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You are on page 1of 4

Assigned: Wednesday, February 3, 1999

Due: Wednesday, February 10 1999 BEFORE LECTURE STARTS.

We have water.

m3

q = 0.050

s

Expanding bend. α = 120 , D1 = 0.0762m , D 2 = 0.2112m , p1 = 68,940Pa( gage )

o

q 0.050 m

v1 = = = 10 .96

A1 π 2 s

D1

4

q 0.050 m

v2 = = = 1.43

A2 π 2 s

D2

4

D v ρ 0.0762 ⋅10.96 ⋅1000

NRe1 = 1 1 = = 8351520

µ 0.001

D v ρ 0.2112 ⋅1.43 ⋅1000

NRe 2 = 2 2 = = 302016

µ 0.001

turbulent.

Mechanical energy balance:

∆p ∆v 2

0=

ρ

+

2α

+ g∆z + Ŵs + ∑ F̂

p2 − 68940 − 101325 1.432 − 10.962

0= + + 0+ 0+ 0

1000 2

Rx = m

& v 2 cos α 2 − m

& v1 cos α1 + p2 A 2 cos α 2 − p1A1 cos α1

Ry = m

& v 2 sin α 2 − m

& v1 sin α1 + p2 A 2 sin α 2 − p1A1 sin α1 + mt g

& = ρv1A 1 = ρv 2 A 2 = 50 kg

m

s

We must realize that: α1 = 0o and α 2 = 120o . Then we know everything to plug into the above equations

except mt , the total mass inside the pipe, which we cannot calculate without knowing the volume inside the pipe.

D. Keffer - ChE 240: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

π π

229303 ⋅ D22 ⋅(− 0.5 )− (68940 + 101325 ) D12 ⋅1 = − 5376.8N

4 4

π

R y = 50 ⋅1.43 ⋅(0.866 )− 0 + 229303 ⋅ D22 ⋅0.866 − 0 + mt (9.8)

4

R y = 7018 + mt (9.8 )N

m

v1 = 30.5 , D1 = 0.01

s

Vane is U-shaped so α1 = 0o and α 2 = 180o

Ignore pressure terms for a free jet because pressure is the same everywhere.

Rx = m

& v 2 cos α 2 − m

& v1 cos α1

Ry = m

& v 2 sin α 2 − m

& v1 sin α1 + mt g

We ignore the

& = ρv1A 1 = 1000 ⋅30 .5 ⋅π 0.012 = 1000 ⋅30.5 ⋅7.85 ⋅10 − 5 = 2.40 kg

m

4 s

Assume that the cross-sectional area of flow is constant so

& = ρv1A 1 = ρv 2 A 2

m and v1 = v 2 , then

R y = 2.40 ⋅30.5 ⋅(0 )− 2.40 ⋅30.5 ⋅(0 )+ mt g = 0 if we neglect gravity.

constant density, laminar flow, steady state, horizontal between 2 flat parallel plates. Separated by a distance of

2y o .

(p − pL )y o y

2 2

vx (y) = 0 1 −

y for − yo < y < yo

2µL

o

This derivation follows the derivation done in class for the fluid flowing down a plate.

The control volume is a rectangular cube of dimensions

V = LW∆y where W is some arbitrary width in the z-direction, L is the length in the flow direction, x, and

delta y is the incremental width in the direction perpendicular to the parallel plates.

Then the shell momentum balance becomes:

D. Keffer - ChE 240: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

0 = LWτyx | y + ∆y − LWτyx | y +

∆yW v y (ρv )| z =L − ∆yW v y (ρv )|z =0

p∆yW | z =L − p∆yW | z =0

τyx | y + ∆y − τyx | y p | z =L − p |z =0

0= +

∆y L

dτyx ∆p

=−

dy L

Integrate, using the Boundary Condition given in the problem statement.

τyx ( y ) y y

∆p ∆p

∫dτyx =− ∫

L

dy = −

L

∫dy

τyx ( y = 0 ) y =0 y =0

∆p

τyx = − y (LINEAR PROFILE OF STRESS)

L

Remember Newton’s Law of Viscosity:

dv x

τ yx = − µ

dy

dv ∆p

− µ x =− y

dy L

v x( y ) y

∆p

µ ∫dv x = L ∫ydy

v x ( y =0 ) y =0

v x( y o ) y

∆p o

µ ∫dv x = ∫ydy

v L y

x( y )

∆p y2

2

y

µ(v x ( y o ) − v x ( y ))= o

−

L 2 2

∆p 2 y2

(0 − v x ( y ))=

y o 1−

2µL 2

yo

D. Keffer - ChE 240: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

v x (y) = −

∆p 2

y o 1−

y2 =−

(p 0 − pL ) 2

y o 1−

y2 PARABOLIC PROFILE

2µL 2 2µL 2

yo yo

Problem 4. Geankoplis, problem 2.10-1, page 111

∆pD 2

v= Hagen-Poiseuille Equation,

32µL

∆pD 2

µ=

32 v L

q q 5.33 ⋅10 − 7 m

v= = = = 0.13745

A π D 2 π 0.002222 2 s

4 4

1289 .1 ⋅0.002222 2

µ= = 0.009129 kg / m / s

32 ⋅0.13745 ⋅0.1585

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