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- Fluids Report
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You are on page 1of 7

Assigned: Wednesday, January 27, 1999

Due: Wednesday, February 3 1999 BEGINNING OF CLASS.

y

2

v x ( y ) = v max 1 −

y

for − y o < y < y o

o

yo W yo

− yo 0 − yo

v= A

= =

∫∫dA yo W 2y o W

A ∫ ∫dzdy

− yo 0

y

yo y 2 y 3 o

∫ v max 1 − y dy v max y − 3 y 2

v=

− yo o = o − y o

2y o 2y o

y o 3

2v max y o −

2

3 y o = 2v max

v ==

2y o 3

If we consider a tank as shown in Figure 2..6-5 on page 54, we can write the total mass balance:

If we assume no reaction:

Constant flow rates in and out.

acc = in − out

dm( t ) &

= min − m

& out

dt

m( t ′

=t) t′

=t

) = ∫(m

∫dm(t ′ & in − & out )dt

m

m( t ′

= 0) t′

=0

1

D. Keffer - ChE 240: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

m( t ) − m( t = 0) = (m & out )t

& in − m

m( t ) = (m & out )t + m( t = 0)

& in − m

Now look at the weight fraction of salt in the tank by writing a salt balance.

acc = in − out

dm( t )w s ( t )

=m

& in w s,in − m

& out w s,out

dt

dm( t ) dw s ( t )

w s (t ) + m( t ) =m

& in w s,in − m

& out w s,out

dt dt

Substitute our result from above for the mass in the tank and the change in mass in the

tank.

dm( t ) &

= min − m

& out

dt

m( t ) = (m & out )t + m( t = 0)

& in − m

& in − m [(m& in − & out )t + m(t = 0)] s = m

m

dw ( t )

& in w s,in − m

& out w s,out

dt

m (m& in w s,in − m& out w s,out )− w s (t )(m& in − m& out )]dt

dw s ( t ) dt

=

[(m& in w s,in & out w s,out )− w s (t )(m

− m & out )] [

& in − m (m& in − m& out )t + m( t = 0)]

w s (t′

=t) t′ =t

dw s ( t ′

) dt

∫ [(m& w & out w s,out )− w s ( t ′

− m )(m

& in − m

= ∫

& out )] t ′= 0 [

(m& in − m& out )t + m( t = 0)]

w s (t ′

=0 )

in s,in

2

D. Keffer - ChE 240: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

w s, out = w s ( t ′

)

w s ( t′

=t) t′

=t

dw s (t ′) dt

∫ [ = ∫

= 0 ) min w s,in − w s ( t )min ] t′=0 [

(m& in − m& out )t + m(t = 0)]

ws ( t′

& ′&

& − m

ln = ln in

& in w s,in − w s ( t = 0 ) (m

m & in − m& out ) m( t = 0)

−m & in

w s,in − w s ( t ) (m & out )t + m( t = 0) (m& in − m& out )

& in − m

ln = ln

w − w ( t = 0 ) m ( t = 0 )

s,in s

−m & in

w s,in − w s ( t ) (m & out )t + m( t =

& − m 0) (min − m& out )

&

= in

w s,in − w s ( t = 0) m(t = 0)

m& in

m( t = 0) (m& in − m& out )

w s ( t ) = w s,in − (w s,in − w s ( t = 0 ))

(m

&

in − &

m out )t + m( t = 0 )

900

500 300

w s ( t ) = 0.1667 − (0.1667 − 0.05 )

300 t + 500

3

5

w s ( t ) = 0.1667 − 0.1167

3t + 5

3

5

w s ( t = 2) = 0.1667 − 0.1167 = 0.1557 weight percent salt

3( 2) + 5

Problem 3. Geankoplis, problem 2.7-2, page 107

2

y

v x ( y ) = v max 1 −

y

for − y o < y < y o

o

3

D. Keffer - ChE 240: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

3

2v 8v

v = max , v 3 = max

3 27

yo W yo yo

3 3 3

∫∫v

3

dA ∫ ∫v x dzdy W ∫v x dy ∫v x dy

− yo 0 − yo − yo

v3 = A

= = =

∫∫dA yo W 2y o W 2y o

A ∫ ∫dzdy

− yo 0

y

2

y y

4 6

3

v x = v max

3

1 − 3

y

+ 3

y

−

y

o o o

y

3 3 5 7 o

v 3 y 3 y 1 y

v 3 = max y − 2 + 4 − 6

2y o 3

y o 5 y o 7 y o

− y o

v max

7

3 yo 3 yo 1 yo

3 3 5

v =

3

y o − + − = 16 v max 3

yo 3 2 4 6

y o 5 y o 7 y o

35

3

8 v max

3

v 27 35

α= = =

v 3 16 v 3 54

max

35

Problem 4. Geankoplis, problem 2.7-4, page 107

v2

∂ρV

U + + zg

2

v2 v2

= ρvA H + + zg + zg & ∑F

∂t α − ρvA H +

α + Q − Ws +

2

in

2

out

kg m3 kg kg

& = ρv 1A 1 = ρv 2 A 2 = ρq = 1000

m ⋅0.189 = 189 = 3.15

m3 min min s

z 2 − z1 = 15.24

Q = − 704kW = − 704,000J / s

4

D. Keffer - ChE 240: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

s

H1 = 390,582J / kg from steam table, linear interpolation

Overall energy balance becomes:

H2 = 167414

From the steam tables, linear interpolation, the outlet temperature is: T2 = 40.0

The enthalpy gain due to the work is: 1490 J/s

1490J / s J

= 473

kg kg

3.15

s

Problem 5. Geankoplis, problem 2.7-8, page 108

3

ft 3 m

kg kg

& = ρv 1A 1 = ρv 2 A 2 = ρq = 1150

m ⋅0.2 = 6. 513

m 3 s 3.2808 ft s

&

m 6. 513 m

v1 = = = 0 . 8879

ρA 1 π 0.0254m

2 s

1150 ⋅ ⋅3.548in ⋅

4 in

m& 6.513 m

v2 = = = 2 . 616

ρA 2 π 0.0254m

2 s

1150 ⋅ ⋅2.067in ⋅

4 in

Energy balance just around pump--nothing but pressure, kinetic energy, and work terms:

∆p ∆v 2 &ˆ +

0=

ρ

+

2α

+ g∆z + W s ∑ F̂

∆v 2 &

ˆ

∆p = − ρ 2α + W

s

Need the work. Solve mechanical energy balance around entire system:

∆p ∆v 2 ˆ

0=

ρ

+

2α

& +

+ g∆ z + W s ∑ F̂

2.616 − 0.8879

2 2

m ˆ& ft ⋅lbf J / kg

0 = 0+ + 9.8(75 ft ) ⋅ + Ws + 18 ⋅ 2.9890

2 3. 2808ft lbf ft ⋅lbf

lbf

W&ˆ = − 3.0275 − 224. 03 − 53.802 = − 280.86 Joules/kg done on system.

s

5

D. Keffer - ChE 240: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

ˆ ˆ ˆ W&ˆ − 280. 86 J kg

& & &

Ws = ηWp so Wp = s = = − 401.3 ⋅6.513 = − 2613 Watts

η 0. 7 kg s

& = 2613 Watts ⋅ hp

ˆ

W = 3.50hp

p

745.70 W

Now, we can go back and determine what was the pressure developed across the pump:

∆p = − ρ

2α + W

s = − 1150

+ − 401. 3 = 458013Pa

2

1atm

∆p = 458013Pa ⋅ = 4.52atm

101325Pa

(a) horizontal flow

2

kg mπ 0. 0254m kg

& = ρv 1A 1 = 998

m ⋅1. 676 ⋅3. 068in ⋅ = 7.978

m3 s 4 in s

&

m 7.978 m

v2 = = = 3.693

ρA 2 π 0.0254m

2 s

998 ⋅ ⋅2.067in ⋅

4 in

Energy balance, neglect friction, pipe is horizontal:

∆p ∆v 2 ˆ

0=

ρ

+

2α

& +

+ g∆ z + W s ∑ F̂

∆p ∆v 2

=−

ρ 2α

p 2 = p1 − ρ

∆v 2

= 68900Pa − 998

(

3.693 2 − 1. 676 2

= 63496

) Pa

2α 2

∆p ∆v 2 &ˆ +

0=

ρ

+

2α

+ g∆z + W s ∑ F̂

∆p ∆v 2

=− − g∆z

ρ 2α

∆v 2

p 2 = p1 − ρ + g∆ z

2

(2 )

= 68900 − 998 3.693 − 1.676 + 9.8 ⋅0.457 = 59027 Pa

2α 2

Problem 7. Geankoplis, problem 2.7-11, page 109

6

D. Keffer - ChE 240: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

kg m3 kg

& = ρv 1A 1 = ρv 2 A 2 = ρq = 1000

m ⋅0.800 = 800

m3 s s

z 2 − z1 = − 5 − 89.5 = − 94.5 m

p 2 − p1 = 89600 − 172400 = − 82800 Pa

2 2

v 2 − v 1 = 0.0

W& = 658000J / s = 739326 J / s

s

0. 89

∆p ∆v 2 ˆ

& + ∑ F̂

0= + + g∆ z + W s

ρ 2α

− 82800 739326J / s

0=

1000

+ 0 + 9.8 ⋅( − 94.5) +

800kg / s

+ ∑ F̂

∑ F̂ = 84.7 J/kg

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