in all
regions of Ukraine. The National Security Serv- 500
39
ice also works closely with the relevant authori- 52
400 15
ties responsible for coordinating anti-trafficking
activities in Ukraine.
300

Services provided to victims 200
446
393
377
State authorities provide legal protection, medi-
cal and psychological support, and housing and 100 198

shelter. Local NGOs and international organiza-
0
tions provide housing and shelter, medical and 2003 2004 2005 2006
psychological support, and legal assistance to
Adults Children

Fig. 250: Persons convicted of trafficking in per- Source: Department for Combating Human Trafficking
sons in Ukraine (2003-2006) Offences, Ministry of the Interior

Fig. 252: Ukrainian victims of trafficking in per-
140 sons repatriated by IOM-Ukraine, by
areas of repatriation (2005-2006)
120
Ukraine
Other Europe,
100 115

80 Central
Europe, 412
Middle East, 97

60 115 South East
Europe, 13
Eastern
40 86 Europe and
69 Central Asia,
53 491
20 South Europe,
471

0
2003 2004 2005 2006

Source: Department for Combating Human Trafficking
Offences, Ministry of the Interior Source: IOM-Ukraine
229
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Uzbekistan
Fig. 253: Persons prosecuted for “recruitment for
Institutional framework exploitation” in Uzbekistan, by gender
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was (2003-2006)
established in Uzbekistan in April 2008. Prior to
that law, Article 135 of the criminal code (1994) 250

provided criminal liability for the “recruitment
200
of persons for the purpose of sexual or other
exploitation”. In early 2008, a draft plan of 68 70 90
150
action to combat trafficking in persons was sub-
mitted to the Cabinet of Ministers for
100
approval. 40
137 136 122
50
Criminal justice response 61

The Special Unit to Combat the Illegal Recruit- 0
ment and Exploitation of Persons was estab- 2003 2004 2005 2006
lished in April 2004 within the Ministry of the
Interior, with branches set up at the regional and Females Males
local levels nationwide. Since its establishment, Source: Ministry of the Interior
a total of 118 certified officers have worked for
the unit and its branches.
Uzbekistan

A special unit also exists within the Ministry of Fig. 254: Persons convicted for “recruitment for
the Interior for the prevention of offences related exploitation” in Uzbekistan
(2003-2006)
to the recruitment of persons for the purposes of
exploitation and offences against morality, with
250
branches at the regional and local levels. The
total number of officers working for this unit 200
and its branches is 154.
150
The following statistics refer to the offence of
recruitment of persons for the purpose of sexual 100 189 181
176
or other exploitation.
50 96
Services provided to victims 0
State authorities provide legal protection for 2003 2004 2005 2006
victims of trafficking in persons. Local NGOs
and international organizations provide legal
230 assistance, housing and shelter, and medical and Source: Ministry of the Interior
psychosocial support.
Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Fig. 255: Sanctions for persons convicted of Fig. 257: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
“recruitment for exploitation” in Uz- fied by State authorities in Uzbekistan,
bekistan (2003-2006) by gender (2003-2006)

250 700

600
200
500 203
150 61 46
70 400

300 218
100
35 200 381
128 130 112
50 111
100 90 175
61
105
49
0 0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2003 2004 2005 2006

Non-custodial Imprisonment Males Females

Source: Ministry of the Interior Source: Ministry of the Interior

Fig. 256: Victims of trafficking in persons identi- Additional information
fied by State authorities in Uzbekistan,
by age (2003-2006) IOM-Uzbekistan sheltered and assisted victims
of trafficking in persons between 2003 and
700 2006, most of whom were women and children.
17 Sexual exploitation was the major form of exploi-
600
tation, but there were also victims trafficked for
500 forced labour.

Uzbekistan
38
400

300 567
16
200 12 355
100 201
127
0
2003 2004 2005 2006
Adults Children

Source: Ministry of the Interior

231
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

The 38 countries and an specially adminis- Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Kosovo
tered territories covered
cove in this section are: (Serbia), Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,
Albania, Austria, Belgium,
B Bosnia and Switzerland, the FYR Macedonia, Turkey
Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,
Herzegovina, Bulgar and the United Kingdom.
the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
Finland, France, Ge Germany, Greece, Hun- Any missing information concerning the
gary, Iceland, Ireland,
Ir Italy, Latvia, region was either unavailable or not accessed
Lithuania, Luxembourg,
Luxem Malta, Mon- by UNODC.
tenegro, the Netherlands,
Net Norway,

Albania
Institutional framework Fig. 259: Persons arrested for trafficking in per-
sons in Albania (2003-2006)
The specific offence of trafficking in persons has
existed in Albania since 2001, and a national 200
action plan on trafficking in persons was adopted 180
in 2005. 160
140
Criminal justice response 120
100
The sector against illicit trafficking within the
80
General Directorate of the State Police deals
60
with all forms of trafficking, including narcotics, 93 104
40
vehicles, weapons and human trafficking. Thir-
20 27
teen officers were assigned full time to the polic- 18
0
ing of human trafficking in 2007.
2003 2004 2005 2006

Fig. 258: Persons investigated for trafficking in
Source: The Research Directory,
persons in Albania (2003-2006) General Prosecutor’s Office

200
180 Fig. 260: Persons convicted of trafficking in per-
160 sons in Albania, by gender (2003-2006)
140 100
120 90
Albania

100 80
185
80 70
60 2
60 3
98 50 2
40 2
55 40
20 30
17 54
0 20 42 46
38
2003 2004 2005 2006 10
0
Source: The Research Directory, 2003 2004 2005 2006
General Prosecutor’s Office Males Fem ales

232 Source: Ministry of Justice, Albania
Western and Central Europe

Fig. 261: Sanctions for trafficking in persons in Services provided to victims
Albania (2003-2006)
State authorities provide legal protection, tem-
50 1 porary stay permits, medical and psychosocial
services, and housing and shelter to support
45 victims of trafficking in persons. NGOs and
40 international organizations also offer medical
and psychosocial support and housing and shel-
35
32
ter.
30 28
28 Fig. 262: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
25
fied by State authorities in Albania, by
18
20 gender and age (2003-2006)
100
15
8 90
10 7
7 15
1 80
5 6
4 1 3
2 2 70 11
0 1 9
2003 2004 2005 2006 60

Fines Less than 2 years 50 26
From 2 to 5 years From 5 to 10 years 31
More than 10 years Life imprisonment 40
Albania
4
Source: Ministry of Justice, Albania 30
12
20 37
3
6 29
10 20
10
0
2003 2004 2005 2006
Wom en Girls Boys

Source: National Reception Centre for
Victims of Trafficking

233
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 263: Victims of trafficking in persons identi- Fig. 265: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
fied by State authorities in Albania, by fied by State authorities in Albania, by
type of exploitation (2005-2006) country of repatriation (2005-2006)

100
Western
90
Europe
80 6
70 5
7 6 South
60 6
East
50
Europe South
40 9 Europe
30 62 57 29
20
10
0
2005 2006
Sexual exploitation Forced labour
Begging Source: National Reception Centre for Victims of Trafficking
Source: National Reception Centre for
Victims of Trafficking

Fig. 264: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
fied by State authorities in Albania, by
Additional information
citizenship (2005-2006) The Albanian Government introduced new anti-
trafficking structures at the national and local
levels in 2006. The responsible authority for the
national referral mechanism was established fol-
lowing a joint order of the Minister of Interior;
Chinese, 4
the Minister of Foreign Affairs; and the Minister
Indian, 9 of Labour, Social Affairs and Equal Opportuni-
Albanian South ties.
112 Europe, 1
Eastern
Europe , 2
Albania

Other
South East
Europe, 6

Source: National Reception Centre for Victims of Trafficking

234
Western and Central Europe

Austria
Institutional framework Criminal justice response
The specific offence of trafficking in persons has The Austrian Federal Criminal Intelli-
existed in Austria since May 2004. The offence gence Service (Bundeskriminalamt) has
of trafficking in human beings is specifically a special "Central Service for Combat-
criminalized under article 104a of the Austrian ing Trafficking in Human Beings and
Penal code. Some forms of trafficking in persons Illegal Immigration" as well as an
were prosecuted prior to 2004 under article 217 "Office for Organized Crime" which
of the criminal code referred to as the offence of also deals with trafficking cases. The
“exploitative human smuggling”. Before and Central Service for Combating Traffick-
after 2004, some forms of trafficking were also ing in Human Beings and Illegal Immigrationgration
prosecuted under the offences of “Cross-border f
leads and coordinates services of law enforce-
dealings in prostitution” (Article 217), “Paid ment authorities and agencies as well as investi-
negotiation of sexual contacts with minors” gations in the area of criminal and security police
(Article 214), “Exploitation of an alien” (Article investigations. Furthermore, regional police
166 of the Aliens Police Act) and others. The forces have special units to combat trafficking in
latest national action plan was adopted in 2007. persons.
It takes a comprehensive approach to combating
human trafficking and includes measures for
national coordination, prevention, protection of
victims, prosecution and international coopera-
tion.

Fig. 266: Persons suspected of trafficking in Fig. 267: Persons suspected of “cross-border traf-
persons(art.104a) in Austria, (2005- ficking of prostitutes” (art.217) in Aus-
2007) tria, (2005-2007)
100
100 92
90 90
80 80
70 70
60 60
50 50
40 40 86
76 70
30 30
20 11 20
Austria
10 7
10
- -
2005 2006 2007 2005 2006 2007

Source: Police Criminal Statistics of Austria Source: Police Criminal Statistics of Austria

235
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 268: Persons convicted of trafficking in per- About 130 victims per year are taken care of by
sons for “cross-border trafficking of the NGO LEFÖ-IBF, although these victims are
prostitutes” and “exploitation of aliens” not necessarily sheltered.
in Austria (2005-2007)
Children, both boys and girls, sheltered by State
100
authorities in Vienna ranged from 100 to 700
90 per year during the reporting period. The
80 authorities estimated that approximately two
70 thirds of the sheltered children were victims of
60 human trafficking. South Eastern Europeans,
50 East Asians and other nationalities were recorded
40
among the sheltered persons.
30
20
30 33
10 19
0
2005 2006 2007

Source: Ministry of Justice, Austria

Services provided to victims
State authorities provide temporary stay permits
for victims of trafficking in persons. NGOs pro-
vide legal assistance, medical and psychosocial
services, and housing and shelter to support
victims.

Fig. 269: Victims of trafficking in persons shel-
tered by NGOs in Vienna (2003-2007)
50
45
40
35
Austria

30
25
45
20 37 38
35 33
15
10
5
0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Females

Source: NGO LEFÖ-IBF

236
Western and Central Europe

Belgium
Institutional framework Criminal justice response
The specific offence of “trafficking in and smug- A Central Unit on Trafficking in Human
gling of human beings” has existed in Belgium Beings was created in 1992 and inte-
since 1995. The law was amended in 2005 to grated into the Federal Judicial Police
make a clearer distinction between smuggling and the Directorate General of Federal
and trafficking in human beings. Under the new Judicial Police. This unit is part of the
law, trafficking in human beings became an Directorate of Crimes against (the
autonomous offence in the Belgium Criminal integrity of ) Persons. A Board of Pros-
Code. ecutors General was set up by the Law of
4 March 1997 in order to coordinate the imple-
mentation of the criminal policies indicatedd by
b
the directives of the Minister of Justice.
Criminal justice statistics concerning trafficking
in persons and the smuggling of migrants were
aggregated into a single databank. Consequently,
it is necessary to handle this data with caution
because information on cases of trafficking in
human beings and cases of smuggling in human
beings is mixed.

Fig. 270: Persons convicted of trafficking in per- Fig. 271: Sanctions for trafficking in persons in
sons and smuggling of migrants in Bel- Belgium (2003-2005)
gium, by gender and age (2003-2005)
800
400 12 1
1
1 700 65
61
350 66
58 600
1
300 269
500 235 33
44 400 41
250 47 202
300
200 29 Belgium
200
327 349 315
150 303
100 237
237
100 0
2003 2004 2005
50
More than 10 years
0
5 to 10 years
2003 2004 2005
1 to 5 years
Males Females Children Unknown Less than 1 year detention
Non-custodial Sanction
Source: Databank of the condemnations − Federal Public
Service of Justice Source: Databank of the condemnations − Federal Public
Service of Justice 237
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 272: Victims of trafficking in persons and Fig. 274: Victims of trafficking in persons and
smuggled migrants identified by State smuggled migrants identified by State
authorities in Belgium, by age (2004- authorities in Belgium, by citizenship
2006) (2005–2006)

200
22
180 Bulgarian, 21 Brazilian, 32
14 Moroccan
160 Polish, 15
7
140 11
Rom anian,
120 28
100
80 162
138 146
60
Nigerian, 29
40 Others, 121
20
0
2004 2005 2006
Chinese, 48
Adults Children

Source: Immigration Office − Federal Public Service of
Home Affairs Source: Immigration Office − Federal Public Service of
Home Affairs

Fig. 273: Victims of trafficking in persons and Services provided to victims
smuggled migrants identified by State
authorities in Belgium, by exploitation State authorities provide legal temporary/unlim-
(2005-2006) ited stay permits to victims on certain condi-
180 tions. NGOs, funded by the State authorities,
2
160 provide medical and psychosocial services, legal
4 15
140 15 22
support and housing and shelter.
120
100
Additional information
57
65
80 According to the Immigration Office, in 2006,
60 73 males and 87 females were identified as vic-
40 69
tims. The statistics on the victims reported above
Belgium

57 includes migrants smuggled as well as trafficking
20
0 victims. The number of smuggled migrants is
2005 2006 clearly stated in the chart on exploitation.
Sexual exploitation Forced labour
Smuggling Other
Begging

Source: Immigration Office − Federal Public Service of
Home Affairs

238
Western and Central Europe

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Institutional framework Fig. 276: Victims of trafficking in persons
identified by the Police plus victims
ms
The specific offence of trafficking in persons has assisted by NGOs in Bosnia and
existed in Bosnia and Herzegovina since 2003. Herzegovina, by citizenship
The definition of trafficking in human beings (2005-2006)
was amended in 2005. Three State Action Plans
Moldovan,
have been developed in Bosnia and Herzegovina 17
since 2001. The current action plans cover the
period 2008-2012. an,
Rom anian,
Serbian, 35 6
Criminal justice response
ian 9
Ukrainian,
A specialized team dedicated to investigating
cases of trafficking in human beings was estab-

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Russian, 5
lished within the State Investigation and Protec- Bosnian, 53 Croatian, 4
tion Agency in 2004. Thirty-two officers were
assigned full time to the policing of human traf- Other , 8
ficking in 2007.
In 2005, 17 persons were indicted for trafficking Source: Office of the State Coordinator for the Fight against
Trafficking in Human Beings
in persons. In 2006, 23 persons were convicted
in first instance for trafficking in persons.

Services provided to victims Additional information
State authorities provide legal protection and All the victims identified in 2005 and 2006 were
temporary stay permits for foreign victims of trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation,
human trafficking. Medical and psychosocial with the exception of three victims who were
services, housing and shelter are provided by exploited for forced labour. Only one of the
authorized NGOs, with the financial support of Bosnian victims identified in the reporting
the State. period was repatriated. That victim was traf-
Fig. 275: Victims of trafficking in persons identi- ficked in Western Europe.
fied by the Police plus victims assisted
by NGOs in Bosnia and Herzegovina, The number of victims identified by the police
by gender and age (2005-2006) and sheltered by NGOs was around 50 in 2003
80
and slightly more in 2004. During the reporting
1 period, the authorities recorded a slighty decreas-
70
ing trend in the number of foreign victims and
60 13 20
a drastic increase in domestic trafficking.
50
40
30
53 50
20
10
0
2005 2006
Women Girls Boys

Source: Office of the State Coordinator for the Fight against
Trafficking in Human Beings 239
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Bulgaria
Institutional frame
framework
In 2002 amendments to the Bulgarian Penal Fig. 278: Persons indicted for trafficking in
Code special section, entitled “Trafficking in persons in Bulgaria (2003-2006)
was added under the chap-
human beings” wa
100
ter “Crimes again
against the persons”. This
section criminalize
criminalizes specifically trafficking 90

in human begins ffor sexual exploitation 80
forced labour and ffor other purposes. In 70
2006, the offence of trafficking of pregnant 60
women for the purpose
purposes of selling babies was 50 97
d d in the
introduced h Penal Code (art.159a). A 40
National Programme for Prevention and Coun- 63
30
teraction of Trafficking in Human Beings and 44
20
Protection of Victims is adopted every year.
10
13
Criminal justice response 0
2003 2004 2005 2006
A specialized trafficking in human beings sec-
tion was set up within the Chief Directorate
Combating Organized Crime (CDCOC). Thir-
teen police officers were assigned full time to Source: The Supreme Cassation Prosecutor Office in
Bulgaria
address trafficking in persons in 2008.

Fig. 277: Persons investigated for trafficking in Fig. 279: Persons sentenced for trafficking in per-
persons in Bulgaria (2004-2008) sons in Bulgaria (2004-2008)

250 250

200 200

150 150

219 209
100 100
Bulgaria

159
130
50 50 85
74 71
3 33 34
0 0
2004 2005 2006 2007 Jan- 2004 2005 2006 2007 Jan-
October October
2008 2008

Source: The Supreme Cassation Prosecutor Office in
Source: The Supreme Cassation Prosecutor Office in
Bulgaria
Bulgaria

240
Western and Central Europe

Services provided to victims
Legal protection, temporary stay permits, medi-
cal and psychosocial services, and housing and
shelter are provided by the State to support vic-
tims of trafficking in persons. Medical and psy-
chosocial support and housing services also are
provided by NGOs and international organiza-
tions.
Fig. 280: Victims of trafficking in persons identified by State authorities in Bulgaria, by gender and age
(2004-2006)

400
350 1
15
300 61
250 53
13
200 23
9 61
150 40 263
235
100 187
121 137
50
0
2004 2005 2006 2007 Jan-October
2008
Women Girls Men Boys Adults Children

Source: The National Commission for Combating Trafficking of Human Beings

Additional information
A national referral mechanism for victims of
trafficking is under development in Bulgaria.
Bulgaria
The National Commission for Combating Traf-
ficking in Human Beings maintains a central
database on trafficking victims.
About 50 of the traffickers convicted in 2006
received a sentence of up to three years of impris-
onment and nine received a sentence of from
three to 15 years in prison.
There are currently three State-run shelters for
child victims of trafficking in Bulgaria. Each of
these shelters has the capacity to house up to 10
children. 241
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Croatia
Institutional frame
framework
The specific offence oof trafficking in persons Fig. 282: Victims of trafficking in persons iden-
has existed in Croatia since 2004. The provi- tified by State authorities in Croatia
this offence were amended
sions concerning thi (2004-2007)
in 2007 to broaden the criminal liability of 20
offenders. The Nation
National program for suppres- 18
sion of trafficking in human beings 2005- 16 1
2008 was adopted in 2004. Each year a yearly 14
National Action Plan oon Human Trafficking is 2
12
adopted by the governm
government. 10 19
8
Criminal justice response 6 13 12
All 20 police districts in Croatia have specialized 4
6
police officers dealing with trafficking in human 2
beings. 0
2004 2005 2006 2007
According to the Croatian Government’s Office
for Human Rights, 20 persons were prosecuted Total Women Men Girls
for trafficking in persons and slavery (16 from
Source: Croatian Government’s Office for Human Rights
Croatia, three from Bosnia and Herzegovina and
one person without citizenship).
Services provided to victims
Fig. 281: Offenders in trafficking in persons cases
Additional information
in Croatia (2004-2006) In December 2007, a Cooperation Agreement
was signed between the Office for Human Rights
20
and the PETRA Network. In June 2008, within
18
the CARDS 2004 Project “Combating Traffick-
16
ing in Human Beings”, a Cooperation Protocol
14
was signed between the Ministry of Interior,
12 Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and civil
10 society organizations, with a view of providing
18
8 assistance and protection to the victims of
Croatia

6 11 human trafficking.
4 8
2 IOM’s Second Annual Report on Victims of Traf-
0 ficking in South-Eastern Europe 2005 reported
2004 2005 2006 that, during 2003-2004, 27 victims were assisted
by IOM in Croatia. Fourteen of the victims
Source: European Commission, Council of Europe were trafficked for sexual exploitation, three for
forced labour, eight suffered mixed exploitation
and two were forced to perform illegal activities.
These IOM figures included foreign and
Croatian trafficking victims identified and
assisted in Croatia and voluntarily returned to
242 their countries of origin.
Western and Central Europe

Fig. 283: Victims of trafficking in persons identified by State authorities in Croatia, by citizenship (2005-
2007)

Bulgarian,
Bosnian, 4 4

Serbian, 4

Other
Croatian, South East
15 European,
3

Eastern
European,
4

Source: Croatian Government’s Office for Human Rights

Croatia

243
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Cyprus
Institutional frame
framework Fig. 284: Persons investigated for offences related
to trafficking in persons (2003-2006)
The specific offence oof trafficking in persons
exploitation has existed in Cyprus
for sexual exploitatio 250
since 2000. New legislation was adopted
200
in 2007 cocovering all of the other
forms of trafficking listed in 150 73
Artic
Article 3 of the UN Traffick-
100 25
ing PProtocol. Prior to 2007,
121 19
some forms oof trafficking in persons 50 89
7 55
were prosecuted under other offences such as 19
0
sexuall exploitation,
l andd procuring and living off 2003 2004 2005 2006
the earnings of prostitution. A Plan of Action
for the Coordination of Actions on Combating Males Fem ales

Trafficking in Human Beings and Sexual Exploi- Source: Police Headquarters, Cyprus
tation of Children was adopted in 2005.
Fig. 285: Number of sheltered victims in Cyprus
Criminal justice response (2004-2006)
The Office of Combating Trafficking in Human
250
Beings has been operating since 2004 at the
headquarters of the Cyprus police. Four officers 200
were assigned full time in 2007 to the policing
150
of trafficking in persons.
100
The following statistics refer to offences related
to trafficking: sexual exploitation, and procuring 50 85
10 41
and living off the earnings of prostitution.
0
Services provided to victims 2004 2005 2006

Wom en
State authorities provide legal protection, tem-
porary stay permits for victims or witnesses, Source: Social Welfare Services
medical and psychosocial services, and housing
and /shelter to support victims of trafficking in Fig. 286: Number of sheltered victims in Cyprus,
persons. by citizenship (2005-2006)

Additional information
Cyprus

Russian, 5
Filipino, 12
All victims sheltered in 2004–2006 were women
trafficked for sexual exploitation because the law Moldovan,
at that time referred only to sexual exploitation 25 Chinese, 7

as a form of trafficking. Rom anian,
6
Six residential facilities were available for victims Bulgarian,
of trafficking in persons in Cyprus in 2005 and Ukrainian, 4
45 Moroccan,
2006, and the number of beds for victims avail- 4
able in government-run residential facilities was Belarusian
25 in each year. 4

244 Source: Social Welfare Services
Western and Central Europe

Czech Republic
Institutional framework Fig. 288: Persons prosecuted for trafficking in
persons in the Czech Republic,
The specific offence of trafficking in persons has by gender (2003-2006)
existed in the Czech Republic since 2002. The
criminal code was amended in 2004 to include 50
trafficking for forced labour as well as for other 45
40
forced services.
35
Criminal justice response 30
7
25
A special Human Trafficking Department in the 3
20 4
Organized Crime Unit of the Criminal Police 15 2
and Investigation Service Office of the Police of 10 17 16
the Czech Republic dedicated to investigating 5 10 10
human trafficking has been in operation since 0
1996. A special Forced Labour Section was cre- 2003 2004 2005 2006
ated in 2006. In 2007, there were 50 officers
Males Females
assigned full time to the policing of human traf-
ficking within the Human Trafficking Depart-
Source: Ministry of Justice
ment and Forced Labour Sections.

Fig. 287: Persons investigated for trafficking in Fig. 289: Persons convicted of trafficking in per-
persons in the Czech Republic (2003- sons in the Czech Republic, by gender
2006) (2003-2006)

Czech Republic
50 50
45 45
40 40
35 35
30 30
25 25
6
20 20
15 30 15 4
10 19 18 10
14
5 11 5 8 1
4
0 0 1
2003 2004 2005 2006 2003 2004 2005 2006
Males Females

Source: Czech Police statistics, Ministry of Justice Source: Ministry of Justice

245
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 290: Sanctions imposed on persons convicted Fig. 292: Victims of trafficking in persons assisted
of trafficking in the Czech Republic, by by the Programme to Support and Help
gender (2003-2006) Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings
in the Czech Republic (2003-2006)
35
80
30 70
8
60
25
50
20 40
12 30
3
15 20 17
1 4
10 5
10 3 10 10
9 0
1
5 2003 2004 2005 2006
9 2
4 2
2 Wom en Men Total
0 1
2003 2004 2005 2006 Source: Programme to Support and Help Victims of
Fines Specific ban Trafficking in Human Beings
Cond. imprisonment 1 to 5 years
Fig. 293: Victims of trafficking in persons assisted
Source: Ministry of Justice
by the Programme to Support and Help
Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings
in the Czech Republic, by citizenship
Services provided to victims (2005-2006)
A special programme to support and protect vic- 9
tims of trafficking in human beings was created 7
6 3
in 2003. This system provides care and protec-
tion, including shelter, alimentation, legalization 4
of stay, medical, psychological, legal and educa-
2
Czech Republic

tional assistance, and work permits. The Social
Services Act (in force since January 2007) also
provides the possibility of services such as shelter,
Czech Ukrainian
which are usually provided by NGOs. Bulgarian Vietnam ese
Other Central Europe South East Europe
Fig. 291: Victims of trafficking in persons
identified by State authorities in the Source: Programme to Support and Help Victims of Traffick-
Czech Republic (2003-2006) ing in Human Beings

80 Additional information
70
A referral mechanism for those identified as vic-
60
tims of trafficking in persons has been operating
50 since 2003 with the participation of the Ministry
40 72 of the Interior, various police units, NGOs, IOM
72
30 and asylum facilities.
53
20 43
All persons convicted of trafficking in 2005-2006
10 subjected their victims to sexual exploitation. Of
0 the victims of trafficking in persons assisted by
2003 2004 2005 2006 the Programme to Support and Help Victims of
Trafficking in Human Beings, 17 were subjected
Source: Czech Police statistics to sexual exploitation in 2005. In 2006, 10 vic-
246 tims suffered sexual exploitation and four were
subjected to forced labour.
Western and Central Europe

Denmark
Fig. 294: Number of reported trafficking offences
ffences
Institutional framework in Denmark (2003-2007)
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was
established in Denmark in 2002. The latest 25
action plan to combat human trafficking was
20
adopted in 2007 to cover the period 2007–2010.
This plan includes all victims of trafficking in 15
persons, whereas the previous action plan focused
only on women trafficked for sexual exploita- 10
tion. 11
5
Criminal justice response 0
1
2 4
5

The Domestic Investigative Centre of the Danish 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
National Police carries out national and system-
atic monitoring of, among other crimes, traf- Source: Danish National Police
ficking in human beings.
Fig. 295: Number of persons charged for traffick-
Services provided to victims ing in persons in Denmark (2003-2007)
Victims trafficked for prostitution have the
25
option of staying in a crisis centre that suits their
specific situation, and they are granted a reflec- 20
tion period to consider whether to cooperate
with the police. The Danish Immigration Serv- 15
ice, in collaboration with the Centre for Human 23
Trafficking, offers health treatment, psychologi- 10
cal support, legal assistance and social-pedagog-
5
ical assistance to victims during their stay. NGOs 7
4 3 2
offer health, legal and social services, and sup- 0
port for the safe return of victims. 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Additional Information Source: Danish National Police

According to national authorities, most of the
trafficking that takes place in Denmark is traf-
ficking in women for prostitution. However, a
Fig. 296: Number of persons convicted of traffick-
ing in Denmark (2004-2007)
Denmark
few examples of trafficking in children also have
25
been noted. Authorities recorded no instances of
trafficking for forced labour during the report- 20
ing period.
15

10

5 8
7
3 3
0
2004 2005 2006 2007

Source: Danish National Police 247
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Estonia
Institutional frame
framework Services provided to victims
The specific offence oof trafficking in persons Trafficked women as well as victims of forced
does not exist in the legislation of Estonia. prostitution are assisted by social and psycho-
Other articles in tthe penal code, such as logical rehabilitation centres. Victim support
enslaving, abduction,
abduct unlawful depriva- programmes/services include temporary resi-
aiding prostitution (pimp-
tion of liberty, aid dence permits provided by the State, and legal
ing) and removal of organs, are used to protection, medical and psychological support,
criminalize some fo forms of trafficking. A and housing and shelter provided by NGOs.
national action plan (d(development plan) deal-
ing with trafficking in ppersons was adopted in Three shelters for trafficking victims were
2006.
6 opened in 2007, one in Tallin, one in Tartu and
one in Jõhvi. Each shelter can house two victims
Criminal justice response at a time. In 2007 these shelters assisted six traf-
ficking victims. As overall, Estonian NGOs have
A specific police unit within the Northern Police identified about 52 victims of trafficking during
Prefecture deals with offences related to traffick- the first 9 months of 2008.
ing in human beings. Given that there is no
legislation specifically criminalizing trafficking Exact data on the number of victims of human
in persons, no prosecutions and no convictions trafficking is not available due to the lack of
were recorded during the reporting period. specific anti-trafficking legislation.
According to the statistics, the police in Estonia Additional information
registered 135 cases in 2006 and 136 cases in
2007 related to human trafficking. In 2006, 84 Anti-trafficking hotline is in operation since
persons were convicted of committing crimes 2004. It advises around 300 people each year on
related to human trafficking; 77 persons in how to work/study safely abroad, how to avoid
2007; and 76 persons in the first half of 2008. trafficking, etc.
Estonia

248
Western and Central Europe

Finland
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was State authorities (two state reception
established in Finland in 2004. Some forms of centers) provide legal and other coun-
trafficking were prosecuted under “aggravated seling, crisis therapy, social and health care
pandering”, “aggravated arrangement of illegal services, interpreter services and otherr
entry” and “usury type of discrimination at support services, accommodation or
work”. The first National Action Plan against housing, social assistance and other nec-
Trafficking in Human Beings was adopted in essary care, and support for a safe return.
2005. A revised version was adopted on 25 June State authorities also provide reflection peri-
eri-
2008. ods as well as temporary and continuous us resi-
dence permits. The reception centers may
Criminal justice response organize the services and support measures
The National Bureau of Investigation has spe- themselves or outsource them from a public or
cific officers dealing full time with cases of traf- private service provider, e.g. NGOs. NGOs can
ficking in persons. The first prosecutions for also claim government subsidy for outreach and
trafficking in persons during the reporting counseling work concerning victims of traffick-
period occurred in 2006 in one case against ing. They have also run state-subsidized projects
seven persons, two of whom were Finnish citi- focused on victims of trafficking. Furthermore,
zens and five of whom were Estonians (six males municipalities are responsible for victims having
and one female). All seven persons were con- official residence in the municipality. Also
victed in 2006, with each found guilty in district municipalities can claim government subsidy for
court of at least aggravated trafficking in persons the costs of special services required because of
for sexual exploitation. Another male was found victimization for a person resident in the munic-
guilty of pandering in the same case. The sen- ipality.
tences varied from one to five years of imprison-
ment.
Additional information
There has been an assistance system for victims
Fig. 297: Persons investigated for trafficking in of trafficking since 2005 coordinated and pro-
persons in Finland vided by two reception centres (maintained by
(2004-September2008) the State) for asylum seekers. The system was
formalised by an amendment to the Act on the
50 Integration of Immigrants and Reception of
Asylum Seekers (493/1999) in the beginning of
40 2007. Data exists from 2005 onwards.
Finland
30
Since 2005, a total of 20 victims have been
assisted by the coordination of the Joutseno
20
Reception Centre and 11 (minors) by the Oulu
Reception Centre. They had been exploited for
10
forced labour and sexual purposes and some of
10
the victims had been in transit. The victims
8 8
0 0
4 were from East Asia, East and Central Europe,
2004 2005 2006 2007 Sep-08
the Middle East, Africa and South America.

Source: Statistics Finland
249
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

France
Institutional frame
framework Fig. 298: Persons investigated for “soliciting pros-
titution” (Art. 225-5 to 225-12)
The specific offence oof trafficking in persons in France (2003-2006)
was established in FrFrance in 2003 through
Article 225-4-1 of the French Criminal 2500
definition of the offence crimi-
Code. The definitio 2059 1963
nalizes all forms of trafficking indicated in 2000 1716
1609
Article 3 of the UN TrTrafficking Protocol, with
the exception of trafficking
traffi for the purpose of 1500
the removal of organs aand for servitude.
1000
use other articles in the
French authorities also u
criminal code to prosecute trafficking cases, in 500
particular the offence of soliciting prostitution
0
(Articles 225-5 to 225-12 of the French Crimi-
nal Code), and the offences of “labour and living 2003 2004 2005 2006

conditions against human dignity” (Articles
225-13 to 225-16 of the French Criminal Source: OCRTEH − French National Statistics
Code).

Criminal justice response Fig. 299: Persons prosecuted for “soliciting
prostitution” (Art. 225-5 to 225-12) in
According to the French authorities the number France, by gender (2003-2006)
of cases of trafficking in persons prosecuted
through the offence of trafficking in human
2500
beings (Article 225-4-1) is very limited. Human
Trafficking cases are mostly prosecuted through 2000
the offences of “soliciting prostitution” in cases
1500
of sexual exploitation and of “labour and living
condition against human dignity” in the cases of 1000 284 283
208 213
trafficking for forced labour.
500
The - Office Central pour la Répression de la 501 504 596 462
Traite des Êtres Humains (OCRTEH) - handles 0
trafficking in persons cases for sexual exploita- 2003 2004 2005 2006
tion and prostitution. OCRTEH had 32 officers Males Females
assigned full time to the policing of trafficking
France

in persons in 2007. Source: OCRTEH − French National Statistics

The - Office Central de Lutte contre le Travail
Illégal (OCLTI) - handles cases of trafficking in
persons for forced labour under the offences of
“labour and living conditions against human dig-
nity”. About 100 cases were investigated per year
for various forms of trafficking for forced labour
in 2006 and 2007. From January to September
2008, 32 cases have been investigated under this
250 offence, involving 55 presumed offenders.
Western and Central Europe

Fig. 300: Persons suspected of “labour and living Fig. 302: Victims of “soliciting prostitution”
conditions against human dignity” (Ar- (Art. 225-5 to 225-12) registered by
ticles 225-13 to 225-16) in France, by OCRTEH in France, by citizenship
citizenship (January-September 2008) (2005-2006)

Portuguese
5
Turks, 8

French
North
650
Chinese, 5 African, 7

Other
Central
1757
French, 23 European, 6

Other, 1

Source: OCRTEH − French National Statistics
Source: OCLTI and Gendarmerie Nationale

Fig. 303: Victims of “labour and living conditions
Services provided to victims against human dignity” (Articles 225-
13 to 225-16) in France, by citizenship
Legal protection and temporary stay permits for (January-September 2008)
victims and witnesses of trafficking are provided
Other, 3
by the State. NGOs offer medical and psychoso-
cial support and housing and shelter. Other Europe, 9

Maroccan, 7 French, 20
Fig. 301: Victims of “soliciting prostitution”
(Art. 225-5 to 225-12) registered by
OCRTEH in France, by gender and age
Poles, 13
(2003-2006)
Chinese, 23
1400
4 0 Brasilians, 23
1200 37
82
1 60 27
1000 1 16
17 66
France
65 Source: OCLTI and Gendarmerie Nationale
800

600
1088 1109
916
400 817
Additional information
200
Authorities reported that the “Other” origin
0 regions for victims of “soliciting prostitution”
2003 2004 2005 2006 were mainly South-East Europe and West-Cen-
Wom en Girls Men Boys tral Africa. About 40 of the persons prosecuted
during the reporting period were minors.
Source: OCRTEH − French National Statistics
251
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Germany
Institutional frame
framework Criminal justice response
The specific offence of
o trafficking in persons The investigation of human trafficking cases is
has existed in Germ
Germany since 1973. The the responsibility of the State (Länder) police
criminal code wa was amended in 2005 to units. Prosecutors who specialize in organized
include the exploitation
expl of persons as crime also handle human trafficking cases.
workers within ththe existing definition of
human trafficking.

Fig. 304: Investigations for human trafficking for Fig. 306: Persons suspected of human trafficking
the purpose of sexual exploitation in for the purpose of sexual exploitation in
Germany (2003-2007) Germany, by citizenship (2005-2007)

1200
Turkish, 181
1000
Germ ans, 909 Rom anians, 112
800

600 Bulgarians, 114

400 Poles, 85

457 Nigerians, 33
200 431 370 353 Other, 561
317
Lithuanians, 29
0 Thai, 17
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Serbians, 20

Source: Bundeskriminalamt Trafficking in Human Beings Source: Bundeskriminalamt Trafficking in Human Beings

Fig. 305: Persons suspected of human trafficking Fig. 307: Persons convicted of trafficking in per-
for the purpose of sexual exploitation in sons in the former Republic of Germany
Germany (2003-2007) (West Germany) and East Berlin, by
gender (2003-2006)
Germany

1200
1000
1000 900
800
800 700
600
600 500
1110
400
400 777
683 664 714 300
200 200 40 29 29
29
100
112 112 107 121
0 0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2003 2004 2005 2006
Males Fem ales

Source: Bundeskriminalamt Trafficking in Human Beings Source: Federal Statistical Office, Conviction Statistics
252
Western and Central Europe

Fig. 308: Sanctions imposed on persons convicted Fig. 310: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
of trafficking in persons in the former fied by State authorities in Germany, by
Republic of Germany (West Germany) citizenship (2005-2007)
and East Berlin (2003-2006)

180
Russians, 182
160 4 3
Romanians,
3 1 Bulgarians, 180
140 270
120
100 95
110 96
80 112 Poles, 169
60
Germans, 480
40 33 Nigerians, 35
20 30 30
22 19 Slovaks, 53
0 8 4 9
2003 2004 2005 2006 Other, 460 Czechs, 223
5 to 10 years
1 to 5 years Thai, 18
Less than 1 year detention
Non-custodial

Source: Federal Statistical Office, Conviction Statistics Source: Bundeskriminalamt Trafficking in Human Beings

Services provided to victims Additional information
Legal protection for victims of trafficking is pro- The above statistics on convictions relate to final
vided by the State and NGOs. decisions where trafficking in persons was the
most serious offence (after appeal possibilities
were exhausted). Additionally, the statistics refer
Fig. 309: Victims of trafficking in persons identi- only to the former Republic of Germany plus
fied by State authorities in Germany, by
age (2003-2007) East Berlin. Eleven of the persons convicted in
2006 were guilty of trafficking for forced labour,
60
1200 with the remainder involved in trafficking for
sexual exploitation. In 2005 and 2006, all vic-
1000 79
tims identified were subjected to sexual exploita-
800 62 tion. Germany
23
51 The three main NGOs active in the field of
600 81
1175
human trafficking are the Federal Association
893
400
713
against Trafficking in Women and Violence
591 585 against Women in the Migration Process (KOK),
200 Agisra and SOLWODI. KOK is an umbrella
0
organization with 37 members that provide
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 services, such as counselling centres and shelters,
for victims of trafficking.
Total Adults Total Children Unknow n

Source: Bundeskriminalamt Trafficking in Human Beings

253
Western and Central Europe

Hungary
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
The specific offence of trafficking in persons has State authorities provide legal protec-
existed in Hungary since 1998. tion, temporary stay permits, financial
support for schooling, repatriation assistance,
ance,
Criminal justice response medical and psychosocial services, andd
The National Investigation Bureau is a special housing and shelter to support victims of
unit responsible for handling cases of trafficking trafficking in persons. NGOs also offer
in human beings, terrorism, drug trafficking, shelter and housing support. All victims
money-laundering and other economic crimes. arian.
identified in 2005 and 2006 were Hungarian.
Twenty officers were assigned full time to the
Fig. 316: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
denti
policing of human trafficking in 2007. fied by State authorities in Hungary, by
age and gender (2003-2006)
Fig. 314: Persons investigated for trafficking
in persons in Hungary, by gender 70
(2003-2006)
60
70 50
60 40
19
50 30 1
1
3 5
40 20 2 6
30 10
4 10 8 20 4
16
20 45 7
0 1
27 27 1
10 2003 2004 2005 2006
9
0 Wom en Girls Boys Men
2003 2004 2005 2006
Source: Ministry of Justice and Law Enforcement,
Males Fem ales Department of Statistics

Source: Ministry of Justice and Law Enforcement,
Department of Statistics
Additional information
There is an official system for referring identi-
fied victims of trafficking in persons to the
Fig. 315: Persons convicted of trafficking
in persons in Hungary, by gender Victim Support Authority, which is responsible
(2003-2006) for support services.
Hungary
70 There is one residential facility available for shel-
60 tering victims of human trafficking, with a
50 capacity of 50 beds. Six victims, including one
40 minor, were sheltered by this facility in 2005,
30
while 15 people, including six minors, made use
2 of the services in 2006. There is no information
20 9 8
available on the gender of the sheltered victims,
10 21 16
14 1 but they were all trafficked for the purpose of
0 5
sexual exploitation. Five out of six sheltered vic-
2003 2004 2005 2006
tims in 2005 were Hungarian and one was
Males Fem ales Romanian; in 2006, 14 victims who received
shelter were Hungarian and one was Romanian.
Source: Ministry of Justice and Law Enforcement,
Department of Statistics Five persons convicted for trafficking in persons 255
during the reporting period were minors.
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Iceland
Institutional fram
framework Services provided to victims
Iceland’s General Penal
Pe Code crimi- There is no de jure provision for government
nalized trafficking in persons in assistance to victims of human trafficking.
227a). The Minis-
2003 (Article 22 Municipal social services and medical care are
ter of Justice submitted
su a new available to victims just as they are to other citi-
bill in 2007 to the
th Icelandic Par- zens and foreigners. In cases involving unaccom-
liament, and a new
ne provision on panied children, municipal and State child
trafficking in human
hu beings is protection services are responsible for providing
under consideration in accordance assistance. The national and local governments
with the UN Trafficking Protocol.
Proto This bill is also may refer victims to NGOs that provide
awaiting a secondd reading
d in Parliament and is shelter, legal advice and health care.
planned for approval in 2008.

Criminal justice response
The Sexual Crime Unit of the Metropolitan
Police investigates cases of trafficking in persons.
No prosecutions and no convictions for human
trafficking were recorded in Iceland during the
reporting period.
Iceland

256
Western and Central Europe

Ireland
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
Ireland has had specific provisions on interna- State authorities provide medical and
tional child trafficking as part of its criminal psychosocial support and housing and
code since 1998. A human trafficking bill shelter to victims of trafficking in per-
entered into force in 2007 with a definition of sons.
trafficking in persons that criminalizes all forms
of trafficking as indicated in Article 3 of the UN Additional information
Trafficking Protocol. According to authorities, very few vic-
tims of trafficking have been identified soo
Criminal justice response far. The NGO Ruhama provides assistance ance to
The Garda National Immigration Bureau has an women involved in or seeking to exit prostitu-
investigation unit that focuses specifically on tion.
trafficking in persons cases.

Ireland

257
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Italy
Institutional framew
framework Fig. 318: Persons against whom prosecutions
were initiated for “trafficking in
The specific offence of
o trafficking in persons persons” (Art. 601) in Italy
was established in Ita
Italy in 2003 (Article 601 (September 2003-2007)
of the penal code). Before and after 2003, 300
some forms of traf
trafficking in persons were
prosecuted through the offences of “slavery” 250
(Article 600) and “t “trade of slaves” (Article 200
602). 297
150
Criminal justice response
respo 100
199 217
148
According to the Italian criminal procedure 111
50
code, investigations on human trafficking are
conducted by the local anti-mafia bureaus 0
(Direzioni Distrettuali Anti-mafia), and coordi- from 2004 2005 2006 2007
nated by the national anti-mafia bureau (Direzi- Sep
one Nazionale Anti-mafia). 2003
Source: National Anti-Mafia Bureau
According to competent authorities, trafficking
in persons cases have been prosecuted through
the offences of “trafficking in persons” (Article
Fig. 319: Persons against whom prosecutions
601), “slavery” (Article 600) and “trade of slaves” were initiated for “trafficking in
(Article 602). During the reporting period, the persons” (Art. 601) in Italy, by citizen-
same offenders might have been prosecuted for ship (2003-2007)
multiple charges simultaneously. As a conse-
quence, the population of offenders likely over- Nigerian, 144
Chinese, 49
laps to an unknown extent.
Polish, 36

Fig. 317: Persons arrested for “trafficking in Thai, 11
persons” (Art. 601) in Italy (2004-2007) Ghanaian, 9
Bulgarian, 9
Albanian, 176 Ukrainian, 7
300
Others, 89
250
Rom anian, 217
200 167 Italian, 203
157
130 140
150

100
Italy

Source: National Anti-Mafia Bureau
50

0
2004 2005 2006 2007

Source: Direzione Centrale Polizia Criminale

258
Western and Central Europe

Fig. 320: Persons against whom prosecutions were Services provided to victims
initiated for “slavery” (Art. 600) in Italy
(2003-2007) Legal protection, temporary stay permits for
700 victims and witnesses, medical and psychosocial
625 services, and housing are provided by the State.
554 580
600 NGOs and international organizations provide
500 legal protection; medical and psychosocial sup-
360 port; housing and shelter; vocational, education
400
and language training; and job placement.
300
178
200 Fig. 322: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
fied by law enforcement authorities in
100 Italy, by age (2003-2007)

0
300
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
250
Slavery (Art.600) 11
200
18
Source: National Anti-Mafia Bureau 150
5
100 197
160 1
Fig. 321: Persons against whom prosecutions were 50 115
2 69
initiated for “trade of slaves” (Art. 602) 32
0
in Italy (2003-2007)
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

700 Adults Children

600

500 Source: National Anti-Mafia Bureau

400

300

200
98
100 44 44 49 33
0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Trade of Slave (Art. 602)
Italy
Source: National Anti-Mafia Bureau

259
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 323: Victims of trafficking in persons identified by law enforcement authorities in Italy, by citizen-
ship (2003-2007)

Rom anian, 220 Nigerian, 24

Thai, 19
Albanian, 14
Brazilian, 12

Italian, 53 Moldovan, 9
Russian, 8

Others, 236 Lithuanian, 5
Serbian, 5
Ukranian, 5

Source: National Anti-Mafia Bureau

Additional information
The victims discussed above refer only to those tion) by an accredited NGO or by the social
identified by law enforcement authorities under services of a local authority on behalf of the
the offence of “trafficking in persons” (Article victim. Both procedures grant the issuance of a
601). Additionally, about 300 adult and 50 child renewable temporary residence permit for
victims per year were identified under “slavery” humanitarian reasons that can be eventually
(Article 600) during the reporting period, and converted into a residence permit for education
about five to 20 victims per year were identified or for work.
under “trade of slaves” (Article 602). Through
the Immigration law (legislative decree 286/98), Between 2003 and 2006, about 950 foreign
the Social Assistance and Integration Programme victims per year were granted a residence permit
for trafficked persons was put in place under the for humanitarian reasons.
Ministry for Equal Opportunity in 2000. Even Due to the lack of a central national database on
though no official national referral mechanism is victims of trafficking, the recorded cases of traf-
currently functioning, an operational system for ficking might overlap to an unknown extent. A
the referral of identified victims has been estab- central database on victims of trafficking in per-
lished by the authorities (Municipalities, Prov- sons has been designed by the EU-funded project
inces and Regions) and accredited NGOs that Osservatorio Tratta (led by the NGO Associazione
provide a wide range of assistance and support
Italy

On the Road) and is planned to be soon adopted
services within the abovementioned programme. to harmonize the different Italian sources of
According to the Immigration law (Article 18), information.
once a victim is identified as such by the compe-
tent authorities, she or he can pursue either the
judicial procedure (“judicial path”) or the social
procedure (“social path”). While the first entails
the cooperation with the law enforcement agen-
cies, the latter requires only the submission of a
260 “statement” (containing provable key-informa-
Western and Central Europe

Latvia
Institutional framework Fig. 324: Victims of trafficking in persons
sheltered in Latvia, by gender and age
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was (2004-2006)
established in Latvia in 2002. In addition, the
50
offence of sexual exploitation of women abroad
45
was already criminalized in 2000 when the sec- 40
tion on “compelling engaging in prostitution” 35
and “sending a person for sexual exploitation” 30
were introduced in the Latvian Penal Code. A 25 3
20
national action plan was adopted for the years
15 3 1
2004-2008. 10 18
5 10 12
Criminal justice response 0
A specialized police unit was established in 2003 2004 2005 2006
to investigate cases of trafficking in human
Women Girls
beings and 19 officers within the unit were
assigned full time to the policing of human traf- Source: Ministry of Welfare
ficking in 2008.
In 2006, 26 persons (12 males and 14 females) Fig. 325: Victims of trafficking in persons shel-
were brought into initial formal contact with the tered in Latvia who have been repatri-
police and criminal justice system for the offence ated (2004-2006)
of trafficking in persons. Prosecutions against all
50
26 commenced in 2006 with all the cases relat-
ing to trafficking for the purpose of sexual 45
40
exploitation. In addition, 36 cases of trafficking
for sexual exploitation resulted in a sentence in 35
2006. 30
25
Services provided to victims 20
15
Legal protection, temporary stay permits, medi-
10 18
cal and psychosocial support, and housing and 12
5 9
shelter are available for victims of trafficking in
0
persons and are provided by the State and NGOs.
2004 2005 2006
Medical, psychosocial and other necessary care,
protection and support as well as housing and Source: Ministry of Welfare
Latvia
the return of victims are financed from the State
budget and are provided by NGOs. Twelve vic- programmes run by NGOs. There is an official
tims of human trafficking have received state system for referring identified victims of human
funded social rehabilitation in 2007. trafficking to institutions providing special sup-
port services.
Additional information All of the victims serviced in these programmes
MARTA, a resource centre for women, provided were Latvian and were subjected to sexual exploi-
State-funded social rehabilitation in 2006 and tation. Most victims were repatriated from West-
2007. In 2008, the NGO Shelter Safe House ern, Northern and Southern Europe. Those who
provided State-funded services for victims, and were unrepatriated might have been victims of 261
IOM has allocated finances for anti-trafficking domestic trafficking.
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Lithuania
Institutional frame
framework Fig. 327: Persons convicted of trafficking in
persons in Lithuania, by gender (2003-
The specific offence of
o trafficking in persons 2006)
was established in Lithuania
L in 1998. The 50
Programme for theth Prevention and Con- 45
trol of Trafficking in Human Beings for 40
the period 2005-2008
2005- was adopted in 35
2005, and follows the
t previous Programme 30
covering the period 2002-2004. The Pro- 25
gramme covering the period 2009-2012 was 20
under preparation in 2008.
20 15 2
Criminal justice response 10
14
5 2 10
The Criminal Police Bureau investigates cases of 0 3
trafficking in persons. 2003 2004 2005 2006

By the end of 2007, prosecutors had supervised Total Males Females
28 investigations related to human trafficking in
Lithuania. Source: Ministry of the Interior

Fig. 326: Persons suspected of trafficking in Fig. 328: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
persons in Lithuania, by gender (2003- fied by State authorities in Lithuania,
2006) by age (2004-2006)

50 50
45 45
40 40
35 35
30 30 3
6
25 25
20 8
20
15 33
3 15 1
24 1 24
10 17 10
5 12 5 12
9
Lithuania

0 0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2004 2005 2006

Total Males Females Women Girls
Source: Ministry of the Interior Source: Ministry of the Interior

Services provided to victims Additional information
Legal protection, temporary stay permits for A central database on victims of trafficking is
victims and witnesses, medical and psychosocial administrated by the Ministry of the Interior.
support, and housing and shelter services are
provided to victims of trafficking.

262
Western and Central Europe

Luxembourg
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was Only a few victims of trafficking have
established in Luxembourg in 2005, but not all been identified in Luxembourg. Most
forms of exploitation listed in Article 3 of the female victims are from South-East
UN Trafficking Protocol are considered in the Europe and West Africa. No minors weree
legislation. The inclusion in the penal code of encountered during police investiga-
trafficking for forced labour, removal of organs tions.
and child trafficking was under consideration by
the Parliament in 2008.

Criminal justice response
Nine cases of trafficking were investigated and
prosecuted during the reporting period, all con-
cerning sexual exploitation. Five of these cases
concluded with a sentence, and one of these five
involved a child victim.

Luxembourg

263
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Malta
Institutional frame
framework Fig. 330: Persons convicted for trafficking in per-
sons in Malta (2004-2007)
The specific offence oof trafficking in human
beings was establishe
established in Malta in 2002. The 14
articles 248A et seq.
seq of the Criminal Code,
12
Chapter 9 of the Laws
L of Malta addresses
trafficking for sexual
sexu exploitation, forced 10
2
labour and other fo forms of trafficking, with 8
concerning the profile of the
no restriction concer 6
victim.
4 8
Criminal justice respo
response 2
1 0 0
Issues regarding trafficking in persons for the 0
purpose of exploitation in the production of 2004 2005 2006 2007
goods or provision of services, in prostitution or
in the removal of organs are dealt with by the Males Females
Criminal Investigation Department. Source: Police Data-Malta

Fig. 329: Persons prosecuted for trafficking in Fig. 331: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
persons in Malta (2004-2007) fied by State authorities in Malta (2004-
2007)
14
12 14
2 12
10
10
8
8 7
6 1
10 6 5 5
4
6 4
2 3 4
2 1
0
0
2004 2005 2006 2007
2004 2005 2006 2007
Males Females
Women
Malta

Source: Police Data-Malta
Source: Police Data-Malta

Services provided to victims Additional information
The State provides legal protection, temporary All the victims identified in 2006 and 2007 were
stay permits, medical/psychosocial support and trafficked for sexual exploitation. Victims origi-
housing/shelter exist to support victims of traf- nated from Eastern Europe and South East
ficking in persons who cooperate with the law Europe.
264 enforcement authorities.
Western and Central Europe

Montenegro
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was Fig. 334: Victims of trafficking in persons
established in Montenegro in 2003, through the identified by State authorities in
article 444 of the National Criminal Code. In Montenegro, by gender and age
(2004-2007)
addition, the articles 445 and 446 criminalize
accordingly the trafficking in children for adop- 30
tion and submission to slavery. 25
20
Criminal justice response
15
Fig. 332: Persons prosecuted for trafficking in per- 10 1
sons in Montenegro, by gender (2004- 17
4 4
2007) 5
1
4
0
30
25 2004 2005 2006 2007
25 Men Wom en Girls
20 Source: Office of the National Coordinator for the Fight
against Trafficking in Human Beings
15
10 Fig. 335: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
1
5 3 fied by State authorities in Montenegro,
6 1
by citizenship (2005-2006)
0
2004 2005 2006 2007

Other South
Men Women
East Europe, 2
Source: Office of the National Coordinator for the Fight
Ukrainian, 4
against Trafficking - Police Directorate and Supreme State
Prosecutor Office
Montenegrin, 2

Montenegro
Fig. 333: Persons convicted of trafficking in per- Unknow n, 2
sons in Montenegro, by gender (2004-
2007)
Source: Office of the National Coordinator for the Fight
against Trafficking in Human Beings
30
25
20
Additional information
15 The Office of the National Coordinator for the
Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings, in
10
cooperation with the OSCE, signed a revised
5 3 2 2
agreement on mutual cooperation with the
1 1
0 Supreme State Prosecutor, the Ministry of Labour,
2005 2006 2007 Health and Social Welfare, the Ministry of Edu-
Men Women cation and science, the Police Directorate and
with three local NGOs to improve the coopera-
Source: Office of the National Coordinator for the Fight tion in the field of prevention, education and
against Trafficking in Human Beings- Supreme Court
prosecution of traffickers and the protection of
potential victims of trafficking in human beings.
265
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

The Netherla
Netherlands
Institutional frame
framework Criminal justice response
Trafficking in persons was criminalized in the A specific anti-human trafficking law enforce-
Netherlands in 1911. T The previous Article 250a ment agency, the National Trafficking in Human
of the Dutch Criminal
Crimin Code was replaced by Beings Expert Group (LEM), was established
a new and extended Article 273a on 1 Janu- within the National Police Project on prostitu-
criminalizes all the forms of
ary 2005 that crimin tion and trafficking in human beings in 1997.
the UN Trafficking Proto-
trafficking listed in th
col and more. A natio
national action plan on traf-
ficking in persons was aadopted in 2005.

Fig. 336: Persons prosecuted for trafficking in Fig. 338: Persons convicted of trafficking in
persons in the Netherlands (2003-2006) persons in the Netherlands (2003-2006)

250 250
39
200
32 200
150
35 19 150
100 178 167
120 119 100
50

50 116
0 80 81
The Netherlands

70
2003 2004 2005 2006
0
Males Females 2003 2004 2005 2006

Source: The Bureau Nationaal Rapporteur Mensenhandel Source: The Bureau Nationaal Rapporteur Mensenhandel
(BNRM) (BNRM)

Fig. 337: Country of Citizenship at birth of Fig. 339: Sanctions for trafficking in persons in
suspects of trafficking in persons in the the Netherlands (2003-2006)
Netherlands (2001-2005)
140
Turkey, 89 120 8
Morocco, 37 Rom ania, 61
100
Form er 9 51 11
80 5
Yugoslavia, 38
60 32 34 27
Bulgaria, 76 40 43
25 31
Netherlands, 20 30
Albania, 35 15 13 6 7
272 0
Nigeria, 19 2003 2004 2005 2006
Czech
Others, 190 Republic, 14 Non Custodial Less than 1 year
Poland, 10 1 to 4 years 4 years and above

266 Source: The Bureau Nationaal Rapporteur Mensenhandel
(BNRM)
Source: The Bureau Nationaal Rapporteur Mensenhandel
(BNRM)
Western and Central Europe

Services provided to victims Fig. 341: Nationality of (possible) victims regis-
tered with the Foundation against THB
State authorities provide legal protections, tem- (STV) in the Netherlands (2005-2006)
porary visas, medical and psychological support,
Nigerian, 119 Rom anian, 58
and housing and shelter for victims. Local NGOs
Bulgarian, 94
provide housing and shelter, empowering pro- Czech, 18
grammes and job training. Sierra
Leonean, 36
The following data concern victims identified by Russian, 24
the Foundation against Trafficking in Human Slovakian, 10
Beings (Stichting tegen Vrouwenhandel/STV)
Dutch, 255 Chinese, 30
that has the formal task of national victim regis-
Poles, 41
tration in the Netherlands.
Others, 256 Moroccan, 10
Brazilian, 16
Fig. 340: Victims (possible) registered with the
Foundation against THB (STV) in the Hungarian, 13
Netherlands, by age (2003-2006)
Source: STV reports/ The Bureau Nationaal Rapporteur
600 Mensenhandel (BNRM)

500
24
26
400
Additional information
300 580
20 The Foundation against Trafficking in Human

The Netherlands
200 377 400 Beings (STV) coordinates referrals to shelters
237 and has the official task of collecting data on
100
identified victims. In 2008, STV changed its
0 name to Comensha.
2003 2004 2005 2006
About 25 minors were prosecuted during the
Adult Children Total reporting period. All the persons convicted, as
indicated in the chart above, were involved in
Source: STV reports/The Bureau Nationaal Rapporteur
trafficking in persons for the purpose of sexual
Mensenhandel (BNRM) exploitation. Most of the victims identified were
female (women or girls). One male victim was
identified in 2004, two males in 2005 and 30
males were identified in 2006.
The National Rapporteur on Trafficking in
Human Beings in the Netherlands was estab-
lished in 2000. The rapporteur’s main task is to
report on the nature and extent of human traf-
ficking in the Netherlands and on the effects of
the anti-trafficking policy. The reports contain
information on relevant regulations and legisla-
tion, as well as information on prevention, crim-
inal investigations regarding human trafficking,
the prosecution of perpetrators and victim sup-
port. 267
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

human trafficking now may be granted a tempo-
Norway rary residence and work permit for up to six
months. A new temporary work permit for one
Institutional frame
framework year is possible if the person has broken away
The specific offence ofo trafficking in persons from the people responsible for human traffick-
comes under section 224 of the penal code in ing and a police investigation is initiated against
Norway. This provision,
pro introduced in the perpetrators.
2003, is based on the UN Trafficking Pro-
The Ministry of Justice designated the ROSA
tocol and covers exexploitation for the pur-
project as the national coordinator for assistance
pose of prostitution, forced labour, including
for female victims of trafficking. ROSA was
begging, or trade in human organs. Human
established in January 2005 as a part of the
trafficking for the remo
removal of organs is covered
2003-2005 National Action Plan against Traf-
by other articles of the Penal
P Code.
ficking. During the reporting period, ROSA
The latest action plan to combat human traf- provided safe shelters, help, information and
ficking adopted in Norway covers the period guidance for female victims of trafficking. All
2006-2009. Human trafficking for prostitution women are provided with money for living,
is the dominant area in the plan of action, but health care and legal aid.
compared to earlier plans there is a stronger
emphasis on the children’s perspective in human Fig. 342: Victims of trafficking in persons in
Norway assisted by ROSA (2005-2007)
trafficking and a wish to focus more strongly on
the victims of organ removal and forced labour.
50
Criminal justice response 45
40 37
Eight cases of trafficking for sexual exploitation
35 31
were investigated in 2005. In 2006, 29 cases of
30
trafficking for sexual exploitation were investi-
25
gated and one case of trafficking for forced labour/ 18
20
servitude/labour exploitation was investigated.
15
Seven persons were convicted of trafficking in
10
2005-2007. Among these convictions, three were
5
Norwegians and the others were foreigners.
0
The authorities report that in practice people 2005 2006 2007
involved in human trafficking will often have
contravened several provisions in the Penal Source: ROSA project
Code, such as section 202 (the procurement sec-
Norway

tion), section 222 (coercion), section 223 (dep-
rivation of liberty) and section 225 (slavery), Additional information
section 227 (threats), section 228 et seq. (physi- Two of the 37 trafficking victims in 2007 were
cal abuse), section 192 et seq. (sexual crime) and males. The assistance of ROSA is mainly meant
section 47 of the Immigration Act. for female victims of trafficking who are exploited
for prostitution. Several female and male victims
Services provided to victims received other accommodation financed by
State authorities and NGOs provide legal pro- municipal authorities, and some applied for
tection, temporary stay permits, medical and asylum and live at reception centres. There are
psychosocial assistance, housing and shelter, and 51 shelters all over the country for female vic-
other services to the victims of trafficking in tims of violence. During the reporting period,
268 persons. In 2006, the Government extended the assistance for victims of trafficking was given in
reflection period so that assumed victims of 20 of these shelters.
Western and Central Europe

Poland
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
Trafficking in persons is specifically criminalized Legal protection and temporary stay per--
in Poland by the article 253 of the Polish Penal mits are provided by the State, whilee
Code. This article does not define trafficking in medical and psychosocial support and hous-
ous-
persons, and in practice the judiciary adopt the ing are offered by NGOs.
UN Trafficking Protocol definition. In addition,
trafficking in persons for prostitution is crimi- Fig. 344: Victims of trafficking in persons
nalized by the article 204, of the penal code, identified by State authorities in
Poland, by age (2003-2007)
whereas illegal adoption is criminalized by the
article 253, paragraph 2. A National Programme 21
for Combating and Preventing Trafficking 250
Human Beings was adopted in 2007, following
a first Programme adopted in 2003. 200

Criminal justice response 150 9
240 10 6
The Central Team for Combating Trafficking in 2
100
Human Beings was established in 2006 as a spe-
117
cial unit in the police headquarters. Special local 50 96 89 96
police units also deal with human trafficking
0
offences.
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
About 500 police officers were assigned to this Adults Minors
unit full time for the policing of human traffick-
ing and related crimes in 2008.
Source: National Public Prosecutor’s Office
Fig. 343: Persons charged for trafficking in
persons in Poland (2003-2007)
According to the Ministry of Interior, during the
period 1995-2007 there were 245 trafficking
250 victims from Belarus; 198 from Ukraine; 28
from Bulgaria; 18 from Romania; 17 from Mol-
200 davia; and 12 from Russia, among others.

150
Poland
100
134
50
62
39 42 36
0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Source: National Public Prosecutor’s Office

269
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 345: Victims of trafficking in persons Fig. 346: Victims of trafficking in persons
sheltered by La Strada sheltered by La Strada, by citizenship
(2004-November 2008) (2005-2006)

50
45
40
35 Bulgarian
30 6
25 Polish, 35 Ukranian, 5
20
35
15 28 27 Other, 6
25
10 22
5
0
2004 2005 2006 2007 Jan-
Nov Source: La Strada
Source: La Strada 2008

Additional information
An official mechanism was established in Poland The Programme for Support and Protection of
for referring identified victims of human traf- Victims/Witnesses of Trafficking in Human
ficking to NGOs (mainly La Strada) that offer Beings was implemented on 1 January 2006 to
special support services. aid foreign nationals, following an agreement
between the Minister of Interior and Adminis-
Minors, as referred to in the charts above, are tration and the La Strada Foundation against
victims below the age of 18. La Strada only pro- Trafficking in Women.
vides shelter for adult women, so all of the vic-
tims reported above are adults. Most of the
sheltered victims were subjected to sexual exploi-
tation.
Poland

270
Western and Central Europe

Portugal
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
Trafficking for sexual exploitation was criminal- State authorities provide legal protec-
ized in Portugal in 1995. The trafficking law was tion, medical and psychosocial services,
amended in 2007 to include trafficking for and housing and shelter to support vic-
forced labour, removal of organs and other forms tims of trafficking in persons.
of trafficking. In November 2006, the Portu-
guese Government launched the First National About 25 adult victims of trafficking in
Plan against Human Trafficking for 2007- persons and sexual exploitation were
2010. identified by State authorities during
2003-2007. Almost all these victims were
Criminal justice response women; one man was identified in 2005; 05; and
two men in 2007. During the same period, 12
Fig. 347: Persons prosecuted for trafficking
in persons and sexual exploitation in children – almost all girls − were identified by
Portugal, by gender (2003-2006) State authorities as victims of trafficking in per-
70
sons and sexual exploitation; two boys were
identified in 2003; and one boy in 2007. About
60 18 16 five Portuguese victims were identified during
50 2005-2007.
12
40 9

30
Additional information
49 49 The First National Plan includes four strategic
20 39 36
intervention areas, including one for “knowl-
10
edge and dissemination of information”. The
0 first national monitoring system, called the
2003 2004 2005 2006 Observatory for Permanent Security, was estab-
Males Females lished to monitor trafficking in human beings
and other socio-criminal phenomena.
Source: Comissão para a Cidadania e Igualdade de Género
In 2005 and 2006, most persons convicted of
trafficking were Portuguese, and about 15 were
Fig. 348: Persons convicted for trafficking in per- nationals from other countries. Authorities
sons and sexual exploitation in Portu-
gal, by gender (2003-2006)
report that the numbers presented above con-
cern figures dealing with the crime of trafficking Portugal
70 in persons (Article 160 of the penal code) and
60 sexual exploitation (lenocínio, Article 169 of the
50 penal code), because these two articles belong to
13
12 the same statistical category.
40
9
30
6
20 42 37
32
10 21

0
2003 2004 2005 2006

Males Females

Source: Comissão para a Cidadania e Igualdade de Género 271
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Romania
Institutional frame
framework Fig. 350: Sanctions for trafficking in persons in
Romania (2006-2007)
The specific offence oof trafficking in persons 200
Romania in 2001, and the
was established in Ro 180 7
force in 2002. The law pun-
law came into forc 160 1
ishes all forms of ttrafficking listed as min- 140
120 64
imum requirement in the Article 3 of the 66
100
UN Trafficking ProProtocol. A National Strat- 80
egy for Combating Human Trafficking in 60
88
Persons for 2006-2010 was adopted in 2006. 40 76
20
5
Criminal justice respo
response 0
2006 2007
The Directorate for the Investigation of Organ- More than 10 years
5 to 10 years
ized Crime and Terrorism Offences (DIOCTO) 1 to 5 years
was set up in 2004, with the Prosecutor’s Office Less than 1 year
attached to the High Court of Cassation and Source: Resource Centre for Combating Trafficking in Per-
Justice. Within DICTO, the Bureau to Combat sons of the Inspectorate General of Romanian Police and
Trafficking in Human Beings was set up during Directorate for the Investigation of Organized Crime and
Terrorisms
the reporting period. Additionally, within the
General Directorate for Combatting Organized
Crime (within the General Romanian Police
Inspectorate), a special unit to deal with Traf-
Services provided to victims
ficking in Persons cases was established during Legal protection, medical and psychosocial serv-
the reporting period. ices, and housing and shelter are provided by the
State and NGOs to support victims of traffick-
ing in persons. Since 2005, the State also has
Fig. 349: Persons convicted of trafficking in
persons in Romania, by gender offered legal assistance and temporary stay per-
(2003-2007) mits for victims and witnesses.
200
180 Fig. 351: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
160 35 48 fied by the police in Romania, by gender
140 and age (2005-2007)
Romania

120 17
100 2500
188 50 42
80 274 37
139 2000 341
60 13 111 255
86 507 542
40 1500
20 36 820

0 1000
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 1353 1427
500 960
Total Males Females
0
Source: Resource Centre for Combating Trafficking in Per-
sons of the Inspectorate General of Romanian Police and 2005 2006 2007
Directorate for the Investigation of Organized Crime and Wom en Men Girls Boys
Terrorism

Source: Resource Centre for Combating Trafficking in Per-
272 sons of the Inspectorate General of Romanian Police
Western and Central Europe

Different figures have been provided by differ-
ent authorities concerning the number of vic-
tims identified.

Fig. 352: Victims of trafficking in persons identi- Fig. 354: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
fied by the police in Romania, by form fied by the Public Ministry in Romania,
of exploitation (2005-2007) by gender and age (2005-November
69 2008)
2500
177 27
1600
183
2000 541 1400 39
34
624 1200 21 211
146 27
1500 1000 146
269
231 258
877 800
217 16
1000 600
1764
1451 282
400 743 817
500 542 115
724 200
224
0
0 2005 2006 2007 Jan-Nov
2005 2006 2007 2008
Sexual exploitation Forced labour
Wom en Girls Men Boys
Begging Other

Source: Resource Centre for Combating Trafficking in Per- Source: Directorate for the Investigation of Organized
sons of the Inspectorate General of Romanian Police Crime and Terrorism

Fig. 353: Victims of trafficking in persons identi- Fig. 355: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
fied by State authorities in Romania, by fied by the Public Ministry in Romania,
type of trafficking (2007) by form of exploitation (2005-Novem-
ber 2008)

1400 40
72
1200 40
37 213 21
Domestic 1000 113 37
Romania
Trafficking, 800 328
207 4
600 79
951 1011
400 297
International 658
200
Trafficking 255
1611 0
2005 2006 2007 Jan-Nov
2008
Sexual exploitation Forced labour
Begging Other

Source: Resource Centre for Combating Trafficking in Per- Source: Directorate for the Investigation of Organized
sons of the Inspectorate General of Romanian Police Crime and Terrorism

273
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 356: Victims of trafficking returned to Roma- Additional information
nia by IOM (2003-2006)
The National Agency against Trafficking in Per-
sons is responsible for monitoring and elaborat-
200
ing the national strategy and the application of
180
160
policies concerning trafficking in persons.
8 Regional centres, which are under the control of
140
120 the agency, refer victims to specialized structures
100 such as NGOs or other public authorities. The
80 159 154 National Agency against Trafficking in Persons
135
60 also is responsible for maintaining a central
100
40
database on the victims of human trafficking.
20
0 All the persons convicted of trafficking in 2005
2003 2004 2005 2006
and 2006 were Romanian. Out of 82 appeals in
Rom anian Foreign 2006, convictions were upheld in 62 cases; the
sentences for 18 of the convicted persons were
Source: IOM increased; the punishment was reduced for 23;
the sentence remained the same for 21; convic-
tions were overturned in eight cases and a re-
trial was ordered; and 12 cases had other
non-specified outcomes. Five of the 82 people
Fig. 357: Areas from which victims of traffick- convicted were minors.
ing were returned to Romania by IOM
(2005-2006) Many of the Romanian victims identified by
State authorities and reported above were repat-
riated, with some repatriation conducted by
IOM.
West &
Central
Europe
South 40
Europe,
157
Others, 8
Romania

Source: IOM

274
Western and Central Europe

Serbia
Fig. 359: Persons prosecuted for trafficking in
Institutional framework persons in Serbia (2003-2005)
The specific offence of trafficking in persons was
established in Serbia in 2003. A national action
plan was adopted in 2005. 80
70
Criminal justice response 60
A specific section for combating illegal immigra- 50
tion and trafficking in human beings was estab- 40
lished within the Directorate of the Border 30
Police. Other law enforcement special divisions 51
20
also deal with trafficking issues.
10
11
0 4
Fig. 358: Persons suspected of trafficking in per-
sons in Serbia (2003-2006) 2003 2004 2005

80
70 Source: Serbian Statistics Office

60
50 Fig. 360: Persons convicted of trafficking in per-
84 sons in Serbia (2003-2006)
40
71
30
51
46
20
80
10
70
0
60
2003 2004 2005 2006
50
40
Source: Serbian Statistics Office
30
20
10
2 10 13
0 0
2003 2004 2005 2006
Serbia
Source: Serbian Statistics Office

275
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Services provided to victims Additional information
State authorities and NGOs provide legal pro- The Agency for the Coordination of Protection
tection, temporary stay permits, medical and of Victims of Trafficking in Human Beings coor-
psychosocial services, and housing and shelter to dinates the protection of victims of trafficking,
support victims of trafficking in persons. but clear mandates and cooperation with other
actors have not yet been formalized.
Fig. 361: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
fied by State authorities in Serbia, by Two facilities are available for sheltering victims
gender and age (2004-2006) of trafficking. These shelters assisted 30 to 40
victims per year during the reporting period. In
80 2006, 30 of the victims identified above were
70 trafficked for sexual exploitation, three for forced
2
60
labour, three for begging and three for forced
marriage.
50 11
4 32
40
30
Kosovo (Serbia)
14
20 43
28
Criminal justice response
10 20
During the reporting period, investigations on
0
trafficking in human beings in Kosovo were
2004 2005 2006
performed by the Trafficking in Human Beings
Wom en Girls Boys
Section (THBS) of the United Nations Mission
Source: Agency for the Coordination of Protection of Vic- in Kosovo Police (UNMIK Civpol). Twenty-six
tims of Trafficking in Human Beings
officers from the Kosovo Police Service (KPS)
and 26 UNMIK Civpol officers were assigned to
this unit in 2005.

Fig. 362: Victims of trafficking in persons identi- Fig. 363: Persons prosecuted for trafficking in
fied by State authorities in Serbia, by persons in Kosovo (Serbia) (2003-2005)
citizenship (2005-2006)
60

50
Moldovan, 11
40

Ukranian, 9 30 60
55
Serbian, 79
Serbia

20
Other, 2 32
Other South 10
East Europe, 10
0
Macedonian, 4
2003 2004 2005

Source: Kosovo Police
Source: Agency for the Coordination of Protection of Vic-
tims of Trafficking in Human Beings

276
Western and Central Europe

Fig. 364: Persons convicted of trafficking in per-
sons in Kosovo (Serbia) (2003-2005)

60

50

40

30

20

10 22
17 16

0
2003 2004 2005

Source: Kosovo Police

Services provided to victims
Legal protection, medical and psychosocial serv-
ices, and housing and shelter exist to support
victims of trafficking in persons. A national
action plan was adopted in 2005.
According to the Kosovo Police, 85 victims were
identified in 2004 and 63 in 2005. About 66
victims were Kosovar Albanian, 22 were Alba-
nian, 16 were Bulgarian, 28 were from Moldova,
nine were from other countries in South-East
Europe and seven were from other areas.

Serbia

277
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Slovakia
Institutional frame
framework Fig. 366: Cases of trafficking in persons investi-
gated in Slovakia (2003-2007)
The specific offence of
o trafficking in persons
has existed in Slovak
Slovakia since 2002. In 2005, 50
the legislation was amended, and the new 45
Article 179 was made
m part of the penal 40
code. The latest n national action plan was 35
adopted in 2006. 30
25
Criminal justice response
res 20
16 18
14
A special anti-trafficking police unit was estab- 15 11 11
lished in 2004 in Slovakia, and 10 officers 10
worked full time on trafficking in persons in 5
2007. 0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Fig. 365: Persons suspected of trafficking in
persons in Slovakia, by gender (2003-
2007)
50 Source: Ministry of the Interior
45
40
35 Fig. 367: Persons prosecuted for trafficking in
30 persons in Slovakia, by gender (2004-
2007)
25
46 4
20 50
15 2 45
26
10 40
16 1
5 11 35
4
0 30
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 25
20
7
Total Males Females 15
Slovakia

3 1
10
14
Source: Ministry of the Interior 5 10
6 8
0
2004 2005 2006 2007
Males Females

Source: Department of Trafficking in Human Beings

278
Western and Central Europe

Fig. 368: Persons convicted of trafficking in per- Fig. 369: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
sons in Slovakia, by gender (2003-2006) fied by State authorities in Slovakia, by
gender (2003-2007)

50
50
45
45 1
40
40
35 35 4
2
30 30
25 25
20 20 42 2
15 4 15 29 29
10 10
1 16
5 12 5 10
7 6 5
0 0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Total Males Females Females Males

Source: Department of Trafficking in Human Beings
Source: Ministry of Justice

Services provided to victims Additional information
Legal protection for victims is offered by the During the reporting period, an official system
State and NGOs, and temporary stay permits was put in place for referring identified victims
for victims and witnesses are provided by the of trafficking to institutions that provide sup-
State. NGOs provide housing and shelter and, port services. A central database on victims is
together with international organizations, make operated and maintained by the Department of
available medical and psychosocial and other Trafficking in Human Beings, Sexual Exploita-
services such as interpretation for victims of traf- tion and Support of Victims in the Organized
ficking. Crime Bureau of the police headquarters.
One conviction was registered during the report-
ing period under the new Article 179. The other
trafficking convictions were carried out under
Slovakia
Article 246 of the penal code.
Note: According to the terminology adopted in
Slovakia’s Penal Code, the concept of "victim" is
more adequately expressed by the term "dam-
aged person".

279
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Slovenia
Institutional frame
framework
The specific offence ofo trafficking in persons 10 years imprisonment. All of those convicted
was established in Slovenia
S in 2004. The were found guilty of trafficking in persons for
offences of “abuse
“abus of prostitution” and the purpose of sexual exploitation, and three of
“placing in a slavery
slave condition” have been those persons were convicted of trafficking for
used to prosecute some forms of human slavery as well as sexual exploitation.
trafficking before aand after the legislative
change in 2004. The Slovenian Government Fig. 371: Persons prosecuted for trafficking
in persons in Slovenia, by gender
adopted several action plans proposed by the (2004-2006)
National Working GrouGroup for the Fight against
Trafficking
T ff k in Human Beings for the period of 50
2004-2006, 2007 and 2008-2009. 45
40
Criminal justice response 35
Offences related to trafficking in human beings 30
and exploitation of prostitution are investigated 25
by anti-organized crime police units. Fifteen 20
officers were assigned full time to the policing of 15 9
human trafficking in 2007, and at least one 10 5
investigator at each of the 11 regional police 5 2
directorates is responsible for the coordination 0
of activities related to human trafficking and 2004 2005 2006
exploitation of prostitution. Men

Seven Slovenian citizens were convicted of traf- Source: Slovenian Police
ficking in persons in 2006; three received a non-
custodial sanction; four received five to 10 years
of imprisonment; and one received more than Services provided to victims
State authorities and NGOs provide legal pro-
Fig. 370: Persons investigated for trafficking in
persons in Slovenia (2004-2006)
tection, temporary stay permits, medical and
psycho-social services and housing, which
50 include appropriate shelters or other type of
Slovenia

45 accommodation to support victims of traffick-
40 ing in persons. Victims of trafficking in persons
35 also have access to employment in accordance
30 with the legislation covering the labour relations
25 and employment, as well as employment of for-
20 eign nationals.
15 30
10 17
5 12
0
2004 2005 2006

280 Source: Slovenian Police
Western and Central Europe

Fig. 372: Victims of trafficking in persons identi- Fig. 374: Victims of trafficking in persons shel-
fied by State authorities in Slovenia, tered in Slovenia, by citizenship (2005-
by age (2003-2006) 2006)

50
45
Slovenian, 9
40
35
30 1 Serbian, 5
25 Unknow n
44 21
20 Other South
15 27 East Europe
25
10 1 4
Other, 7
5 7
0 Bulgarian, 8
2003 2004 2005 2006
Women Girls
Source: Interdepartmental Working Group for the Fight Source: Interdepartmental Working Group for the Fight
against Trafficking in Persons against Trafficking in Persons

Fig. 373: Victims of trafficking in persons Two residential facilities were available for shel-
sheltered in Slovenia, by age tering victims of trafficking during the reporting
(2003-2006) period. Fifteen victims of human trafficking
45 who received shelter had suffered sexual exploi-
40 tation, while one was exposed to forced labour.
3
35 In 2006, 41 sheltered victims of human traffick-
30 ing had been subjected to sexual exploitation
25 and three to forced labour.
20 5
37 The three year project “Introduction of mecha-
15 5 nism to connect help and protection of victims
10 18 of trafficking in human beings and/or sexual
1
5 11 violence in asylum procedures in Slovenia”
6
0 (PATS), was conducted in the asylum home in
2003 2004

Women
2005

Girls
2006 Ljubljana by the Ministry of Interior, in coop-
eration with the NGO Društvo Kljuc, and by
Slovenia
the Centre for Psycho-social Help for Refugees
Source: Interdepartmental Working Group for the Fight
against Trafficking in Persons of the Slovene Philanthropy. The number of
users was 35 in 2006 and 96 in 2005. The
project targeted populations at risk of human
Additional information trafficking (asylum applicants) by proposing
In 2005, six of the identified victims of human awareness raising messages in their own lan-
trafficking were trafficked for the purpose of guages. The project PATS developed into a
sexual exploitation, and one was subjected to regional effort by expanding to other countries
slavery. In 2006, forty-one victims were sub- in South-East Europe.
jected to sexual exploitation and three to slav-
ery.
281
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Spain
Institutional frame
framework Fig. 376: Persons arrested for offences related to
trafficking in persons in Spain (2003-
The specific offence of o trafficking in persons 2007)
was established in Spain
Sp in 2008. The new
criminalizes sexual exploita-
legislation crimin 3000
tion, forced labo
labour and other forms of
exploitation. Befo
Before the introduction of 2500
the new law, forms of trafficking in persons
2000
were criminalized through
thr the crimes against
freedom, sexual integri
integrity and the rights of the 1500
labourer established in the 1995 Penal Code.
The
Th Spanish
S h penall code
d was amended in 1999, 1000
2000, 2003 and 2007 to expand the areas related 1286 1240 1224 1204
500 1172
to human trafficking covered by national legisla-
tion. The Spanish Government adopted a
0
National Action Plan against the Sexual Exploi-
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
tation of Children and Adolescents (the second
edition covering 2006-2008).
Source: Centro de Inteligencia contra el Crimen Organizado
Criminal justice response
The Judicial Police are in charge of investigating
cases of human trafficking. Services provided to victims
Fig. 375: Persons suspected of offences related to State authorities provide temporary stay per-
trafficking in persons in Spain (2003- mits, legal assistance, medical and psychosocial
2007) services, and housing and shelter to support
victims of trafficking in persons. NGOs provide
3000
medical and psychosocial support and housing
and shelter.
2500

2000

1500

1000 1881 1870
1816 1618
1445
500
Spain

0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Source: Centro de Inteligencia contra el Crimen Organizado

282
Western and Central Europe

Fig. 377: Victims of trafficking in persons-related Fig. 379: Victims of trafficking in persons-related
offences identified by State authorities offences identified by State authorities
in Spain, by gender and age (2003- in Spain, by citizenship (2005-2006)
2007)
Russians,
3000 347
23
1 Paraguayans,
8 5 Brasilians,
2500 16 204
797 966
12 462 Bulgarians,
827 130
2000
686 1258 Chinese, 130
1500 Rom anians, Maroccans,
1536 118
1000 1948 1985 Others, 1122 Colom bians,
1714
1476 18
1258
500

0
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Spaniards, 13
Wom en Men Girls Boys

Source: Centro de Inteligencia contra el Crimen Source: Centro de Inteligencia contra el Crimen Organizado
Organizado

Fig. 378: Victims of trafficking in persons-related Additional information
offences identified by State authorities
in Spain, by form of exploitation (2005- The Centro de Inteligencia contra el Crimen
2006) Organizado (CICO) has developed a system for
administrating human trafficking data related to
3000 sexual exploitation and forced labour. This
2500 system will integrate information on trafficking
462 victims and offenders from different bodies
2000
681 within Spanish law enforcement.
1500

1000 2002
1486
500

0
2005 2006
Spain
Sexual Exploitation Forced Labour

Source: Centro de Inteligencia contra el Crimen Organizado

283
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Sweden
Institutional frame
framework Fig. 381: Persons convicted of trafficking in per-
sons in Sweden, by gender (2003-2006)
Legislation establishing
establishin criminal liability for 50
trafficking in human beings for sexual pur-
45
poses entered intinto force in Sweden in
40
2002. In 2004, the legislation
was amended to criminalize 35

all forms of trafficking in 30
persons,
per including traffick- 25
ing within
w national borders 20
and for the purpose of forced labour and the 15 3
removall off organs. Th
The Swedish Government 10
adopted a national action plan for combating
5 7 8
prostitution and trafficking for sexual purposes 1
0
in July 2008.
2003 2004 2005 2006
Criminal justice response
Males Females
A specific anti-human trafficking unit within
the police was established at the national level as Source: National Council for Crime Prevention
well as on the district levels in two counties
(Gothenburg and Stockholm). Sweden also

Fig. 380: Persons suspected of trafficking in per- Services provided to victims
sons in Sweden, by gender (2003-2006)
Since October 2004, victims of trafficking can
50 be granted temporary stay permits during the
45 preliminary investigation of their cases and the
40 trials. Medical and psychosocial support to vic-
35 tims of trafficking is provided by Social Services
30 when there is an ongoing trial against perpetra-
5
25 tors. Women’s shelters also offer help to women
20 subjected to violence, such as victims of traffick-
15 ing, and housing and shelter may be provided by
1 25
10 1 Social Services.
Sweden

1 2
5
0 3 6 6 Additional information
2003 2004 2005 2006 Of the convictions recorded during 2005-2006,
Males Unknown Females 11 offenders were sentenced to two to four years
detention, and six others were sentenced to more
than four years. All were convicted of trafficking
Source: National Council for Crime Prevention for sexual exploitation with the exception of one
offender who was involved in trafficking for
other purposes.
established a national rapporteur on trafficking
in persons.

284
Western and Central Europe

Switzerland
Institutional framework Services provided to victims
Human trafficking is a criminal offence in Swit- Legal protection, temporary stay per-
zerland. The law on human trafficking (old pro- mits, medical and psychosocial services,
vision, Article 196 SCC; new provision, Article and housing and shelter exist to support ort
182 SCC) was revised in 2006 and adapted to victims of trafficking in persons.
the international definition of human traffick-
ing as found in the UN Trafficking Protocol. Fig. 383: Victims of forced prostitution
(Art. 195 SCC) and trafficking in
Criminal justice response persons (Art. 196 SCC) counselledd by
recognized -victim advisory centres-
s-
The Swiss Coordination Unit against the Traf- in Switzerland, by age (2003-2007))
ficking in Persons and the Smuggling of Migrants
(KSMM) was established at the beginning of 140
17 7
2003 through an initiative of the Federal Depart-
120
ment of Justice and Police (FDJP).
100 13
14
Fig. 382: Persons convicted of trafficking in 80
9
persons (Art. 196 SCC) in Switzerland
60 121
(2003-2005) 109
40 77
70
55
20
80
0
70
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
60
Adult Children
50
40 Source: Federal Statistical Office

30
Fig. 384: Victims of trafficking in persons coun-

Switzerland
20
selled by the Women’s Information Cen-
10 tre (FIZ) (2003-2006)
2 12
7
0
2003 2004 2005 140 133
116
120
Source: Federal Statistical Office
100 85
81
80

60

40

20

0
2003 2004 2005 2006
Females

Source: FIZ victims’ counselling statistics 285
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 385: Region of origin of trafficking victims Additional information
counselled by the Women’s Information
Centre (FIZ) (2006) Some cantons have a cooperation mechanism
for referring identified victims of trafficking to
organizations providing support services. In the
cantons where these cooperation mechanisms
Africa, 14 exist, an increasing number of human traffick-
ing victims have access to counselling services
Latin Am erica offered by the Women’s Information Centre
and
Asia, 26
Caribbean, 48
(Fraueninformationszentrum/FIZ), the advisory
centre in Switzerland that specializes in offering
this type of support to female trafficking vic-
Eastern tims.
Europe, 45
Statistics are also available from IOM on return,
rehabilitation and reintegration assistance for
victims of human trafficking in Switzerland.
From January 2005 through September 2007,
Source: Source: FIZ victims’ counselling statistics IOM assisted 55 persons.
Switzerland

286
Western and Central Europe

The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia Fig. 387: Persons prosecuted for the
“organization of a group and urging
ng
Institutional framework for committing trafficking” in
the FYR of Macedonia (2004-2007) 7)
Trafficking in human beings is criminalized in
the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 80
(FYR of Macedonia) through Article 418-a of
70
the criminal code which also includes the offence
of “organization of a group and urging for com- 60
mitting trafficking”. The National Commission
50
for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings
and Illegal Migration was established in 2001, 40
and soon after, it developed a National Strategy
30
and National Action Plan for Combating Traf-
ficking in Human Beings. 20

The FYR of Macedonia
23 27
10 21
Criminal justice response 4
0
The central police services of the FYR of Mace- 2004 2005 2006 2007
donia include a department for organized crime Source: Ministry of Interior
under which operates a section dealing with traf-
ficking in human beings and the smuggling of
migrants. This section is made up of a unit on Services provided to victims
trafficking in human beings and prostitution, Legal protection, temporary stay permits, medi-
and another unit on the smuggling of migrants cal and psychosocial services, and housing and
and forged documents. shelter exist to support victims of trafficking in
persons.

Fig. 386: Persons prosecuted for trafficking Fig. 388: Victims of trafficking in persons identi-
in persons in the FYR of Macedonia fied by State authorities in the FYR of
(2003-2007) Macedonia, by gender and age
(2003-2007)
80
140
70
120 24
60
100
50 80
40 78 60
108
30 40

20 42 20 1 3
3 3
0 8 3 3
10
6 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
4 4
0
Women Children
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Source: Ministry of Interior Source: Ministry of Interior 287
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Fig. 389: Victims of trafficking in persons as- Fig. 390: Victims of trafficking in persons assisted
sisted by IOM in the FYR of Macedonia by La Strada in the FYR of Macedonia
(2003-2007) (2005-2007)

140

140 136 120

120 100

100 80

80 60

60 40
8
40 20 3 6
17 15 18
16 0 3 3
20
4
2005 2006 2007
The FYR of Macedonia

0
Women Children
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Source: Ministry of Interior Source: Ministry of Interior

Additional information
The National Referral Mechanism (NRM) for
victims of trafficking in human beings was estab-
lished in 2005 as a joint project of the National
Commission and the Ministry of Labor and
Social Policy. The main task of the NRM is to
coordinate activities with NGOs and handle the
referral of victims of human trafficking who are
citizens of the FYR of Macedonia.
Three of the victims identified by State authori-
ties in 2006 were from the FYR of Macedonia,
one was from Eastern Europe and one was from
Central Asia. All of the victims identified by the
State in 2007 were citizens of the FYR of Mac-
edonia. Fourteen of the victims assisted by IOM
in 2006 were foreigners, the rest were citizens of
the FYR of Macedonia; 13 of the victims assisted
by IOM in 2007 were foreigners, and the rest
were citizens of the FYR of Macedonia. All the
victims of trafficking assisted by La Strada were
citizens of the FYR of Macedonia.

288
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

sion was implemented in January 2004 by the Additional information
Ministry of Health, in order to extend free med-
ical care to victims of THB. Voluntary advocates Identification of victims of human trafficking
of the Bar Association extend free legal coun- and provision of necessary support and coordi-
seling to the victims of THB. Judicial, psycho- nation between the different institutions is
logical and medical counseling is provided to the undertaken within the framework of National
victims in shelters in Istanbul and Ankara. A toll Referral Mechanism (NRM). Various relevant
free/tip off emergency helpline (157) became institutions are included in NRM (primarily the
operational in May 2005. The helpline is reach- Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Interior
able from all parts of Turkey and mobile phones General Directorate of Security and General
and is answered in Russian, Romanian, English Command of Gendarmerie, Ministry of Justice,
and Turkish languages. The helpline became 157 Helpline, International Organization for
operational for international calls in April 2007. Migration, Woman Solidarity Foundation
(WSF), Human Resource Development Foun-
dation (HRDF) and Embassies).
Fig. 392: Number of victims identified by State
authorities in Turkey, by age Within the framework of NRM, potential vic-
(2003-November 2008)
tims of human trafficking identified during the
450 operations carried out by law enforcement agen-
400 cies are transferred to the Foreigners Depart-
350 ment at Security Directorate of the relevant
300 province pursuant to the preliminary scanning.
8 14
250 The victim identification process is completed
200 through coordination with the Department of
150 Foreigners, Border, Asylum of General Directo-
239 248 232
100 205
148 rate of Security following the interviews with the
50 102
victims by specially trained personnel. The vic-
0
tims are accommodated in the shelters managed
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Jan-
Nov
by HRDF and WSF.
2008
Wom en Total Girls In 2004, 62 trafficked persons, 220 in 2005,
Source: DG Turkish National Police 191 in 2006, 118 in 2007, 67 in 2008 (as of 3.
11.2008) have been assisted by the International
Fig. 393: Number of victims identified by State Organisation for Migration. 39 trafficked per-
authorities in Turkey, by citizenship sons took temporary stay permits in Turkey
(2003-November 2008) between 2004-2008. The rest of the identified
trafficked persons were voluntarily returned by
Kyrgyzsi , 92
the Ministry of Interior.
Azerbaijani, 69
Turkey

Rom anian, 26
Russian, 157
Uzbeki, 69

Kazakhi, 20

Moldovan, 278 Georgian, 50
Belarusian, 11
Ukrainian,
152 Turkm en, 50
Bulgarian, 11

Other, 9

290 Source: DG Turkish National Police
Western and Central Europe

The United Kingdom
Institutional framework Criminal justice response
The Sexual Offences Act of 2003, which came The United Kingdom Human Traffick-
into force in May 2004, introduced wide-rang- ing Centre was formally opened in 2006.
ing offences in England, Wales and Northern It is a multi-agency centre bringingg
Ireland covering trafficking into, out of, or together expertise from a number of dis--
within the UK for any form of sexual offence. ciplines as part of an Association of Chieff
The equivalent Scottish provisions are contained Police Officers-led initiative. The respon-
in Section 22 of the Criminal Justice (Scotland) sibilities of the centre include all forms
Act 2003. The offence of ‘trafficking for exploi- of trafficking in persons with the objective
tive
tation’, which covers non-sexual exploitation of improving and coordinating the law enforce-
nforce-
including trafficking for forced labour and the ment response to human trafficking. Addition-di i
removal of organs, was included in the Asylum ally, a number of United Kingdom police forces
and Immigration (Treatment of Claimants, etc.) have operational teams dedicated to the investi-
Act of 2004. The United Kingdom Action Plan gation of trafficking in persons.
on Tackling Human Trafficking was adopted in
2007.

The United Kingdom
Fig. 394: Persons prosecuted for trafficking in Fig. 395: Persons convicted of trafficking in per-
persons offences in the United Kingdom sons offences in the United Kingdom
(2004-2007) (2004-2007)

100 100
90 90
80 80
70 70
60 60
50 50
89
40 82 40
30 30
20 42 20 32
21 23
10 4 10 3
0 0
2004 2005 2006 2007 2004 2005 2006 2007

Source: United Kingdom Human Trafficking Centre Source: United Kingdom Human Trafficking Centre

291
GLOBAL REPORT ON TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Services provided to victims tims of trafficking for forced labour were identi-
fied.
The United Kingdom Government has funded
the Poppy Project since 2003 to provide accom- During the period under consideration, the
modation and support services for adult women main areas of origin of the referrals to the Poppy
trafficked into the United Kingdom for sexual Project were Central and Eastern Europe, West
exploitation. In Scotland, the TARA Project was and East Africa, and East Asia. Not all the refer-
established in 2004 to provide assistance to rals were subsequently identified as victims of
women who have been trafficked into Scotland human trafficking.
for the purposes of sexual exploitation.

Additional information
The United Kingdom will be introducing a
formal State identification process in April 2009.
This will provide clearer figures on data collec-
tion for victims of all forms of human traffick-
ing.
During the reporting period, adult victims were
informally identified through a number of ave-
The United Kingdom

nues, predominantly by front-line agencies like
the police, immigration officers and NGOs. The
primary data collection on victims is based on
referrals to the government-funded NGO the
Poppy Project, which is managed by Eaves Hous-
ing for Women. During the period under con-
sideration, the Poppy Project provided support
either on an outreach basis or via accommoda-
tion and support to 353 victims. The Poppy
outreach service accepted 65 referrals of female
victims of trafficking between 1 January 2007
and 30 September 2007.
In 2006 and 2007, all identified of human traf-
ficking were subjected to sexual exploitation as
set out in the Sexual Offences Act 2003. None
of the detected victims were trafficked for forced
labour, domestic servitude or for the removal of
human organs. According to the National Oper-
ations Pentameter 2, a total of 255 victims were
rescued from a situation of trafficking for sexual
exploitation, and five suspected victims of traf-
ficking for force labour were recovered.
The UK recently conducted a coordinated cam-
paign of activity to confront the trafficking of
human beings for forced labour in targeted
labour sectors in specific parts of the UK. The
pilot project’s operational phase ran from May
292 to September 2008. During this time, 18 vic-