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D.

Keffer - ChE 240: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

Homework Assignment Number Four Solution


Assigned: Wednesday, February 3, 1999
Due: Wednesday, February 10 1999 BEFORE LECTURE STARTS.

Problem 1. Geankoplis, problem 2.8-4, page 110

We have water.
m3
q = 0.050
s
Expanding bend. α = 120 , D1 = 0.0762m , D 2 = 0.2112m , p1 = 68,940Pa( gage )
o

Neglect energy losses.

q 0.050 m
v1 = = = 10 .96
A1 π 2 s
D1
4
q 0.050 m
v2 = = = 1.43
A2 π 2 s
D2
4
D v ρ 0.0762 ⋅10.96 ⋅1000
NRe1 = 1 1 = = 8351520
µ 0.001
D v ρ 0.2112 ⋅1.43 ⋅1000
NRe 2 = 2 2 = = 302016
µ 0.001
turbulent.
Mechanical energy balance:
∆p ∆v 2
0=
ρ
+

+ g∆z + Ŵs + ∑ F̂
p2 − 68940 − 101325 1.432 − 10.962
0= + + 0+ 0+ 0
1000 2

p2 = 229303 Pa(abs ) = 127978 Pa(gage )

From momentum balance on page 74:


Rx = m
& v 2 cos α 2 − m
& v1 cos α1 + p2 A 2 cos α 2 − p1A1 cos α1

Ry = m
& v 2 sin α 2 − m
& v1 sin α1 + p2 A 2 sin α 2 − p1A1 sin α1 + mt g

& = ρv1A 1 = ρv 2 A 2 = 50 kg
m
s
We must realize that: α1 = 0o and α 2 = 120o . Then we know everything to plug into the above equations
except mt , the total mass inside the pipe, which we cannot calculate without knowing the volume inside the pipe.
D. Keffer - ChE 240: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

R x = 50 ⋅1.43 ⋅(− 0.5 )− 50 ⋅10.96 ⋅1 +


π π
229303 ⋅ D22 ⋅(− 0.5 )− (68940 + 101325 ) D12 ⋅1 = − 5376.8N
4 4
π
R y = 50 ⋅1.43 ⋅(0.866 )− 0 + 229303 ⋅ D22 ⋅0.866 − 0 + mt (9.8)
4
R y = 7018 + mt (9.8 )N

Problem 2. Geankoplis, problem 2.8-7, page 110

m
v1 = 30.5 , D1 = 0.01
s
Vane is U-shaped so α1 = 0o and α 2 = 180o

Ignore pressure terms for a free jet because pressure is the same everywhere.

Rx = m
& v 2 cos α 2 − m
& v1 cos α1

Ry = m
& v 2 sin α 2 − m
& v1 sin α1 + mt g
We ignore the

& = ρv1A 1 = 1000 ⋅30 .5 ⋅π 0.012 = 1000 ⋅30.5 ⋅7.85 ⋅10 − 5 = 2.40 kg
m
4 s
Assume that the cross-sectional area of flow is constant so
& = ρv1A 1 = ρv 2 A 2
m and v1 = v 2 , then

R x = 2.40 ⋅30.5 ⋅(− 1)− 2.40 ⋅30.5 ⋅(1)= − 146.4N


R y = 2.40 ⋅30.5 ⋅(0 )− 2.40 ⋅30.5 ⋅(0 )+ mt g = 0 if we neglect gravity.

Problem 3. Geankoplis, problem 2.9-2, page 110

constant density, laminar flow, steady state, horizontal between 2 flat parallel plates. Separated by a distance of
2y o .
(p − pL )y o   y  
2 2
vx (y) = 0 1 −  
y  for − yo < y < yo
2µL 
  o  
This derivation follows the derivation done in class for the fluid flowing down a plate.
The control volume is a rectangular cube of dimensions
V = LW∆y where W is some arbitrary width in the z-direction, L is the length in the flow direction, x, and
delta y is the incremental width in the direction perpendicular to the parallel plates.
Then the shell momentum balance becomes:
D. Keffer - ChE 240: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

0 = LWτyx | y + ∆y − LWτyx | y +
∆yW v y (ρv )| z =L − ∆yW v y (ρv )|z =0
p∆yW | z =L − p∆yW | z =0

The two convective terms in the middle cancel. Divide by LW∆y

τyx | y + ∆y − τyx | y p | z =L − p |z =0
0= +
∆y L

dτyx ∆p
=−
dy L
Integrate, using the Boundary Condition given in the problem statement.

τyx ( y ) y y
∆p ∆p
∫dτyx =− ∫
L
dy = −
L
∫dy
τyx ( y = 0 ) y =0 y =0

∆p
τyx = − y (LINEAR PROFILE OF STRESS)
L
Remember Newton’s Law of Viscosity:
dv x
τ yx = − µ
dy
dv ∆p
− µ x =− y
dy L
v x( y ) y
∆p
µ ∫dv x = L ∫ydy
v x ( y =0 ) y =0
v x( y o ) y
∆p o
µ ∫dv x = ∫ydy
v L y
x( y )

∆p  y2 
2
y
µ(v x ( y o ) − v x ( y ))=  o
− 
L  2 2 

∆p 2  y2 
(0 − v x ( y ))= 
y o 1−



2µL 2
 yo 
D. Keffer - ChE 240: Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

v x (y) = −
∆p 2  
y o 1−
y2  =−
(p 0 − pL ) 2 
y o 1−
y2  PARABOLIC PROFILE
2µL  2  2µL  2 
 yo   yo 
Problem 4. Geankoplis, problem 2.10-1, page 111

Use Hagen-Poiseuille eqn to measure viscosity;

∆pD 2
v= Hagen-Poiseuille Equation,
32µL

∆pD 2
µ=
32 v L

∆p = ρgh = 996 ⋅9.8 ⋅0.131 = 1289 .1Pa

q q 5.33 ⋅10 − 7 m
v= = = = 0.13745
A π D 2 π 0.002222 2 s
4 4
1289 .1 ⋅0.002222 2
µ= = 0.009129 kg / m / s
32 ⋅0.13745 ⋅0.1585